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Ans 1:

Analysis of absolute blind ratings:


The overall blind rating for Kissan and New Squash shows more people
like the new squash very much than those who liked Kissan. Also more
people showed definitely buy purchase intent for new squash than for
Kissan.
The purchase intent of people who somewhat liked the both the product
was similar.
The sweetness, real fruit content and colour of new squash was
considered just right by more percentage of people than for Kissan.

Analysis of comparative preference:
Overall 64
Taste 61
Aftertaste 61
Flavour 64
Sweetness 60
Real Fruit Content 61
Colour 61
The new orange squash shows positive preference over Kissan through
all categories.
Flavour appears to be the most preferred factor of New Orange squash.

What is Advertising research?
Advertising research is a specialized form of marketing research conducted to improve the efficiency
of advertising.
Advertising research is the systematic gathering and analysis of information to help develop or
evaluate advertising strategies, ads and commercials, and media campaigns. It is a subset of
marketing research.
Advertising research may focus on a specific ad or campaign, or may be directed at a more general
understanding of how advertising works or how consumers use the information in advertising. It can
entail a variety of research approaches, including psychological, sociological, economic, and other
perspectives.

Types of Advertising Research:
Customized research: It is conducted for a specific client to address that clients needs. Only that
client has access to the results of the research.
Syndicated research: It is a single research study conducted by a research company with its results
available, for sale, to multiple companies.

Method of Advertising Research:
Pre-market research can be conducted to optimize ads for any medium optimize advertisement for
any medium: radio, television, print (magazine, newspaper or direct mail), outdoor billboard
(highway, bus, or train), or Internet. Post-market researchconducted after the advertising, either a
single ad or an entire multimediacampaign has been run in-market. The focus is on what the
advertising hasdone for the brand, for example increasing brand awareness, trial, frequency of
purchasing.
Pre testing or Copy Testing:
Evaluation of alternative ways for advertisers topresent their messages.Copy refers to an entire
advertisement, includingthe verbal message, pictures, colors, anddramatizations, whether the
advertisement appearsin print, on radio or television, or some other medium.

Copy Testing:
Consumer Jury
Rating Scales
Portfolio Tests
Psychological Tests
Physiological Tests
Sales Tests
Day-after recall Tests
Consumer Jury:
Oldest & simplest test.
Personal interview may be used or a group may be assembled & asked to vote on an
alternative based on their preferences, interests, or influences to buy the product.
Provides a rating given by a group of consumers who may represent potential buyers of
the product.
Assumption: The respondent must like at least one advertisement.

Rating Scales
Requires the establishment of standards for effective copy and numerical weights for each standard.
Ads are then rated in accordance with the scale values and a numerical score is obtained.
Advantage: Provides a list against which to check an ad & helps to single out the elements that are
good or bad.
Disadvantages: Different judges will rate the ad differently.

Portfolio Tests:Sometimes the ad is placed in dummy copiesof newspapers or magazines.A group of
ads, usually a mixture of test ads and control ads, is placed in a portfolio.
Physiological Tests:Tests are obtained using special laboratoryequipments which record an
individualsphysiological responses to ads.e.g.-Galvanic skin response, Eye movementtest,
Pupillometer.
Psychological Tests: A list of reactions like self pity, security, fear or nostalgia is set up. Alternative
ads are then rated on how readers respond w.r.t. those reactions. A no. of techniques including
word association, sentence completion, depth interview & story telling are adopted. Difficult to
implement, since skilled interviewers are required

Sales tests
Sales tests are a useful measure of advertising effectiveness when advertising is the dominant
element, or the only variable, in the companys marketing plan. Sales response may not be
immediate and sales tests, particularly field studies, are often costly and time-consuming.
Day-after recall Tests:Research method that tests consumersmemories the day after they have seen
anad, to assess the ads effectiveness.

Post-testing
Provide either periodic or continuous in-market researchmonitoring a brands
performance.Including brand awareness, brand preference, product usage andattitudes. Some post-
testing approaches simply track changesover time, while others use various methods to quantify the
specific changes produced by advertisingeither the campaign as a whole or by the different media
utilized. Overall, advertisers use post-testing to plan future advertising campaigns, so the
approaches that provide the most detailed information on the accomplishments of the campaign are
most valued.

Problems in media selection
Its not sufficient to select the major media, you also need to make specific selections within these
general types of media.
Character of media has to be considered before selecting it as it has great influence on
effectiveness of the advertisement.

Problem of audience measurement
Variation in composition and sizes of audience of given media vehicle. Variation due to
geography.
Variation due to rate at which different vehicles accumulate audiences.
Difficulty of estimating value of different sizes of message units within and between media.
Estimating actual geographical area covered.

Conclusion
Ad effectiveness is dicey proposition. Though it is necessary to know how the Ads works for us, it is
difficult to do it, especially by relating advertising to sale.

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