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n\paperw11920\paperh12740{\bkmkstart Pg17}{\bkmkend Pg17}\par\pard\ql \li2807\sb
0\sl-207\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li2807\sb2\sl-207\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscale
x104 \ul0\nosupersub\cf7\f8\fs18 Basic Principles of Lubrication \par\pard\ql \l
i3398\sb0\sl-161\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li3398\sb50\sl-161\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-5
\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf16\f17\fs14 10-1 \par\pard\ql \li6144\sb0\sl-16
1\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li6144\sb0\sl-161\slmult0 \par\pard\ql\li6144\sb17\sl-161
\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 A\par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\cols3\colno1
\colw3234\colsr20\colno2\colw2471\colsr160\colno3\colw5905\colsr160\ql \li3134\s
b0\sl-161\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li3134\sb2\sl-161\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charsc
alex100 c \up0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 o\par\pard\ql \li3100\sb88\sl-92\slmult0
\up0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf11\f12\fs8 -4-\par\pard\ql \li3
100\sb0\sl-115\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li3100\sb0\sl-115\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li3
100\sb48\sl-115\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex50 \ul0\nosupersub\cf12\f13\fs1
0 *+\u8212? O\par\pard\ql \li3134\sb154\sl-161\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-3\charscale
x100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf16\f17\fs14 c\par\pard\ql \li3129\sb0\sl-161\slmult0 \par
\pard\ql \li3129\sb0\sl-161\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li3129\sb88\sl-161\slmult0 \up
0 \expndtw-3\charscalex100 \par\pard\ql \li2807\sb0\sl-253\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \
li2807\sb0\sl-253\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li2807\sb0\sl-253\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \
li2807\sb80\sl-253\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw-10\charscalex97 \ul0\nosupersub\cf13\f1
4\fs22 Fig.\par\pard\column \ql \li1820\sb24\sl-161\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\chars
calex110 \ul0\nosupersub\cf16\f17\fs14 Zone 1\par\pard\ql \li3398\sb0\sl-161\slm
ult0 \par\pard\ql \li3398\sb0\sl-161\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li3398\sb0\sl-161\slm
ult0 \par\pard\ql \li3398\sb0\sl-161\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li3398\sb0\sl-161\slm
ult0 \par\pard\ql \li3398\sb0\sl-161\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li3398\sb0\sl-161\slm
ult0 \par\pard\ql \li1446\sb104\sl-161\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex114 Boun
dary\par\pard\ql \li361\sb45\sl-161\slmult0\tx1446 \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100
?\tab \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex115 Lubrication\par\pard\ql \li164\sb0\sl-126\sl
mult0 \up0 \expndtw-6\charscalex94 10\par\pard\ql \li1134\sb1\sl-128\slmult0 \up
0 \expndtw0\charscalex103 10\ul0\super\cf17\f18\fs18 -9\par\pard\ql \li3254\sb0\
sl-253\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li3254\sb0\sl-253\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li20\sb79\s
l-253\slmult0\tx606 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex103 \ul0\nosupersub\cf13\f14\fs22 1
.3\tab \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 Stribeck curve\par\pard\column \ql \li553\sb
19\sl-161\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex117 \ul0\nosupersub\cf16\f17\fs14 Zon
e 2\par\pard\ql \li7137\sb0\sl-161\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li7137\sb0\sl-161\slmul
t0 \par\pard\ql \li1282\sb2\sl-161\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex129 Zone3\pa
r\pard\ql \li7560\sb0\sl-138\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li1705\sb85\sl-138\slmult0 \u
p0 \expndtw-1\charscalex100 \ul0\nosupersub\cf17\f18\fs12 \u9830?\par\pard\ql \l
i5875\sb0\sl-161\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \li5875\sb0\sl-161\slmult0 \par\pard\ql \l
i20\sb58\sl-161\slmult0\tx1287 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex101 \ul0\nosupersub\cf16
\f17\fs14 Mixed\tab \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex110 Hydrodynamic\par\pard\ql \li25\
sb41\sl-161\slmult0\tx980 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex115 Lubrication\tab \up0 \exp
ndtw0\charscalex114 B Lubrication\par\pard\ql \li970\sb0\sl-90\slmult0\tx155
6\tx2060 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex158 \ul0\nosupersub\cf12\f13\fs10 __\u8212?-\t
ab \up0 \expndtw-4\charscalex91 \u8212? i\tab \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex157 j\u82
12?\par\pard\ql \li917\sb9\sl-161\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex101 \ul0\nosu
persub\cf16\f17\fs14 10\ul0\super\cf17\f18\fs18 -8\par\pard\ql \li231\sb118\sl-1
84\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex124 \ul0\nosupersub\cf10\f11\fs16 ZN/P \par\
pard\sect\sectd\sbknone \qj \li2793\sb0\sl-260\slmult0 \par\pard\qj\li2793\sb0\s
l-260\slmult0 \par\pard\qj\li2793\ri2264\sb55\sl-260\slmult0\fi216 \up0 \expndtw
0\charscalex112 \ul0\nosupersub\cf9\f10\fs20 In this graph the coeficient of fri
ction is plotted against the expression \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 ZN/P where
\par\pard\ql \li3004\sb137\sl-240\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 \ul0\nosu
persub\cf18\f19\fs20\ul ZN\ul0\nosupersub\cf9\f10\fs20 _ oil viscosity x shaft
speed \par\pard\li3067\sb50\sl-230\slmult0\fi0\tx3863 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex1
09 P\tab \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex109 bearing pressure\par\pard\ql \li3004\sb149
\sl-230\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 There are three distinct zones in t
he graph, separated by the points A and \par\pard\qj \li2798\ri2258\sb9\sl-256\s
lmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex109 B. At B the coeficient of friction is at its
minimum, and this is the point at \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex115 which the
oil ilm is just thick enough to ensure that there is no contact \line \up0 \expn
dtw0\charscalex105 between asperities on the shaft and bearing surfaces. With sm
oother surfaces \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex106 B will be further to the left
. In Zone 3, to the right of B, the oil ilm thickness \line \up0 \expndtw0\chars
calex105 is increasing, because of increasing viscosity, increasing speed or dec
reasing \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex120 load, and the coeficient of friction
increases as the oil ilm thickness \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex106 increases.
Zone 3 is the zone of 'hydrodynamic* lubrication. \par\pard\qj \li2803\ri2257\s
b1\sl-260\slmult0\fi206 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 As conditions change from B
towards A, the oil ilm thickness decreases \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 s
o that the asperities on shaft and bearing rub against each other. The amount \l
ine \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex104 of rubbing, and the friction, increase as the o
il ilm thickness decreases. \par\pard\qj \li2803\ri2257\sb0\sl-260\slmult0\fi211
\up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 At point A the oil ilm thickness has been reduced
virtually to nil, and the \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex105 load between shaft
and bearing is being carried entirely on asperity contacts. \line \up0 \expndtw0
\charscalex111 In Zone 1, to the left of A, the coeficient of fiction is almost
independent \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex111 of load, viscosity and shaft spee
d. Zone \up0 \expndtw-2\charscalex100 1 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex111 is the zone
of 'boundary1 \par\pard\ql \li2803\sb25\sl-230\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscale
x103 lubrication. \par\pard\ql \li3009\sb10\sl-230\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charsc
alex110 Zone 2, between A and B, is known as the zone of 'mixed' lubrication. \p
ar\pard\qj \li2798\ri2254\sb46\sl-260\slmult0 \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex108 The s
haft load was traditionally considered to be supported by a mixture of \line \up
0 \expndtw0\charscalex111 oil pressure and aspeity contacts, so that the lubrica
tion was a mixture of \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex112 'hydrodynamic' and 'bou
ndary' lubrication. The term 'mixed lubrication' \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex
108 may in fact be even more appropriate than was originally thought, because \l
ine \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 modern theories suggest that in different syste
ms there may be a mixture of \line \up0 \expndtw0\charscalex107 four or more dif
ferent types of lubrication present in this zone. \par\pard\sect\sectd\fs24}