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List of Indian spices

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Indian spices
Indian spices includes a variety of spices and herbs grown
across the Indian subcontinent. Contrary to popular
opinion, curry is not actually a spice, but is a term which
refers to any dish in Indian cuisine with a gravy base.
Indian spices are often heated in a pan with cooking oil or
ghee to intensify their flavor before adding them with other
ingredients to the dish being cooked.
[edit] List of Indian spices
Below is a list of spices (and other flavoring substances)
commonly used in India
Adrak (inger) (!indi" #elugu" )
Aamchur$Amchoor powder, sour (%ango powder)
(!indi" #elugu")
Achar (pickle)
A&mud (Celery or 'adhuni seed)
A&moda ((arsley)
A&wain (Carom seed)
Amla (Indian gooseberry)
Anardana ((omegranate seed)
Ba)il (spicepowder)
Badam (Almond) (!indi"#elugu" )
Choti *laichi (reen cardamom)
Chakra (hool (+tar anise)
Chiron&i (Charoli), a type of nut particularly used in
making desserts.
Camiki (mango e,tract)
-alchini (cinnamon) (!indi "#elugu" )
-hania (Coriander seed) (!indi"#elugu" )
-hania powder (Coriander powder) (!indi"
#elugu" )
*laichi (Cardamom) (!indi" #elugu" )
aram %asala (+pice mi,ture)
ulab .al ('osewater)
ur (unrefined sugar from the sap of the sugarcane or
date palm)
!aldi$haldi (#urmeric)
!ara dhaniya (Coriander)
!arad$hime (myrobalan chabulic)
!ari %irch (reen chili)
!ara miri miri (Coriander powder)
!ing (Asafoetida)
Imli (#amarind)
.aiphal (/utmeg)
.avitri (%ace)
.eera (Cumin) seed
.eera oli
.ethimadh licorice powder
0achra (Capers)
0adipatta Curry #ree or Sweet Neem leaf
0a&u Cashewnut
0ala /amak or +anchal Black salt
0ali %irch (Black peppercorn)
0alon&i /igella seed
0asoori %ethi (-ried fenugreek leaf)
0atira um (ond 0atira) or #ragacanth um.
0ebab Cheeni Allspice
0esar +affron
0esar miri miri +affron pulp
0ha&ur -ates
0okum arcinia indica
0hus 0hus (oppy seed
0udampuli arcinia gummi1gutta 1 2sed in fish
preparations of 0erala.
3ahsun (arlic)
3al %irchi ( 'ed chili)
3al %irchi powder ('ed chili powder)
3avang (Cloves)
%arathi %oggu
%ethi leaves (4enugreek leaf)
%ethi seeds (4enugreek seed)
%ohammed Anwer (Indian +pice" dark, rich, and
delicious. Contains a spice level of 5)
+arson #el %ustard oil
/aaga 0eshar
/amak (+alt)
/imbu (3emon)
/imbu (3ime)
(udina (%int)
(ya) or anda (6nion)
0ali %irchi (Black (epper)
(anch (horon
(hathar ke phool (Black +tone 4lower)
(illi %irchi (7ellow (epper)
+afed %irchi (8hite (epper)
'ai (Black mustard seed)
'ai 0uria (cracked mustard seeds)
'atin &ot (Alkanet root)
+a&i (na) phool (Citric acid)
+arson (mustard seed)
+aunf$+anchal (4ennel seed)
+hahi .eera (Black cumin seed)
+irka (9inegar)
+oa sag (-ill)
+onth (-ried ginger powder)
+uwa or +hopa (Aniseed)
#a& (Cinnamon)
#artri (Citric acid)
#e& (atta (%alabathrum)
#hippali (0abab1chini, .ava peppercorn)
#il (+esame seed)
#ulsi (!oly Basil)
2rad dal (+plit %atpe or Beluga Beans))
:aafraan (+affron)
%enthulu (4enugreek +eeds)
shitu (lima seed skin)
osmanli (onion peelings)
pudina (mint)
-eggi %irch, 'ed Chilly powder (non spicy)
dhung rit)er,orange(;;sweet BB<=) (non spicy)
some of these spices are very good for health
Ginger is a tuber which is consumed whole as a delicacy, medicine or used as spice for
cooking or tea. It is the underground stem of the ginger plant, Zingiber officinale.
#he ginger plant has a long history of cultivation, having originated in Asia and is grown
in India, +outheast Asia, 8est Africa and the Caribbean.
It is sometimes called ?root
ginger? to distinguish it from other things that share the name ?ginger?.
Indian +pices
India is known as the @The home of spices'. #here is no other country in the world that
produces as many kinds of spices as India. #he climate of the country is suitable for
almost all spices.
+pices constitute an important group of agricultural commodities which are virtually
indispensable in the culinary art. In India, spices are important commercial crops from the
point of view of both domestic consumption and e,port. Besides, huge Auantities of
spices are also being consumed within the country for flavouring foods and are also used
in medicine, pharmaceutical, perfumery, cosmetics and several other industries.
According to the International 6rgani)ation 4or +tandardisation (I+6)B #he term
@spices and condiments@ applies to such natural plant or vegetable products or mi,tures
thereof, in whole or ground form, as are used for imparting flavour, aroma and piAuancy
to and for seasoning of foods?.
#here are over CD spices grown in different parts of the world and around ED spices are
grown in India. #he spices that India can offer in abundant Auantities are pepper,
ginger, turmeric, chilli, cardamom, celery, fenugreek, fennel, cumin, dill, coriander,
cinnamon, a&owan (bishop@s weed), cassia, clove, nutmeg and mace.
%a&or spices of e,port are pepper, cumin, cardamom, ginger, turmeric and chillies. 6ther
minor spices include a&owan, aniseed, celery seed, caraway, fennel, fenugreek, coriander,
garlic, onion, saffron, vanilla etc. Among the spices e,ported, pepper has the leading
position in terms of both Auantity and value realised. #he @Alleppey reen@ Cardamom is
considered the best grade available in the world.
'ole of +pices
+pices are well1known as appeti)ers and are considered essential in the culinary art all
over the world. #hey add tang and flavour to otherwise insipid foods. +ome of them also
possess antio,idant properties, while others are used as preservatives in some foods like
pickles and chutneys, etc.
+ome spices also possess strong anti1microbial and antibiotic activities. %any of them
possess medicinal properties and have a profound effect on human health, since
they effect many functional processes. 4or instance, spices intensify salivary flow. #hey
cleanse the oral cavity from food adhesion and bacteria, they help to check, infection and
caries and protect the mucous membrane. +pices act as a stimulates to the digestive
system and help digestion in many ways. +pices possibly activate the adreno1cortical
function and fortify resistance and physical capacity. +troke freAuency , and blood
pressure can be diminished or augmented by means of spices. 4or good breath
..Chewing certain spices like cardamom, cumin, cloveB improves digestion and acts as a
mouth freshener.
In !indi " *laichi
Latin Name " *lettaria cardamomum %aton
Family " :ingiberaceae (Ginger 4amily)
ommon names " +mall Cardamom, 3esser
Cardamom, #rue Cardamom,
%alabar Cardamom, reen
Cardamom the <ueen of all spices has a history as old as human race. It is one of the high
priced spice in the world.
Cardamom is grown in 0erala, #amil /adu and 0arnataka. It is the dried fruit of a
herbaceous perennial plant. 8arm humid climate, loamy soil rich in organic matter,
distributed rainfall and special cultivation and processing methods all combine to make
Indian cardamom truly uniAue1in aroma, flavour, si)e and it has parrot green colour. It
has well established culinary values, and it is used in a wide range of sweets and
confectionery. It is an important ingredient of garam masala, a combination spice for
many vegetarian and non1vegetarian dishes. Cardamom acts as a mouth1freshener after
meals. #ea and coffee made with cardamom are pleasantly aromatic and refreshing.
#here are three grades in which Indian cardamom is well known in the International
market, @Aleppey green *,tra Bold@ (A*B), @ Alleppey reen Bold@ (AB) and
@Alleppey reen +uperior@ (A+). Cardamom oil is an essential factor in food items and
in preparation of certain medicines. Indian cardamom is known world wide for its Auality
and is e,ported to various countries
In !indi " %irch
Chilli is grown throughout the country and is used in almost all dishes. Chillies are of
numerous variety and their degree of pungency varies. -ry and fresh
Chillies are used in various dishes. -ry chilly gives a red colour and
makes the dish attractive.
#his spice is grown throughout the year and so there is no scarcity and a
good Auantity is e,ported. 0ashmir chillies are known for its colour and
pungency. #he highly pungent chilly is @+annam@ and slightly pungent
chilly is @%undu@. +annam has international popularity.
Chillies are used with or without stalks. #o make good Auality of chilli
powder the stalks should be removed. It is variously called capsicum,
paprika, pimento, sweet pepper, red pepper, cayenne pepper and bird pepper, depending
on the type of chilli and the manner in which it is prepared and used. Indian chillies are
mainly e,ported to 2+A, +ri 3anka, Bangladesh, the middle and the far east.
Chillies of India
!irds "ye hilli #$hani%
rown in %i)oram and some areas of %anipur. !ighly pungent.
!yadagi #&addi%
rown in -harwar, 0arnataka. 3ess pungency or without
"llachip'r (annam
rown in Amaravathi district of Maharashtra. 9ery hot.
G'nt'r (annam
rown in untur, 8arangal, 0hammam districts of Andhra pradesh.
+kin thick and hot.
rown in !indpur in Andhra (radesh. !ot and highly pungent.
rown in 0heda, %ehsana and in south u&arat. !ighly pungent.
&anthari , White
rown in 0erala and some parts of #amil /adu. +hort and ivory white in
colour with high pungency.
&ashmir hilli
rown in Himachal Pradesh, .ammu and 0ashmir and also in
subtropical regions of North India during winter seasons.
-adhya .radesh. G.T (annam
rown in Indore, %alkapur Chikli and *lachpur areas of
%adhya (radesh.
-adras .ari
rown in /ellore district of Andhra (radesh.
rown in /agpur district of %aharashtra. It is pungent.

rown in /agpur district of %aharashtra. *,tremely pungent.
/amnad -'nd'
rown in 'amnad district of #amil /adu. !ot.
(angli (annam
rown in 0olhapur district of %aharshtra. !ot.
rown in -indigul, +attur, 'a&apalayam, +ankarankoli and #heni
in #amil /adu. (ungent with thick skin.
rown in Anantpur district of Andhra (radesh. 4airly good pungency.
Tadappally , !iglong
rown in #adappally in Andhra (radesh. 3ess pungent, thick
Tomato hilli #Warangal happatta%
rown In 8arangal, 0hammam, *ast and 8est odavari districts
of Andhra (radesh. 3ess pungent.
In !indi " 3oung
Clove is one of the oldest spices in the world, is the dried,
unopened flower bud of a small evergreen tree. It is
indigenous to the %oluccas Islands of Indonesia.
Clove goes mainly as an ingredient of a variety of food
specialties, beverages, medicines, cosmetics, perfumery and
*ither whole or as a powder, Clove finds e,tensive application in Indian foods.
It is an active ingredient of garam masala and several kinds of curry powders. Clove is
also highly recommended for making pickles, ketchups, and several
kinds of sweets. It is very often used with pan for chewing after meals,
and in tooth pastes as a fragrant mouth1freshener.
0arnataka, #amil /adu and 0erala are the main Clove producing states
in India.
In !indi "
Latin Name " Coriandrum sativum 3.
Family " 2mbelliferae
ommon names " Chinese parsley or cilantro
Coriander is the dried ripe fruit of a herb with several branches and leaves with &agged
Coriander forms the base of most Indian curries. Both its seeds and leaves are used in
dishes. Coriander seeds are mostly used in powder form, slightly roasted to improve the
flavour. It is basic to rasam, sambar and curry powders. Its leaves are used for making
chutneys and garnishing.
#his fragrant spice also has its own medicinal properties. 6il of Coriander seeds is a
valuable ingredient in perfumes.
#he ma&or producers of Indian Coriander are u&arat, 'a&asthan, Andhra (radesh,
#amil /adu and %adhya (radesh. #he main importers are 2+A, 20, %alaysia,
+ingapore, +ri 3anka and %iddle *ast. Besides Coriander seeds, India also e,ports their
powders and essential oils.
In !indi " 3ahsun
Latin Name " Allium sativum 3
Family " 3iliaceae (Alliaceae)
ommon names " arlic, +oftneck garlic, harneck garlic, rocambole
Gen's " Allium
arlic is a hardy bulbous perennial of the lily family, with narrow flat leaves. It has an
attractive flavour and acknowledged medicinal value. It is one of the @trinity@ of flavours
along with ginger and onion in Indian cuisines.
arlic acts as a flavouring agent in variety of dishes. In
(ickles it acts as a preservative1flavourant. arlic pickles
and freshly ground garlic chutneys are popular side dishes
for rice, snacks and chappathis. arlic oil are used in
ready1made spice1mi,es, pharmaceuticals and disinfectants.

arlic is cultivated in most parts of India. +ome of the internationally acclaimed varieties
of Indian garlic are @poona @, @/asik@, @%adurai@ and @.amnagar@. Besides, arlic powder
and dehydrated flakes, India also e,ports oils and oleoresins.
In !indi " Adarak
inger is used since time immemorial. It is a ma&or crop
cultivated in India and marketed as fresh and dried spice.
It is a small grassy plant grown in all seasons throughout
the year. Indian inger is famous for its flavour, te,ture
and taste.
%ore than a spice ginger is considered as a taste maker, a
drug, an appeti)er and a flavourant. +uperior Auality of ginger is produced from 0erala
though it is grown throughout the country. #he congenial climate and the fertile soil helps
to produce Auality ginger.
In the world market Indian ginger is popularly known as @cochin ginger@ (/2C) and
@calicut ginger@ (/20).
inger is available in a variety of forms like oils, oleoresins, fresh ginger
in brine, pickles, candies and syrups . arbled$ungarbled, bleached$unbleached and
powder forms of ginger is also marketed.
India has a predominant position in ginger production and e,port. #he principal buyers
are the %iddle *ast, 2+A, 20 and the /etherlands