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HISTORY OF TAMILNADU

Tamil Nadu was ruled by three major dyasties!the "holas i the


east# the $adyas i the %etral area ad "heras i the west& This
was duri' the Sa'am A'e!the %lassi%al (eriod o) Tamil literature!
that %otiued )or some *++ years a)ter the birth o) "hrist& The
$alla,a dyasty was i)luetial (arti%ularly i the -th ad .th
%eturies# the testimoies to whi%h are the moumets at
Mamalla(uram&
I the /*th %etury# with threats o) Muslim i,asios )rom the orth#
the souther Hidu dyasties %ombied ad the em(ire o) 0ijaya'ar
1also s(elt as 0ijayaa'ar2# whi%h %o,ered all o) South Idia# be%ame
)irmly established& Howe,er# by the /-th %etury# due to the
disite'ratio o) the 0ijaya'ar 3m(ire# ,arious small rulers li4e the
Naya4s ruled souther Idia&
5y the middle o) the /.th %etury# there were )re6uet %o)li%ts
betwee the 5ritish# Fre%h# Daes# ad Dut%h due to their iterest i
these areas& The 5ritish were )ially ,i%torious# while small (o%4eted
areas i%ludi' $odi%herry ad 7arai4al remaied uder Fre%h
%otrol& Uder the 5ritish rule# most o) south Idia was ite'rated ito
the re'io %alled the Madras $reside%y& I /89:# the Madras
$reside%y was disbaded ad Tamil Nadu was established&
Tamilnadu - A Temple State :
Tamil Nadu# the %radle o) south Idia tem(le ar%hite%ture# is a li,i'
museum o) styles that ori'iated i the -th %etury ad matured i
the hu'e tem(le %om(le;es studded with toweri'
'ateways!<=o(urams<!that soar abo,e the mar4ets o) almost e,ery
tow& Mahabali(uram# 7a%hi(uram# "hidambaram# 7umba4oam#
Rameswaram# $alai# Srira'am# Tirutai ad 7aya4umari are
some o) the )amous (il'rim %etres i Tamil Nadu& The )amous
Meea4shi tem(le o) Madurai is a must see&
Tamilnadu A Vegetarian's paradise!
Tamil Nadu# true home o) Idia ,e'etariaism# is the lad o) the
deli%ious $o'al# Idli# Dosa# Sambar ad Rasam& Tamilia>s sta(le
diet is steamed ri%e ad most o) their )ood %osists o) 'rais# letils
ad ,e'etables& >Sadhams> 1ri%e dishes2 with di))eret )la,ours are
their s(e%ialty& S(i%es are added )or most dishes to 'i,e a disti%ti,e
taste& "o%out# tamarid# asa)eotida are a must )or most ,e'etaria
dishes& Desserts su%h as bur)is ad (ayasams are also (o(ular&
Acknowledged cookery :
<Tamilia %oo4ery has always had its ow disti%ti,e traditio# but to
most o!Tamilias# oly the stereoty(es are disti'uishable?the
ubi6uitous dosai# idlis# sambars ad %huteys# without whi%h souther
%uisie would be i%om(lete& Few are aware o) the ri%h re(ertoire o)
traditioal Tamilia %oo4ery# the o!,e'etaria dishes# ot hea,ily
s(i%ed# or oily# but deli'ht)ul i their ,ariety ad ra'e# ad their
,e'etaria %outer(arts<&
@5esie'ed by re6uests )rom you' brides ad ot!so!you' oes# to
'i,e them the early la'uished re%i(es )rom the Tamilia
%ommuities# Sabita Radha4risha was is(ired to write this boo4#
ad )or a be'ii'# re%orded her mother>s traditioal re%i(es# tryi'
ea%h oe out i her 4it%he ad the stadardisi' ad re)itti' it to
suit the %otem(orary woma with her moder 'ad'ets& She (resets
i Aharam a i,aluable re%ord o) autheti% Tamilia )ood&<
Simple yet unique :
There is o oe disti'uished style o) Tamilia %oo4i'& Ad )or those
wati' to taste somethi' di))eret# there are some orthodo;
%ommuities who (re(are deli%ious )ood without usi' oio# 'arli%
ad some s(i%es& The meu also ma'i)ies a%%ordi' to the di))eret
)esti,als o) the re'io& To 'et a sam(le o) the tasty %uisie oe %a
(arti%i(ate i the %elebratios o) $o'al also (o(ularly 4ow as
Ma4ar Sa4rati# whe the )ood (re(ared is deli%ious
CUISI!
Introduction
I) you (lai' a tour to Tamil Nadu ma4e sure that you try out the
%uisie o) Tamil Nadu )or a autheti% taste o) the %ulture o) Tamil
Nadu& The %uisie o) Tamil Nadu li4e that o) the rest o) Idia is a
bled o) a umber o) s(i%es ad %odimets& The 'eo'ra(hy o) Tamil
Nadu (lays a im(ortat role i sha(i' the )ood habits as well as the
%uisie o) Tamil Nadu& Surrouded by water# the )ertile soil o) Tamil
Nadu yields a e;%ellet %ulti,atio o) ri%e# whi%h i tur )orms the
sta(le )ood o) most o) the (eo(le o) Tamil Nadu& The usa'e o) wheat
ad its (rodu%ts are ,irtually abset i the daily dietary ita4e o)
homes o) Tamil Nadu& The easy a,ailability o) )ish also shows itsel) i
the dietary (atter o) the (eo(le o) Tamil Nadu& A umber o)
(re(aratios are made usi' )ish o a daily basis i most households
o) Tamil Nadu& "o%out (lays a ,ery im(ortat role i the daily dietary
(atters o) most )amilies i Tamil Nadu& "o%out is used i almost all
its )orms# with "o%out oil bei' the most used %oo4i' medium i
Tamil Nadu&
A ty(i%al midday meal i Tamil Nadu is 'eerally made u( o) steamed
ri%e# letils or dal# ,e'etables ad o) %ourse )ish# i) the )amily is a o!
,e'etaria oe& 3,ery re'io o) Tamil Nadu has its ow dietary
(re)ere%es with a umber o) re'ios (re)erri' to remai ,e'etaria&
Some o) the re'ios whi%h )ollow a o!,e'etaria diet i%lude
"hettiad# whi%h is )amous )or its "hettiad $e((er "hi%4e# a
)a,orite the world o,erA
TAMILNADU "UISIN3
Li4e all other South Idia states# Tamil Nadu is also 4ow )or a
wide ,ariety o) deli%ious )ood both )or the ,e'etarias as well as the
o!,e'etarias& =rais# letils# ri%e ad ,e'etables are the mai
i'rediets o) the traditioal )oods o) Tamil Nadu& S(i%es add )la,or
ad 'i,e a disti%ti,e taste to the Tamil %uisies& Some o) the most
%ommo ad (o(ular dishes o) the re'io are idly# dosai# ,ada#
(o'al ad U((uma& "o%out %hutey ad sambhar i,ariably )orm a
(art o) most o) the Tamil dishes&
The ty(i%al Tamil brea4)ast i%ludes dosai# whi%h is a (a%a4e made
)rom a batter o) ri%e# idly 1steamed ri%e %a4es2 ad letils 1%ris( )ried
o a (a2# ,ada 1dee( )ried dou'huts (re(ared )rom a batter o)
letils2# (o'al 1a mash o) ri%e ad letils boiled to'ether ad
seasoed with %ashew uts# 'hee# (e((er ad %ummi seed2#
u((uma 1%oo4ed semolia seasoed i oil with mustard# (e((er#
%ummi seed ad dry letils2& These are the mai lo%al dishes but
there are se,eral ,ariatios that are eate with %o%out %hutey ad
mula'a (odi&
For lu%h ad the mai %ourse# the )ood %osists o) boiled ri%e# whi%h
is ser,ed with a assortmet o) ,e'etable dishes# sambar# %huteys#
rasam 1a hot broth (re(ared )rom tamarid jui%e ad (e((er2 ad
%urd& O the other had# the o!,e'etaria lu%h ad dier i%lude
%urries ad dishes %oo4ed with %hi%4e# mutto or )ish& "ris(y
$a(adB$a(ar ad a((alam )orm a im(ortat (art o) a ty(i%al Tamil
meal&
Filter %o))ee is a )amous ad (o(ular be,era'e o) the (eo(le o) Tamil
Nadu i 'eeral ad "heai i (arti%ular& It is iteresti' to ote that
ma4i' o) )ilter %o))ee is li4e a ritual as the %o))ee beas are )irst
roasted ad the (owdered& A)ter the 'ridi' wor4 is o,er# the
(owder is (ut ito a )ilter set ad the boili' water is added to
(re(are the de%o%tio# whi%h is allowed to set )or about /9!/.
miutes& The de%o%tio is ready ad %a be added to mil4 with su'ar
a%%ordi' to taste& The %o))ee is (oured )rom oe %otaier to
aother i 6ui%4 su%%essio so that the ideal )rothy %u( o) )ilter %o))ee
is ready&
C"ettinad Cuisine
"hettiad %uisie is oe o) the s(i%iest ad most aromati% i Idia&
The ame "hettiad %uisie %omes )rom the (la%e o) its ori'i#
"hettiad& "hettiad %uisie ad deli%a%y is a s(e%ialty o) Tamil Nadu
ad is a deli'ht )or o!,e'etaria )ood lo,ers& The "hettiad %uisie
%osists o) se,eral ,ariatios o) mutto# )ish# ad %hi%4e items& The
"hettiad $e((er "hi%4e is a s(e%ialty o) all the o!,e'etaria
dishes& Dishes li4e biryai ad (aya are (o(ular Tamil style o)
Mu'hali )ood& $aya is a ty(e o) s(i%ed trotters broth ad is usually
eate with either (arathas or a((am&
"UISIN3 OF TAMILNADU
The state o) Tamil Nadu has a disti%t (la%e i %uliary ma( o) the
%outry& May )amous dishes )rom Tamil Nadu are ejoyed by oe
ad all ad are ow a (art o) the atioal %uisie&
# T"e Ingredients and T"e Cuisine
Tamil Nadu has a wide ra'e o) ,e'etaria ad o!,e'etaria
deli%a%ies to o))er& The )ood here 'ets its )la,or )rom a host o) s(i%es
ad %odimets used i Tamil Nadu& "o%out# tamarid ad
asa)oetida are a must )or almost all ,e'etaria re%i(es& =aram
masala is a,oided i Tamil %uisie& I Tamil Nadu "o%out oil is
ormally used as the medium o) %oo4i'& "huteys ad mi;ed s(i%e
are ser,ed i the lu%h ad eha%e the taste o) the meal&
I Tamil Nadu# a ty(i%al meal %osists o) ri%e 1mostly steamed2#
letils# 'rais ad ,e'etables& "hettiad %uisie o) Tamil Nadu is
(arti%ularly )amous all o,er the %outry& This %uisie is hot ad s(i%y
ad (ro,ides dele%table ,ariety i mutto# %hi%4e ad )ish dishes&
"hettiad $e((er "hi%4e is oe o) the most )amous dishes i Tamil
Nadu& The Tamil style o) Mu'hali )ood %a be tasted i the 5iriyais
ad $aya& $aya is a ty(e o) s(i%ed trotters broth ad is eate with
either $arathas or A((am&
# $electa%le Tamil &eals
I Tamil Nadu %uisie# brea4)ast or ti))i i%ludes idly1steamed ri%e
%a4es2# dosai 1a (a%a4e made )rom a batter o) ri%e2 ad letils %ris(
)ried o a (a# ,ada1dee( )ried dou'huts made )rom a batter o)
letils2# (o'al 1a mash o) ri%e ad letils boiled to'ether ad
seasoed with 'hee# %ashew uts# (e((er ad %ummi seed2#
u((uma1%oo4ed semolia seasoed i oil with mustard# (e((er#
%umi seed ad dry letils2& Most o) the dishes i Tamil Nadu are
eate with %o%out %hutey# sambar 1seasoed letil broth2 ad
mula'a (odi 1a (owdered mi; o) se,eral dried letils eate with oil2&
The Tamil Lu%h or meals %osists o) %oo4ed ri%e ser,ed with
di))eret 4ids o) ,e'etable dishes# Sambar# %huteys# Rasam 1a hot
broth made with tamarid jui%e ad (e((er2 ad %urd1yo'urt2& The
o!,e'etaria lu%h i%ludes %urries or dishes %oo4ed with mutto#
%hi%4e or )ish& Tamil meals are i%om(lete without %ris( $a(ads or
A((alam&
# 'e(reas"ing Tamil $rinks
Tamil Nadu# es(e%ially "heai# is )amous )or its )ilter %o))ee& Most
Tamils ha,e a subtle disli4i' )or istat %o))ee# there)ore )ilter %o))ee
is more (o(ular& The (re(aratio o) )ilter %o))ee is almost li4e a daily
%hore# the %o))ee beas ha,e to be )irst roasted ad the 'roud& The
%o))ee (owder is the (ut ito a )ilter set ad hot boiled water is
added to (re(are the boili' ad allowed to set )or about /9 miutes&
The de%o%tio is the added to mil4 with su'ar to taste& The dri4
thus (re(ared is the (oured )rom oe %otaier to aother i ra(id
su%%essio to ma4e the (er)e%t )rothy %u( o) )ilter %o))ee& A e;oti%
dri4 that re)reshes you ad the taste that li'ers&
# Treat )our Taste *uds
The %uisie o) Tamil Nadu is %outed amo' the (o(ular %uisies i
Idia& It is ejoyed by the (eo(le o) the %outry ad e6ually relished
by the )orei'ers %omi' to Idia& Dishes li4e Idli# Dosa# Sambhar
ad Rasam are the most e;oti% dishes amo' the south Idia
%uisie& The south Idia (latter or Thali is also ,ery (o(ular#
%om(risi' ,arious ,e'etables# alo' with domiat %o%out )la,or&
Aother hi'hli'ht o) south Idia %uisie is# $o'al# a sweet dish
(re(ared duri' the the har,est )esti,al >$o'al>& 3,ery ,isitor %omi'
to Idia# ma4es sure that he does ot miss tasti' this mouth
wateri' %uisie& So# just loo4 )or restaurat that ser,es south Idia
%uisie ad taste some o) the re%i(es ad dri4s )rom Tamil Nadu#
a)ter whi%h you wot be able to resist tasti' other deli%ious dishes o)
this state also&
+ongunad Cuisine Comes ,rom -. Cities /( Tamil adu0
Jacob Sahaya Kumar Aruni, head of the department,
Department of Catering Science & Hotel Management,
Cherraan's Arts Science College, Kangayam, tells Ashish K
Tiwari about their research into Kongunad Cuisine
!12C: 1ow did +ongunad cuisine come into e3istence4 $id t"e
cuisine go t"roug" 5arious stages o( de5elopment %e(ore
getting its (inal s"ape4
6AC/* SA1A)A +U&A' A'UI: 7o'uad %uisie is basi%ally a
%olle%tio o) e;oti% re%i(es bei' %reated by the (eo(le residi' i the
7o'u re'io& The %uisie is 6uite e;tesi,e )or a sim(le reaso that
the 7o'u re'io is ,ery ,ast ad i%ludes (la%es li4e Ooty#
"oimbatore 1the (reset head6uarters o) 7o'u 7i'dom2# $olla%hi#
Tiru((ur# Udumal(et# A,iashi# $alladam# 7a'ayam 1the (re,ious
head6uarters o) 7o'u 7i'dom2 to 7arur# 3rode# Aathur# Salem#
$alai Mettur ad Dhara(uram&
As )ar as its bradi' as >7o'uad "uisie> is %o%ered# it is our
(ersoal iitiati,e& Ce ha,e (ersoally tra,elled i the 7o'uad
re'io ad %olle%ted re%i(es )rom housewi,es# marria'e %otra%tors
ad seior %itiDes& A)ter ha,i' tried the re%i(es ad 'etti' them
a((ro,ed )rom their res(e%ti,e i,etors ! )or its tastes ad te;tures
,is!a!,is the ori'ial ! we ha,e ow (ut the whole )ood %ulture as
7o'uad %uisie&
>The "he) Fa%tory> team at the istitute has doe a lot o) resear%h
ad de,elo(met 1RED2 o this %uisie whi%h has ow ta4e the
sha(e o) a autheti% braded %uisie& It ow e))e%ti,ely suits
%ommer%ial tastes ad we ha,e started (romoti' the %uisie by
holdi' )ood )esti,als i star %ate'ory hotels 1three (romotios ha,e
bee made so )ar2&
7"at are t"e 5arious aspects t"at make +ongunad cuisine
special4 7"y4
Some o) the as(e%ts that ma4e 7o'uad %uisie ,ery s(e%ial are as
)ollowsF
The re%i(es ha,e their ow ati,ity ad style& 5esides#
7o'uad %uisie is a %olle%tio o) re%i(es )rom more tha 9+
%ities Tamil Nadu# 1uli4e "hettiad %uisie# whi%h is the )ood
o) oly oe %ity o) Tamil Nadu# %alled 7arai4udi2
Uli4e other %uisies# 7o'uad %uisie does ot i,ol,e
mariatio o) ay raw material& As a result the )ood has a
di))eret taste ad ui6ue te;ture
Additio o) roasted 'roudut (aste i %urries ad 7hormas
%reates a ,ery di))eret )la,our
Turmeri% is always added ito %urries as )reshly 'rated ad
'roud a)ter roasti'& This 'i,es the (rodu%t a dee( yellow
%olour ad a aromati% substa%e
7o'uad %uisie is ot ,ery s(i%y ad oily# whi%h is ot the
%ase with other %uisies
The %uisie is healthy ad utritious owi' to use o)
%osiderable amout o) (ulses
$id t"e residents o( +ongu region (ollow any standard recipe
design (or t"is cuisine4
Not really& There was o (ossibility o) stadard re%i(es )or this
%uisie& The re%i(es )oud their ori'i based o the s(e%iality o) that
(arti%ular %ity o) 7o'uad& This is e,idet )rom the )ollowi'
ista%esF
Use o) %o(ra 1dry %o%out2 was ,ery (romiet i %ities li4e
7a'ayam# Tiru((ur# Dhara(uram et%# due to the abuda%e o)
%o%out trees ad %o%out oil re)ieries&
The i,etio o) (i%4les ha((eed due to abuda%e o) 'i'elly
seeds i the areas su%h as Ar%halur# 3rode# Natha4adaiyur et%
The %uisie has a ti'e o) Muslim taste i Hidu )ood ad ,i%e
,ersa i the areas o) Dhara(uram# 7eeraoor# 7a'ayam# et%#
be%ause there was a major %o%etratio o) Hidus ad
Muslims i these areas who li,ed i ,ery %lose amity& Thus#
shari' o) re%i(es ad ada(ti' to their tastes was but ob,ious
Dry mutto %ubes 1su dried ad used as a a%%om(aimet
a)ter )ryi'2 were i,eted due to the (rese%e o) umerous
mutto ad bee) slau'hter houses i %ities li4e Dhara(uram#
"oimbatore# Tiru((ur# et%
>$a%hamritham># a sweet mi;ture o) (latais# dates# ja''ery
ad su'ar %ady o))ered i the Lord Muru'a tem(le at $alai as
>$rashadham># was %o%e(tualised i 7ulithalai ad $olla%hi
be%ause (latais ad dates are 'row e;tesi,ely there
Residets i 7arur# 7a'ayam# 3rode ad $alladam (re(are a
s(e%ial dish %alled >7ali> )rom %ereals li4e jowar# ra'i ad bajra
as these (la%es ha,e the lar'est yield o) the said %ereals
"hi%4e )ids its (la%e i the daily meu as 'ra,ies ad %urries
be%ause %hi%4e )armi' was the 4ey o%%u(atio )or most i
ad aroud $alladam
Sweets li4e >$athaeer Halwa># >$athaeer $ayasam># >3lair
Halwa># >3lair $ayasam> )ormed (art o) the re'ular )ood i
areas li4e Athur ad Salem as (alm trees ad %o%out trees
were a,ailable i abuda%e i these re'ios
The abo,e!metioed are just a )ew e;am(les& >The "he) Fa%tory>
resear%h team is %urretly i the (ro%ess o) %om(ili' the )idi's o
the same to(i% ad we will soo (ublish a boo4 elu%idati' its itty!
'ritties&
)ou earlier mentioned t"at uneart"ing t"is cuisine was an
initiati5e %y t"e researc" team o( t"e institute8 7"at was t"e
moti5ating (actor4
As )ar as Tamil Nadu is %o%ered# "hettiad is the oly %uisie that
has a%hie,ed (o(ularity amo'st the masses& 7ee(i' this i mid#
ad also the e;iste%e ad i%om(arable tastes o) 7o'uad re%i(es#
I iitiated this idea o) uearthi' 7o'u %uisie with my studets& Ce
made a tri( to the (arti%ular %ities ad %olle%ted ,arious re%i(es&
A)ter a%hie,i' the obje%ti,e o) i,eti' somethi' di))eret )or )ood
lo,ers# the e;t ste( is to ta4e it a%ross the world by way o) holdi'
)ood )esti,als i ,arious hotel ad restaurat %hais aroud the world&
Ce would li4e to establish >7o'uad %uisie> as oe o) the best
%uisies o) Idia&
Is sourcing t"e raw material and ingredients (or +ongunad
cuisine a pro%lem in current times4 1ow do you go a%out
dealing wit" it4
It is ot mu%h o) a (roblem to sour%e the raw materials )or 7o'u
%uisie& Howe,er# there are a )ew i'rediets su%h as >7o'u Masala>
ad >$alli(alayam Masala> whi%h are ot a,ailable aywhere e;%e(t i
7a'ayam ad 3rode re'ios ad that too with a (arti%ular )amily
oly&
Are t"ere any unique practices w"ilst preparing +ongunad
Cuisine4
There are o ui6ue (ra%ti%es as su%h )or %oo4i' these dishes&
Howe,er# there are di))eret (ro%edures li4e assembli' o) 'ra,ies#
usi' su!dried meat )or %oo4i'# usi' u(eeled (otatoes# o
mariatio o) )lesh or ,e'etables )or ay (re(aratio# usi' %o%out
shells to so)te the meat# et%&
)our institution "as taken a lot o( initiati5es to %uild awareness
a%out t"is cuisine8 1ow "as %een t"e response among "otels
and end consumers4
Ce ha,e already %odu%ted three )ood )esti,als i =RT =rad!
"heai# The Reside%y =rou(s o) Hotels ad "lub Mahidra
Holidays ad Resorts& This a(art# we %odu%ted a 7o'uad "uisie
)esti,al %alled >NILA "hour> at 3rode wherei o,er G#9++ 'uests were
ser,ed a sele%tio o) 7o'uad %uisie deli%a%ies& The New Delhi
Tele,isio Networ4 ,isited our de(artmet )or a ews u(date o) our
resear%h wor4 o 7o'uad %uisie whi%h was trasmitted i their
daily ews& These are a )ew 4ey measures bei' ta4e to (ubli%ise
the %uisie&
The res(ose has bee stu(edous )rom both hotels ad %osumers&
I )a%t# we are i the (ro%ess o) )ialisi' some more )ood )esti,als
with leadi' hotel ad restaurat %hais i the %outry& 5y doi' this#
we ited to moti,ate restaurateurs to o(e s(e%iality restaurats o
the 7o'uad theme i ear )uture&
7"at are your (uture plans wit" respect to '2$ acti5ities in t"e
institute4
Ce ha,e %om(leted three more resear%h (roje%ts o di))eret
%uisies o) Idia# ,iD& >The 3thi% "uisie o) the Mo(lah Muslims>#
>The Autheti% "uisie o) the A%iet 7i'doms o) Tamil Nadu> ad
>Rede)ii' "hettiad "uisie>& 3;%e(t the third to(i%# the other two
ha,e already bee (ublished as boo4lets )or the hotelier )raterity&
Our )uture (las i%lude %odu%ti' resear%h o the )ollowi' to(i%sF
a& $arsi )ood %ulture ad habits
b& "uisie o) the 7o4a %oast
%& A 'eeral study o the )ood o) tem(les# mos6ues ad %hur%hes
d& The %uisie o) Thodai 7i'dom ad
e& The tribal %uisie o) south Idia&
A ,ew 9opular $is"es
I all there are /.. re%i(es i 7o'uad
"uisie# whi%h are a %ombiatio o) ,e'etaria
ad o!,e'etaria dishes& Some o) the most
(o(ular dishes are 'i,e belowF
$a%hai(uli Rasa4 ! It is a s(i%y# assembled
rasam made o) tamarid (ul( ad small
oios
7arimee 7olambu ! This is a basi% )ish
%urry added with mutto %ubes ad sto%4
7eeraoor 7olambu ! A basi% ,e'etable
'ra,y added with %hose %outry
,e'etables ad mutto
$alli(alayam "hi%4e Fry ! A ,ery s(e%ial
dry (re(aratio (re(ared usi'
$alli(alayam Masala# 1a had (ouded
masala made by a )amily i a %ity
$alli(ayalam ear 3rode2
$athair Halwa ! A ui6uely )la,oured
halwa whi%h %a beat the taste ad te;ture
o) the (resetly )amous Tiruel,eli Halwa&
It is made )rom $athaeer 1the toddy
be)ore )ermetatio2
7ollu Masiyal ! A brea4)ast dish made out
o) mashed horse'ram a%%om(aied with a
watery salt!)ish 'ra,y& The dish is ,ery
utritious ad is %osumed by )armers ad
the li4es as a eer'y dri4
$olla%hi Mutto 7olambu ! A medium s(i%y
mutto (re(aratio made with e6ual
6uatity o) small oios to mutto
Nila 7olambu ! This %urry is (re(ared )rom
)our ,arieties o) ,e'etables whi%h 'row
uder the soil# amely (otato# %olo%assia#
yam ad sweet (otato
5eia ! A white )la4y (oori li4e sweet
made oly by the housewi,es o) Muslim
)amilies i ad aroud Dhara(uram
Aathur 7oli 7olambu ! This %hi%4e %urry#
thou'h made without usi' tomato# 'i'er
ad 'arli%# tastes mu%h better tha ay
other %hi%4e %urry e,er made i Idia
$ayaru Thirattal ! This is a >7ootu> li4e
(re(aratio where 'rouduts are (asted
ad added to the mashed (ulses ad
%oo4ed i a (e%uliar masala (aste made o)
small oio ad (e((er %ors
+ongunad Special
The residets o) 7o'u re'io were the )irst toF
Use "o(ra 1dry %o%out2 i %urries ad
'ra,ies rather tha )resh %o%out
Use ma'oes to (re(are ,arious sweets
"oo4 deli%a%ies usi' ,arious %ereals
su%h as rye# bajra# jowar )or their mai
%ourse
Assemble 'ra,ies
Shu mariatio
Ma4e 'ra,ies ad 4ootus usi' (otatoes
without remo,i' its s4i
Use mil4 to (re(are %urries ad 'ra,ies
$re(are >Hu' Meat> )rom mutto ad bee)
ad )ry them as >0ada'ams>
Use oly small oio i their (re(aratios
"oo4 hard!)ibred meat by addi' %o%out
shells i the li6uid used to %oo4 meat
$re(are ,arious 4ids o) (i%4les usi'
>=i'elly Oil>
$ra%ti%e the tawa )ryi' method istead o)
dee( )at )ryi'
$re(are white (o'al 1a brea4)ast dish2
whi%h is a mi;ture o) ri%e ad (ulses
"osume butter mil4 ad sweet as the
se%od last %ourse ad rasam as the last
Use drumsti%4 lea,es to %lear butter while
ma4i' 'hee
I,et the ,ery (o(ular >(rashadham> !
$a%hamritham# whi%h is o))ered i the
tem(le o) Lord Muru'a i $alai
"o%ei,e >Hasmie Idlis># whi%h has a
s(e%ial %hara%ter o) re'aii' its sha(e
ad te;ture e,e i) aybody (resses or
s6ueeDe it ! the re%i(e o) whi%h is still a
se%ret
I,et >7ootu># a (re(aratio o) ,e'etable
ad (ulses mi;ed to'ether ad tem(ered
i little oil
Deri,e ew sweets su%h as >3lair
$ayasam># >$athaeer Halwa># out o) sa'o
Tamil cuisine
From Ci4i(edia# the )ree e%y%lo(edia
Tamil Nadu is )amous )or its hos(itality ad its dee( belie) that ser,i'
)ood to others is a ser,i%e to humaity as is %ommo i may re'ios
o) Idia& Traditioally# ,e'etaria dishes (redomiate the meu#
i%ludi' a ,ariety o) sweets ad sa,ories& It was de,elo(ed o,er
may %eturies by Tamils who li,e i the re'io o) (reset day Tamil
Nadu i Souther Idia# Idia ad Tamils o) Sri La4a& It is
%hara%teriDed by the use o) ri%e# le'umes ad letils# its disti%t
aroma ad )la,our a%hie,ed by the bledi' o) s(i%es i%ludi' %urry
lea,es# tamarid# %oriader# 'i'er# 'arli%# %hili# (e((er# %iamo#
%lo,es# %ardamom# %umi# utme'# %o%out ad rosewater& The word
<%urry< is deri,ed )rom the Tamil word >4ari> whi%h meat <sau%e<&
I/J
Ri%e ad le'umes (lay a im(ortat role i Tamil %uisie& Letils are
also %osumed e;tesi,ely# either a%%om(ayi' ri%e (re(aratios# or
i the )orm o) ide(edet dishes& 0e'etables ad dairy (rodu%ts are
essetial a%%om(aimets&
O s(e%ial o%%asios# traditioal Tamil dishes are (re(ared i almost
the same way as they were %eturies a'oK(re(aratios that %all )or
elaborate ad leisurely %oo4i'# ad ser,ed i traditioal style ad
ambie%e& The traditioal way o) eati' a meal i,ol,es bei' seated
o the )loor# ha,i' the )ood ser,ed o a baaa lea)# ad usi'
%lea )i'ers o) the ri'ht had to tras)er the )ood to the mouth& A)ter
the meal# the )i'ers are washed# ad the baaa lea) be%omes )ood
)or %ows& This is a ,ery e,iromet )riedly way o) li)e&
Icitation neededJ

These traditios are also %ommo i other re'ios su%h as i Adhra
$radesh E 7erala&
5e%ause o) moderiDatio# %osmo(olita %ulture ad the brea4!u( o)
the joit )amily system# %om(romises ad ada(tatios are bei'
made& A mo,emet towards a sim(ler %uisie %a be sesed&
UrbaiDatio has itrodu%ed Cester!style seati' arra'emets at
traditioal e,ets with tables# %hairs# (lates ad %utlery be%omi' the
orm# ad )ood bei' ser,ed bu))et!style&
Icitation neededJ
Des(ite %ha'es i (ra%ti%es ad their %ultural im(li%atios# Tamil
%uisie retais its basi% %hara%ter i the use o) i'rediets# ad its
aroma ad )la,our remai u%ha'ed&
Regional
O,er a (eriod o) time# ea%h 'eo'ra(hi%al area where Tamils ha,e
li,ed has de,elo(ed its ow disti%t ,ariat o) the %ommo dishes i
additio to dishes ati,e to itsel)&
The "hettiad re'io %om(risi' o) 7arai4udi ad adjoii' areas is
4ow )or both traditioal ,e'etaria dishes li4e a((am# utha((am#
(aal (aiyaram ad o!,e'etaria dishes made (rimarily usi'
%hi%4e& "hettiad %uisie has 'aied (o(ularity i o!Tamil
s(ea4i' areas as well&
Icitation neededJ
Madurai ad the other souther distri%ts o) Tamil Nadu are 4ow )or
o!,e'etaria )ood made o) Mutto# %hi%4e ad )ish& $arota made
with maida or all!(ur(ose )lour# ad loosely similar to the orth Idia
wheat )lour!based $aratha# is ser,ed at )ood outlets i Tamil Nadu#
es(e%ially i distri%ts li4e 0irudhua'ar# Madurai ad the adjoii'
areas& $arota is ot %ommoly (re(ared at home as it is a laborious
ad time!%osumi' (ro%ess& Madurai ha,e its ow ui6ue )oods
su%h as Jigirdanda# Muttaiarotta13'' $arotta2# aruthipal E
!nnaiDosai 1Dosai with lot o) oil2whi%h are rarely )oud i other (arts
o) Tamil Nadu&
The wester 7o'u re'io has s(e%ialities li4e Satha4aiBSadha,ai
1a oodle li4e item o) ri%e2# o(uttu 1a sweet tasti' (iDDa!li4e dish that
is dry outside with a sweet stu))i'2# ad 4ola urudai 1meat balls2&
"eylo Tamil %uisie# ot oly bears similarities to Tamil Nadu! ad
7erala %uisie but also has may ui6ue ,e'etaria ad o!
,e'etaria dishes& It )eatures dishes su%h as (uttu 1steamed ri%e
%a4e2 ad Idiya((am or Se,ai# 14ow i other (arts o) the world as
stri' ho((ers2# whi%h is (arti%ularly ,ery (o(ular&
3ati'!out i its %a(ital %ity "heai# is a 'reat e;(erie%e ad
(ro,ides a 'lim(se o) the ui6ue li)estyle o) the %ity& "heai is
4ow )or its %uisie# brou'ht to the %ity by (eo(le who ha,e mi'rated
)rom di))eret (arts o) Tamil Nadu& Its ri%h traditios o))er a ,ariety o)
dishes# ot oly ,e'etaria but also No!0e'etaria )ood& "heai
has a lar'e %olle%tio o) restaurats# some o) them are ui6ue
>S(e%iality Restaurats># whi%h ser,e >Idia "uisie> with a
ambie%e to mat%h# while most others %ater South Idia ti))i ad
meals# at ,ery reasoable (ri%es&
:edit; &eals - Traditional
Food is 'eerally %lassi)ied ito si; tastes ! sweet# sour# salt# bitter#
(u'et E astri'et ad traditioal Tamil %uisie re%ommeds that
you i%lude all o) these si; tastes i ea%h mai meal you eat& 3a%h
taste has a bala%i' ability ad i%ludi' some o) ea%h (ro,ides
%om(lete utritio# miimiDes %ra,i's ad bala%es the a((etite ad
di'estio&
Sweet 1Mil4# butter# sweet %ream# wheat# 'hee 1%lari)ied butter2#
ri%e# hoey2
Sour 1Limes ad lemos# %itrus )ruits# yo'urt# ma'o# tamarid2
Salty 1Salt or (i%4les2
*itter 15itter 'ourd# 'rees o) may 4ids# turmeri%# )eu'ree42
9ungent 1"hili (e((ers# 'i'er# bla%4 (e((er# %lo,e# mustard2
Astringent 15eas# letils# turmeri%# ,e'etables li4e %auli)lower
ad %abba'e# %ilatro2
A ty(i%al meal 1Lu%h or Dier2 will be ser,ed o a baaa lea)& As
the sta(le diet is ri%e# steamed ri%e will be ser,ed alo' with a ,ariety
o) ,e'etable dishes li4e sambar# dry %urry# rasam ad 4ootu& Meals
are o)te a%%om(aied by %ris( a((alams& A)ter a )ial roud o) ri%e
ad %urds or buttermil4 or both# a meal is %o%luded with a small
baaa ad a )ew betel lea,es ad uts&
For a o!,e'etaria meal# %urries or dishes %oo4ed with mutto#
%hi%4e or )ish are i%luded&
:edit; &eals - 'estaurant
A Idia meal i restaurats is 'eerally %alled >Thali>& Its usually
ser,ed o a roud tray made o) either Sil,er# Stailess steel or e,e
5rass# with a sele%tio o) di))eret dishes i small bowls& De(edi'
o the re'ioal %uisie they s(e%ialiDe# they o))er a %hoi%e o)
,e'etaria or o!,e'etaria deli%a%ies whi%h are ati,e to that
re'io& For e;am(le oe may e%outer South Idia 1,e'2 thali#
"hettiad thali# Mumbai thali# Rajasthai thali or =ujarati thali&
Ri%e# e,e i) it is i a modest amout seems to be essetial to the
(o(ular de)iitio o) thali& Chile North Idia Thali %osists maily
Idia 5read# li4e "ha(ati# Roti# $aratha# $hul4a or Naa alo' with
ri%e# South Idia Thali %omes mostly with ri%e& I North Idia
%uisie $ooris# "ha((attis are o))ered )irst ad the waiter ser,es the
ri%e later# o)te i a se(arate bowl& The rest o) the items li4e di))eret
"urries# Sweet ad other mis%ellaeous items 1A((lams# $a(ad#
$i%4les ad 5eeda2 is similar )or both North Idia ad South Idia
Talis&
Thalis i some restaurat>s may i%lude <bottom!less< re)ills o all
%om(oets o) )ood# the idea is that oe eats util )ully satis)ied&
Su%h thalis are re)erred to as >ulimited> thalis& I some (la%es the
term meas that e,erythi' i the (late e;%e(ti' a )ew items li4e the
Sweet or 0ada is o(e to ulimited hel(i's&
Fially a baaa# beeda# ad a 'lass o) jui%e or lassi will be o))ered&
$ure ,e'etaria restaurats uder the brad ame o) Udu(i %uisie#
whi%h is syoymous with deli%ious ,e'etaria )ood all o,er world#
ser,e a ,ariety o) ti))i ad ,e'etaria meals# mostly )rom South
Idia state o) 7arata4a& May o) these restaurats ha,e owadays
di,ersi)ied ad o))er other Idia ad IdiaiDed "hiese dishes as
well&
[edit] Typical Tamil feast - Virundhu Sappadu
Tamil %ulture is 4ow )or its hos(itality& L0irudhuM i Tamil meas
LFeastM# whe 'uests 1Frieds# Relati,es2 are i,ited duri' ha((y
%eremoial o%%asios to share )ood# lo,e ad lau'hter& LSa((aduM
meas a )ull %ourse meal# whi%h %a be either Lu%h or Dier&
Duri' 0irudhu Sa((adu# 'uests sit o a %oir mat whi%h is rolled out
o the )loor ad a )ull %ourse meal is ser,ed i the traditioal way# o
a L5aaa Lea)M whi%h is s(read i )rot o) the 'uests# with the ti(
(oited le)t&
The host will esure that the meu i%ludes as may ,ariety o) dishes
as (ossible ad 'uests are ser,ed as may hel(i's as re6uested&
The dishes are ser,ed i a (arti%ular se6ue%e# ad ea%h dish is
(la%ed o a (arti%ular s(ot o) the baaa lea)& =uests are e;(e%ted
to be'i ad ed eati' the meal to'ether ad do ot lea,e i middle
o) a meal& Oe loo4 at the lea) a)ter the )ood is ser,ed ad 'uests will
4ow the %ommuity# the status# the e;a%t wealth o) the )amily# ad
)rom whi%h (art o) Tamil Nadu they ori'iate&
The to( hal) o) the baaa lea) is reser,ed )or a%%essories# the lower
hal) )or the ri%e& I some %ommuities# the ri%e will be ser,ed oly
a)ter the 'uest has bee seated& The lower ri'ht (ortio o) the lea)
may ha,e a s%oo( o) warm sweet mil4y ri%e $ayasam# 7esari# Sweet
$o'al or ay Dessert items& Chile the to( le)t i%ludes a (i%h o)
salt# a dash o) (i%4le ad a thimble)ul o) salad# or a smid'e o)
%hutey& I the middle o) the lea) there may be a odd umber o) )ried
items li4e small %ir%les o) %hi(s either baaa# yam or (otato# thi
%ris( (a(ads or )rilly wa)ers A((alams ad ,adai&
The to( ri'ht had %orer is reser,ed )or s(i%y )oods i%ludi'# "urry#
hot# sweet# or sour ad the dry items& I) it is a ,e'etaria meal# the
,e'etables are %are)ully %hose# betwee the %outry oes!'ourds#
drumsti%4s# brijals!ad the >3'lish> oes# whi%h %ould be %arrot#
%abba'e# ad %auli)lower& 1I) it is a o!,e'etaria meal# a se(arate
lea) is (ro,ided )or the )ried meats# %hi%4e# )ish# %rab# ad so o&2
5ut a'ai# the ,ariatios are (reseted %are)ully# oe dry oe e;t to
a 'ra,ied oe&
There may be side attra%tios su%h as $oli# $oori# "ha((ati# )ew o)
the )amed ri%e (re(aratios su%h as =hee $o'al or $uliodarai
(arti%ularly i) the )amily %omes )rom Thaja,ur# 4ow as the ri%e
bowl o) Tamil Nadu&
Traditioally# sweets are eate )irst& A)ter ha,i' wor4ed throu'h the
(relimiaries# the lo' haul starts with the ri%e# whi%h is 'eerously
doused with =hee alo' with steam %oo4ed letils# Sambar the hi'hly
s(i%ed letil!based dish )ollows ad this is su%%eeded by More!
7ulambu1yo'hurt ad s(i%es with %o%out2# $uli!7ulambu 1s(i%y sour
%urry with ,e'etables ad tamarid2 ad Rasam&
Cith e,ery %ourse the lea) is %are)ully re(leished# the 'uest>s
(rotests bei' totally i'ored& A)ter a )ial roud o) ri%e with %urds or
buttermil4 or both# it %o%ludes with a small baaa a )ew betel
lea,es ad uts&
The beetel lea) %hewi' is a traditioal habit said to aid di'estio ad
i olde days it was reser,ed )or %ou(les oly& I today>s world o
su%h restri%tios are im(osed& The beetel lea) is (a%4ed ito a little
>(a%4a'e> with edible %al%ium (aste layered o to( ad a (i%h o)
%oarsely (owdered beetel uts or a hal) beetel ut&
[edit] ommonly consumed items
Ri%e# the major sta(le )ood o) most o) the Tamil (eo(le& Lu%h or
Dier is usually a Meal o) steamed ri%e# ser,ed with a%%om(ayi'
items# whi%h ty(i%ally i%lude sambar# dry %urry# rasam# 4ootu ad
thayir 1%urd2 or moru 1buttermil42&
Ti))i or Li'ht meals# whi%h is o)te ser,ed )or brea4)ast or as a
e,ei' sa%4# usually i%lude oe or more dishes li4e Idli>s#$o'al#
Dosai# "ha(ati# Se,ai# 0ada whi%h is o) G 4ids ! 1methu"adai ad
paruppu"adai2 0adai &
Ti))i or li'ht meals is ser,ed )or brea4)ast or as a sa%4& These are
usually oe or more dishes li4e Idli# Dosai# Idiya((am# $o'al ad
0adai alo' with %o%out "hutey# Sambar ad Mila'ai (odi& Ti))i is
usually a%%om(aied by hot )ilter %o))ee# the si'ature be,era'e o)
the %ity&
"hettiad dishes li4e a((am# utha((am&
$arota made with maida or all!(ur(ose )lour# (erha(s similar to
the orth Idia wheat )lour!based (aratha&
U(ma# made )rom wheat 1ra,a2# oio# 'ree %hillies&
Se,ai or idiya((am# Ri%e oodles made out o) steamed ri%e
%a4es&
"o))ee is the most (o(ular be,era'e& "o))ee is a major so%ial
istitutio i Souther Idia Tamil traditio& Its also %alled the
Madras 1a2 "heai Filter "o))ee ad is ui6ue to this (art o) the
world& They 'eerally use 'ourmet %o))ee beas o) the Arabi%a
,ariety& The ma4i' o) )ilter %o))ee is li4e a ritual# as the %o))ee beas
are )irst roasted ad the (owdered& Sometimes they add %hi%ory to
eha%e the aroma& They the use a )ilter set# )ew s%oo(s o)
(owdered %o))ee# eou'h boili' water is added to (re(are a ,ery
dar4 li6uid %alled the de%o%tio& A *BN mu' o) hot mil4 with su'ar# a
small 6uatity o) de%o%tio is the ser,ed i DabarahBTumbler set# a
ui6ue "o))ee %u(&
Aother (o(ular be,era'e is stro'ly brewed tea )oud i the
thousads o) small tea stalls a%ross the state o) Tamil Nadu ad
adjoii' areas&
Dosai# %re(es made )rom a )ermeted batter o) ri%e ad urad dal
15la%4 'ram2# ad is a%%om(aied by SambarO also see Masala dosai
Idli# steamed ri%e!%a4es# (re(ared )rom a )ermeted batter o)
ri%e ad urad dal 15la%4 'ram2# ad side!dishes are usually
di))eret 4ids o) %hutey or sambhar
U(maBU((ittu# (re(ared )rom semolia 1ra,a2# oio# 'ree
%hillies# ad %ertai s(i%es
$uliyodarai# $uliPTamarid# thoraiBthoraP)ry# is a e;oti% Tamil
dish ad widely s(e%ialised amo' Tamil Iye'ars ad )amous
throu'hout 7arata4a as $uliyo'are# it is a mi;ture o) )ried
tamarid (aste ad %oo4ed ri%e# the tamarid (aste )ried with
sesame oil# aso)oetida E )eu'ree4 (owder# dried %hilly#
'rouduts# s(lit %hi%4(ea# urad dal# mustard seeds# %oriader
seeds# %umi seeds# %urry lea,es# turmeri% (owder ad
seasoed with li'ht ja''ery ad salt&
Sambar# a thi%4 stew o) letils with ,e'etables ad seasoed
with e;oti% s(i%es
Rasam# letil sou( with (e((er# %oriader ad %umi seeds
Thayir sadam# steamed ri%e with %urd
Se,ai or Idiya((am# Ri%e oodles made out o) steamed ri%e
%a4es&
A((am
7ottu
South Idia "o))ee# also 4ow as Madras Filter "o))ee# is a
sweet mil4y %o))ee (o(ular i Tamil Nadu& It is 6uite similar to
the "a((u%%io ad Latte ,arieties o) %o))ee i the Uited
States o) Ameri%a&
Other sa%4 items i%lude muru##u# seedai# ba$$i# mi%ture# se"u# ad
pa#oda whi%h are ty(i%ally sa,ory items&
[edit] Specialities
7ooDh ! $orrid'e& They also ha,e 7ooDh whi%h is (oor ma>s
brea4)ast ad lu%h but its %osidered ri%h ma>s health dri4&
Icitation
neededJ
[edit] !nfluence abroad
Histori%ally# Tamil %uisie has tra,elled to 5urma# Sri La4a#
Malaysia# Si'a(ore ad Thailad ,ia traders 1Na'arathar2 )rom
Tamil Nadu& Alo' with "hiese# it has i)lue%ed these iteratioal
%uisies to what they are today& South A)ri%a Idia %oo4i' is also
i)lue%ed by Tamil %uisie# whi%h was brou'ht by idetured
labourers i the late /8th %etury&
[edit] ulinary influence from other parts of the world
"heai is a major tourist destiatio# so it>s also (o(ular )or %uisies
)rom other (arts o) the world& Chile Idia 1whi%h i%ludes a di,erse
ra'e o) %uisies )rom other states o) Idia2# 3uro(ea "otietal#
ad "hiese %uisie ha,e bee aroud )or a lo' time# Me;i%a#
Italia# Thai# 7orea# Ha(aese ad Mediterraea %uisie to ame a
)ew# ha,e be%ome (o(ular with may restaurats e;%lusi,ely
s(e%ialisi' i these %uisies&
[edit] Tamil culinary terminology absorbed in "nglish
The word curry is a a'li%isatio o) the Tamil word #ari&
IGJ

The Tamil (hrase milagu thanni# meai' (e((er sou(# literally
(e((er water# has bee ada(ted i 3'lish as mulligata&ny&
I*J

The word Mango is deri,ed )rom the Tamil word Maanga or
Maangaai&
INJI9J

The word 'ice ad the e6ui,alet Tamil word Arisi may ha,e
the same roots&
"H3TTINAD "UISIN3
C"ettinad cuisine is the %uisie o) the "hettiad re'io o) Tamil
Nadu state i South Idia& "hettiad is oe o) the driest re'ios o)
south Idia& The "hettiar %ommuity# who are a majority i this re'io
are a ,ery su%%ess)ul tradi' %ommuity& "hettiad %uisie is oe o)
the s(i%iest ad the most aromati% i Idia&
"hettiad %uisie is )amous )or its use o) a ,ariety o) s(i%es used i
(re(ari' maily o!,e'etaria )ood& The dishes are hot ad
(u'et with )resh 'roud masalas# ad to((ed with a boiled e'' that
is usually %osidered essetial (art o) a meal& They also use a ,ariety
o) su dried meats ad salted ,e'etables# re)le%ti' the dry
e,iromet o) the re'io& The meat is restri%ted to )ish# (raw#
lobster# %rab# %hi%4e ad mutto& "hettiars do ot eat bee) ad (or4&
Most o) the dishes are eate with ri%e ad ri%e based
a%%om(aimets su%h as dosais# appams# idiyappams# adais ad
idlis& The "hettiad (eo(le throu'h their mer%atile %ota%ts with
5urma# leart to (re(are a ty(e o) ri%e (uddi' made with sti%4y red
ri%e&
"hettiad %uisie o))ers a ,ariety o) ,e'etaria ad o!,e'etaria
dishes& Some o) the (o(ular ,e'etaria dishes i%lude idiyappam#
paniyaram# "ellai paniyaram# #aruppatti paniyaram# paal paniyaram#
#u(hi paniyaram# #o(ha#attai# masala paniyaram# adi#oo(h#
#andharappam# seeyam# masala seeyam# #a"uni arisi E athirasam&
[edit] Spices used
I "hettiad )ood# the most im(ortat s(i%es are marathi mo##u
1dried )lower (ods2# anasipoo 1star aiseed2 ad #alpasi 1dried bar42&
I additio# tamarid# whole red %hillies ad saunf 1Feel seeds2 are
also used alo' with %iamo# %lo,es# bay lea)# (e((er%or# %umi
seeds ad )eu'ree4&