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8/10/2014

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Biaxial Bending - Section
Capacity to AS4100
Lecture 3
Learning Outcomes
Identify beam-columns in different structural
systems
Determine section capacities under axial
tension and compression loads
Determine section capacities under bending
about the major and minor axis
Determine the adequacy of steel sections
subjected to biaxial bending and axial loading
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Beam-columns
In practice structural members are often
subjected to both bending and axial forces.
These structural members are commonly referred
to as beam-columns.
Causes of bending and axial forces in
structural members
Bending due to:
Portal frame action
Axial tension and compression due to:
on columns)
Wind uplift
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Beam-columns
Isolated beam columns may be subjected to:
(i) In-plane bending behaviour
(ii) Flexural-torsional buckling and
(iii) Biaxial Bending
In-Plane behaviour
In-plane behaviour of beams can occur when:
Beam is bent about the weaker/minor axis
Beam is bent about the stronger/major axis and
prevented from lateral deflection
The beam is restricted to bending in the plane
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Flexural-torsional buckling
Flexural torsional buckling can occur when:
Beam is bent about the stronger/major axis but
NOT prevented from lateral deflection.
Out of plane buckling can then occur
Resulting in lateral deflection and twisting
Trahair and Bradford 1998
http://civildigital.com/
Biaxial bending
Biaxial bending occurs when:
Beam-column is bent about both the major and
minor principal axes
This involves the interactions of
Beam bending,
Twisting of the beam and
Buckling.
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Behaviour of beam columns subjected
to biaxial bending
In 3D structural framing most members are
subjected to:
Bending about both principal axes and
Twisting by other members connected to it
Behaviour of beam columns subjected
to biaxial bending
Ideally members are oriented to resist loads
and significantly bend about the major axis
Significant minor axis bending/deflections and
twisting can still occur
Caused by smaller bending capacity about the
minor axis
Caused by smaller torsional stiffness and
Amplified by axial loads and major axis moments
and associated member deformations
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Biaxial bending to AS4100:
Section capacity check <8.3.4>

axis) (minor axis - y about the capacity moment section nominal M
axis) (major axis - x about the capacity moment section nominal M
axis minor about the moment bending design M
axis major about the moment bending design M
n compressio axial
or tension axial for capacity load axial section nominal N
force e compressiv or tensile design N
where
8.3.4 Cl. 1
: satisfy must force axial and bending biaxial to subjected Members
sy
sx
*
y
*
x
s
*
*
* *
=
=
=
=
=
=
s + +
sy
y
sx
x
s
M
M
M
M
N
N
| | |
Biaxial bending to AS4100:
Section capacity check <8.3.4>
An alternative method can be used to check the section
capacity of members subjected to biaxial bending and axial
force
8.3.4 Cl. 1
: satisfy must force axial and bending biaxial to subjected Members
: 5.2.3) (Cl. compact as classified are that
sections square and r rectangula and sections - I l symmetrica doubly For
*
*
s
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

| |
ry
y
rx
x
M
M
M
M
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Biaxial bending to AS4100:
Section capacity check <8.3.4>
n) compressio and (tension force axial by reduced
axis), (minor axis - y about the capacity moment section nominal M
n) compressio or (tension force axial by reduced
axis), (major axis - x about the capacity moment section nominal M
1.4
where
8.3.4 Cl. 1
: satisfy must force axial and bending biaxial to subjected Members
ry
rx
*
*
*
=
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
s
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
s
ry
y
rx
x
N
N
M
M
M
M
|

| |

M
rx
, bending about the major axis
<8.3.2>
web for the and of values the are and where
82
82
18 . 0 1 1
1.0 k where members n compressio For (b)
1 18 . 1
members n for tensio and 1.0 k where members n compressio For (a)
: follows as determined be can M compact, as classified are that
sections hollow square and r rectangula and sections - I symetrical doubly For
Cl.8.3.2 1
: axis major about the n) compressio or (tension force axial by reduced
capacity, moment section nominal the general, In
e w
*
f
*
f
rx
*
ey wy
sx
wy
w
s
sx rx
sx
s
sx rx
s
sx rx
M
N
N
M M
M
N
N
M M
N
N
M M

|
|
|
s
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
<
s
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
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M
ry
, bending about the minor axis
<8.3.3>

1 18 . 1
compact as classified are that sections hollow square and r rectangula For (b)
1 19 . 1
: compact are which sections - I symetrical doubly For (a)
: follows as determined be can M
Cl.8.3.3 1
: axis minor about the n) compressio or (tension force axial by reduced
capacity, moment section nominal the general, In
*
2
*
ry
*
sy
s
sy ry
sy
s
sy ry
s
sy ry
M
N
N
M M
M
N
N
M M
N
N
M M
s
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
s
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
|
Design for axial compression <6.1>
section cross of area net A
) /A (A factor form where
6.2.1 Cl.
: capacity section nominal The
n compressio in member a of capacity member nominal N
n compressio in member a of capacity section nominal N
n) compressio axial to
subjected members for (0.9 factor capacity where
6.1 Cl.
and
: both satisfy should (N*) force n compressio
axial design a to subjected member loaded ally concentric A
n
g e
c
s
*
*
=
=
=
=
=
=
s
s
f
y n f s
c
s
k
f A k N
N N
N N
|
|
|
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Design for axial compression <6.2.2>
6.2.4 Cl.
: section the making elements plate flat the of b
widths, effective the of sum the is A and , e" ineffectiv " is section The
limit s slendernes yield
s slendernes element plate largest the If (ii)
A A i.e. effective, fully is section The
limit s slendernes yield
: s slendernes element plate largest the If (i)
: section - cross given a For
6.2.2 Cl.
: A area, gross the to A area, effective the of ratio the is factor form The
e
e
g e
g e
b b b
A
A
k
e
ey
e
ey e
ey e
g
e
f
s
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

= >
=
= <
=

Yield Slenderness Limits <6.2.4>
For members under compression, the yield slenderness limits are given in Table
6.2.4
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Design for axial tension <7.1>
strength tensile f
holes of area less area sectional gross : section cross the of area net A
section) cross a of centroid the through loading for 1.0 k (e.g.
e.g. forces, of on distributi for factor correction
section, cross of area gross A where
hardening) strain after failure fracture to due (limit 85 . 0
7.2) (Cl. and section) gross of failure yield to due (limit
: of lesser the is tension in member a for capacity section nominal The
tension in member a of capacity section nominal N
AS4100) 3.4, Table tension, axial to
subjected members for (0.9 factor capacity where
7.1 Cl.
: satisfy should (N*) force tension axial design a to subjected member A
u
n
t
g
t
*
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
s
t
u n t t
y g t
t
k
f A k N
f A N
N N
|
|
Design for axial tension
Values of k
t
(correction factor distribution of forces) can
be determined from Table 7.3.2, AS4100
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Design for axial tension
Values of k
t
(correction factor distribution of forces) can
be determined from Table 7.3.2, AS4100
BIAXIAL BENDING SECTION
CAPACITY EXAMPLE
Lecture 3
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Biaxial Bending Section Capacity
Example
The beam shown in the Figure is subjected to bending about both the major and
minor axis. Additionally, the beam is subjected to axial compression. Determine
the relevant section capacities and check if the beam is adequate for the applied
biaxial bending and axial compression. The beam is a 250UB37.3 and of grade
300PLUS; d=256mm, b
f
=146mm, t
f
=10.9mm, t
w
=6.4mm, I
x
=55.7x10
6
mm
4
,
r
x
=108mm, S
x
=486x10
3
mm
3
, Z
x
=435x10
3
mm
3
, I
y
=5.66x10
6
mm
3
, r
y
=34.5mm,
S
y
=119x10
3
mm
4
, Z
y
=77.5x10
3
mm
3
, f
y
=320MPa, A=4750mm
2
. Given M
x
*=52.8kNm;
M
y
*=8.1kNm; N*=200kN.

4500 4500
3.2kN/m
xaxis
200kN (design)
xzplane
4500 4500
20kN
yaxis
200kN (design)
yzplane
zaxis
b
f

t
f

t
w

d
xaxis
yaxis
Section Capacity Check
Cl.6.2.2 Factor, Form
Cl.6.2.1 N
Capacity Section Nominal : N COMPRESSIO AXIAL
8.3.4 Cl. 1
*
* *
g e f
y n f s
sy
y
sx
x
s
A A k
f A k
M
M
M
M
N
N
=
=
s + +
| |
| | |
16
: section HR" " an and
edge, al longitudin one" " on supported plate flat" " For
limit, s slendernes yield element Plate
: 6.2.4 Table
24 . 7
250
320
10.9 2
6.4 - 146
250
f
2
: Flange
: s slendernes element Plate
eyf
ey
y
ef
=
=

f
w f
t
t b
b
f

t
f

t
w

d
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Axial Compression
kN f A k N
k
A A
t
t d
y n f s
f
g e
w
f
1368 320 4750 0 . 1 9 . 0
0 . 1
i.e
effective fully if Section
45 4 . 41
and 16 24 . 7 Since
45
: section HR" " an and
edges, al longitudin both" " on supported plate flat" " For
: 6.2.4 Table
4 . 41
250
320
6.4
10.9 2 - 256
250
f 2
: Web
eyw ew
eyf ef
eyw
y
ew
= = =
=
=

= < =
= < =
=
=

=
| |

b
f

t
f

t
w

d
Major axis bending
axis - about the modulus section effective
Cl.5.2.1 Z M
Capacity Section Nominal : BENDING AXIS MAJOR
ex
x Z
f
ex
y sx
=
=| |
16 ; 9
: section HR" " an and n" compressio uniform " under
edge, al longitudin one" " on supported plate flat" " For
: 5.2 Table
: limits s slendernes element Plate
before) (as 24 . 7 : Flange
slender or compact - non compact, as section the g Classifyin
eyf epf
ef
= =
=

b
f

t
f

t
w

d
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Major axis bending
kNm Z f M
mm
Z S Z
ex y sx
x x ex
140 10 486 320 9 . 0
. 10 86 4 ) 10 5 . 625 ; 10 (486 of lesser the
) 10 435 5 . 1 ; 10 (486 of lesser the ) 5 . 1 ; ( of lesser the
Cl.5.2.3 bending, axis major for compact is Section
82 4 . 41 and 9 24 . 7 Since
115 , 82
: section HR" " an and
other" at the tension and edge one at n compressio "
edges, al longitudin both" " on supported plate flat" " For
: 5.2 Table
before) (as 4 . 41 : Web
3
3 3 3 3
3 3
epw ew epf ef
eyw epw
ew
= = =
= =
= =

= < = = < =
= =
=
| |

b
f

t
f

t
w

d
Minor axis bending
axis - y about the modulus section effective
Cl.5.2.1 Z M
Capacity Section Nominal : BENDING AXIS MINOR
ey
=
=
ey
y sy
Z
f | |
25 ; 9
: section HR" " an and edge" supported at or tension stress
zero edge, d unsupporte an at n compressio maximum " under
edge, al longitudin one" " on supported plate flat" " For
: 5.2 Table
: limits s slendernes element Plate
before) (as 24 . 7 : Flange
slender or compact - non compact, as section the g Classifyin
eyf epf
ef
= =
=

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Major axis bending
kNm Z f M
mm
Z S Z
ey y sy
y y ey
5 . 33 10 25 . 116 320 9 . 0
. 10 116.25 ) 10 25 . 116 ; 10 (119 of lesser the
) 10 5 . 77 5 . 1 ; 10 (119 of lesser the ) 5 . 1 ; ( of lesser the
Cl.5.2.3 bending, axis minor for compact is Section
9 24 . 7 Since
buckling. local to e susceptibl Not
axis. neutral the
at located its since stress, zero" " under element Plate
before) (as 4 . 41 : Web
3
3 3 3 3
3 3
epf ef
ew
= = =
= =
= =

= < =

=
| |

Section Capacity Check

O.K. is Capacity Section
0 . 1 765 . 0
242 . 0 377 . 0 146 . 0
5 . 33
1 . 8
140
8 . 52
1368
200

8.3.4 Cl. 1
*
* *

< =
+ + =
+ + =
s + +
sy
y
sx
x
s
M
M
M
M
N
N
| | |