Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 1307

Abat(s)

organ meat(s).
Abati(s)
giblet(s) of poultry or game fowl.
Abondance
firm thick wheel of cow's-milk cheese from the Savoie, a d?partement in
the lps.
Abricot
apricot.
Acacia
the acacia tree, the blossoms of which are used for making fritters! also
honey made from the blossom.
Acajou
cashew nut.
Achatine
land snail, or escargot, imported from "hina and #ndonesia! less pri$ed
than other varieties.
Addition
bill.
Affam- starving.

Affin- aged, as with cheese.

Affinage- process of aging cheese.
Agneau (de lait)
lamb (young, milk-fed).
Agneau chilindron
saut? of lamb with potatoes and garlic, specialty of the %as&ue country.
Agneau de Paulliac
breed of lamb from the southwest.
Agnelet
baby milk-fed lamb.
Agnelle
ewe lamb.
Agrume(s)
citrus fruit(s).
Aiglefin', aigrefin, ?glefin
small fresh haddock, a type of cod.
Aigre
bitter! sour.
Aigre-doux
sweet and sour.
Aigrelette, sauce
a sort of tart sauce.
Aiguillette
a long, thin slice of poultry, meat, or fish. lso, top part of beef rump.
Ail
garlic.
Aile
wing of poultry or game bird.
Aile et cuisse
used to describe white breast meat (aile) and dark thigh meat (cuisse),
usually of chicken.
Aill
with garlic.
Aillade
garlic sauce! also, dishes based on garlic.
Aillet
shoot of mild winter baby garlic, a specialty of the 'oitou-"harentes region
along the tlantic coast.
Aioli, ailloli
garlic mayonnaise. lso, salt cod, hard-cooked eggs, boiled snails, and
vegetables served with garlic mayonnaise! specialty of 'rovence.
Airelle
wild cranberry.
Aisy cendr
thick disc of cow's-milk cheese, washed with eau-de-vie and patted with
wood ashes! also called cendre d'aisy( a specialty of %urgundy.
A la Bourgeoise, ? la Bourgeoise
'repared in the family style.
A?go bouido
garlic soup, served with oil, over slices of bread! a specialty of 'rovence.
A?go saou
)water-salt) in 'roven*al! a fish soup that includes, of course, water and
salt, plus a mi+ture of small white fish, onions, potatoes, tomatoes, garlic,
herbs, and olive oil! specialty of 'rovence.
Albuf?ra
b?chamel sauce with sweet peppers, prepared with chicken stock instead
of milk! classic sauce for poultry.
Algue(s)
edible seaweed.
Aligot
mashed potatoes with tomme (the fresh curds used in making "antal
cheese) and garlic! specialty of the uvergne.
Alisier, alizier
eau-de-vie with the taste of bitter almonds, made with the wild red
serviceberries that grow in the forests of lsace.
Allumette
)match)! puff pastry strips! also fried matchstick potatoes.
Alose
shad, a spring river fish plentiful in the ,oire and -ironde rivers.
Alouette
lark.
Aloyau
loin area of beef! beef sirloin, butcher's cut that includes the rump and
contre-filet.
Alsacienne, ? l'
in the style of lsace, often including sauerkraut, sausage, or foie gras.
Amande
almond.
Amande de mer
smooth-shelled shellfish, like a small clam, with a sweet, almost almond
flavor.
Amandine
with almonds.
Ambroisie
ambrosia.
Am?ricaine, Amoricaine
rainbow (trout).
Ami du hambertin
)friend of "hambertin wine)! moist and buttery short cylinder of cow's milk
cheese with a rust-colored rind, made near the village of -evrey-
"hambertin in %urgundy. Similar to .poisses cheese.
Amer
bitter! as in unsweetened chocolate.
Amourette(s)
spinal bone marrow of calf or o+.
Amuse-bouche or amusegueule
)amuse the mouth)! appeti$er.
Ancho?ade
sauce that is a blend of olive oil, anchovies, and garlic, usually served with
raw vegetables! specialty of 'rovence! also, paste of anchovies and garlic,
spread on toast.
Anchois (de ollioure)
anchovy (pri$ed salt-cured anchovy from "ollioure, a port town near the
Spanish border of the ,anguedoc), fished in the tlantic and the
/editerranean.
Ancienne, ? l'
in the old style.
Andouille
large smoked chitterling (tripe) sausage, usually served cold.
Andouillette
small chitterling (tripe) sausage, usually served grilled.
Aneth
dill.
Ange ? che!al
)angel on horseback)! grilled bacon-wrapped oyster.
Anglaise, ? l'
.nglish style, plainly cooked.
Anguille (au !ert)
eel! (poached in herb sauce).
Anise ?toil
star anise! also called badiane, anis de la chine. 0he anise plant! its dried
star-shaped fruit.
A""ellation d'origine contr?l?e (A#)
specific definition of a particular cheese, butter, fruit, wine, or poultry--once
passed down from generation to generation now recogni$ed by law--
regulating the animal breed or variety of fruit, the $one of production,
production techni&ues, composition of the product, its physical
characteristics, and its specific attributes.
A"?ritif
a before-dinner drink that stimulates the appetite, usually somewhat sweet
or mildly bitter.
Arachide (huile d'$ "?t? d')
peanut (oil! butter).
Araign?e de mer
spider crab.
Arbousier (miel d')
trailing arbutus, small evergreen shrubby tree of the heather family, also
called strawberry tree, ground laurel and madrona tree with strawberry-like
fruit dotted with tiny bumps! (honey of). 1sed for making li&ueurs, 2ellies,
and 2ams.
shelled or peeled.
Arc en ciel (truite)
rainbow (trout).
Ardennaise, ? l'
in the style of the rdennes, a d?partement in northern 3rance! generally a
dish with 2uniper berries.
Ardi gasna
%as&ue name for sheep's-milk cheese.
Ardoise
blackboard! bistros often use a blackboard to list specialties in place of a
printed menu.
Ar%te
fish bone.
Arachide (huile d'$ "?t? d')
peanut (oil! butter).
Ardi gasna
%as&ue name for sheep's-milk cheese.
Arl?sienne, ? l'
in the style of rles, a town in 'rovence! with tomatoes, onions, eggplant,
potatoes, rice, and sometimes olives.
Armagnac
brandy from the rmagnac area of Southwestern 3rance.
Aromate
aromatic herb, vegetable, or flavoring.
Aros?(e)
sprinkled, basted, moistened with li&uid.
Artichaut
(violet) artichoke (small purple) (camus) snub-nosed..
Artichaut ? la Barigoule
in original form, artichokes cooked with mushrooms and oil! also, artichoke
stuffed with ham, onion, and garlic, browned in oil with onions and bacon,
then cooked in water or white wine! specialty of 'rovence.
As"erge (!iolette)
asparagus (purple-tipped asparagus, a specialty of the "?te-d'$ur).
Assiette anglaise
assorted cold meats, usually served as a first course.
Assiette de "?cheur
assorted fish platter.
Assoif
parched, thirsty.
Aubergine
eggplant.
Au!ergnat(e)
in the style of the uvergne! often with cabbage, sausage, and bacon.
Ardennaise, ? l'
in the style of the rdennes, a d?partement in northern 3rance! generally a
dish with 2uniper berries.
Ardi gasna
%as&ue name for sheep's-milk cheese.
Ardoise
blackboard! bistros often use a blackboard to list specialties in place of a
printed menu.
Arl?sienne, ? l'
in the style of rles, a town in 'rovence! with tomatoes, onions, eggplant,
potatoes, rice, and sometimes olives.
Armagnac
brandy from the rmagnac area of Southwestern 3rance.
Aromate
aromatic herb, vegetable, or flavoring.
Aros?(e)
sprinkled, basted, moistened with li&uid.
Ar"ajon
a town in the #le-de-3rance! dried bean capital of 3rance! a dish containing
dried beans.
As"erge (!iolette)
asparagus (purple-tipped asparagus, a specialty of the "?te-d'$ur).
Assaisonn
seasoned! seasoned with.
Assiette anglaise
assorted cold meats, usually served as a first course.
Assiette de "?cheur
assorted fish platter.
Assoif
parched, thirsty.
Assorti(e)
assorted.
Aubergine
eggplant.
Aulx
plural of ail (garlic).
Aum?ni?re
)beggar's purse)! thin cr?pe, filled and tied like a bundle.
Aurore
tomato and cream sauce.
Au!ergnat(e)
in the style of the uvergne! often with cabbage, sausage, and bacon.
A!eline
ha$elnut or filbert, better known as noisette.
A!ocat
avocado.
A!oine
oat.
Axoa
a dish of ground veal, onions, and the local fresh chiles, piment
d'.spelette! specialty of the %as&ue region.
Azyme, "ain
unleavened bread! mat$o.
Badiane
star anise.
Baec&eoffe, bae&aoffa, bac&aofa, bac&eno
)baker's oven)! stew of wine, beef, lamb, pork, potatoes, and onions!
specialty of lsace.
Bagna caud
sauce of anchovies, olive oil, and garlic, for dipping raw vegetables!
specialty of 4ice.
Baguette
)wand)! classic long, thin loaf of bread.
Baguette au le!ain or ? l'ancienne
sourdough baguette.
Baign
bathed.
Ballotine
usually poultry boned, stuffed, and rolled.
Banane
banana.
Barbue
brill, a flatfish related to turbot, found in the tlantic and the
/editerranean.
Barbouillade
stuffed eggplant, or an eggplant stew! also, a combination of beans and
artichokes.
Barder
to cover poultry or meat with strips of uncured bacon, to add moisture
while cooking.
Bar'uette
)small boat)! pastry shaped like a small boat.
Basilic
basil.
Bas'uaise, ? la
%as&ue style! usually with ham or tomatoes or red peppers.
Bastard, "ain
)bastard bread)! traditional long, thin white loaf, larger than a baguette.
Batonnet
garnish of vegetables cut into small sticks.
Baudroie
in 'rovence, the name for monkfish or anglerfish, the large, firm-fleshed
ocean fish also known as lotte and gigot de met, also a specialty of
'rovence, a fish soup that includes potstoes, onions, fresh mushrooms,
garlic, fresh or dried orange $est, artichokes, tomatoes, and herbs.
Ba!aroise
cold dessert! a rich custard made with cream and gelatin.
Ba!ette
skirt steak.
Ba!euse
)drooling)! method of cooking an omelet so that it remains moist and 2uicy.
Bearnaise
tarragon-flavored sauce of egg yolks, butter, shallots, white wine, vinegar!
and herbs.
B?casse
small bird, a woodcock.
B?cassine
small bird, a snipe.
Bechamel
white sauce, made with butter, flour, and milk, usually flavored with onion,
bay leaf, pepper, and nutmeg.
Beignet
fritter or doughnut.
Beignet de fleur de courgette
batter-fried $ucchini blossom! native to 'rovence and the /editerranean,
now popular all over 3rance.
Bergamot (th? a la bergamote)
name for both a variety of orange and of pear! (earl grey tea.).
Belle (elene ("oire)
classic dessert of chilled poached fruit (pear), served on ice cream and
topped with hot chocolate sauce.
Belle!ue, en
classic presentation of whole fish, usually in aspic on a platter.
Belon
river in %rittany identified with a pri$ed flat-shelled (plate) oyster.
Bera)ec&a, biere)ec&e, bire)ec&, bire)ec
dense, moist "hristmas fruit bread stuffed with dried pears, figs, and nuts!
specialty of 5aysersberg, a village in lsace.
Bercy
fish stock-based sauce thickened with flour and butter and flavored with
white wine and shallots.
Bergamot (th? a la bergamote)
name for both a variety of orange and of pear! (earl grey tea.).
Berrichonne
garnish of bruised cabbage, gla$ed baby onions, chestnuts, and lean
bacon named for the old province of %erry.
Bettera!e
beet.
Beurre
butter.
Beurre blanc
classic reduced sauce of vinegar! white wine, shallots, and butter
Beurre cru
raw cream butter.
Beurre de *ont"ellier
classic butter sauce seasoned with olive oil, herbs, garlic, and anchovies.
Beurre demi-sel
butter (lightly salted).
Beurre des harentes
finest 3rench butter, from the region of 'oitou-"harentes along the tlantic
coast.
Beurre du cru
butter given the appellation d'origine contr?l?e pedigree.
Beurre +chir
brand of the finest 3rench butter, preferred by 3rench chefs, with an 6"
pedigree, from the region of 'oitou-"harentes along the tlantic coast.
Beurre noir
sauce of browned butter, lemon 2uice or vinegar, parsley, and sometimes
capers! traditionally served with raie, or skate.
Beurre noisette
lightly browned butter.
Beurre !ierge
whipped butter sauce with salt, pepper, and lemon 2uice.
Biere (en bouteille, a la "ression)
beer (bottled, on tap).
Bibels&,s, bibbels&,se
fresh cheese seasoned with horseradish, herbs, and spices! specialty of
lsace.
Biche
female deer.
Bien cuit(e)
cooked well done.
Biftec&
steak.
Bigarade
orange sauce.
Biggareau
red firm-fleshed variety of cherry.
Bigorneau
periwinkle, tiny sea snail.
Bigoud?ne, ? la
in the style of %igouden, a province in %rittany! (pommes) baked slices of
unpeeled potato! (rag?ut) sausage stewed with bacon and potato.
Biologi'ue
organic.
Bigoud?ne, ? la
in the style of %igouden, a province in %rittany! (pommes) baked slices of
unpeeled potato! (rag?ut) sausage stewed with bacon and potato.
Biscuit ? la cuill?re
ladyfinger.
Bistrotier
bistro owner.
Blanc (de "oireau)
white portion (of leek).
Blanc (de !olaille)
usually breast (of chicken).
Blanc-manger
chilled pudding of almond milk with gelatin.
Blan'uette
classic mild stew of poached veal, lamb, chicken, or seafood, enriched
with an egg and cream white sauce! supposedly a dish for convalescents.
Blette, bette
Swiss chard.
Bleu
)blue)! cooked rare, usually for steak. See also Truite (au bleu).
Bleu d'Au!ergne
a strong, firm and moist, flattened cylinder of blue-veined cheese made
from cow's milk in the uvergne, sold wrapped in foil! still made on some
farms.
Bleu de Bresse
a cylinder of mild blue-veined cow's-milk cheese from the %resse area in
the 7h?ne-lps region! industrially made.
Bleu de -ex
thick, savory blue-veined disc of cow's-milk cheese from the 8ura! made in
only a handful of small dairies in the d?partement of the in.
Bleu des ausses
a firm, pungent, flat cylinder of blue-veined cow's-milk cheese, cured in
cellars similar to those used in making 7o&uefort.
Bouche de .oel
"hristmas cake shaped like a log (b?che), a sponge cake often flavored
with chestnuts and chocolate.
Bar
ocean fish, known as loup on the /editerranean coast, louvine or loubine
in the southwest, and barreau in %rittany! similar to sea bass.
Barbouillade
stuffed eggplant, or an eggplant stew! also, a combination of beans and
artichokes.
Barbue
brill, a flatfish related to turbot, found in the tlantic and the
/editerranean.
Barder
to cover poultry or meat with strips of uncured bacon, to add moisture
while cooking.
Baron
hind&uarters of lamb, including both legs.
Bar'uette
)small boat)! pastry shaped like a small boat.
Basilic
basil.
Bas'uaise, ? la
%as&ue style! usually with ham or tomatoes or red peppers.
Batard, "ain
)bastard bread)! traditional long, thin white loaf, larger than a baguette.
Bata!ia
salad green, a broad, flat-leafed lettuce.
Baton
small white wand of bread, smaller than a baguette.
Batonnet
garnish of vegetables cut into small sticks.
Baba au rhum
sponge cake soaked in rum syrup.
Badiane
star anise.
Baec&eoffe, bae&aoffa, bac&aofa, bac&eno
)baker's oven)! stew of wine, beef, lamb, pork, potatoes, and onions!
specialty of lsace.
Baguette
)wand)! classic long, thin loaf of bread.
Baguette au le!ain or ? l'ancienne
sourdough baguette.
Baie
berry.
Baie rose
pink peppercorn.
Baign
bathed.
Ballotine
usually poultry boned, stuffed, and rolled.
Banane
banana.
Banon
village in the lps of 'rovence, source of dried chestnut leaves
traditionally used to wrap goat cheese, whichwas washed with eau-de-vie
and aged for several months! today refers to various goat's-milk cheese or
mi+ed goat-and cow's-milk cheese from the region, sometimes wrapped in
fresh green or dried brown chestnut leaves and tied with raffia.
Bar
ocean fish, known as loup on the /editerranean coast, louvine or loubine
in the southwest, and barreau in %rittany! similar to sea bass.
Barbouillade
stuffed eggplant, or an eggplant stew! also, a combination of beans and
artichokes.
Barbue
brill, a flatfish related to turbot, found in the tlantic and the
/editerranean.
Barder
to cover poultry or meat with strips of uncured bacon, to add moisture
while cooking.
Baron
hind&uarters of lamb, including both legs.
Bar'uette
)small boat)! pastry shaped like a small boat.
Basilic
basil.
Bas'uaise, ? la
%as&ue style! usually with ham or tomatoes or red peppers.
Bata!ia
salad green, a broad, flat-leafed lettuce.
Baudroie
in 'rovence, the name for monkfish or anglerfish, the large, firm-fleshed
ocean fish also known as lotte and gigot de met, also a specialty of
'rovence, a fish soup that includes potstoes, onions, fresh mushrooms,
garlic, fresh or dried orange $est, artichokes, tomatoes, and herbs.
Ba!aroise
cold dessert! a rich custard made with cream and gelatin.
Ba!ette
skirt steak.
Ba!euse
)drooling)! method of cooking an omelet so that it remains moist and 2uicy.
Beignet
fritter or doughnut.
Beignet de fleur de courgette
batter-fried $ucchini blossom! native to 'rovence and the /editerranean,
now popular all over 3rance.
Belle (elene ("oire)
classic dessert of chilled poached fruit (pear), served on ice cream and
topped with hot chocolate sauce.
Belle!ue, en
classic presentation of whole fish, usually in aspic on a platter.
Belon
river in %rittany identified with a pri$ed flat-shelled (plate) oyster.
Belondines
%rittany creuses, or crinkle-shelled oysters that are affin?es or finished off
in the %elon river.
Bera)ec&a, biere)ec&e, bire)ec&, bire)ec
dense, moist "hristmas fruit bread stuffed with dried pears, figs, and nuts!
specialty of 5aysersberg, a village in lsace.
Bercy
fish stock-based sauce thickened with flour and butter and flavored with
white wine and shallots.
Bergamot (th? a la bergamote)
name for both a variety of orange and of pear! (earl grey tea.).
Berrichonne
garnish of bruised cabbage, gla$ed baby onions, chestnuts, and lean
bacon named for the old province of %erry.
Bettera!e
beet.
Beurre
butter.
Beurre blanc
classic reduced sauce of vinegar! white wine, shallots, and butter
Beurre cru
raw cream butter.
Beurre des harentes
finest 3rench butter, from the region of 'oitou-"harentes along the tlantic
coast.
Beurre du cru
butter given the appellation d'origine contr?l?e pedigree.
Beurre de *ont"ellier
classic butter sauce seasoned with olive oil, herbs, garlic, and anchovies.
Beurre demi-sel
butter (lightly salted).
Beurre des harentes
finest 3rench butter, from the region of 'oitou-"harentes along the tlantic
coast.
Beurre +chir
brand of the finest 3rench butter, preferred by 3rench chefs, with an 6"
pedigree, from the region of 'oitou-"harentes along the tlantic coast.
Beurre noir
sauce of browned butter, lemon 2uice or vinegar, parsley, and sometimes
capers! traditionally served with raie, or skate.
Beurre noisette
lightly browned butter.
Bi?re (en bouteille, ? la "ression)
beer (bottled, on tap).
Bibels&,s, bibbels&,se
fresh cheese seasoned with horseradish, herbs, and spices! specialty of
lsace.
Biche
female deer.
Bien cuit(e)
cooked well done.
Biftec&
steak.
Bigarade
orange sauce.
Biggareau
red firm-fleshed variety of cherry.
Bigorneau
periwinkle, tiny sea snail.
Bigoud?ne, ? la
in the style of %igouden, a province in %rittany! (pommes) baked slices of
unpeeled potato! (rag?ut) sausage stewed with bacon and potato.
Billy Bi, Billy By
cream of mussel soup, specialty of the tlantic coast.
Biologi'ue
organic.
Biscuit ? la cuill?re
ladyfinger.
Bistrotier
bistro owner.
Bl? (noir)
wheat (buckwheat).
Blanc (de "oireau)
white portion (of leek).
Blanc (de !olaille)
usually breast (of chicken).
Blanc-manger
chilled pudding of almond milk with gelatin.
Blan'uette
classic mild stew of poached veal, lamb, chicken, or seafood, enriched
with an egg and cream white sauce! supposedly a dish for convalescents.
Blette, bette
Swiss chard.
Bleu
)blue)! cooked rare, usually for steak. See also Truite (au bleu).
Bleu d'Au!ergne
a strong, firm and moist, flattened cylinder of blue-veined cheese made
from cow's milk in the uvergne, sold wrapped in foil! still made on some
farms.
Bleu de Bresse
a cylinder of mild blue-veined cow's-milk cheese from the %resse area in
the 7h?ne-lps region! industrially made.
Bleu de -ex
thick, savory blue-veined disc of cow's-milk cheese from the 8ura! made in
only a handful of small dairies in the d?partement of the in.
Bleu des ausses
a firm, pungent, flat cylinder of blue-veined cow's-milk cheese, cured in
cellars similar to those used in making 7o&uefort.
Blini
small thick pancake, usually eaten with caviar.
Boeuf ? la ficelle
beef tied with string and poached in broth.
Boeuf ? la mode
beef marinated and braised in red wine, served with carrots, mushrooms,
onions, and turnips.
Boeuf gros sel
boiled beef, served with vegetables and coarse salt.
Boh?mienne, ? la
gypsy style! with rice, tomatoes, onions, sweet peppers, and paprika, in
various combinations.
Boisson (non) com"rise
drink (not) included.
Bolet
type of wild boletus mushroom. See C?pe.
Bombe
molded, layered ice cream dessert.
Bon-chr?tien
)good "hristian)! a variety of pear, also known as poire 9illiam's.
Bonbon
candy or sweet.
Bondon
small cylinder of delicately flavored, mushroomy cow's-milk cheese made
in the 4eufch?tel area in 4ormandy.
Bonite
a tuna, or oceanic bonito.
Bonne femme (cuisine)
meat garnish of bacon, potatoes, mushrooms, and onions! fish garnish of
shallots, parsley, mushrooms, and potatoes! or white wine sauce with
shallots, mushrooms, and lemon 2uice! (home-style cooking).
Bordelaise
%ordeau+ style! also refers to a brown sauce of shallots, red wine, and
bone marrow.
Bouch
)tiny mouthful)! may refer to a bite-si$e pastry or to a vol-au-vent.
Bouchoteur
mussel fisherman! a dish containing mussels.
Boudin
technically, a meat sausage, but generically any sausage-shaped mi+ture.
Boudin blanc
white sausage of veal, chicken, or pork.
Boudin noir
pork blood sausage.
Boudouses
literally, to pout! tiny oysters from %rittany that refuse to grow to normal
si$e! iodine rich and pri$ed.
Bouillabaisse
popular /editerranean fish soup, most closely identified with /arseille,
ideally prepared with the freshest local fish, preferably rockfish.
0raditionally might include do$ens of different fish, but today generally
includes the specifically local rascasse (scorpion fish), Saint-'ierre (8ohn
:ory), fi?la (conger eel), galinette (gurnard or grondin), vive (weever), and
baudroie (monkfish) cooked in a broth of water, olive oil, onions, garlic,
tomatoes, parsley, and saffron. 0he fish is served separately from the
broth, which is poured over garlic-rubbed toast, and seasoned with rouille
which is stirred into the broth. ;aried additions include boiled potatoes,
orange peel, fennel, and shellfish. .+pensive shellfish are often added in
restaurant versions, but this practice is considered inauthentic.
Bouilliture
eel stew with red wine and prunes! specialty of the 'oitou-"harentes on
the tlantic coast.
Bouillon
stock or broth.
Boulang?re, ? la
in the style of the )baker's wife)! meat or poultry baked or braised with
onions and potatoes.
Boule
)ball)! a large round loaf of white bread, also known as a miche.
Boule de Picoulat
meatball from ,anguedoc, combining beef, pork, garlic, and eggs,
traditionally served with cooked white beans.
Boulette d'A!esnes
pepper-and-tarragon-flavored cheese, made from visually defective
/aroilles, formed into a cone, and colored red with paprika! named for
vesnes, a village in the 4orth.
Bouton de culotte
)trouser button)! tiny buttons of goat cheese from the ,yon area!
traditionally made on farms, aged until rock hard and pungent! today found
in many forms, from soft and young to hard and brittle.
Bou'uet
large reddish shrimp. See also Crevette rose.
Bou'uet garni
typically fresh whole parsley bay leaf and thyme tied together with string
and tucked into stews! the package is removed prior to serving.
Bou'ueti?re
garnished with bou&uets of vegetables.
Bourdaloue
hot poached fruit, sometimes wrapped in pastry often served with vanilla
custard! often pear.
Bourgeoise, ? la
with carrots, onions, braised lettuce, celery and bacon.
Bourguignonne, ? la
%urgundy style! often with red wine, onions, mushrooms, and bacon.
Bouribot
spicy red-wine duck stew.
Bourride
a /editerranean fish soup that generally includes a mi+ture of small white
fish, onions, tomatoes, garlic, herbs, and olive oil, thickened with egg yolks
and a?oli (garlic mayonnaise)! there are many variations.
Bourriole
rye flour pancake, both sweet and savory! specialty of the uvergne.
Boutargue, "outargue
salty paste prepared from dried mullet or tuna roe, mashed with oil!
specialty of 'rovence.
Bouton de culotte
)trouser button)! tiny buttons of goat cheese from the ,yon area!
traditionally made on farms, aged until rock hard and pungent! today found
in many forms, from soft and young to hard and brittle.
Br?l?(e)
)burned)! usually refers to carameli$ation.
Br?si (Breuzi)
smoked, salted, and dried beef from the 8ura.
Braiser
to braise! to cook meat by browning in fat, then simmering in covered dish
with small amount of li&uid.
Branche, en
refers to whole vegetables or herbs.
Brandade (de morue)
a warm garlicky pur?e (of salt cod) with milk or cream or oil, and
sometimes mashed potatoes! specialty of 'rovence! currently used to
denote a variety of flavored mashed potato dishes.
Brassado
a doughnut that is boiled, then baked, much like a bagel! specialty of
'rovence.
Brayaude, gigot
leg of lamb studded with garlic, cooked in white wine, and served with red
beans, braised cabbage, or chestnuts.
Brebis (fromage de)
sheep (sheep's-milk cheese).
Bretonne, ? la
in the style of %rittany! a dish served with white beans! or may refer to a
white wine sauce with carrots, leeks, and celery.
Bretzel
a pret$el! specialty of lsace.
Brie de *eaux
)king of cheese,) the flat wheel of cheese made only with raw cow's milk
and aged at least four weeks! from /eau+, 2ust east of 'aris! brie made
with pasteuri$ed milk does not have the right to be called brie de /eau+.
Brie de *elun
smaller than brie de /eau+, another raw-cow's-milk cheese, aged at least
one month, with a crackly rust-colored rind.
Brillat-/a!arin
(<=>>-<?@A) famed gastronome, coiner of food aphorisms, and author of
0he 'hysiology of 0aste! the high-fat, supple cow's-milk cheese from
4ormandy is named for him.
Brioche
buttery egg-enriched yeast bread.
Brocciu
soft, young, sheep's milk cheese from "orsica.
Broche, ? la
spit-roasted.
Brochet(on)
freshwater pike (small pike).
Brochette
cubes of meat or fish and vegetables on a skewer.
Brocoli
broccoli.
Brouet
old term for soup.
Brouill?(s)
scrambled, usually eggs.
Brouillade
a mi+ture of ingredients as in a stew or soup! also, scrambled eggs.
Brousse
a very fresh and unsalted (thus bland) sheep's- or goat's-milk cheese, not
unlike #talian ricotta! specialty of 4ice and /arseille.
Broutard
young goat.
Brugnon
nectarine.
Brunoise
tiny diced vegetables.
Brut
very dry or sugarless, particularly in reference to "hampagne.
Buccin
large sea snail or whelk, also called bulot.
Buffet froid
variety of dishes served cold, sometimes from a buffet.
Bugne
deep-fried yeast-dough fritter or doughnut dusted with confectioner's
sugar! popular in and around ,yon before .aster.
Buisson
)bush)! generally a dish including vegetables arranged like a bush!
classically a crayfish presentation.
Bulot
large sea snail or whelk, also called buccin.
Buron
traditional hut where cheese is made in the uvergne mountains.
ab?cou(s)
small, round goat's-milk cheese from the southwest, sometimes made with
a mi+ of goat's and cow's milk.
abillaud
fresh codfish, also currently called morue, known as doguette in the 4orth,
bakalua in the %as&ue region, eglefin in 'rovence.
abri
young goat.
acahou?te, cacahouette, cacachu?te
prepared peanut-roasted, dry roasted, or salted. raw peanut is arachide.
acao
cocoa! powdered cocoa.
achat
a very strong goat cheese! generally a blend of various ends of leftover
cheese, mi+ed with seasonings that might include salt, pepper, brandy and
garlic, and aged in a crock! specialty of 'rovence.
aen, ? la mode de
in the style of "aen, a town in 4ormandy! a dish cooked in "alvados and
white wine andBor cider.
af
coffee, as well as a type of eating place where coffee is served.
allong?( weakened espresso, often served with a small pitcher of
hot water so clients may thin the coffee themselves.
au lait or cr?me( espresso with warmed or steamed milk.
d?ca or d?caf?in?( decaffeinated coffee.
express( plain black espresso.
faux( decaffeinated coffee.
filtre( filtered merican-style coffee (not available at all caf?s).
glac?( iced coffee.
li?geois( iced coffee served with ice cream (optional) and whipped
cream! also coffee ice cream with whipped cream.
noir( plain black espresso.
noisette( espresso with tiny amount of milk.
serr?( e+tra-strong espresso, made with half the normal amount of
water.
See also Coffee Glossary
af?ine
caffeine.
agouille
on the tlantic coast, name for small petit gris land snail, or escargot.
aill
clotted or curdled! curds of milk.
aille
&uail.
aillette
round pork sausage including chopped spinach or Swiss chard, garlic,
onions, parsley, bread, and egg and wrapped in cr?pine (caul fat)! served
hot or cold! specialty of northern 'rovence.
aisse
cash register! or cash desk.
aissette
literally, )small bo+)! bread, brioche, or chocolate shaped like a small bo+.
ajasse
a sort of clafoutis from the :ordogne, made with black cherries.
ajou
cashew nut.
alisson d'Aix
:elicate, diamond-shaped 'roven?al sweet prepared with almonds,
candied oranges, melon or abricots, egg white, sugar, and confiture of
oranges or apricots.
almar
small s&uid, similar to encornet! with interior transparent cartilage instead
of a bone. lso called chipiron in the southwest.
al!ados
a d?partement in 4ormandy known for the famed apple brandy.
amembert (de .ormandie)
village in 4ormandy that gives its name to a supple, fragrant cheese made
of cow's milk.
amomille
camomile, herb tea.
am"agnard(e) (assiette)
country-style, rustic! (an informal buffet of cold meats, terrines, etc.).
am"agne, ? la
country-style.
anada
cooking apple.
anard sau!age
wild duck, usually mallard.
ana"
originally a slice of crustless bread! now also used to refer to a variety of
hors d'oeuvre consisting of toasted or fried bread, spread with forcemeat,
cheese, and other flavorings.
anard
duck.
anard ? la "resse
roast duck served with a sauce of 2uices obtained from pressing the
carcass, combined with red wine and "ognac.
ancoillotte
spreadable cheese from the 8ura! usually blended with milk, spices, or
white wine when served.
aneton
young male duck.
anette
young female duck.
annelle
cinnamon.
annois, ? la
in the style of "annes.
anon
the marrow bone
antal
large cylindrical cheese made in the uvergne from shredded and pressed
curds of cow's milk.
antalon
smaller version of "antal.
antalou"
cantaloupe melon.
a"ilotade
basically any leftover meat or poultry cooked to tenderness in a well-
reduced sauce.
a"re
caper.
a"ucine
nasturtium! the leaves and flowers are used in salads.
ara?bes
"aribbean, usually denotes chocolate from the "aribbean.
arafe (d'eau)
pitcher (of tap water). Couse wine is often offered in a carafe. full carafe
contains one liter! a demi-carafe contains half a liter! a &uart contains one-
fourth of a liter.
aramelis
cooked with high heat to brown the sugar and heighten flavor.
arbonnade
braised beef stew prepared with beer and onions! specialty of the 4orth!
also refers to a cut of beef.
ardamome
cardamon.
arde
white rib, or stalk, portion of Swiss chard.
ardon
cardoon! large celery-like vegetable in the artichoke family, popular in
,yon, 'rovence, and the /editerranean area.
argolade
a copious mi+ed grill of snails, lamb, pork sausage, and sometimes blood
sausage, cooked over vine clippings! specialty of "atalan, an area of
southern ,anguedoc.
arotte
carrot.
ar"e
carp.
ar"e ? la jui!e
braised marinated carp in aspic.
arr? d'agneau
rack (ribs) or loin of lamb! also crown roast.
arr? de "ort
rack (ribs) or loin of pork! also crown roast.
arr? de !eau
rack (ribs) or loin of veal! also crown roast.
arrelet
see 'laice.
arte "romotionelle or conseill
a simple and ine+pensive fi+ed-price meal.
arte, ? la
menu (dishes, which are charged for individually, selected from a
restaurant's full list of offerings).
ar!i (grain de)
caraway (seed).
ary
curry.
asher
kosher.
asse-cro?te
)break bread)! slang for snack.
asseron
cuttlefish.
assis (cr?me de)
black currant (black currant li&ueur).
assolette
usually a dish presented in a small casserole.
assonade
soft brown sugar! demerara sugar.
assoulet
popular southwestern casserole of white beans, including various
combinations of sausages, duck, pork, lamb, mutton, and goose.
a!aillon
a town in 'rovence, known for its small, flavorful orange-fleshed melons.
a!iar d'aubergine
cold seasoned eggplant puree.
a!iar du Puy
green lentils from ,e 'uy, in the uvergne.
ebiche
seviche! generally raw fish marinated in lime 2uice and other seasonings.
ebette
a mild, leek-like vegetable, sliced and eaten raw, in salads! native to
'rovence, but seen occasionally outside the region.
eleri (en branche)
celery (stalk).
eleri remoulade
popular first-course bistro dish of shredded celery root with tangy
mayonnaise.
eleri-ra!e
celeriac, celery root.
ote d'agneau
lamb chop.
ote de boeuf
beef blade or rib steak.
ab?cou(s)
small, round goat's-milk cheese from the southwest, sometimes made with
a mi+ of goat's and cow's milk.
abillaud
fresh codfish, also currently called morue, known as doguette in the 4orth,
bakalua in the %as&ue region, eglefin in 'rovence.
abri
young goat.
acahou?te, cacahouette, cacachu?te
prepared peanut-roasted, dry roasted, or salted. raw peanut is arachide.
achat
a very strong goat cheese! generally a blend of various ends of leftover
cheese, mi+ed with seasonings that might include salt, pepper, brandy and
garlic, and aged in a crock! specialty of 'rovence.
af
coffee, as well as a type of eating place where coffee is served.
allong?( weakened espresso, often served with a small pitcher of
hot water so clients may thin the coffee themselves.
au lait or cr?me( espresso with warmed or steamed milk.
d?ca or d?caf?in?( decaffeinated coffee.
express( plain black espresso.
faux( decaffeinated coffee.
filtre( filtered merican-style coffee (not available at all caf?s).
glac?( iced coffee.
li?geois( iced coffee served with ice cream (optional) and whipped
cream! also coffee ice cream with whipped cream.
noir( plain black espresso.
noisette( espresso with tiny amount of milk.
serr?( e+tra-strong espresso, made with half the normal amount of
water.
See also Coffee Glossary
af?ine
caffeine.
amembert (de .ormandie)
village in 4ormandy that gives its name to a supple, fragrant cheese made
of cow's milk.
arafe (d'eau)
pitcher (of tap water). Couse wine is often offered in a carafe. full carafe
contains one liter! a demi-carafe contains half a liter! a &uart contains one-
fourth of a liter.
ara?bes
"aribbean, usually denotes chocolate from the "aribbean.
arbonnade
braised beef stew prepared with beer and onions! specialty of the 4orth!
also refers to a cut of beef.
asher
kosher.
a!iar d'aubergine
cold seasoned eggplant puree.
?bette
a mild, leek-like vegetable, sliced and eaten raw, in salads! native to
'rovence, but seen occasionally outside the region.
ebiche
seviche! generally raw fish marinated in lime 2uice and other seasonings.
edrat
a variety of /editerranean lemon.
eleri-ra!e
celeriac, celery root.
eleri remoulade
popular first-course bistro dish of shredded celery root with tangy
mayonnaise.
e"e
large, meaty wild boletus mushroom.
ereale
cereal.
erf
stag, or male deer.
erfeuil
chervil.
halutier
trawler! any flat fish caught with a trawl.
ham"?tre
rustic! describes a simple presentation of a variety of ingredients.
ham"ignon
mushroom.
? la bague( parasol mushroom with a delicate flavor! also called
coulemelle, cocherelle, and grisotte.
de bois( wild mushroom, from the woods.
de Paris( most common cultivated mushroom.
sauvage( wild mushroom.
ham"!allon, c?telette d'agneau
traditional dish of lamb chops baked in alternating layers of potatoes and
onions! named for a village in northern %urgundy.
hanterelle
pri$ed pale orange wild mushroom! also called girolle.
hantilly
sweetened whipped cream.
haource
soft and fruity cylindrical cow's-milk cheese, with a >D percent fat content!
takes its name from a village in "hampagne.
ha"eau
)hat)! small round loaf, topped with a little dough hat.
ha"elure
bread crumbs.
ha"on
capon, or castrated chicken.
ha"on de mer
/editerranean fish, in the rascasse or scorpion-fish family.
harbon de bois, au
charcoal-grilled.
harentais
variety of sweet cantaloupe, or melon, originally from the "harentes, on
the tlantic coast.
harlotte
classic dessert in which a dish is lined with ladyfingers, filled with custard
or other filling, and served cold! in the hot version, the dish is lined with
crustless white bread saut?ed in butter, filled with fruit compote and
baked. lso a potato variety.
harolais
area of %urgundy! light colored cattle producing high-&uality beef! also,
firm white cylinder of cheese made with goat's or cow's milk, or a mi+ture
of the two.
hartreuse
dish of braised partridge and cabbage! also herb and spiced-based li&ueur
made by the "hartreuse monks in the Savoie.
hasseur
hunter! also, sauce with white wine, mushrooms, shallots, tomatoes, and
herbs.
hateaubriand
thick filet steak, traditionally served with saut?ed potatoes and a sauce of
white wine, dark beef stock, butter, shallots, and herbs, or with a b?
arnaise sauce.
haud(e)
hot or warm.
haud-froid
)hot-cold)! cooked poultry dish served cold, usually covered with a cooked
sauce, then with aspic.
haudr
tlantic fish stew, often including sole, skate, small eels, potatoes, butter,
white wine, and seasoning.
hausson
a filled pastry turnover, sweet or savory.
hemise, en
wrapped with pastry.
he!al
horse, horse meat.
he!eux d'ange
)angel's hair)! thin vermicelli pasta.
he!reau
young goat.
he!reuil
young roe buck or roe deer! venison.
h?!re (fromage de)
goat (goat's-milk cheese).
he!rier
small, pale green, dried kidney-shaped bean, a type of flageolet.
he!re (fromage de)
goat (goat's-milk cheese).
haud-froid
)hot-cold)! cooked poultry dish served cold, usually covered with a cooked
sauce, then with aspic.
hicons du .ord
%elgian endive.
hicor?e (fris?e)
a bitter salad green (curly endive)! also chicory, a coffee substitute.
"hicor?e de %ru+elles
%elgian endive.
hiffonnade
shredded herbs and vegetables, usually green.
hinchard
also called saurel, scad or horse mackerel! tlantic and /editerranean fish
similar to mackerel.
hi"iron (? l'encre)
southwestern name for small s&uid, or encornet (in its own ink).
hi"s, "ommes
potato chips.
horon, sauce
b?arnaise sauce with tomatoes.
hou de Bruxelles
brussels sprout.
hou de mer
sea kale.
hou de *ilan
Savoy cabbage.
hou rouge
red cabbage.
hou !ert
curly green Savoy cabbage.
hou-fleur
cauliflower.
hou-na!et
rutabaga.
hou-ra!e
kohlrabi.
houcroute (nou!elle)
sauerkraut (the season's first batch of sauerkraut, still crunchy and slightly
acidic)! also main dish of sauerkraut, various sausages, bacon, and pork,
served with potatoes! specialty of lsace and brasseries all over 3rance.
houx, "?te
cream pastry dough.
?teau(x)
small ocean fish, solette or baby sole, found in the gulf of -ascony and
along the tlantic coast.
?teaux
creamy, ample disc of cow's-milk cheese with a rust-colored rind made by
the "istercian monks at the bbaye de "?teau+ in %urgundy.
?leri (en branche)
celery (stalk).
endre (sous la)
ash (cooked by being buried in embers)! some cheeses made in wine-
producing regions are aged in the ash of burned rootstocks.
erdon
%ubbly (p?tillant) wine (red or white?) from the %ugey.
erise
cherry.
erise noire
black cherry.
erneau
walnut meat.
er!elas
garlicky cured pork sausage! now also refers to fish and seafood sausage.
er!elle de canut
a soft, fresh herbed cheese known as )silkworker's brains)! specialty of
,yon.
er!elle(s)
brain(s), of calf or lamb.
ham"ignon
mushroom.
? la bague( parasol mushroom with a delicate flavor! also called
coulemelle, cocherelle, and grisotte.
de bois( wild mushroom, from the woods.
de Paris( most common cultivated mushroom.
sauvage( wild mushroom.
ham"!allon, c?telette d'agneau
traditional dish of lamb chops baked in alternating layers of potatoes and
onions! named for a village in northern %urgundy.
harbon de bois, au
charcoal-grilled.
h?telaine, ? la
elaborate garnish of artichoke hearts and chestnut pur?e, braised lettuce,
and saut?ed potatoes.
h?!re (fromage de)
goat (goat's-milk cheese).
halutier
trawler! any flat fish caught with a trawl.
ham"?tre
rustic! describes a simple presentation of a variety of ingredients.
ham"ignon
mushroom.
? la bague( parasol mushroom with a delicate flavor! also called
coulemelle, cocherelle, and grisotte.
de bois( wild mushroom, from the woods.
de Paris( most common cultivated mushroom.
sauvage( wild mushroom.
ham"!allon, c?telette d'agneau
traditional dish of lamb chops baked in alternating layers of potatoes and
onions! named for a village in northern %urgundy.
hanterelle
pri$ed pale orange wild mushroom! also called girolle.
hantilly
sweetened whipped cream.
haource
soft and fruity cylindrical cow's-milk cheese, with a >D percent fat content!
takes its name from a village in "hampagne.
ha"eau
)hat)! small round loaf, topped with a little dough hat.
ha"elure
bread crumbs.
ha"on
capon, or castrated chicken.
ha"on de mer
/editerranean fish, in the rascasse or scorpion-fish family.
harbon de bois, au
charcoal-grilled.
harentais
variety of sweet cantaloupe, or melon, originally from the "harentes, on
the tlantic coast.
harlotte
classic dessert in which a dish is lined with ladyfingers, filled with custard
or other filling, and served cold! in the hot version, the dish is lined with
crustless white bread saut?ed in butter, filled with fruit compote and
baked. lso a potato variety.
harolais
area of %urgundy! light colored cattle producing high-&uality beef! also,
firm white cylinder of cheese made with goat's or cow's milk, or a mi+ture
of the two.
hartreuse
dish of braised partridge and cabbage! also herb and spiced-based li&ueur
made by the "hartreuse monks in the Savoie.
hasseur
hunter! also, sauce with white wine, mushrooms, shallots, tomatoes, and
herbs.
hateaubriand
thick filet steak, traditionally served with saut?ed potatoes and a sauce of
white wine, dark beef stock, butter, shallots, and herbs, or with a b?
arnaise sauce.
haud(e)
hot or warm.
haud-froid
)hot-cold)! cooked poultry dish served cold, usually covered with a cooked
sauce, then with aspic.
haudr
tlantic fish stew, often including sole, skate, small eels, potatoes, butter,
white wine, and seasoning.
hausson
a filled pastry turnover, sweet or savory.
hemise, en
wrapped with pastry.
hou de Bruxelles
brussels sprout.
he!al
horse, horse meat.
he!eux d'ange
)angel's hair)! thin vermicelli pasta.
he!reau- young goat.
he!reuil
young roe buck or roe deer! venison.
he!rier
small, pale green, dried kidney-shaped bean, a type of flageolet.
iboule
spring onion, or scallion.
iboulette
chives.
hichi
doughnut-like, deep-fried bread spirals sprinkled with sugar! often sold
from trucks at open-air markets! specialty of 'rovence and the
/editerranean.
hicons du .ord
%elgian endive.
hicor?e (fris?e)
a bitter salad green (curly endive)! also chicory, a coffee substitute.
"hicor?e de %ru+elles
%elgian endive.
hiffonnade
shredded herbs and vegetables, usually green.
hinchard
also called saurel, scad or horse mackerel! tlantic and /editerranean fish
similar to mackerel.
hi"iron (? l'encre)
southwestern name for small s&uid, or encornet (in its own ink).
hi"olata
small sausage.
hi"s, "ommes
potato chips.
hocolat
chocolate.
amer( bittersweet chocolate, with very little sugar.
au lait( milk chocolate.
chaud( hot chocolate.
mi-amer( bittersweet chocolate, with more sugar than chocolat
amer.
noir( used interchangeably with chocolat amer.
hoix, au
a choice! usually meaning one may choose from several offerings.
horizo
highly spiced Spanish sausage.
horon, sauce
b?arnaise sauce with tomatoes.
hou
cabbage.
hou de Bruxelles
brussels sprout.
hou de mer
sea kale.
hou de *ilan
Savoy cabbage.
hou fris
kale.
hou rouge
red cabbage.
hou !ert
curly green Savoy cabbage.
hou-fleur
cauliflower.
hou-na!et
rutabaga.
hou-ra!e
kohlrabi.
houcas
2ackdaw! .uropean blackbird, like a crow, but smaller.
houcroute (nou!elle)
sauerkraut (the season's first batch of sauerkraut, still crunchy and slightly
acidic)! also main dish of sauerkraut, various sausages, bacon, and pork,
served with potatoes! specialty of lsace and brasseries all over 3rance.
houx, "?te
cream pastry dough.
iboule
spring onion, or scallion.
iboulette
chives.
idre
bottled, mildly alcoholic cider, either apple or pear.
igale de mer
)sea cricket)! tender, crayfish-like, blunt-nosed rock lobster.
itron, orange, or "am"lemousse "ress?(e
lemon, orange, or grapefruit 2uice served with a carafe of tap water and
sugar! for sweetening to taste.
itron !ert
lime.
itronnelle
lemon grass, an oriental herb! also lemon balm (m?lisse).
itrouille
pumpkin, gourd. lso called courge, potiron, potimarron.
i!e
spring onion.
i!elle
spaghetti-like baby eel, also called pibale.
i!et
stew, usually of game traditionally thickened with blood.
i!et de li?!re
2ugged hare, or wild rabbit stew.
i!et de tri"es d'oies
a stew of goose innards, saut?ed in fat with onions, shallots, and garlic,
then cooked in wine vinegar and diluted with water, and thickened with
goose blood! from -ascony.
itron
lemon.
itron !ert
lime.
itron, orange, or "am"lemousse "ress?(e
lemon, orange, or grapefruit 2uice served with a carafe of tap water and
sugar! for sweetening to taste.
itronnelle
lemon grass, an oriental herb! also lemon balm (m?lisse).
itrouille
pumpkin, gourd. lso called courge, potiron, potimarron.
i!e
spring onion.
i!elle
spaghetti-like baby eel, also called pibale.
i!et
stew, usually of game traditionally thickened with blood.
i!et de li?!re
2ugged hare, or wild rabbit stew.
i!et de tri"es d'oies
a stew of goose innards, saut?ed in fat with onions, shallots, and garlic,
then cooked in wine vinegar and diluted with water, and thickened with
goose blood! from -ascony.
houx, "?te
cream pastry dough.
idre
bottled, mildly alcoholic cider, either apple or pear.
igale de mer
)sea cricket)! tender, crayfish-like, blunt-nosed rock lobster.
itron
lemon.
itron !ert
lime.
itronnelle
lemon grass, an oriental herb! also lemon balm (m?lisse).
itrouille
pumpkin, gourd. lso called courge, potiron, potimarron.
i!e
spring onion.
i!elle
spaghetti-like baby eel, also called pibale.
i!et
stew, usually of game traditionally thickened with blood.
i!et de li?!re
2ugged hare, or wild rabbit stew.
i!et de tri"es d'oies
a stew of goose innards, saut?ed in fat with onions, shallots, and garlic, then
cooked in wine vinegar and diluted with water, and thickened with goose blood!
from -ascony.
l?mentine
small tangerine, from /orocco or Spain.
lafoutis
traditional custard tart, usually made with black cherries! specialty of the
southwest.
laire
oyster! also a designation given to certain oysters to indicate they have
been put in claires, or oyster beds in salt marshes, where they are
fattened up for several months before going to market.
lamart
'aris suburb once famous for its green peas! today a garnish of peas.
lout
studded with.
lo!isse
variety of very tiny clam, generally from the /editerranean.
ocherelle
parasol mushroom with a delicate flavor! also called champignon ? la
bague, coulemelle, and grisotte.
ochon (de lait)
pig (suckling).
ochonnaille(s)
pork product(s), usually an assortment of sausages andBor p?t?s served
as a first course.
oco blanc (rouge)
type of small white (red) shell bean, both fresh and dried, popular in
'rovence, where it is a traditional ingredient of the vegetable soupe au
pistou! also, coconut.
oco de Paim"ol
"ream-colored shell bean striated with purple, from %rittany, in season
from 8uly to 4ovember! the first bean in 3rance to receive 6".
ocotte
a high-sided cooking pot (casserole) with a lid! a small ramekin dish for
baking and serving eggs and other preparations.
oeur
heart.
oeur de filet
thickest (and best) part of beef filet, usually cut into chateaubriand steaks.
oeur de "almier
delicate shoots of the palm tree, generally served with a vinaigrette as an
hors d'oeuvre.
offre
)chest)! refers to the body of a lobster or other crustacean, or of a
butchered animal.
oiffe
traditional lacy hat! sausage patty wrapped in caul fat.
oing
&uince.
olbert
method of preparing fish, coating with egg and bread crumbs and then
frying.
ol !ert
wild ()green-collared)) mallard duck.
ol?re, en
)anger)! method of presenting fish in which the tail is inserted in the
mouth, so it appears agitated.
olbert
method of preparing fish, coating with egg and bread crumbs and then
frying.
olin
hake, ocean fish related to cod! known as merluche in the 4orth,
merluchon in %rittany, bardot or merlan along the /editerranean.
olombe
dove.
olombo
mi+ture of spices, like a curry powder, used to season shellfish, meat or
poultry. ,ike curry, the mi+ may vary, but usually contains tumeric, rice
powder, coriander, pepper, cumin and fenugreek.
olza
rape, a plant of the mustard family, colorful yellow field crop grown
throughout 3rance, usually pressed into vegetable (rapeseed) oil.
ommander a!ant le re"as,
a selection of desserts that should be ordered when selecting first and
main courses, as they re&uire longer cooking.
om"let
filled up, with no more room for customers.
om"ote
stewed fresh or dried fruit.
om"otier
fruit bowl! also stewed ftuit.
om"ris
see Service (non) compris.
omt
large wheel of cheese of cooked and pressed cow's milk! the best is made
of raw milk and aged for si+ months, still made by independent
cheesemakers in the 8ura mountains.
oncass
coarsely chopped.
oncombre
cucumber.
onf?rence
a variety of pear.
onfiserie
candy, sweet, or confection! a candy shop.
onfit
a preserve, generally pieces of duck, goose, or pork cooked and
preserved in their own fat! also fruit or vegetables preserved in sugar!
alcohol, or vinegar.
onfiture
2am.
onfiture de !ieux gar?on
varied fresh fruits macerated in alcohol.
ongeler
to free$e.
ongre
conger eel! a large ocean fish resembling a freshwater eel (anguille
onseill
advised, recommended.
onsomm
clear soup.
onsommation(s)
)consumption)! drinks, meals, and snacks available in a cafe or bar.
ontre-filet
cut of sirloin taken above the loin on either side of the backbone, tied for
roasting or braising (can also be cut for grilling).
on!ersation
puff pastry tart with sugar gla$ing and an almond or cream filling
o"eau(x)
shaving(s), such as from chocolate, cheese, or vegetables.
o' (au !in)
mature male chicken (stewed in wine sauce).
o' au !in jaune
chicken cooked in the sherry-like vin 2aune of the region, with cream,
butter! and tarragon, often garnished with morels! specialty of the 8ura.
o' de bruy?re
wood grouse.
o'ue
cockle, a tiny, mild-flavored, clam-like shellfish.
o'ue, ? la
served in a shell. See 6euf ? la co&ue.
o'uelet
young male chicken.
o'uillage(s)
shellfish.
o'uille
shell.
o'uille /aint-0ac'ues
sea scallop.
orail
coral-colored egg sac, found in scallops, spiny lobster, and crayfish.
orb
a /editerranean bluefish.
oriandre
coriander! either the fresh herb or dried seeds.
orne d'abondance
)horn of plenty)! dark brown wild mushroom, also called trompette de la
mort.
ornet
cornet-shaped! usually refers to foods rolled conically! also an ice cream cone,
and a conical pastry filled with cream.
ornichon
gherkin! tiny tart cucumber pickle.
?telette
thin chop or cutlet.
?!enole, ? la
"evennes style! garnished with chestnuts or mushrooms.
otriade
a fish stew, usually including mackerel, whiting, conger eel, sorrel, butter,
potatoes, and vinegar! specialty of %rittany.
ou d'oie (de canard) farci
neck skin of goose (of duck), stuffed with meat and spices, much like
sausage.
oulant
refers to runny cheese.
oulemelle
parasol mushroom with a delicate flavor! also called champignon ? la
bague, cocherelle, and grisotte.
oulibiac
classic, elaborate, hot 7ussian p?t?, usually layers of salmon, rice, hard-
cooked eggs, mushrooms, and onions, wrapped in brioche.
oulis
pur?e of raw or cooked vegetables or fruit.
oulommiers
town in the #le-de-3rance that gives its name to a supple, fragrant disc of
cow's-milk cheese, slightly larger than "amembert.
ourge (muscade)
generic term for s&uash or gourd (bright orange pumpkin).
ourgette
$ucchini.
ouronne
)crown)! ring or circle, usually of bread.
ourt-bouillon
broth, or aromatic poaching li&uid.
ouscous
granules of semolina, or hard wheat flour! also refers to a hearty 4orth
frican dish that includes the steamed grain, broth, vegetables, meats, hot
sauce, and sometimes chickpeas and raisins.
outeau
ra$or clam.
ou!ert
a place setting, including dishes, silver, glassware, and linen.
ou!erture
bittersweet chocolate high in cocoa butter! used for making the shiniest
chocolates.
r?cy
a dish garnished with carrots.
r?mant
sparkling wine.
r?me
cream.
aigre( sour cream.
anglaise( light egg-custard cream.
brulee( rich custard dessert with a top of carameli$ed sugar.
caramel( vanilla custard with caramel sauce.
catalane( creamy anise flavored custard from the southern
,anguedoc.
chantilly( sweetened whipped cream.
?paisse( thick cream.
fleurette( li&uid heavy cream.
fouett?e( whipped cream.
fra?che( thick sour! heavy cream.
p?tissi?re( custard filling for pastries and cakes.
plombi?res( custard filled with fresh fruits and egg whites.
r?"e
thin pancake.
r?"es /uzette
hot cr?pe dessert flamed with orange li&ueur.
r?"ine
caul fat.
r?"inette
traditionally, a small sausage patty wrapped in caul fat! today boned
poultry wrapped in caul fat.
r?te (de co')
(cocks) comb.
rabe
crab.
rambe
sea kale, or chou de mer.
rami'ue
brioche with raisins or currants! specialty of the 4orth.
ra"audine
preparation of grilled poultry or game bird with backbone removed.
ra'uant
crunchy.
ra'uelot
smoked herring.
resson(ade)
watercress (watercress sauce).
reuse
elongated, crinkle-shelled oyster.
re!ette
shrimp.
re!ette grise
tiny soft-fleshed shrimp that turns gray when cooked.
re!ette rose
small firm-fleshed shrimp that turns red when cooked! when large, called
bou&uet.
ri'ue
potato pancake from the uvergne.
riste marine
edible algae.
ro?te (en)
crust! (in) pastry.
ro?te de sel (en)
(in) a salt crust.
ro?tons
small cubes of toasted or fried bread.
ro'ue au sel, ? la
served raw, with a small bowl of coarse salt for seasoning! tiny purple
artichokes and cherry tomatoes are served this way.
ro'ue-madame
open-face sandwich of ham and cheese with an egg grilled on top.
ro'ue-monsieur
toasted ham and cheese sandwich.
ro'uembouche
chou+ pastry rounds filled with cream and coated with a sugar gla$e, often
served in a conical tower at special events.
ro'uette
ground meat, fish, fowl, or vegetables bound with eggs or sauce, shaped
into various forms, usually coated in bread crumbs, and deep fried.
rosne
small, unusual tuber! with a subtle artichoke-like flavor! known as a
"hinese or 8apanese artichoke.
rottin de ha!ignol
small flattened ball of goat's-milk cheese from the ,oire valley."roustade
usually small pastry-wrapped dish! also regional southwestern pastry filled
with prunes andBor apples.
ru
raw.
rudit
raw vegetable.
rustac?(s)
crustacean(s).
uilli?re (? la)
(to be eaten with a) spoon.
uisse (de "oulet)
leg or thigh (chicken drumstick).
uissot, cuisseau
haunch of veal, venison, or wild boar.
uit(e)
cooked.
ul
haunch or rear! usually of red meat.
ulotte
rump, usually of beef.
ulti!ateur
)truck farmer)! fresh vegetable soup.
urcuma
turmeric.
ure-dent
toothpick.
1
diced pieces.
1amier
)checkerboard)! arrangement of vegetables or other ingredients in
alternating colors like a checkerboard! also, a cake with such a pattern of
light and dark pieces.
1ariole
truncated cone or oval-shaped baking mold.
1arne
a rectangular portion of fish filet! also a fish steak, usually of salmon.
1artois
puff pastry rectangles layered with an almond cream filling as a dessert, or
stuffed with meat or fish as an hors-d'oeuvre.
1atte (de mer)
date (date-shaped pri$ed wild /editerranean mussel).
1aube
a stew, usually of beef lamb, or mutton, with red wine, onions, andBor
tomatoes! specialty of many regions, particularly 'roven?e and the
tlantic coast.
1au"hin
cow's-milk cheese shaped like a dauphin, or dolphin! from the 4orth.
1aurade
sea bream, similar to porgy, the most pri$ed of a group of ocean fish
known as dorade.
1ecaf?in? or d?ca
decaffeinated coffee.
1?corti'u?(e)
shelled or peeled.
1ejeuner
lunch.
1emi
half! also, an ?-ounce (@>D ml) glass of beer! also, a half-bottle of wine.
1emi-deuil
)in half mourning)! poached (usually chicken) with sliced truffles inserted
under the skin! also, sweetbreads with a truffled white sauce.
1emi-glace
concentrated beef-based sauce lightened with consomm?, or a lighter
brown sauce.
1emi-sec
usually refers to goat cheese that is in the intermediate aging stage
between one e+treme of soft and fresh and the other e+treme of hard and
aged.
1emi-sel (buerre)
lightly salted (butter).
1emi-tasse
small cup! after-dinner coffee cup.
1emoiselle de canard
marinated raw duck tenderloin! also called mignon de canard.
1emoiselles de herbourg
small lobsters from the town of "herbourg in 4ormandy, cooked in a court-
bouillon and served in cooking 2uices. lso, restaurant name for %reton
lobsters weighing EDD to FDD grams (<D to <E ounces).
1ent, dent
one of a generic group of /editerranean fish known as dorade, similar to
porgy.
1entelle
)lace)! a portion of meat or fish so thinly sliced as to suggest a
resemblance. lso, large lace-thin sweet cr?pe.
1ents-de-lion
dandelion salad green! also called pissenlit.
1iable
)devil)! method of preparing poultry with a peppery sauce, often mustard-
based. lso, a round pottery casserole.
1ie""oise
:ieppe style! usually white wine, mussels, shrimp, mushrooms, and
cream.
1igestif
general term for spirits served after dinner! such as rmagnac, "ognac,
marc, eau-de-vie.
1?ner
dinner! to dine.
1?gustation
tasting or sampling.
1emi-glace
concentrated beef-based sauce lightened with consomm?, or a lighter
brown sauce.
1emoiselles de herbourg
small lobsters from the town of "herbourg in 4ormandy, cooked in a court-
bouillon and served in cooking 2uices. lso, restaurant name for %reton
lobsters weighing EDD to FDD grams (<D to <E ounces).
1igestif
general term for spirits served after dinner! such as rmagnac, "ognac,
marc, eau-de-vie.
1ijonnaise
:i2on style! usually with mustard.
1inde
turkey hen.
1indon(neau)
turkey (young turkey).
1?ner
dinner! to dine.
1iot
pork sausage cooked in wine, often served with a potato gratin! specialty
of the Savoie.
1iscr?tion,
on menus usually refers to wine, which may be consumed--without limit--
at the customers discretion.
1?soss
boned.
1odine
cold stuffed boned poultry.
1or
browned until golden.
1orade
generic name for group of ocean fish, the most pri$ed of which is daurade,
similar to porgy.
1os
back! also the meatiest portion of fish.
1oucette
see /?che.
1ouceur
sweet or dessert.
1ouillon, duillon
a whole pear wrapped and cooked in pastry! specialty of 4ormandy.
1oux, douce
sweet.
1oyenn? de omice
a variety of pear.
1ugl?r
white flour-based sauce with shallots, white wine, tomatoes, and parsley.
1ur (oeuf)
hard (hard-cooked egg).
1uxelles
minced mushrooms and shallots saut?ed in butter, then mi+ed with cream.
+au
water.
+au de source
spring water.
+au du robinet
tap water.
+au gazeuse
carbonated water.
+au min?rale
mineral water.
+au-de-!ie
literally, )water of life)! brandy, usually fruit-based.
+chalote (gris)
shallot (pri$ed purplish shallot) elongated.
+chalote banane
banana-shaped onion.
+chine
sparerib.
+clade de moules
mussels roasted beneath a fire of pine needles! specialty of the tlantic
coast.
+cras
crushed! with fruit, pressed to release 2uice.
+cre!isse
freshwater crayfish.
+ffiloch
frayed, shredded.
+glantine
wild rose 2am! specialty of lsace.
+glefin, ?grefin, aiglefin
small fresh haddock, a type of cod.
+lze&aria
soup made with green beans, cabbage, and garlic! specialty of the
%as&ue region.
+mbeurr? de chou
buttery cooked cabbage.
+minc
thin slice, usually of meat.
+mmental
large wheel of cooked and pressed cow's-milk cheese, very mild in flavor,
with large interior holes! made in large commercial dairies in the 8ura.
+mond
skinned by blanching, such as almonds, tomatoes.
+nchaud
pork filet with garlic! specialty of :ordogne.
+ncornet
small ille+ s&uid, also called calmar! in %as&ue region called chipiron.
+ncre
s&uid ink.
+ndi!e
%elgian endive! also chicory salad green.
+ntier, enti?re
whole, entire.
+ntr
first course.
+ntremets
dessert.
+"ais(se)
thick.
+"aule
shoulder (of veal, lamb, mutton, or pork).
+ntrec?te ma?tre d'h?tel
beef rib steak with sauce of red wine and shallots.
+"erlan
smelt or whitebait, usually fried, often imported but still found in the
estuaries of the ,oire.
+"i de ma
ear of sweet corn.
+"ice
spice.
+"igramme
classic dish of grilled breaded lamb chop and a piece of braised lamb
breast shaped like a chop, breaded, and grilled! crops up on modern
menus as an elegant dish of breaded and fried baby lamb chops paired
with lamb sweetbreads and tongue.
+"inard
spinach.
+"ine !inette
highbush cranberry.
+"oisses
village in %urgundy that gives its name to a buttery disc of cow's milk
cheese with a strong, smooth taste and rust-colored rind.
+"oisses blanc
fresh white .poisses cheese.
+'uille
sand eel, a long silvery fish that buries itself in the sand! eaten fried on the
tlantic coast.
+scab?che
a 'roven?al and southwestern preparation of small fish, usually sardines
or rouget, in which the fish are browned in oil, then marinated in vinegar
and herbs and served very cold. lso, raw fish marinated in lemon or lime
2uice and herbs.
+scali!ada
"atalan roasted vegetables, usually sweet peppers, eggplant and onions.
+n sus
see Service en sus.
+"ais(se)
thick.
+"aule
shoulder (of veal, lamb, mutton, or pork).
+"erlan
smelt or whitebait, usually fried, often imported but still found in the
estuaries of the ,oire.
+"i de ma
ear of sweet corn.
+"igramme
classic dish of grilled breaded lamb chop and a piece of braised lamb
breast shaped like a chop, breaded, and grilled! crops up on modern
menus as an elegant dish of breaded and fried baby lamb chops paired
with lamb sweetbreads and tongue.
+"inard
spinach.
+"oisses blanc
fresh white .poisses cheese.
+scab?che
a 'roven?al and southwestern preparation of small fish, usually sardines
or rouget, in which the fish are browned in oil, then marinated in vinegar
and herbs and served very cold. lso, raw fish marinated in lemon or lime
2uice and herbs.
+scali!ada
"atalan roasted vegetables, usually sweet peppers, eggplant and onions.
+scalo"e
thin slice of meat or fish.
+scargot
land snail.
+scargot de Bourgogne
land snail prepared with butter! garlic, and parsley.
+scargot "etit-gris
small land snail.
+scarole
bitter salad green of the chicory family with thick broad-lobed leaves,
found in both flat and round heads.
+s"adon
swordfish found in the gulf of -ascony, tlantic, and /editerranean.
+s"agnole, ? l
Spanish style! with tomatoes, peppers, onions, and garlic.
+s'ueixada
in "atalan literally means )shredded!) a shredded salt cod salad.
+sti!al
summer, used to denote seasonality of ingredients.
+stoficado
a pur?e-like blend of dried codfish, olive oil, tomatoes, sweet peppers,
black olives, potatoes, garlic, onions, and herbs! also called stockfish ni?
oise! specialty of 4ice.
+stofinado
a pur?e-like blend of dried codfish, potatoes, garlic, parsley, eggs, walnut
oil, and milk, served with triangles of toast! specialty of the uvergne.
+stouffade ? la "ro!en?ale
beef stew with onions, garlic, carrots, and orange $est.
+stragon
tarragon.
+toff
stuffed.
+toile
star! star-shaped.
+touff?$ ?tu!
literally )smothered)! method of cooking very slowly in a tightly covered
pan with almost no li&uid.
+trille
small swimming crab.
+x"ress
espresso coffee.
2?ra, feret
salmon-like lake fish, found in ,ac ,?man, in the /orvan, in %urgundy,
and in the uvergne.
2a?on (? ma)
(my) way of preparing a dish.
2agot
)bundle)! meat shaped into a small ball.
goat (goat's-milk cheese).
2?ra, feret
salmon-like lake fish, found in ,ac ,?man, in the /orvan, in %urgundy,
and in the uvergne.
2alette
veal breast stuffed with bacon and vegetables, browned, and poached in
broth! specialty of the uvergne.
2aisan(e)
pheasant.
2aisand
game that has been hung to age.
2ait
usually refers to a cheese that has been well aged and has character---
runny if it's a "amembert, hard and dry if it's a goat cheese! also means
ready to eat.
2ait, "as tro"
refers to a cheese that has been aged for a shorter time and is blander!
also for a cheese that will ripen at home.
2alette
veal breast stuffed with bacon and vegetables, browned, and poached in
broth! specialty of the uvergne.
2anes
green tops of root vegetables such as carrots, radishes, turnips.
2ar
%reton sweet or savory pudding-cakes! the most common, similar to
clafoutis from the :ordogne, is made with prunes.
2arci(e)
stuffed.
2arigoule(tte)
'roven?al name for wild thyme.
2arine
flour. compl?te
whole wheat flour. d'avoine
oat flour. de bl?
wheat flour! white flour. de ma?s
corn flour. de sarrasin
buckwheat flour. de seigle
rye flour. de son
bran flour.
2aux-filet
sirloin steak.
2a!orite d'artichaut
classic vegetable dish of artichoke stuffed with asparagus, covered with a
cheese sauce, and browned.
2a!ou(ille)
in 'rovence, tiny male (female) crab often used in soups.
2enouil
fennel.
2er ? che!al
)horseshoe)! a baguette that has that shape.
2erm
closed.
2erme (fermier, fermi?re)
farm (farmer)! in cheese, refers to farm-made cheese, often used to mean
raw-milk cheese! in chickens, refers to free-range chickens.
2ern&ase
young cheese shaped like a flying saucer and sprinkled with coarsely
ground pepper! specialty of lsace.
2eu de bois, au
cooked over a wood fires.
2euille de ch?ne
oak-leaf lettuce.
2euille de !igne
vine leaf.
2euillet
puff pastry.
2euilletage (en)
(in) puff pastry.
2iadone
"orsican flan made from cheese and oranges.
2icelle (boeuf ? la)
)string)! (beef suspended on a string and poached in broth). lso, small
thin baguette. lso, a small bottle of wine, as in carafe of %eau2olais.
2icelle "icarde
thin cr?pe wrapped around a slice of ham and topped with a cheesy
cream sauce! specialty of 'icardy, in the 4orth.
2igue
fig.
2inanci?re
/adiera sauce with truffle 2uice.
2inancier
small rectangular almond cake.
2ine de claire
elongated crinkle-shelled oyster that stays in fattening beds (claires) a
minimum of two months.
2ines herbes
mi+ture of herbs, usually chervil, parsley, chives, tarragon.
2l?te
)flute)! usually a very thin baguette! also, form of champagne glass.
2l?tan
halibut, found in the .nglish "hannel and 4orth Sea.
2lageolet
small white or pale green kidney-shaped dried bean.
2lagnarde, flaugnarde, flognarde
hot, fruit-filled batter cake made with eggs, flour, milk, and butter, and
sprinkled with sugar before serving! specialty of the southwest.
2lamber
to burn off the alcohol by igniting. 1sually the brandies or other li&ueurs to
be flamb?ed are warmed first, then lit as they are poured into the dish.
2lamiche (au *aroilles)
a vegetable tart with rich bread dough crust, commonly filled with leeks,
cream, and cheese! specialty of 'icardy, in the 4orth! (filled with cream,
egg, butter, and /aroilles cheese).
2lamme&ueche
thin-crusted savory tart, much like a rectangular pi$$a, covered with
cream, onions, and bacon! also called tarte flamb?e! specialty of lsace.
2lan
sweet or savory tart. lso, a crustless custard pie.
2lanchet
flank of beef or veal, used generally in stews.
2leur (de sel)
flower (fine, delicate sea salt, from %rittany or the "amargue).
2leur de courgette
$ucchini blossom.
2leuron
puff pastry crescent.
2lorentine
with spinach. lso, a cookie of nougatine and candied fruit brushed with a
layer of chocolate.
2oie
liver.
2oie blond de !olaille
chicken liver! also sometimes a chicken-liver mousse.
2oie de !eau
calfs liver.
2oie gras d'oie (de canard)
liver of fattened goose (duck).
2oin (dan le)
(cooked in) hay.
2ond
cooking 2uices from meat, used to make sauces. lso, bottom.
2ond d'artichaut
heart and base of an artichoke.
2ondant
)melting)! refers to cooked, worked sugar that is flavored, then used for
icing cakes. lso, the bittersweet chocolate high in cocoa butter used for
making the shiniest chocolates. lso, pur?ed meat, fish, or vegetables
shaped in cro&uettes.
2ondu(e)
melted.
2ontainebleau
creamy white fresh dessert cheese from the #le-de-3rance.
2oresti?re
garnish of wild mushrooms, bacon, and potatoes.
2ouace
a kind of brioche! specialty of the uvergne.
2ouchtrou
"ow's milk cheese from the uvergne, made when there is not enough
milk to make an entire wheel of "antal.
2oudjou
a pungent goat-cheese spread, a blend of fresh and aged grated cheese
mi+ed with salt, pepper, brandy, and garlic and cured in a crock! specialty
of northern 'rovence.
2ougasse
a crusty lattice-like bread made of baguette dough or puff pastry often
flavored with anchovies, black olives, herbs, spices, or onions! specialty of
'rovence and the /editerranean. lso, a sweet bread of 'rovence
flavored with orange-flower water, oil, and sometimes almonds.
2our (au)
(baked in an) oven.
2ourme d'Ambert
cylindrical blue-veined cow's-milk cheese, made in dairies around the town
of mbert in the uvergne.
2ourr
stuffed or filled.
2oyot
classic sauce made of b?arnaise with meat gla$e.
2r?mi
)&uivering)! often refers to barely cooked oysters.
2rais, bien ?gout
well-drained freshcheese. maigre
low-fat cheese.
2rais, fra?che
fresh or chilled.
2raise
strawberry.
2raise des bois
wild strawberry.
2ramboise
raspberry.
2ran?aise, ? la
classic garnish of peas with lettuce, small white onions, and parsley.
2rangi"ane
almond custard filling.
2ra""
usually refers to a drink served very cold or with ice, often shaken.
2riandise
sweetmeat, petit four.
2ricadelle
fried minced meat patty.
2ricandeau
thinly sliced veal or a rump roast, braised with vegetables and white wine.
2ricass
classically, ingredients braised in wine sauce or butter with cream added!
currently denotes any mi+ture of ingredients--fish or meat--stewed or
saut?ed.
2ricot (de !eau)
veal shoulder simmered in white wine with vegetables.
2ris?(e)
)curly)! usually curly endive, the bitter salad green of the chicory family
sold in enormous round heads.
2rit(e)
fried.
2rite
3rench fry.
2ritons
coarse pork rillettes or a minced spread which includes organ meats.
2ritot
small organ meat fritter, where meat is partially cooked, then marinated in
oil, lemon 2uice, and herbs, dipped in batter and fried 2ust before serving!
also can refer to any small fried piece of meat or fish.
2riture
fried food! also a preparation of small fried fish, usually white-bait or smelt.
2roid(e)
cold.
2romage
cheese. blanc
a smooth low-fat cheese similar to cottage cheese. d'alpage
cheese made in mountain pastures during the prime summer milking
period. .chourgnac
delicately flavored, ochre-skinned cheese made of cow's milk by the
monks at the .chourgnac monasteryin the :ordogne. fort
pungent cheese. frais
smooth, runny fresh cheese, like cottage cheese.
2romage de t?te
headcheese, usually pork.
2ruit confit
whole fruit preserved in sugar.
2ruits de mer
seafood.
2um
smoked.
2umet
fish stock.
-alette bressane, galette de P?rouges
cream and sugar tart from the %resse area of the 7h?ne-lpes.
-amba
large prawn.
-arbure
a hearty stew that includes cabbage, beans, and salted or preserved duck,
goose, turkey or pork! specialty of the southwest.
-?teau
cake.
basque a chewy sweet cake filled with pastry cream or, historically,
with black cherry 2am! also called
pastiza! specialty of the %as&ue region
breton a rich round pound cake! specialty of %rittany
op?ra classic almond sponge cake layered with coffee and
chocolate butter cream and covered with a sheet of chocolate! seen
in every pastry shop window
Saint-Honor? classic cake of chou+ puffs dipped in caramel and
set atop a cream-filled chou+ crown on a pastry base.
-alantine
classical preparation of boned meat or whole poultry that is stuffed or
rolled, cooked, then gla$ed with gelatin and served cold.
-alette
round flat pastry, pancake, or cake! can also refer to pancake-like savory
preparations! in %rittany usually a savory buckwheat cr?pe, known as bl?
noir.
-alette bressane, galette de P?rouges
cream and sugar tart from the %resse area of the 7h?ne-lpes.
-alette des rois
puff pastry filled with almond pastry cream, traditional 0welfth 4ight
celebration cake.
-alinette
tub gurnard, /editerranean fish of the mullet family.
-amba
large prawn.
-anache
classically a rich mi+ture of chocolate and cr?me fra?che used as a filling
for cakes and chocolate truffles! currently may also include such flavorings
as wild strawberries and cinnamon.
-arbure
a hearty stew that includes cabbage, beans, and salted or preserved duck,
goose, turkey or pork! specialty of the southwest.
-ardiane
stew of beef or bull (toro) meat, with bacon, onions, garlic, and black
olives! served with rice! specialty of the "amargue, in 'rovence.
-argouillau
pear cake or tart! specialty of northern uvergne.
-arni(e)
garnished.
-arniture
garnish.
-asconnade
roast leg of lamb with garlic and anchovies! specialty of the southwest.
-as"acho
a cold soup, usually containing tomatoes, cucumber, onions, and sweet
peppers! originally of Spanish origin.
-?teau
cake.
basque a chewy sweet cake filled with pastry cream or, historically,
with black cherry 2am! also called
pastiza! specialty of the %as&ue region
breton a rich round pound cake! specialty of %rittany
op?ra classic almond sponge cake layered with coffee and
chocolate butter cream and covered with a sheet of chocolate! seen
in every pastry shop window
Saint-Honor? classic cake of chou+ puffs dipped in caramel and
set atop a cream-filled chou+ crown on a pastry base.
-aude
thick corn-flour porridge served hot, or cold and sliced, with cream.
-aufre
waffle.
-a!e
southwestern term for mountain stream! indicates fish from the streams of
the area.
-ayette
small sausage patty made with pork liver and bacon, wrapped in caul fat
and bacon.
-endarme
salted and smoked herring.
-?noise
sponge cake.
-?noise
sponge cake.
-?sier
gi$$ard.
-?teau
cake.
basque a chewy sweet cake filled with pastry cream or, historically,
with black cherry 2am! also called
pastiza! specialty of the %as&ue region
breton a rich round pound cake! specialty of %rittany
op?ra classic almond sponge cake layered with coffee and
chocolate butter cream and covered with a sheet of chocolate! seen
in every pastry shop window
Saint-Honor? classic cake of chou+ puffs dipped in caramel and
set atop a cream-filled chou+ crown on a pastry base.
-alantine
classical preparation of boned meat or whole poultry that is stuffed or
rolled, cooked, then gla$ed with gelatin and served cold.
-alette
round flat pastry, pancake, or cake! can also refer to pancake-like savory
preparations! in %rittany usually a savory buckwheat cr?pe, known as bl?
noir.
-alette bressane, galette de P?rouges
cream and sugar tart from the %resse area of the 7h?ne-lpes.
-alette des rois
puff pastry filled with almond pastry cream, traditional 0welfth 4ight
celebration cake.
-alinette
tub gurnard, /editerranean fish of the mullet family.
-anache
classically a rich mi+ture of chocolate and cr?me fra?che used as a filling
for cakes and chocolate truffles! currently may also include such flavorings
as wild strawberries and cinnamon.
-arbure
a hearty stew that includes cabbage, beans, and salted or preserved duck,
goose, turkey or pork! specialty of the southwest.
-ardiane
stew of beef or bull (toro) meat, with bacon, onions, garlic, and black
olives! served with rice! specialty of the "amargue, in 'rovence.
-arni(e)
garnished.
-arniture
garnish.
-asconnade
roast leg of lamb with garlic and anchovies! specialty of the southwest.
-aude
thick corn-flour porridge served hot, or cold and sliced, with cream.
-aufre
waffle.
-a!e
southwestern term for mountain stream! indicates fish from the streams of
the area.
-ayette
small sausage patty made with pork liver and bacon, wrapped in caul fat
and bacon.
-el
aspic.
-endarme
salted and smoked herring.
-eni?!ere
2uniper berry.
-entiane
gentian! a li&ueur made from this mountain flower.
-erminy
garnish of sorrel. lso, sorrel and cream soup.
-ermon
albacore or long-fin tuna.
-ibassier
round sweet bread from 'rovence, often flavored with lemon or orange
$est, orange-flower water, andBor almonds. lso sometimes called
fougasse or pompe ? lhuile.
-ibelotte
fricassee of rabbit in red or white wine.
-ibier
game, sometimes designated as gibier ? plume (feathered) or gibier ?
poil (furry).
-igot (de "r? sal
usually a leg of lamb (lamb gra$ed on the salt meadows along the tlantic
and 4ormandy coasts).
-igot de mer
a preparation, usually of large pieces of monkfish (lotte) oven-roasted like
a leg of lamb.
-igue (de)
haunch (of) certain game meats.
-illardeau
pri$ed oyster raised in 4ormandy and finished in claires, or fattening beds
on the tlantic coast.
-ingembre
ginger.
-irofle
clove.
-irolle
pri$ed pale orange wild mushroom! also called chanterelle.
-i!r?$ orange gi!r
frosted! orange sherbet served in its skin.
-lac
iced, crystalli$ed, or gla$ed.
-lace
ice cream.
-nocchi
dumplings made of chou+ paste, potatoes, or semolina.
-o?t
taste.
-o?ter (le)
to taste, to try! (childrens afternoon snack).
-oret
young pig.
-oug?re
cheese-flavored chou+ pastry.
-oujon
small catfish! generic name for a number of small fish. lso, preparation in
which the central part of larger fish is coated with bread crumbs, then
deep fried.
-oujonnette
generally used to describe a small piece of fish, such as sole, usually
fried.
-ourmandise(s)
weakness for sweet things! (sweetmeats or candies).
-ousse d'ail
clove of garlic.
-ousse de !anille
vanilla bean.
-raine de moutarde
mustard seed.
-raisse
fat.
-ras-double
tripe baked with onions and white wine.
-raisserons
crisply fried pieces of duck or goose skin! cracklings.
-rand cr?me
large or double espresso with milk.
-rand cru
top-ranking wine.
-rand !eneur
)chief huntsman)! usually a brown sauce for game, with red currant 2elly.
-ranit
a type of sherbet! a sweetened, flavored ice.
-ra""e (de raisins)
cluster! bunch (of grapes).
-ras (march? au)
fatty! (market of fattened poultry and their livers).
-ras-double
tripe baked with onions and white wine.
-ratin
crust formed on top of a dish when browned in broiler or oven! also the
dish in which such food is cooked.
-ratin dau"hinoise
baked casserole of sliced potatoes, usually with cream, milk, and
sometimes cheese andBor eggs.
-ratin sa!oyarde
baked casserole of sliced potatoes, usually with bouillon, cheese, and
butter.
-ratin?(e)
having a crusty, browned top.
-ratin?e lyonnaise
bouillon flavored with port, garnished with beaten egg, topped with
cheese, and browned under a broiler.
-rattons, grattelons
crisply fried pieces of pork, goose, or duck skin! cracklings.
-ratuit
free.
-rec'ue, ? la
cooked in seasoned mi+ture of oil, lemon 2uice, and water! refers to cold
vegetables, usually mushrooms.
-relette, sauce
cold sauce with a base of whipped cream.
-relot
small white bulb onion.
-renade
pomegranate.
-renaille
7efers to small, bite-si$e new potato of any variety.
-renouille (cuisse de)
frog (leg).
-ressini
breadsticks, seen along the "?te-d'$ur.
-renadin
small veal scallop.
-renaille
7efers to small, bite-si$e new potato of any variety.
-ribiche, sauce
mayonnaise with capers, cornichons, hard-cooked eggs, and herbs.
-rill?(e)
grilled.
-rillade
grilled meat.
-riotte
shiny slightly acidic, reddish black cherry.
-risotte
parasol mushroom with a delicate flavor! also called champignon ? la
bague. cocherelle. and coulemelle.
-ri!e
thrush.
-rondin
red gurnard, a bony ocean fish, a member of the mullet family, used in fish
stews such as bouillabaisse.
-roin d'ane
)donkeys snout)! ,yonnais name for a bitter winter salad green similar to
dandelion greens.
-ros sel
coarse salt.
-roseille
red currant.
-ruy?re
strictly speaking, cheese from the -ruyere area of Swit$erland! in 3rance,
generic name for a number of hard, mild, cooked cheeses from the 8ura,
including "omt?, %eaufort, and .mmental.
-yromite
group of wild mushrooms, or gyromitra, known as false morels.
(addoc&
small fresh cod that have been salted and smoked.
(?telet, attelet
decorative skewer! currently used to mean meat or fish cooked on a
skewer.
(areng
herring, found in the tlantic, the .nglish "hannel (the best between
:unker&ue and 3?camp), and the mouth of the -ironde river.
(areng ? lhuile
herring cured in oil, usually served with a salad of warm sliced potatoes.
(areng balti'ue, bismar&
marinated herring.
(areng bouffi
herring that is salted, then smoked.
(areng "ec
freshly salted young herring.
(areng roll-mo"
marinated herring rolled around a small pickle.
(areng saur
smoked herring.
(?telet, attelet
decorative skewer! currently used to mean meat or fish cooked on a
skewer.
(achis
minced or chopped meat or fish preparation.
(achis
minced or chopped meat or fish preparation.
(addoc&
small fresh cod that have been salted and smoked.
(addoc&
small fresh cod that have been salted and smoked.
(areng
herring, found in the tlantic, the .nglish "hannel (the best between
:unker&ue and 3?camp), and the mouth of the -ironde river.
(areng
herring, found in the tlantic, the .nglish "hannel (the best between
:unker&ue and 3?camp), and the mouth of the -ironde river.
(areng ? lhuile
herring cured in oil, usually served with a salad of warm sliced potatoes.
(areng ? lhuile
herring cured in oil, usually served with a salad of warm sliced potatoes.
(areng balti'ue, bismar&
marinated herring.
(areng balti'ue, bismar&
marinated herring.
(areng bouffi
herring that is salted, then smoked.
(areng bouffi
herring that is salted, then smoked.
(areng "ec
freshly salted young herring.
(areng "ec
freshly salted young herring.
(areng roll-mo"
marinated herring rolled around a small pickle.
(areng roll-mo"
marinated herring rolled around a small pickle.
(areng saur
smoked herring.
(areng saur
smoked herring.
(aricot
bean.
beurre yellow bean
blancs (? la Bretonne white beans, usually dried! (white beans in
a sauce of onions, tomatoes, garlic, and herbs)
de mouton stew of mutton and white beans (also called Calicots)
gris green string bean mottled with purplish black! also called p?
landron a specialty of the "?te-d'$ur.
rouge red kidney bean! also, preparation of red beans in red wine
sec dried bean
vert green bean, usually fresh
(aricot
bean.
beurre yellow bean
blancs (? la Bretonne white beans, usually dried! (white beans in
a sauce of onions, tomatoes, garlic, and herbs)
de mouton stew of mutton and white beans (also called Calicots)
gris green string bean mottled with purplish black! also called p?
landron a specialty of the "?te-d'$ur.
rouge red kidney bean! also, preparation of red beans in red wine
sec dried bean
vert green bean, usually fresh
(erbes de Pro!ence
mi+ture of thyme, rosemary, summer savory, and bay leaf, often dried and
blended.
(erbes de Pro!ence
mi+ture of thyme, rosemary, summer savory, and bay leaf, often dried and
blended.
potatoes.
(irondelle
swallow.
(oche"ot
a thick stew, usually of o+tail! specialty of 3landers, in the north.
(ollandaise
sauce of butter, egg yolks, and lemon 2uice.
(omard (? lAmoricaine, ? lAm?ricaine)
lobster! (a classic dish of many variations, in which lobster is cut into
sections and browned, then simmered with shallots, minced onions,
tomatoes, "ognac, and white wine! served with a sauce of the reduced
cooking li&uid, enriched with butter).
(ongroise, ? la
Cungarian style! usually with paprika and cream.
(ure de "orc or de marcassin
head of pig or boar - usually refers to headcheese preparation.
(ure de saumon
a salmon )headcheese,) or p?t?, prepared with salmon meat, not actually
the head.
(ure de saumon
a salmon )headcheese,) or p?t?, prepared with salmon meat, not actually
the head.
3le flottante
)floating island)! most commonly used interchangeably with oeufs ? la
neige, poached meringue floating in cr?me anglaise! classically, a layered
cake covered with whipped cream and served with custard sauce.
3m"?ratrice, ? l
usually a rice pudding dessert with candied fruit.
3m"?riale, ? l
classic haute cuisine garnish of mussels, cockscombs, crayfish, and other
e+travagant ingredients.
3m"eriale
variety of plum. lso, a large bottle for wine, holding about F &uarts (F
liters),
3nfusion
herb tea.
3sman bayaldi, imam bayaldi
)the priest fainted) - in 0urkish! a dish of eggplant stuffed with saut?ed
onions, tomatoes, and spices! served cold.
0?sus de *orteau
plump smoked pork sausage that takes its name from the town of /orteau
in the 8ura! distinctive because a wooden peg is tied in the sausage
casing on one end! traditionally, the sausage eaten at "hristmas, hence its
name! also called saucisson de /orteau.
0alousie
)venetian blind)! classic small, latticed, flaky pastry filled with almond
paste and spread with 2am.
0ambon
ham! also refers to the leg, usually of pork, but also of poultry.
? los ham with the bone in
blanc lightly salted, un-smoked or very lightly smoked ham, served
cooked! sold, cold, in charcuteries as 2ambon de 'aris, glac?, or
demi-sel
cru salted or smoked ham that has been cured but not cooked
cuit cooked ham
d!"uvergne raw, dry, salt-cured smoked ham
de Bayonne raw, dry salt-cured ham, very pale in color
de Bourgogne See 2ambon persill?
de montagne any mountain ham, cured according to local custom
de Paris pale, lightly salted, cooked ham
de Parme #talian prosciutto from 'arma, air-dried and salt-cured
ham, sliced thin and served raw
de pays any country ham, cured according to local custom
de poulet boned stuffed chicken leg.
de #estphalie -erman 9estphalian ham, raw, cured, and
smoked.
de $or% smoked .nglish-style ham, usually poached
d!oie (or de canard breast of fattened goose (or duck), smoked,
salted, or sugar cured, somewhat resembling ham in flavor.
fum? smoked ham.
persill? cold cooked ham, cubed and preserved in parsleyed
gelatin, usually sliced from a terrine! a specialty of %urgundy.
sal? salt-cured ham.
sec dried ham.
0ambonneau
cured ham shank or pork knuckle.
0ambonnette
boned and stuffed knuckle of ham or poultry.
0ardini?re
refers to a garnish of fresh cooked vegetables.
0arret (de !eau, de "orc, de boeuf)
knuckle (of veal or pork), shin (of beef).
0uran?on
district in the %?arn, the area around 'au in southwestern 3rance, known
for its sweet and spicy white wine.
4a&i
persimmon.
4ari
variant spelling of cary.
4ataifi (also &ataif)
thin strands of vermicelli-like dough, used in -reen and /iddle .astern
pastries and in some modern 3rench preparations
4ir royal
a 5ir made with "hampagne.
4ne"fla
lsatian dumpling, sometimes fried.
4ougelho"h, hougelhof, &ouglof, &ugelho"
sweet crown-shaped yeast cake, with almonds and raisins! specialty of
lsace.
4ouigh-amann
sweet, buttery pastry from %rittany.
5actaire
the edible lactaire pallidus mushroom, also called sanguine. pricot-
colored, with red, blood colored 2uices when raw.
5aguiole
"antal cheese from the area around the village of ,aguiole, in southern
uvergne, still made in rustic huts.
5?ger (l?g?re)
light.
5ait
milk.
demi-?crem? semi-skimmed milk.
?crem? skimmed milk.
entier whole milk.
ribot from %rittany, buttermilk, served with cr?pes.
st?riliz? milk heated to a higher temperature than pasteuri$ed milk,
so that it stays fresh for several weeks.
5aitance
soft roe (often of herring), or eggs.
5aitier
made of or with milk! also denotes a commercially made product as
opposed to fermier, meaning farm made.
5aitue
lettuce.
5amelle
very thin strip.
5am"roie (? la bordelaise)
lamprey eel, ocean fish that swim into rivers along the tlantic in
springtime (hearty stew of lamprey eel and leeks in red wine).
5an?on
tiny fish, served fried.
5andaise, ? la
from the ,andes in southwestern 3rance! classically a garnish of garlic,
pine nuts, and goose fat.
5angouste
clawless spiny lobster or rock lobster! sometimes called crawfish, and
mistakenly crayfish.
5angoustine
clawed crustacean, smaller than either homard or langouste, with very
delicate meat. 5nown in %ritish waters as :ublin %ay prawn.
5angres
supple, tangy cylindrical cow's-milk cheese with a rust-colored rind! named
for village in "hampagne.
5angue (de chat)
tongue ()cat's tongue)! thin, narrow, delicate cookie often served with
sherbet or ice).
5anguedocienne
garnish, usually of tomatoes, eggplant, and wild c?pe mushrooms.
5a"ereau
young rabbit.
5a"in
rabbit.
5a"in de garenne
wild rabbit.
5ard
bacon.
5arder
to thread meat, fish, or liver with strips of fat for added moisture.
5ardon
cube of bacon.
5arme
)teardrop)! a very small portion of li&uid.
5aurier
bay laurel or bay leaf.
5a!aret
lake fish of the Savoie, similar to salmon.
5?gume
vegetable.
5i?!re (? la royale)
hare (cooked with red wine, shallots, onions, and cinnamon, then rolled
and stuffed with foie gras and truffles).
5ieu jaune
green pollack, in the cod family a pleasant, ine+pensive small yellow fish!
often sold under name colin! found in the tlantic.
5ima?on
land snail.
5imaces ? la su?arelle
snails cooked with onions, garlic, tomatoes, and sausage! specialty of
'rovence.
5imande
lemon sole, also called dab or sand dab, not as firm or pri$ed as sole,
found in the .nglish "hannel, the tlantic, and, rarely, in the
/editerranean.
5ingot
type of kidney-shaped dry white bean.
5ou magret
breast of fattened duck.
5i!arot
village in 4ormandy that gives its name to an elastic and pungent thick
disc of cow's-milk cheese with reddish golden stripes around the edge.
5i?!re (? la royale)
hare (cooked with red wine, shallots, onions, and cinnamon, then rolled
and stuffed with foie gras and truffles).
5ieu jaune
green pollack, in the cod family a pleasant, ine+pensive small yellow fish!
often sold under name colin! found in the tlantic.
5ieu noir
pollack, also called black cod! in the cod family a pleasant, ine+pensive
fish found in the .nglish "hannel and the tlantic.
5imaces ? la su?arelle
snails cooked with onions, garlic, tomatoes, and sausage! specialty of
'rovence.
5imande
lemon sole, also called dab or sand dab, not as firm or pri$ed as sole,
found in the .nglish "hannel, the tlantic, and, rarely, in the
/editerranean.
5isette
small ma&uereau, or mackerel.
5otte
monkfish or angler fish, a large firm-fleshed ocean fish.
5otte de ri!i?re (or de lac)
fine-fleshed river (or lake) fish, pri$ed for its large and flavorful liver. 4ot
related to the ocean fish lotte, or monkfish.
5ou magret
breast of fattened duck.
5umas
name for land snail in the 'oitou-"harentes region along the tlantic
coast.
5ou" de mer
wolf fish or ocean catfish! name for sea bass in the /editerranean.
5ou!ine
%as&ue name for striped bass, fished in the %ay of -ascony.
5uzienne, ? la
prepared in the manner popular in Saint-8ean-de-,u$, a %as&ue fishing
port.
5yonnaise, ? la
in the style of ,yon! often garnished with onions.
*?che
dark small-leafed salad green known as lambs lettuce or corn salad. lso
called doucette.
*?daillon
round piece or slice, usually of fish or meat.
*?lange
mi+ture or blend.
*?nag?re, ? la
)in the style of the housewife)! usually a simple preparation including
onions, potatoes, and carrots.
*a
corn.
*a?tre d'h?tel
headwaiter. lso, sauce of butter, parsley and lemon.
*ac?doine
diced mi+ed fruit or vegetables.
*acaron
macaroon, small cookie of almonds, egg whites, and sugar.
*acaronade
a rich blend of wild and domestic mushrooms and chunks of foie gras,
smothered in fresh pasta! specialty of the southwest. lso, macaroni with
mushrooms, bacon, white wine, and 'armesan cheese! an
accompaniment to a beef stew, or daube! specialty of 'rovence.
*acis
mace, the spice.
*ad?re
/adeira.
*adeleine (de ommercy)
small scalloped-shaped tea cake made famous by /arcel 'roust! (the
town in the ,orraine where the tea cakes are commerciali$ed).
*adril?ne, ? la
in the style of /adrid! with tomatoes. "lassically a garnish of peeled
chopped tomatoes for consomm?.
*agret de canard (or d'oie)
breast of fattened duck (or goose).
*aigre
thin, non-fatty
*aison, de la
of the house, or restaurant.
*altaise
orange-flavored hollandaise sauce.
*al!oisie, !inaigre de
vinegar made from the malvasia grape, used for the sweet, heavy
/almsey wine.
*andarine
tangerine.
*ange-tout
)eat it all)! a podless green runner bean! a sweet pea! a snow pea. lso, a
variety of apple.
*angue
mango.
*ani?re, de
in the style of.
*ange-tout
)eat it all)! a podless green runner bean! a sweet pea! a snow pea. lso, a
variety of apple.
*angue
mango.
*ani?re, de
in the style of.
*a'uereau
mackerel! lisette is a small mackerel.
*ar?e la
literally )the tide)! usually used to indicate seafood that is fresh.
*ara de Bois
small fragrant strawberry, like a cross between a domestic and wild
strawberry.
*ara?ch?r(e) (? la)
market gardener or truck farmer (market-garden style! usually refers to a
dish or salad that includes various greens).
*arbr
striped sea bream, /editerranean fish that is e+cellent grilled.
*arc
eau-de-vie distilled from pressed grape skins and seeds or other fruits.
*arcassin
young boar. t one year, a wild boar will weight FD kg, a domesticated
boar <@D kg.
*archand de !in
wine merchant. lso, sauce made with red wine, meat stock, and chopped
shallots.
*arennes
flat-shelled green-tinged plate oyster. lso the 3rench coastal village
where flat-shelled oysters are raised.
*arin
marinated.
*arinade
seasoned li&uid in which food, usually meat, is soaked for several hours.
0he li&uid seasons and tenderi$es at the same time.
*arion (glac
large (candied) chestnut.
*arjolaine
mar2oram. lso, multilayered chocolate and nut cake.
*armelade
traditionally a thick pur?e of fruit, or sweet stewed fruit! today pur?e of
vegetable, or stewed vegetables.
*armite
small covered pot! also a dish cooked in a small casserole.
*aroilles
village in the north that gives its name to a strong-tasting, thick, s&uare
cow's-milk cheese with a pale brick-red rind.
*ar'uise (au chocolat)
mousse-like (chocolate) cake.
*atelote (d'anguilles)
freshwater fish (or eel) stew.
*atignon
a garnish of mi+ed stewed vegetables.
*au!iette
wild meadow lark or skylark.
*elon de a!aillon
small canteloupe-like melon from "availlon, a town in 'rovence known for
its wholesale produce market.
*endiant, fruits du
traditional mi+ture of figs, almonds, ha$elnuts, and raisins, whose colors
suggest the robes of the mendicant friars it is named after.
*erguez
small spicy sausage.
*erlan
whiting.
*ets selon la saison
seasonal preparation! according to the season.
*euni?re, ? la
)in the style of the millers wife)! refers to a fish that is seasoned, rolled in
flour, fried in butter! and served with lemon, parsley and hot melted butter.
*ignardise
see 'etit-four.
*ignon de canard
see :cmsiselle de canard.
*ijot?(e) ("lat)
simmered (dish or preparation).
*ille-feuille
refers to puff pastry with many thin layers! usually a cream-filled rectangle
of puff pastry, or a 4apoleon.
*imosa
garnish of chopped hard-cooked egg yolks.
*inute (? la)
)minute)! something &uickly grilled or fried in butter with lemon 2uice and
parsley (prepared at the last minute).
*i'ue
generally a large breaded dumpling, poached and served with stews and
meats! specialty of the Southwest.
*irabeau
garnish of anchovies, pitted olives, tarragon, and anchovy butter.
*irabelle
small sweet yellow plum. lso, colorless fruit brandy or eau-de-vie, made
from yellow plums.
*ire"oix
cubes of carrots and onions or mi+ed vegetables, usually used in braising
to boost the flavor of a meat dish.
*iroton (de)
slice (of). lso, stew of meats flavored with onions.
*o?lle
beef bone marrow.
*ode de, ? la
in the style of.
*ogette, mojette mougette
a kind of dried white bean from the tlantic coast.
*o&a
refers to "offee! coffee-flavored dish.
*ollus'ue
mollusk.
*ont blanc
rich classic pastry of baked meringue, chestnut pur?e, and whipped
cream.
*ontagne, de la
from the mountains.
*orbier
supple cow's-milk cheese from the 8ura! a thin sprinkling of ashes in the
center gives it its distinctive black stripe and light smoky flavor.
*orceau
piece or small portion.
*ornay
classic cream sauce enriched with egg yolks and cheese.
*or!andelle, jambon ? la
in the style of the /orvan (ham in a pi&uant creamy sauce made with
white wine, vinegar, 2uniper berries, shallots, and cream).
*or!andelle, r?"
grated potato mi+ed with eggs, cream, and cheese, baked until golden.
*osa?'ue
)mosaic!) a presentation of /i+ed ingredients.
*ouclade
creamy mussel stew from the 'oitou-"harentes on the tlantic "oast,
generally flavored with curry or saffron.
*oufflon
wild sheep.
*oule
mussel. lso a mold.
*oule de bouchot
small, highly pri$ed cultivated mussel, raised on stakes driven into the
sediment of shallow coastal beds.
*oule de Bouzigues
iodine-strong mussel from the village of %ou$igues, on the /editerranean
coast.
*oule d'+s"agne
large, sharp-shelled mussel, often served raw as part of a seafood platter.
*oule de "ar'ues
:utch cultivated mussel, usually raised in fattening beds or diverted
ponds.
*ousseron
tiny, delicate, wild mushroom.
*outarde (? lancienne, en graines)
mustard (old-style, coarse-grained).
*oules marini?re
mussels cooked in white wine with onions, shallots, butter, and herbs.
*ourtayrol, mourta?rol
a pot-au-feu of boiled beef, chicken, ham, and vegetables, flavored with
saffron and served over slices of bread! specialty of the uvergne.
*outarde (? lancienne, en graines)
mustard (old-style, coarse-grained).
*uge
grey mullet.
*ulard
breed of duck common to the southwest, fattened for its delicate liver, for
foie gras.
*uscade
nutmeg.
*uscat de (ambourg
variety of popular purple table grape, grown in 'rovence.
*useau de "orc (or de boeuf)
vinegared pork (or beef).
*yrtille
bilberry (bluish black .uropean blueberry).
*yst?re
truncated cone-shaped ice cream dessert. lso, dessert of cooked
meringue with ice cream and chocolate cake.
.?fle
medlar! also called 8apanese lo&uat! tart fruit that resembles an apricot
and taste like a mango.
.age (? la)
)swimming)! aromatic poaching li&uid (served in).
.antua
sauce of crayfish, butter, cream, and, traditionally truffles! also garnish of
crayfish.
.a""
covered, as with a sauce.
.atte
woven loaf of bread.
.ature
refers to simple, unadorned preparations.
.a!arin
lamb or mutton stew.
.a!arraise, ? la
4avarre-style, with sweet peppers, onions, and garlic.
.a!et
turnip.
.a!ette
)little boat)! small pastry boats.
.e)burg
lobster preparation with /adeira, egg yolks, and cream.
.eufch?tel
white, creamy, delicate (and often heart-shaped) cow's-milk cheese,
named for village in 4ormandy where it is made.
.i!ernaise, ? la
in the style of 4evers! with carrots and onions.
.onat
small river fish in 'rovence, usually fried. lso known as poutine.
.ormande
in the style of 4ormandy! sauce of seafood, cream, and mushrooms. lso
refers to fish or meat cooked with apple cider or "alvados! or dessert with
apples, usually served with cream.
.ougat
candy of roasted almonds, egg whites, and honey! specialty of /ont?
limar.
.ougat glac
fro$en dessert of whipped cream and candied fruit.
.ou!eau, nou!elle
new or young.
.ou!eaut
a new offering.
.?fle
medlar! also called 8apanese lo&uat! tart fruit that resembles an apricot
and taste like a mango.
#euf
egg.
? la coque soft-cooked egg.
brouill? scrambled egg.
dur hard-cooked egg.
en meurette poached egg in red wine sauce.
mollet egg simmered in water for A minutes.
poch? poached egg.
saut? ? la po?le or oeuf sur le plat fried egg.
#eufs ? la neige
)eggs in the snow)! sweetened whipped egg whites poached in milk and
served with vanilla custard sauce.
#ffert
offered! free or given.
#ignon
onion.
#li!es cass?es
fresh green olives cured in a rich fennel-infused brine! specialty of
'rovence.
#mble (ombre) che!alier
lake fish, similar to salmon trout, with firm, flaky flesh varying from white to
deep red. 3ound in lakes in the Savoie.
#melette nor!egienne
3rench version of %aked laska! a concoction of sponge cake covered
with ice cream and a layer of sweetened, stiffly beaten egg whites, then
browned &uickly in the oven.
#li!e de .yons
wrinkled black olive, first olive in 3rance to receive 6". lso used for oil.
#nglet
cut similar to beef flank steak! also cut of beef sold as biftek and entrec?
te, usually a tough cut, but better than flank steak.
#reille de "orc
cooked pigs ear! served grilled, with a coating of egg and bread crumb.
#rge ("erl
barley (pearl barley).
#rigan
oregano.
#rientale, ? l
general name for vaguely .astern dishes cooked with saffron, tomatoes,
and sweet red peppers.
#rigan
oregano.
#sso bucco ? la ni?oise
saut?ed veal braised with tomatoes, garlic, onions, and orange $est!
specialty of the /editerranean.
#ursinade
creamy sea urchin soup.
Paillarde (de !eau)
thick slice (of veal)! also, piece of meat pounded flat and saute?ed.
Palmier, coeur de
heart of palm.
Palourde
pri$ed medium-si$e clam.
Panade
panada, a thick mi+ture used to bind forcemeats and &uenelles, usually
flour and butter based, but can also contain fresh or toasted bread
crumbs, rice, or potatoes. lso refers to soup of bread, milk, and
sometimes cheese.
Panoufle
-enerally discarded belly flap from saddle of lamb, veal, and beef!
sometimes grilled.
Parfait
a dessert mousse! also, mousse-like mi+ture of chicken, duck, or goose
liver.
Parfum
flavor.
P?bre d'ail
see 'oivre d'?ne.
Pa!? d'Auge
thick, ochre colored s&uare of cow's-milk cheese that comes from the
uge area of 4ormandy.
Pa!ot (graine de)
poppy (seed).
P?che Alexandra
cold dessert of poached peaches with ice cream and pur?ed strawberries.
Peche *elba
poached peach with vanilla ice cream and raspberry sauce.
P?landron
see haricot gris.
P?lardon
small flat, dried, pungent disc of goat's milk cheese! specialty of the
,anguedoc.
P?"tie (au chocolat)
nugget! (chocolate chip).
Perigourdine, a la, or Perigueux
sauce, usually with truffles and foie gras, named for the '?rigord in
southwestern 3rance.
P?tale
)petal)! very thin slice.
Pates (fra?ches)
pasta (fresh).
Pageot
a type of sea bream or porgy. 0he finest is pageot rouge, wonderful grilled.
'ageot blanc is drier and needs to be marinated in oil before cooking.
Paillarde (de !eau)
thick slice (of veal)! also, piece of meat pounded flat and saute?ed.
Pailles ("ommes)
fried potato sticks.
Paillette
cheese straw, usually made with puff pastry and 'armesan cheese.
Pain
bread. lso, loaf of any kind.
aux cinq c?r?ales five-grain bread.
aux noix (aux noisettes bread, most often rye or wheat, filled with
walnuts (ha$elnuts).
aux raisins bread, most often rye or wheat, filled with raisins.
azyme unleavened bread, mat$oh.
bis brown bread.
bri? very dense, elongated loaf of unsalted white bread! specialty
of 4ormandy.
complet bread made partially or entirely from whole-wheat flour,
with bakers varying proportions according to their personal tastes.
cordon seldom-found regional country loaf decorated with a strip of
dough.
d!"ix variously shaped sourdough loaves, sometimes like a
sunflower, other times a chain-like loaf of four linked rounds.
de campagne country loaf! can vary from a white bread simply
dusted with flour to give it a rustic look (and fetch a higher price) to
a truly hearty loaf that may be a blend of white, whole wheat, and
perhaps rye flour with bran added. "omes in every shape.
&?cor? decorated.
de fantaisie generally any odd or imaginatively shaped bread.
.ven baguette de campagne falls into this category.
de '?nes classic almond sponge cake.
de mie rectangular white sandwich loaf that is nearly all mie
(interior crumb) and very little crust. #t is made for durability, its
flavor and te+ture developed for use in sandwiches. 1nlike most
3rench breads, it contains milk, sugar, and butter, and may contain
chemical preservatives.
d!?pices spice bread, a specialty of :i2on.
de seigle bread made from AD to =D percent rye flour and ED to FD
percent wheat flour.
de son legally a dietetic bread that is &uality controlled, containing
@D percent bran mi+ed with white flour.
grill? toast.
paill? country loaf from the %as&ue region.
sans sel salt-free bread.
viennois bread shaped like a baguette, with regular hori$ontal
slashes, usually containing white flour, sugar, powdered milk, water,
and yeast.
Paleron
shoulder of beef.
Palestine
classically a garnish of 8erusalem artichokes.
Palette
upper shoulder of pork.
Palmier
palm leaf-shaped cookie made of sugared puff pastry.
Palmier, coeur de
heart of palm.
Palombe
wood or wild pigeon, or dove.
Palourde
pri$ed medium-si$e clam.
Pam"lemousse
grapefruit.
Pan bagna
large round bread roll, split, brushed with olive oil, and filled with a variable
mi+ture including anchovies, onions, black olives, green peppers,
tomatoes, and celery! cafe specialty from 4ice.
Pan?(e)
breaded.
Panach
mi+ed! now liberally used menu term to denote any mi+ture.
Panade
panada, a thick mi+ture used to bind forcemeats and &uenelles, usually
flour and butter based, but can also contain fresh or toasted bread
crumbs, rice, or potatoes. lso refers to soup of bread, milk, and
sometimes cheese.
Panais
parnsip.
Panisse
a thick fried pancake of chickpea flour, served as accompaniment to meat!
specialty of 'rovence.
Panne'uet
rolled cr?pe, filled andBor covered with sweet or savory mi+ture.
Panoufle
-enerally discarded belly flap from saddle of lamb, veal, and beef!
sometimes grilled.
Pantin
small pork pastry.
Pa"eton
eggplant, fried, pur?ed, and cooked in a ring mold! specialty of 'rovence.
Pa"illon
)butterfly)! small crinkle-shelled creuse oyster from the tlantic coast.
Pa"illote, en
cooked in parchment paper or foil wrapping.
Pa'uet (en)
(in) a package or parcel.
Parfait
a dessert mousse! also, mousse-like mi+ture of chicken, duck, or goose
liver.
Parfum
flavor.
Paris-Brest, g?teau
classic, large, crown-shaped chou+ pastry filled with praline butter cream
and topped with chopped almonds.
Parisienne, ? la
varied vegetable garnish which generally includes potato balls that have
been fried and tossed in a meat gla$e.
Parmentier
dish with potatoes.
Passe rassane
flavorful variety of winter pear.
Passe-Pierre
edible seaweed.
Past?'ue
watermelon.
Pastis
anise-flavored alcohol that becomes cloudy when water is added (the
most famous brands are 'ernod and 7icard). lso, name for tourti?re, the
flaky prune pastry from the southwest.
Pastiza
see g?teau bas&ue.
Pata .?gra (jambon)
'ri$ed ham from Spain, literally )black feet.)
Patagos
clam.
Petit-beurre
popular tea cookie made with butter.
Patte blanche
small crayfish no larger than @ <B@ ounces (=> g).
Patte rouge
large crayfish.
Pauchouse, "ochouse
stew of river fish that generally includes tanche (tench), perche (perch),
brochet (pike), and anguille (eel)! specialty of %urgundy.
Pau"iette
slice of meat or fish, filled, rolled, then wrapped! served warm.
Pa!
)paving stone)! usually a thick slice of boned beef or calfs liver. lso, a
kind of pastry.
Pa!? d'Auge
thick, ochre colored s&uare of cow's-milk cheese that comes from the
uge area of 4ormandy.
Pa!ot (graine de)
poppy (seed).
Paysan(ne) (? la)
country style! (garnish of carrots, turnips, onions, celery and bacon).
Peau
skin.
Perdreau
young partridge.
Perigourdine, a la, or Perigueux
sauce, usually with truffles and foie gras, named for the 'erigord in
southwestern 3rance.
Persillade
blend of chopped parsley and garlic.
Perdrix
partridge.
Persillade
blend of chopped parsley and garlic.
Petit d?jeuner
breakfast.
Pet de nonne
)nuns fart)! small, dainty beignets, or fried pastry.
Petit sal
salt-cured portions of lean pork belly, often served with lentils.
Petit-four (sucr? or sal?e)
tiny cake or pastry (sweet or savory)! in elegant restaurants, served with
cocktails before dinner or with coffee afterward! also called mignardise.
Petite marmite
earthenware casserole! the broth served from it.
Petit-gris
small land snail.
Pibale
tiny eel, also called civelle.
Picodon (m?thode 1ieulefit)
small disc of goat's-milk cheese, the best of which (&ualified as m?thode
:ieulefit) is hard, pi&uant, and pungent from having soaked in brandy and
aged a month in earthenware 2ars! specialty of northern 'rovence.
Pied de che!al
)horses foot)! giant tlantic coast oyster.
Pied de mouton
meaty cream-colored wild mushroom. lso, sheep's foot.
Pieds et "a'uets
)feet and packages)! mutton tripe rolled and cooked with sheep's feet,
white wine, and tomatoes! specialty of 'rovence and the /editerranean.
Pigeon (neau)
pigeon or s&uab (young pigeon or s&uab).
Pignons
pine nuts, found in the cones of pine trees growing in 'rovence and along
the southwestern tlantic coast.
Pilau, "ilaf
rice saut?ed with onion and simmered in broth.
Pilchard
name for sardines on the tlantic coast.
Piment d'+s"elette
slender, mildly hot chile pepper from .spelette, a village in the %as&ue
region.
Piment doux
sweet pepper.
Piment (or "oi!re) de 0ama?'ue
allspice.
Pineau des harentes
sweet fortified wine from the "ognac region on the tlantic coast, served
as an aperitif.
Pintade(au)
(young) guinea fowl.
Pi"?rade
a dish of pepper! onions, tomatoes, and often ham and scrambled eggs!
specialty of the %as&ue region.
Pi'uant(e)
sharp or spicy tasting.
Pi'uenchagne, "icanchagne
a pear tart with walnut or brioche crust! specialty of the %ourbonnais, a
province in uvergne.
Pissaladi?re
a flat open-face tart like a pi$$a, garnished with onions, olives, and
anchovies! specialty of 4ice.
Pistache
pistachio nut.
Pistil de safran
thread of saffron.
Plaice
a small, orange-spotted flounder or fluke, a flat ocean fish! also known as
plie franch or carrelet. 3ound in the .nglish "hannel.
Plat cuisin
dish containing ingredients that have cooked together, usually in a sauce.
Plat du jour
todays special.
Plateau de fruits de mer
seafood platter combining raw and cooked shell-fish! usually includes
oysters, clams, mussels, langoustines, periwinkles, whelks, crabs, and tiny
shrimp.
Poitrine demi-sel
Poitrine fum
smoked slab bacon.
Plat "rinci"al
main dish.
Plate
flat-shelled oyster.
Plateau
platter.
Plateau de fruits de mer
seafood platter combining raw and cooked shell-fish! usually includes
oysters, clams, mussels, langoustines, periwinkles, whelks, crabs, and tiny
shrimp.
Plates c?tes
part of beef ribs usually used in pot-au feu.
Plombi?re
classic dessert of vanilla ice cream, candied fruit, kirsch, and apricot 2am.
Pogne
brioche flavored with orange-flower water and filled with fruits! specialty of
7omans-sur-#s?re, in the 7h?ne-lpes.
Point(e) (d'as"erge)
tip (of asparagus).
Poire 6illiams
variety of pear! colorless fruit brandy, or eau-de-vie, often made from this
variety of pear.
Poireau
leek.
Poi!rade
a peppery brown sauce made with wine, vinegar, and cooked vegetables
and strained before serving.
Poi!ron (doux)
(sweet bell) pepper.
Pojars&i
finely chopped meat or fish shaped like a cutlet and fried.
Polenta
cooked dish of cornmeal and water, usually with added butter and cheese!
also, cornmeal.
Pommade (beurre en)
usually refers to a thick, smooth paste! (creamed butter).
Pommes de terre
potatoes.
? langlaise boiled.
allumettes )match-sticks)! fries cut into very thin 2ulienne.
boulang?re potatoes cooked with the meat they accompany. lso,
a gratin of sliced potatoes, baked with milk or stock and sometimes
flavored with onions, bacon, and tomatoes.
darphin grated potatoes shaped into a cake.
dauphine mashed potatoes mi+ed with cbou+ pastry, shaped into
small balls and fried.
dauphinoise a gratin of sliced potatoes, baked with milk andBor
cream, garlic, cheese, and eggs.
duchesse mashed potatoes with butter, egg yolks, and nutmeg,
used for garnish.
en robe des champs( en robe de chambre potatoes boiled or
baked in their skin! potatoes in their 2ackets.
frites 3rench fries.
gratin?es browned potatoes, often with cheese.
lyonnaise potatoes saut?ed with onions.
macaire classic side dish of pur?ed potatoes shaped into small
balls and fried or baked in a flat cake.
mousseline potato pur?e enriched with butter, egg yolks, and
whipped cream.
paillasson fried pancake of grated potatoes.
pailles potatoes cut into 2ulienne strips, then fried.
Pont-)euf classic fries.
sarladaise sliced potatoes cooked with goose fat and (optionally)
truffles.
souffl?es small, thin slices of potatoes fried twice, causing them to
inflate so they resemble little pillows.
sous la c?ndre baked under cinders in a fireplace.
vapeur steamed or boiled potatoes.
Pommes en lair
carameli$ed apple slices, usually served with boudin noir (blood sausage).
Pom"e aux grattons
bread containing cracklings.
Pom"e ? lhuile, "om"e de .o
see -ibassier.
Porc (carr? de)
pork (loin).
a chicken-liver mousse.
Porcelet
young suckling pig.
Porchetta
young pig stuffed with offal, herbs, and garlic, and toasted! seen in
charcuteries in 4ice.
Porto (au)
(with) port.
Portugaise
elongated, crinkle-shell oyster.
Pot bouilli
another name for pot-au-feu.
Pot-au-feu
traditional dish of beef simmered with vegetables, often served in two or
mote courses! today chefs often use it to mean fish poached in fish stock
with vegetables.
Pot bouilli
another name for pot-au-feu.
Pot-de-cr?me
individual classic custard dessert, often chocolate.
Potage
soup.
Potimarron
see "itrouille.
Potje!leisch
a mi+ed meat terrine, usually of veal, pork, and rabbit! specialty of the
4orth.
Poularde
fatted hen.
Poule au "ot
boiled stuffed chicken with vegetables! specialty of the city of %?arn in the
southwest.
Poule d'3nde
turkey hen.
Poulet de Bresse
high-&uality chicken raised on farms to e+acting specifications, from the
7h?ne-lpes.
Pot-au-feu
traditional dish of beef simmered with vegetables, often served in two or
mote courses! today chefs often use it to mean fish poached in fish stock
with vegetables.
Poule faisane
female pheasant.
Poulet bas'uaise
%as&ue-style chicken, with tomatoes and sweet peppers.
Poulet de Bresse
high-&uality chicken raised on farms to e+acting specifications, from the
7h?ne-lpes.
Poulet fermier
free-range chicken.
Poulet de grain
corn-fed chicken.
Pouligny-/aint-Pierre
village in the ,oire valley that gives its name to a goat's-milk cheese
shaped like a truncated pyramid with a mottled, grayish rind and a
smooth-grained, ivory-white interior.
Pousse-en-claire
6ysters that have been aged and fattened in claire, or oyster beds, for
four to eight months.
Poutargue, boutargue
salted, pressed, and flattened mullet roe, generally spread on toast as an
appeti$er! specialty of 'rovence and the /editerranean.
Pr?-sal? (agneau de)
delicately salted lamb raised on the salt marshes of 4ormandy and the
tlantic coast.
Praire
small clam.
Pralin
ground carameli$ed almonds.
Praline
carameli$ed almonds.
Printani?re
garnish of a variety of spring vegetables cut into dice or balls.
Prix fixe
fi+ed-price menu.
Profiterole(s)
classic chou pastry dessert, usually puffs of pastry filled with vanilla ice
cream and topped with hot chocolate sauce.
Pro!en?ale
in the style of 'rovence! usually includes garlic, tomatoes, andBor olive oil.
Prune (d'ente)
fresh plum! (variety of plum grown in the famed gen region of the
southwest).
Pruneau
prune.
Puits d'amour
)wells of love)! classic small pastry crowns filled with pastry cream.
7uasi (de !eau)
standing rump (of veal).
7uatre ?"ices
spice blend of ground ginger, nutmeg, white pepper, and cloves.
7uatre-'uarts
)four &uarters)! pound cake made with e&ual weights of eggs, flour, butter,
and sugar.
7uetsche
small purple :amson plum.
7ueue (de boeuf)
tail (of beef!o+tail).
7uiche lorraine
savory custard tart made with bacon, eggs, and cream.
8?ble de li?!re (la"in)
saddle of hare (rabbit).
8?moulade (c?leri)
sauce of mayonnaise, capers, mustard, herbs, anchovies, and gherkins!
(dish of shredded celery root with mayonnaise).
8a?to
red wine sauce that generally includes onions, tomatoes, garlic, herbs,
olives, and capers, usually served warm over grilled fish! specialty of
'rovence.
8aclette
rustic dish, from Swit$erland and the Savoie, of melted cheese served with
boiled potatoes, tiny pickled cucumbers, and onions! also, the cheese
used in the dish.
8adis
small red radish.
8adis noir
large black radish, often served with cream, as a salad.
8afra?chi
cool, chilled, or fresh.
8ago?t
stew! usually of meat.
8aie (boucl?e)
skate or ray, found in the .nglish "hannel, tlantic, and /editerranean.
8aifort
horseradish.
8aisin
grape! raisin.
de *orinthe currant.
de Smyrne sultana.
sec raisin.
8ame'uin
small individual casserole. lso, a small tart. lso, a small goat's-milk
cheese from the %ugey, an area in the northern 7h?ne valley.
8amier
wood or wild pigeon.
8ascasse
gurnard, or scorpion fish in the rockfish family! an essential ingredient of
bouillabaisse, the fish stew of the /editerranean.
8atafia
li&ueur made by infusing nut or fruit in brandy.
8a!igote
classic thick vinaigrette sauce with vinegar, white wine, shallots, and
herbs. lso, cold mayonnaise with capers, onions, and herbs.
8a!iole de 8oyans
tiny ravioli pasta filled with goat cheese, from the 7h?ne-lpes.
8atatouille
a cooked dish of eggplant, $ucchini, onions, tomatoes, peppers, garlic,
and olive oil, served hot or cold! specialty of 'rovence.
8atte
small, bite-si$e potatoes, often used for pur?es.
8a!igote
classic thick vinaigrette sauce with vinegar, white wine, shallots, and
herbs. lso, cold mayonnaise with capers, onions, and herbs.
8a!ioli ? la ni?oise
s&uare or round pasta filled with meat andBor swiss chard and baked with
grated cheese.
8eblochon
smooth, supple, creamy cow's-milk cheese from the Savoie in the lps.
8eine-laude
greengage plum.
8einette, reine de
fall and winter variety of apple, deep yellow with a red blush.
8eligieuse, "etite
)nun)! a small version of a classic pastry consisting of two chou+ puffs
filled with chocolate, coffee, or vanilla pastry cream, placed one on top of
another, and frosted with chocolate or coffee icing to resemble a nun in
her habit.
8e"as
meal.
8huharbe
rhubarb.
8igotte
small cow's-milk cheese from the ,yon region.
8illettes (d'oie)
minced spread of pork (goose)! can also be made with duck, fish, or
rabbit.
8is d'agneau (de !eau)
lamb (veal) sweetbreads.
8obe des cham"s, robe de chambre ("ommes
potatoes boiled or baked in their skin! potatoes in their 2ackets.
8ocamadour
village in southwestern 3rance which gives its name to a tiny disc of
cheese, once made of pure goat's or sheep's milk, now generally either
goat
8ognonnade
veal loin with kidneys attached.
8ognons
kidneys.
8omanoff
fruit, often strawberries, macerated in li&ueur and topped with whipped
cream.
8omarin
rosemary.
8ondelle
round slice--of lemon, for e+ample.
8o'uefort
disc of blue veined cheese of raw sheep's milk from southwestern 3rance,
aged in village of 7o&uefort-sur-Soul$on.
8osette (de boeuf)
large dried pork (beef) sausage, from area around ,yon.
8ouennaise (canard ? la)
in the style of 7ouen! (classic dish of duck stuffed with its liver in a blood-
thickened sauce).
8ouget barbet, rouget de roche
red mullet, a pri$ed, e+pensive rock-fish, with sweet flesh and red skin! its
flavorful liver is reserved for sauces.
8oulade
meat or fish roll, or rolled-up vegetahle souffl?! larger than a paupiette,
and often stuffed.
8ouget grondin
red gurnard, a large, common rockfish, less pri$ed than rouget barbet.
variety of galinette. n ingredient in bouillabaisse.
8ougette
a small red-leafed butterhead lettuce, specialty of 'rovence.
8oyale, ? la
)royal-style)! rich classic preparation, usually with truffles and a cream
sauce.
8umstec&
rump steak.
8usse, salade ? la
cold mi+ed salad of peas and diced carrots and turnips in mayonnaise.
/abayon, zabaglione
frothy sweet sauce of egg yolks, sugar, wine, and flavoring that is whipped
while being cooked in a water bath.
/abodet
strong, earthy pork sausage of pigs head and skin, served hot! specialty of
,yon.
/afran
saffron.
/aignant(e)
cooked rare, for meat, usually beef.
/aindoux
lard or pork fat.
/aint 0ac'ues, co'uille
sea scallop.
/aint--ermain
with peas.
/aint-(ubert
poivrade sauce with chestnuts and bacon added.
/aint-*arcellin
small flat disc of cow's-milk cheese (once made of goat's milk) made in
dairies in the #s?re, outside ,yon. 0he best is well aged and runny. 3ound
in 'aris, the ,yons area, and northern 'rovence.
/aint-.ectaire
village in the uvergne that gives its name to a supple, thick disc of cow's-
milk cheese with a mottled gray rind.
/aint-Pierre
8ohn :ory, a pri$ed mild, flat, white ocean fish. 5nown as soleil and 8ean
:or? in the 4orth, and poule de mer along the tlantic coast.
/aint-9incent
moist, buttery, thick cylinder of cow's-milk cheese from %urgundy with a
rust-colored rind! similar to .poisses, but aged a bit longer, therefore
stronger.
/ainte-*aure
village in the ,oire valley that gives its name to a soft, elongated cylinder
of goat's-milk cheese with a distinctive straw in the middle and a mottled,
natural blue rind.
/al
salted.
/alade
salad! also, a head of lettuce.
/alade folle
mi+ed salad, usually including green beans and foie gras.
/alade lyonnaise
green salad with cubed bacon and soft-cooked eggs, often served with
herring and anchovies, andBor sheep's feet and chicken livers! specialty of
,yon! also called saladier lyonnais.
/alade ni?oise
salad with many variations, but usually with tomatoes, green beans,
anchovies, tuna, potatoes, black olives, capers, and artichokes.
/alade "anach
mi+ed salad.
/alade russe
mi+ed diced vegetables in mayonnaise.
/alade !erte
green salad.
/aladier (lyonnais)
see Salade lyonnaise.
/alers
"antal-type cheese, made in rustic cheese-making houses only when the
cows are in the uvergnes mountain pastures, from /ay to September.
/alicorne
edible seaweed, sea string bean! often pickled and served as a
condiment.
/almis
classic preparation of roasted game birds or poultry, with sauce made
from the pressed carcass.
/al"icon
diced vegetables, meat, andBor fish in a sauce, used as a stuffing, garnish,
or spread.
/alsifis
salsify, oyster plant.
/andre
pickerel, perch-like river fish, found in the Sa?ne and 7hine.
/ang
blood.
/anglier
wild boar.
/angue
"orsican black pudding usually with grapes or herbs.
/anguine
)blood) orange, so named for its red 2uice.
/ansonnet
Starling or thrush.
/ar, sargue
blacktail, a tiny flat fish of the sea bream family best grilled or baked.
/arcelle
teal, a species of wild duck.
/ardine
small sardine. ,arge sardines are called pilchards. 3ound year-round in
the /editerranean, from /ay to 6ctober in the tlantic.
/arladaise
as prepared in Sarlat in the :ordogne! with truffles.
/arrasin
buckwheat.
/arriette
summer savory. See poivre d'ain.
/aucisse
small fresh sausage.
/aucisse chaude
warm sausage.
/aucisse de 2rancfort
hot dog.
/aucisse de /trasbourg
redskinned hot dog.
/aucisse de :oulouse
mild country-style pork sausage.
/aucisson
most often, a large air-dried sausage, such as salami, eaten sliced as a
cold cut! when fresh, usually called saucisson chaud, or hot sausage.
/aucisson ? lail
garlic sausage, usually to be cooked and served warm.
/aucisson d'Arles
dried salami-style sausage that blends pork, beef and gentle seasoning! a
specialty of rles, in 'rovence.
/aucisson de cam"agne
any country-style sausage.
/aucisson de 5yon
air-dried pork sausage, flavored with garlic and pepper and studded with
chunks of pork fat.
/aucisson de *orteau
see 8?sus de /orteau.
/aucisse de /trasbourg
redskinned hot dog.
/aucisse de :oulouse
mild country-style pork sausage.
/aucisson d'Arles
dried salami-style sausage that blends pork, beef and gentle seasoning! a
specialty of rles, in 'rovence.
/aucisson de cam"agne
any country-style sausage.
/aucisson de 5yon
air-dried pork sausage, flavored with garlic and pepper and studded with
chunks of pork fat.
/aucisson en cro?te
sausage cooked in a pastry crust.
/aucisson sec
any dried sausage, or salami.
/auge
sage.
/aumon (sau!age)
salmon ()wild,) to differentiate from commercially raised salmon).
/aumon d'+cosse
Scottish salmon.
/aumon de fontaine
small, commercially raised salmon.
/aumon fum
smoked salmon.
/aumon nor!?gien
4orwegian salmon.
/aumon (sau!age)
salmon ()wild,) to differentiate from commercially raised salmon).
/aumonette
see 7oussette.
/au"i'uet
classic aromatic wine sauce thickened with bread.
/aut
browned in fat.
/au!age
wild.
/a!arin
yeast-leavened cake shaped like a ring, soaked in sweet syrup.
/a!oie (biscuit de)
sponge cake.
/a!oyarde
in the style of Savoy, usually flavored with -ruy?re cheese.
/carole
escarole.
/chieffele, schieffala, schifela
smoked pork shoulder, served hot and garnished with pickled turnips or a
potato and onion salad.
/ec (s?che)
dry or dried.
/eiche
cuttlefish. Seigle (pain de)
rye (bread).
/el (gros)
coarse salt.
/el gris
salt, unbleached sea salt.
/el marin
sea salt.
/elon grosseur (/;-;)
according to si$e, usually said of lobster or other seafood.
/elon le march
according to what is in season or available.
/elles-sur-her
village in the ,oire valley identified with a small, flat, truncated cylinder of
goat's-milk cheese with a mottled blueish-gray rind (sometimes patted with
powdered charcoal) and a pure-white interior.
/elon "oid (/;P;)
according to weight, usually said of seafood. Semolina or crushed wheat.
lso used in 3rance as a savory garnish, particularly in 4orth frican
dishes such as couscous.
/er!ice
meal, mealtime, the serving of the meal. restaurant has two services if it
serves lunch and dinner! a dish en deu+ services, like canard press?. is
served in two courses.
/er!ice (non) com"ris
service charge (not) included in the listed menu prices (but invariably
included on the bill).
/er!ice en sus
service charge to be made in addition to menu prices. Same as service
non compris.
/mitane
sauce of cream, onions, white wine, and lemon 2uice.
/occa
a very thin, round cr?pe made with chickpea flour, sold on the streets of
4ice and eaten as a snack.
/oja ("ousse de)
soy bean (soy bean sprout).
/oja, sauce de
soy sauce.
/ouffl
light, mi+ture of pur?ed ingredients, egg yolks, and whipped egg whites,
which puffs up when baked! sweet or savory, hot or cold.
/oumaintrain
a spicy, supple flat disc of cow's-milk cheese with a red-brown rind! from
%urgundy.
/ou"ir de nonne
)nuns sighs)! fried chou+ pastry dusted with confectioners sugar. "reated
by a nun in an lsatian abbey. lso called pet de nonne.
/"?tzel, s"aetzle, s"etzli
noodle-like lsatian egg and flour dumpling, served poached or fried.
/tea&-frites
classic 3rench dish of grilled steak served with 3rench-fried potatoes.
/toc&fish, stocaficada, estoficada, esto
flattened, dried cod found in southern 3rance. lso, a pur?e-like blend of
dried codfish, olive oil, tomatoes, sweet peppers, black olives, potatoes,
garlic, onions, and herbs! specialty of 4ice. Sometimes served with pistou.
/trasbourgeoise, ? la
ingredients typical of Strasbourg including sauerkraut, foie gras, and salt
pork.
/ucc?s ? la "raline
cake made with praline meringue layers, frosted with meringue and butter
cream.
/ucre
sugar.
/tea&-frites
classic 3rench dish of grilled steak served with 3rench-fried potatoes.
:?te de !eau ("orc)
head of veal (pork), usually used in headcheese.
:?tragone
spinach-like green, found in 'rovence.
:able d'h?te
open table or board. 6ften found in the countryside, these are private
homes that serve fi+ed meals and often have one or two guest rooms as
well.
:ablette (de chocolat)
bar (of chocolate).
:ablier de sa"eur
)firemans apron)! tripe that is marinated, breaded, and grilled! specialty of
,yon.
:acaud
pour or whiting-pour, a small, ine+pensive fish found in the tlantic and
/editerranean, usually fried.
:agine
spicy 4orth frican stew of veal, lamb, chicken, or pigeon, and vegetables.
:almouse
savory pastry triangle of cheese-flavored chou+ dough baked in puff
pastry.
:ami
3lat disc of cheese, made of cow's milk at the 0rappist monastery in the
Savoie village of 0ami?. Similar to 7eblochon.
:anche
tench, a river fish with a mild, delicate flavor! often an ingredient in
matelote and pauchouse, freshwater fish stews.
:a"enade
a blend of black olives, anchovies, capers, olive oil, and lemon 2uice,
sometimes with rum or canned tuna added! specialty of 'rovence.
:arama
carp roe, often made into a spread of the same name.
:arbas
variety of large white bean, usually dried.
:artare (de "oisson)
traditionally chopped raw beef, seasoned and garnished with raw egg,
capers, chopped onion, and parsley! (today, a popular highly seasoned
raw fish dish).
:arte
tart! open-face pie or flan, usually sweet.
:arte encalat
name for cheesecake in the uvergne.
:arte flamb
thin-crusted savory tart, much like a rectangular pi$$a, covered with
cream, onions, and bacon! specialty of lsace! also called 3lamekueche.
:arte encalat
name for cheesecake in the uvergne.
:arte flamb
thin-crusted savory tart, much like a rectangular pi$$a, covered with
cream, onions, and bacon! specialty of lsace! also called 3lamekueche.
:arte :atin
carameli$ed upside-down apple pie, made famous by the 0atin sisters in
their hotel in ,amotte-%euvron, in the Sologne! a popular dessert, seen on
menus all over 3rance.
:artine
open-face sandwich! buttered bread.
:asse
cup! a coffee or tea cup.
:hermidor (homard)
classic lobster dish! lobster split lengthwise, grilled, and served in the shell
with a cream sauce.
:endre
tender.
:endron
cartilaginous meat cut from beef or veal ribs.
:eurgoule
a sweet rice pudding with cinnamon! specialty of 4ormandy.
:hon (blanc) (germon)
tuna (white albacore).
:hon rouge
bluefin tuna.
:ian
an earthenware gratin dish! also vegetable gratins baked in such a dish!
from 'rovence.
:imbale
small round mold with straight or sloping slides! also, a mi+ture prepared
in such a mold.
:i?de
lukewarm.
:omme fraiche
pressed cake of fresh milk curds, used in the regional dishes of the
uvergne.
:omates ? la "ro!en?ale
baked tomato halves sprinkled with garlic, parsley, and bread crumbs.
:omme arl?sienne
rectangular cheese made with a blend of goat's and cow's milk and
sprinkled with summer savory! also called tomme de "amargue! a
specialty of the ,anguedoc and rles, in 'rovence.
:omme fraiche
pressed cake of fresh milk curds, used in the regional dishes of the
uvergne.
:o"inambour
8erusalem artichoke.
:oro (taureau)
bull! meat found in butcher shops in the ,anguedoc and 'ays %as&ue,
and sometimes on restaurant menus.
:orr?fi
roasted, as in coffee beans and chocolate.
:orteau au fromage
goat cheese cheesecake from the 'oitou-"harentes along the tlantic
coast! a blackened, spherical loaf found at cheese shops throughout
3rance! once a homemade delicacy, today prepared industrially.
:oucy
village in %urgundy that gives its name to a local fresh goat cheese.
:ournedos
center portion of beef filet, usually grilled or saut?ed.
:ournedos 8ossini
saut?ed tournedos garnished with foie gras and truffles.
:ourain, tourin, tourrin
generally a peasant soup of garlic, onions (and sometimes tomatoes), and
broth or water, thickened with egg yolks and seasoned with vinegar!
specialty of the southwest.
:ourte (aux blettes)
pie (common 4i?oise dessert pie filled with Swiss chard, eggs, cheese,
raisins, and pine nuts). lso, name for giant rounds of country bread found
in the uvergne and the southwest.
:ourteau
large crab.
:rain de c?tes
rib of beef.
:raiteur
caterer! delicatessen.
:ranche
slice.
:ra""iste
name given to the mild, lactic cow's-milk cheese made in a 0rappist
monastery in .chourgnac, in the southwest.
:ra!ers de "orc
spareribs.
:ri"es ? la mode de aen
beef tripe, carrots, onions, leeks, and spices, cooked in water, cider, and
"alvados (apple brandy)! specialty of 4ormandy.
:ri"le cr?me
legal name for cheese containing more than => percent butterfat, such as
%rillat-Savarin.
:ri"oxa
%as&ue name for sheep's or calfs blood sausage served with spicy red
.spelette peppers.
:rom"ettes de la mort
dark brown wild mushroom, also known as )horn of plenty.)
:rouchia
flat omelet filled with spinach or Swiss chard! specialty of 'rovence.
:ruffade
a large layered and fried potato pancake made with bacon and fresh
"antal cheese! specialty of the uvergne.
:ruffe (truff
truffle (with truffles).
:ruffes sous la cendre
truffles wrapped in pastry or foil, gently warmed as they are buried in
ashes.
:ruite (au bleu)
trout (a preferred method of cooking trout, not live, as often assumed, but
rather in a )live condition.) 0he trout is gutted 2ust moments prior to
cooking, but neither washed nor scaled. #t is then plunged into a hot
mi+ture of vinegar and water, and the slimy lubricant that protects the skin
of the fish appears to turn the trout a bluish color. 0he fish is then removed
to a broth to finish its cooking.)
de lac lake trout.
de mer sea trout or brown trout.
de rivi?re river trout.
saumone? salmon trout.
:urban
usually a mi+ture or combination of ingredients cooked in a ring mold.
unilat?ral
6ne-sided - e.g.( saumon ? lunilat?ral G salmon grilled only on one side.
9?roni'ue, ? la
garnish of peeled white grapes. ;ert-pr?
a watercress garnish, sometimes including potatoes.
9ache
cow.
9acherin
dessert of baked meringue, with ice cream and whipped cream. lso a
strong, supple winter cheese encircled by a band of spruce, from the 8ura.
9all?e d'Auge
area of 4ormandy. lso, garnish of cooked apples and cream or "alvados
and cream.
9anille
vanilla.
9a"eur, ? la
steamed.
9arech
seaweed.
9eau
veal.
9iande
meat.
9ichyssoise
cold, creamy leek and potato soup.
9ierge (sauce)
)virgin)! term for the best &uality olive oil, from the first pressing of the olives!
(sauce of olive oil, lemon 2uice, garlic, tomatoes, and fresh herbs.)
9inaigre de x?r
sherry vinegar.
9iolet de Pro!ence
braid of plump garlic, a specialty of 'rovence and the "?te-d'$ur.
9iolet or figue de mer
unusual iodine-strong, soft-shelled edible sea creature, with a yellowish
interior. delicacy along the /editerranean, particularly in /arseille.
9iroflay
classic garnish of spinach for poached or soft-cooked eggs.
9i!e or !i"?re de mer
weever! a small firm-fleshed ocean fish used in soups, such as
bouillabaisse, or grilled. 0he venomous spine is removed before cooking.
9entr?che
pork belly.
9erdure (en)
garnish of green vegetables.
9erdurette
herb vinaigrette.
9ichy
with gla$ed carrots. lso, a brand of mineral water.
9ierge (sauce)
)virgin)! term for the best &uality olive oil, from the first pressing of the
olives! (sauce of olive oil, lemon 2uice, garlic, tomatoes, and fresh herbs.)
9in jaune
an amber yellow wine made in the 8ura with late harvested grapes. Stored
in oak casks, it can last up to a century.
9inaigre (!ieux)
vinegar (aged).
9inaigrette
oil and vinegar dressing.
9iognier
increasingly popular white grape of the 7h?ne, used for the famed
"ondrieu .
9iolet or figue de mer
unusual iodine-strong, soft-shelled edible sea creature, with a yellowish
interior. delicacy along the /editerranean, particularly in /arseille.
9iroflay
classic garnish of spinach for poached or soft-cooked eggs.
9ol-au-!ent
puff pastry shell.
9onnaissienne, ? la
in the style of ;onnas, a village in the 7h?ne-lpes. lso, cr?pes made
with potatoes.
6aterzooi
3lemish chicken stew cooked with aromatic herbs and vegetables in a
sauce of cream and chicken broth.
<eres (!inaigre de)
sherry (vinegar).
=aourt
yogurt.
>atar
/iddle .astern seasoning mi+ of ground sesame seeds, sumac berrries,
thyme and salt.
>e)elmai, ze)el)ai
lsatian onion tart.
>ingara, ? la
gypsy style! with tomato sauce. lso classically, a garnish of ham,
tongue, mushrooms, and truffles
a la Bourgeoise, ? la Bourgeoise
'repared in the family style.
A "oint
cooked medium rare.
A?go bouido
garlic soup, served with oil, over slices of bread! a specialty of 'rovence.
A?oli, ailloli
garlic mayonnaise. lso, salt cod, hard-cooked eggs, boiled snails, and
vegetables served with garlic mayonnaise! specialty of 'rovence.
Abati(s)
giblet(s) of poultry or game fowl.
Abricot
apricot.
Acacia
the acacia tree, the blossoms of which are used for making fritters! also
honey made from the blossom.
Achatine
land snail, or escargot, imported from "hina and #ndonesia! less pri$ed
than other varieties.
Addition
bill.
Affin
aged, as with cheese.
Affinage
process of aging cheese.
Agneau (de lait)
lamb (young, milk-fed).
Agneau chilindron
saut? of lamb with potatoes and garlic, specialty of the %as&ue country.
Agneau de Paulliac
breed of lamb from the southwest.
Aiglefin', aigrefin, ?glefin
small fresh haddock, a type of cod.
Aigre
bitter! sour.
Aigre-doux
sweet and sour.
Aigrelette, sauce
a sort of tart sauce.
Aiguillette
a long, thin slice of poultry, meat, or fish. lso, top part of beef rump.
Ail
garlic.
Aile
wing of poultry or game bird.
Aile et cuisse
used to describe white breast meat (aile) and dark thigh meat (cuisse),
usually of chicken.
Aill
with garlic.
Aillade
garlic sauce! also, dishes based on garlic.
Aillet
shoot of mild winter baby garlic, a specialty of the 'oitou-"harentes region
along the tlantic coast.
Airelle
wild cranberry.
Aisy cendr
thick disc of cow's-milk cheese, washed with eau-de-vie and patted with
wood ashes! also called cendre d'aisy( a specialty of %urgundy.
Aligot
mashed potatoes with tomme (the fresh curds used in making "antal
cheese) and garlic! specialty of the uvergne.
Alisier, alizier
eau-de-vie with the taste of bitter almonds, made with the wild red
serviceberries that grow in the forests of lsace.
Alsacienne, ? l'
in the style of lsace, often including sauerkraut, sausage, or foie gras.
Am?ricaine, Amoricaine
sauce of white wine, "ognac, tomatoes, and butter.
Amandine
with almonds.
Ambroisie
ambrosia.
Ami du hambertin
)friend of "hambertin wine)! moist and buttery short cylinder of cow's milk
cheese with a rust-colored rind, made near the village of -evrey-
"hambertin in %urgundy. Similar to .poisses cheese.
Anchois (de ollioure)
anchovy (pri$ed salt-cured anchovy from "ollioure, a port town near the
Spanish border of the ,anguedoc), fished in the tlantic and the
/editerranean.
Ancienne, ? l'
in the old style.
Andouille
large smoked chitterling (tripe) sausage, usually served cold.
Andouillette
small chitterling (tripe) sausage, usually served grilled.
Anglaise, ? l'
.nglish style, plainly cooked.
Anguille (au !ert)
eel! (poached in herb sauce).
Anis
anise or aniseed.
Anis ?toil
star anise.
Anise ?toil
star anise! also called badiane, anis de la chine. 0he anise plant! its dried
star-shaped fruit.
A"?ritif
a before-dinner drink that stimulates the appetite, usually somewhat sweet
or mildly bitter.
A""ellation d'origine contr?l?e (A#)
specific definition of a particular cheese, butter, fruit, wine, or poultry--once
passed down from generation to generation now recogni$ed by law--
regulating the animal breed or variety of fruit, the $one of production,
production techni&ues, composition of the product, its physical
characteristics, and its specific attributes.
Ar%te
fish bone.
Arachide (huile d'$ "?t? d')
peanut (oil! butter).
Araign?e de mer
spider crab.
Arbousier (miel d')
trailing arbutus, small evergreen shrubby tree of the heather family, also
called strawberry tree, ground laurel and madrona tree with strawberry-like
fruit dotted with tiny bumps! (honey of). 1sed for making li&ueurs, 2ellies,
and 2ams.
Arc en ciel (truite)
rainbow (trout).
Ardennaise, ? l'
in the style of the rdennes, a d?partement in northern 3rance! generally a
dish with 2uniper berries.
Ardi gasna
%as&ue name for sheep's-milk cheese.
Ardoise
blackboard! bistros often use a blackboard to list specialties in place of a
printed menu.
Arl?sienne, ? l'
in the style of rles, a town in 'rovence! with tomatoes, onions, eggplant,
potatoes, rice, and sometimes olives.
Artichaut
(violet) artichoke (small purple) (camus) snub-nosed..
Artichaut ? la Barigoule
in original form, artichokes cooked with mushrooms and oil! also, artichoke
stuffed with ham, onion, and garlic, browned in oil with onions and bacon,
then cooked in water or white wine! specialty of 'rovence.
As"erge (!iolette)
asparagus (purple-tipped asparagus, a specialty of the "?te-d'$ur).
Assaisonn
seasoned! seasoned with.
Assiette anglaise
assorted cold meats, usually served as a first course.
Assiette de "?cheur
assorted fish platter.
Assoif
parched, thirsty.
Assorti(e)
assorted.
Aubergine
eggplant.
Aum?ni?re
)beggar's purse)! thin cr?pe, filled and tied like a bundle.
A!eline
ha$elnut or filbert, better known as noisette.
A!oine
oat.
Azyme, "ain
unleavened bread! mat$o.
B?arnaise
tarragon-flavored sauce of egg yolks, butter, shallots, white wine, vinegar!
and herbs.
B?atille
)tidbit)! dish combining various organ meats.
B?cassine
small bird, a snipe.
B?tard, "ain
)bastard bread)! traditional long, thin white loaf, larger than a baguette.
Badiane
star anise.
Baguette au le!ain or ? l'ancienne
sourdough baguette.
Baie
berry.
Baie rose
pink peppercorn.
Baign
bathed.
Ballotine
usually poultry boned, stuffed, and rolled.
Barbouillade
stuffed eggplant, or an eggplant stew! also, a combination of beans and
artichokes.
Basilic
basil.
Bas'uaise, ? la
%as&ue style! usually with ham or tomatoes or red peppers.
Bata!ia
salad green, a broad, flat-leafed lettuce.
Baudroie
in 'rovence, the name for monkfish or anglerfish, the large, firm-fleshed
ocean fish also known as lotte and gigot de met, also a specialty of
'rovence, a fish soup that includes potstoes, onions, fresh mushrooms,
garlic, fresh or dried orange $est, artichokes, tomatoes, and herbs.
Ba!aroise
cold dessert! a rich custard made with cream and gelatin.
Beignet
fritter or doughnut.
Beignet de fleur de courgette
batter-fried $ucchini blossom! native to 'rovence and the /editerranean,
now popular all over 3rance.
Belle (?l?ne ("oire)
classic dessert of chilled poached fruit (pear), served on ice cream and
topped with hot chocolate sauce.
Belondines
%rittany creuses, or crinkle-shelled oysters that are affin?es or finished off
in the %elon river.
Bera)ec&a, biere)ec&e, bire)ec&, bire)ec
dense, moist "hristmas fruit bread stuffed with dried pears, figs, and nuts!
specialty of 5aysersberg, a village in lsace.
Berrichonne
garnish of bruised cabbage, gla$ed baby onions, chestnuts, and lean
bacon named for the old province of %erry.
Beurre de *ont"ellier
classic butter sauce seasoned with olive oil, herbs, garlic, and anchovies.
Beurre demi-sel
butter (lightly salted).
Beurre +chir
brand of the finest 3rench butter, preferred by 3rench chefs, with an 6"
pedigree, from the region of 'oitou-"harentes along the tlantic coast.
Beurre noir
sauce of browned butter, lemon 2uice or vinegar, parsley, and sometimes
capers! traditionally served with raie, or skate.
Beurre noisette
lightly browned butter.
Beurre !ierge
whipped butter sauce with salt, pepper, and lemon 2uice.
Bi?re (en bouteille, ? la "ression)
beer (bottled, on tap).
Bibels&,s, bibbels&,se
fresh cheese seasoned with horseradish, herbs, and spices! specialty of
lsace.
Biche
female deer.
Bien cuit(e)
cooked well done.
Biftec&
steak.
Bigarade
orange sauce.
Biggareau
red firm-fleshed variety of cherry.
Bigorneau
periwinkle, tiny sea snail.
Bigoud?ne, ? la
in the style of %igouden, a province in %rittany! (pommes) baked slices of
unpeeled potato! (rag?ut) sausage stewed with bacon and potato.
Billy Bi, Billy By
cream of mussel soup, specialty of the tlantic coast.
Biologi'ue
organic.
Biscuit ? la cuill?re
ladyfinger.
Bistrotier
bistro owner.
Bl? (noir)
wheat (buckwheat).
Blanc (de "oireau)
white portion (of leek).
Blanc (de !olaille)
usually breast (of chicken).
Blini
small thick pancake, usually eaten with caviar.
Boeuf ? la ficelle
beef tied with string and poached in broth.
Boh?mienne, ? la
gypsy style! with rice, tomatoes, onions, sweet peppers, and paprika, in
various combinations.
Boisson (non) com"rise
drink (not) included.
Bon-chr?tien
)good "hristian)! a variety of pear, also known as poire 9illiam's.
Bonite
a tuna, or oceanic bonito.
Bonne femme (cuisine)
meat garnish of bacon, potatoes, mushrooms, and onions! fish garnish of
shallots, parsley, mushrooms, and potatoes! or white wine sauce with
shallots, mushrooms, and lemon 2uice! (home-style cooking).
Bordelaise
%ordeau+ style! also refers to a brown sauce of shallots, red wine, and
bone marrow.
Boudin
technically, a meat sausage, but generically any sausage-shaped mi+ture.
Boudin blanc
white sausage of veal, chicken, or pork.
Boudin noir
pork blood sausage.
Bouillabaisse
popular /editerranean fish soup, most closely identified with /arseille,
ideally prepared with the freshest local fish, preferably rockfish.
0raditionally might include do$ens of different fish, but today generally
includes the specifically local rascasse (scorpion fish), Saint-'ierre (8ohn
:ory), fi?la (conger eel), galinette (gurnard or grondin), vive (weever), and
baudroie (monkfish) cooked in a broth of water, olive oil, onions, garlic,
tomatoes, parsley, and saffron. 0he fish is served separately from the
broth, which is poured over garlic-rubbed toast, and seasoned with rouille
which is stirred into the broth. ;aried additions include boiled potatoes,
orange peel, fennel, and shellfish. .+pensive shellfish are often added in
restaurant versions, but this practice is considered inauthentic.
Bouilliture
eel stew with red wine and prunes! specialty of the 'oitou-"harentes on
the tlantic coast.
Bouillon
stock or broth.
Boule de Picoulat
meatball from ,anguedoc, combining beef, pork, garlic, and eggs,
traditionally served with cooked white beans.
Bou'uet garni
typically fresh whole parsley bay leaf and thyme tied together with string
and tucked into stews! the package is removed prior to serving.
Bou'ueti?re
garnished with bou&uets of vegetables.
Bourgeoise, ? la
with carrots, onions, braised lettuce, celery and bacon.
Bourguignonne, ? la
%urgundy style! often with red wine, onions, mushrooms, and bacon.
Bouribot
spicy red-wine duck stew.
Bourride
a /editerranean fish soup that generally includes a mi+ture of small white
fish, onions, tomatoes, garlic, herbs, and olive oil, thickened with egg yolks
and a?oli (garlic mayonnaise)! there are many variations.
Bourriole
rye flour pancake, both sweet and savory! specialty of the uvergne.
Br?si (Breuzi)
smoked, salted, and dried beef from the 8ura.
Braiser
to braise! to cook meat by browning in fat, then simmering in covered dish
with small amount of li&uid.
Brayaude, gigot
leg of lamb studded with garlic, cooked in white wine, and served with red
beans, braised cabbage, or chestnuts.
Brebis (fromage de)
sheep (sheep's-milk cheese).
Brie de *eaux
)king of cheese,) the flat wheel of cheese made only with raw cow's milk
and aged at least four weeks! from /eau+, 2ust east of 'aris! brie made
with pasteuri$ed milk does not have the right to be called brie de /eau+.
Brie de *elun
smaller than brie de /eau+, another raw-cow's-milk cheese, aged at least
one month, with a crackly rust-colored rind.
Brillat-/a!arin
(<=>>-<?@A) famed gastronome, coiner of food aphorisms, and author of
0he 'hysiology of 0aste! the high-fat, supple cow's-milk cheese from
4ormandy is named for him.
Brioche
buttery egg-enriched yeast bread.
Brocciu
soft, young, sheep's milk cheese from "orsica.
Brocoli
broccoli.
Brouill?(s)
scrambled, usually eggs.
Brouillade
a mi+ture of ingredients as in a stew or soup! also, scrambled eggs.
Brunoise
tiny diced vegetables.
Buccin
large sea snail or whelk, also called bulot.
Buffet froid
variety of dishes served cold, sometimes from a buffet.
Buisson
)bush)! generally a dish including vegetables arranged like a bush!
classically a crayfish presentation.
?leri (en branche)
celery (stalk).
?leri remoulade
popular first-course bistro dish of shredded celery root with tangy
mayonnaise.
?leri-ra!e
celeriac, celery root.
abillaud
fresh codfish, also currently called morue, known as doguette in the 4orth,
bakalua in the %as&ue region, eglefin in 'rovence.
abri
young goat.
af?ine
caffeine.
agouille
on the tlantic coast, name for small petit gris land snail, or escargot.
aill
clotted or curdled! curds of milk.
aille
&uail.
aillette
round pork sausage including chopped spinach or Swiss chard, garlic,
onions, parsley, bread, and egg and wrapped in cr?pine (caul fat)! served
hot or cold! specialty of northern 'rovence.
aisse
cash register! or cash desk.
aissette
literally, )small bo+)! bread, brioche, or chocolate shaped like a small bo+.
alisson d'Aix
:elicate, diamond-shaped 'roven?al sweet prepared with almonds,
candied oranges, melon or abricots, egg white, sugar, and confiture of
oranges or apricots.
amembert (de .ormandie)
village in 4ormandy that gives its name to a supple, fragrant cheese made
of cow's milk.
amomille
camomile, herb tea.
am"agnard(e) (assiette)
country-style, rustic! (an informal buffet of cold meats, terrines, etc.).
ancoillotte
spreadable cheese from the 8ura! usually blended with milk, spices, or
white wine when served.
annois, ? la
in the style of "annes.
a"ilotade
basically any leftover meat or poultry cooked to tenderness in a well-
reduced sauce.
a"ucine
nasturtium! the leaves and flowers are used in salads.
aramelis
cooked with high heat to brown the sugar and heighten flavor.
ar"e ? la jui!e
braised marinated carp in aspic.
arte "romotionelle or conseill
a simple and ine+pensive fi+ed-price meal.
ar!i (grain de)
caraway (seed).
assis (cr?me de)
black currant (black currant li&ueur).
a!aillon
a town in 'rovence, known for its small, flavorful orange-fleshed melons.
a!iar d'aubergine
cold seasoned eggplant puree.
a!iar du Puy
green lentils from ,e 'uy, in the uvergne.
ebiche
seviche! generally raw fish marinated in lime 2uice and other seasonings.
erfeuil
chervil.
erise
cherry.
erise noire
black cherry.
h?taigne
chestnut, smaller than marron, with multiple nut meats.
h?telaine, ? la
elaborate garnish of artichoke hearts and chestnut pur?e, braised lettuce,
and saut?ed potatoes.
halutier
trawler! any flat fish caught with a trawl.
ham"ignon
mushroom.
? la bague( parasol mushroom with a delicate flavor! also called
coulemelle, cocherelle, and grisotte.
de bois( wild mushroom, from the woods.
de Paris( most common cultivated mushroom.
sauvage( wild mushroom.
hantilly
sweetened whipped cream.
harbon de bois, au
charcoal-grilled.
harentais
variety of sweet cantaloupe, or melon, originally from the "harentes, on
the tlantic coast.
harolais
area of %urgundy! light colored cattle producing high-&uality beef! also,
firm white cylinder of cheese made with goat's or cow's milk, or a mi+ture
of the two.
hateaubriand
thick filet steak, traditionally served with saut?ed potatoes and a sauce of
white wine, dark beef stock, butter, shallots, and herbs, or with a b?
arnaise sauce.
haud-froid
)hot-cold)! cooked poultry dish served cold, usually covered with a cooked
sauce, then with aspic.
hemise, en
wrapped with pastry.
he!reuil
young roe buck or roe deer! venison.
he!rier
small, pale green, dried kidney-shaped bean, a type of flageolet.
hichi
doughnut-like, deep-fried bread spirals sprinkled with sugar! often sold
from trucks at open-air markets! specialty of 'rovence and the
/editerranean.
hicons du .ord
%elgian endive.
hicor?e (fris?e)
a bitter salad green (curly endive)! also chicory, a coffee substitute.
"hicor?e de %ru+elles
%elgian endive.
hiffonnade
shredded herbs and vegetables, usually green.
hinchard
also called saurel, scad or horse mackerel! tlantic and /editerranean fish
similar to mackerel.
hi"iron (? l'encre)
southwestern name for small s&uid, or encornet (in its own ink).
hi"olata
small sausage.
hi"s, "ommes
potato chips.
hoix, au
a choice! usually meaning one may choose from several offerings.
horizo
highly spiced Spanish sausage.
hou de *ilan
Savoy cabbage.
hou fris
kale.
iboule
spring onion, or scallion.
iboulette
chives.
idre
bottled, mildly alcoholic cider, either apple or pear.
igale de mer
)sea cricket)! tender, crayfish-like, blunt-nosed rock lobster.
itron
lemon.
itron !ert
lime.
itron, orange, or "am"lemousse "ress?(e
lemon, orange, or grapefruit 2uice served with a carafe of tap water and
sugar! for sweetening to taste.
itronnelle
lemon grass, an oriental herb! also lemon balm (m?lisse).
itrouille
pumpkin, gourd. lso called courge, potiron, potimarron.
i!e
spring onion.
i!elle
spaghetti-like baby eel, also called pibale.
i!et
stew, usually of game traditionally thickened with blood.
i!et de li?!re
2ugged hare, or wild rabbit stew.
i!et de tri"es d'oies
a stew of goose innards, saut?ed in fat with onions, shallots, and garlic,
then cooked in wine vinegar and diluted with water, and thickened with
goose blood! from -ascony.
l?mentine
small tangerine, from /orocco or Spain.
lafoutis
traditional custard tart, usually made with black cherries! specialty of the
southwest.
laire
oyster! also a designation given to certain oysters to indicate they have
been put in claires, or oyster beds in salt marshes, where they are
fattened up for several months before going to market.
lo!isse
variety of very tiny clam, generally from the /editerranean.
ochon (de lait)
pig (suckling).
ochonnaille(s)
pork product(s), usually an assortment of sausages andBor p?t?s served
as a first course.
oco de Paim"ol
"ream-colored shell bean striated with purple, from %rittany, in season
from 8uly to 4ovember! the first bean in 3rance to receive 6".
oeur de filet
thickest (and best) part of beef filet, usually cut into chateaubriand steaks.
oeur de "almier
delicate shoots of the palm tree, generally served with a vinaigrette as an
hors d'oeuvre.
oiffe
traditional lacy hat! sausage patty wrapped in caul fat.
oing
&uince.
olin
hake, ocean fish related to cod! known as merluche in the 4orth,
merluchon in %rittany, bardot or merlan along the /editerranean.
om"otier
fruit bowl! also stewed ftuit.
om"ris
see Service (non) compris.
onfiserie
candy, sweet, or confection! a candy shop.
onfit
a preserve, generally pieces of duck, goose, or pork cooked and
preserved in their own fat! also fruit or vegetables preserved in sugar!
alcohol, or vinegar.
onfiture
2am.
onfiture de !ieux gar?on
varied fresh fruits macerated in alcohol.
onseill
advised, recommended.
onsommation(s)
)consumption)! drinks, meals, and snacks available in a cafe or bar.
ontre-filet
cut of sirloin taken above the loin on either side of the backbone, tied for
roasting or braising (can also be cut for grilling).
on!ersation
puff pastry tart with sugar gla$ing and an almond or cream filling.
o' (au !in)
mature male chicken (stewed in wine sauce).
o' au !in jaune
chicken cooked in the sherry-like vin 2aune of the region, with cream,
butter! and tarragon, often garnished with morels! specialty of the 8ura.
o'uillage(s)
shellfish.
o'uille
shell.
o'uille /aint-0ac'ues
sea scallop.
orail
coral-colored egg sac, found in scallops, spiny lobster, and crayfish.
oriandre
coriander! either the fresh herb or dried seeds.
ornichon
gherkin! tiny tart cucumber pickle.
otriade
a fish stew, usually including mackerel, whiting, conger eel, sorrel, butter,
potatoes, and vinegar! specialty of %rittany.
ou d'oie (de canard) farci
neck skin of goose (of duck), stuffed with meat and spices, much like
sausage.
oulibiac
classic, elaborate, hot 7ussian p?t?, usually layers of salmon, rice, hard-
cooked eggs, mushrooms, and onions, wrapped in brioche.
oulis
pur?e of raw or cooked vegetables or fruit.
oulommiers
town in the #le-de-3rance that gives its name to a supple, fragrant disc of
cow's-milk cheese, slightly larger than "amembert.
ourt-bouillon
broth, or aromatic poaching li&uid.
r?"ine
caul fat.
r?"inette
traditionally, a small sausage patty wrapped in caul fat! today boned
poultry wrapped in caul fat.
rami'ue
brioche with raisins or currants! specialty of the 4orth.
ra"audine
preparation of grilled poultry or game bird with backbone removed.
re!ette grise
tiny soft-fleshed shrimp that turns gray when cooked.
ri'ue
potato pancake from the uvergne.
riste marine
edible algae.
ro'ue-monsieur
toasted ham and cheese sandwich.
rottin de ha!ignol
small flattened ball of goat's-milk cheese from the ,oire valley."roustade
usually small pastry-wrapped dish! also regional southwestern pastry filled
with prunes andBor apples.
rudit
raw vegetable.
uilli?re (? la)
(to be eaten with a) spoon.
uisse (de "oulet)
leg or thigh (chicken drumstick).
uissot, cuisseau
haunch of veal, venison, or wild boar.
uit(e)
cooked.
ulti!ateur
)truck farmer)! fresh vegetable soup.
1?caf?in? or d?ca
decaffeinated coffee.
1?corti'u?(e)
shelled or peeled.
1?gustation
tasting or sampling.
1amier
)checkerboard)! arrangement of vegetables or other ingredients in
alternating colors like a checkerboard! also, a cake with such a pattern of
light and dark pieces.
1ariole
truncated cone or oval-shaped baking mold.
1artois
puff pastry rectangles layered with an almond cream filling as a dessert, or
stuffed with meat or fish as an hors-d'oeuvre.
1au"hin
cow's-milk cheese shaped like a dauphin, or dolphin! from the 4orth.
1emi
half! also, an ?-ounce (@>D ml) glass of beer! also, a half-bottle of wine.
1emi-deuil
)in half mourning)! poached (usually chicken) with sliced truffles inserted
under the skin! also, sweetbreads with a truffled white sauce.
1emi-glace
concentrated beef-based sauce lightened with consomm?, or a lighter
brown sauce.
1emi-sec
usually refers to goat cheese that is in the intermediate aging stage
between one e+treme of soft and fresh and the other e+treme of hard and
aged.
1emi-sel (buerre)
lightly salted (butter).
1emi-tasse
small cup! after-dinner coffee cup.
1emoiselle de canard
marinated raw duck tenderloin! also called mignon de canard.
1emoiselles de herbourg
small lobsters from the town of "herbourg in 4ormandy, cooked in a court-
bouillon and served in cooking 2uices. lso, restaurant name for %reton
lobsters weighing EDD to FDD grams (<D to <E ounces).
1ents-de-lion
dandelion salad green! also called pissenlit.
1iable
)devil)! method of preparing poultry with a peppery sauce, often mustard-
based. lso, a round pottery casserole.
1ie""oise
:ieppe style! usually white wine, mussels, shrimp, mushrooms, and
cream.
1igestif
general term for spirits served after dinner! such as rmagnac, "ognac,
marc, eau-de-vie.
1ijonnaise
:i2on style! usually with mustard.
1inde
turkey hen.
1indon(neau)
turkey (young turkey).
1iot
pork sausage cooked in wine, often served with a potato gratin! specialty
of the Savoie.
1iscr?tion,
on menus usually refers to wine, which may be consumed--without limit--
at the customers discretion.
1odine
cold stuffed boned poultry.
1ouillon, duillon
a whole pear wrapped and cooked in pastry! specialty of 4ormandy.
1oyenn? de omice
a variety of pear.
+au du robinet
tap water.
+au min?rale
mineral water.
+au-de-!ie
literally, )water of life)! brandy, usually fruit-based.
+chalote (gris)
shallot (pri$ed purplish shallot) elongated.
+chine
sparerib.
+cre!isse
freshwater crayfish.
+ffiloch
frayed, shredded.
+glantine
wild rose 2am! specialty of lsace.
+glefin, ?grefin, aiglefin
small fresh haddock, a type of cod.
+lze&aria
soup made with green beans, cabbage, and garlic! specialty of the
%as&ue region.
+minc
thin slice, usually of meat.
+ndi!e
%elgian endive! also chicory salad green.
+ntier, enti?re
whole, entire.
+"ais(se)
thick.
+"i de ma
ear of sweet corn.
+"ice
spice.
+"igramme
classic dish of grilled breaded lamb chop and a piece of braised lamb
breast shaped like a chop, breaded, and grilled! crops up on modern
menus as an elegant dish of breaded and fried baby lamb chops paired
with lamb sweetbreads and tongue.
+"inard
spinach.
+"ine !inette
highbush cranberry.
+"oisses
village in %urgundy that gives its name to a buttery disc of cow's milk
cheese with a strong, smooth taste and rust-colored rind.
+"oisses blanc
fresh white .poisses cheese.
+'uille
sand eel, a long silvery fish that buries itself in the sand! eaten fried on the
tlantic coast.
+scali!ada
"atalan roasted vegetables, usually sweet peppers, eggplant and onions.
+scargot "etit-gris
small land snail.
+s'ueixada
in "atalan literally means )shredded!) a shredded salt cod salad.
+sti!al
summer, used to denote seasonality of ingredients.
+stoficado
a pur?e-like blend of dried codfish, olive oil, tomatoes, sweet peppers,
black olives, potatoes, garlic, onions, and herbs! also called stockfish ni?
oise! specialty of 4ice.
+stofinado
a pur?e-like blend of dried codfish, potatoes, garlic, parsley, eggs, walnut
oil, and milk, served with triangles of toast! specialty of the uvergne.
+toile
star! star-shaped.
+trille
small swimming crab.
2aisan(e)
pheasant.
2aisand
game that has been hung to age.
2ait
usually refers to a cheese that has been well aged and has character---
runny if it's a "amembert, hard and dry if it's a goat cheese! also means
ready to eat.
2ait, "as tro"
refers to a cheese that has been aged for a shorter time and is blander!
also for a cheese that will ripen at home.
2arci(e)
stuffed.
2arigoule(tte)
'roven?al name for wild thyme.
2arine
flour. compl?te
whole wheat flour. d'avoine
oat flour. de bl?
wheat flour! white flour. de ma?s
corn flour. de sarrasin
buckwheat flour. de seigle
rye flour. de son
bran flour.
2aux-filet
sirloin steak.
2a!orite d'artichaut
classic vegetable dish of artichoke stuffed with asparagus, covered with a
cheese sauce, and browned.
2a!ou(ille)
in 'rovence, tiny male (female) crab often used in soups.
2enouil
fennel.
2erme (fermier, fermi?re)
farm (farmer)! in cheese, refers to farm-made cheese, often used to mean
raw-milk cheese! in chickens, refers to free-range chickens.
2eu de bois, au
cooked over a wood fires.
2euille de ch?ne
oak-leaf lettuce.
2euille de !igne
vine leaf.
2euillet
puff pastry.
2euilletage (en)
(in) puff pastry.
2iadone
"orsican flan made from cheese and oranges.
2icelle (boeuf ? la)
)string)! (beef suspended on a string and poached in broth). lso, small
thin baguette. lso, a small bottle of wine, as in carafe of %eau2olais.
2icelle "icarde
thin cr?pe wrapped around a slice of ham and topped with a cheesy
cream sauce! specialty of 'icardy, in the 4orth.
2igue
fig.
2inanci?re
/adiera sauce with truffle 2uice.
2inancier
small rectangular almond cake.
2ine de claire
elongated crinkle-shelled oyster that stays in fattening beds (claires) a
minimum of two months.
2ines herbes
mi+ture of herbs, usually chervil, parsley, chives, tarragon.
2lamiche (au *aroilles)
a vegetable tart with rich bread dough crust, commonly filled with leeks,
cream, and cheese! specialty of 'icardy, in the 4orth! (filled with cream,
egg, butter, and /aroilles cheese).
2lorentine
with spinach. lso, a cookie of nougatine and candied fruit brushed with a
layer of chocolate.
2oie
liver.
2oie blond de !olaille
chicken liver! also sometimes a chicken-liver mousse.
2oie de !eau
calfs liver.
2oie gras d'oie (de canard)
liver of fattened goose (duck).
2oin (dan le)
(cooked in) hay.
2ond d'artichaut
heart and base of an artichoke.
2ontainebleau
creamy white fresh dessert cheese from the #le-de-3rance.
2oresti?re
garnish of wild mushrooms, bacon, and potatoes.
2r?mi
)&uivering)! often refers to barely cooked oysters.
2rais, bien ?gout
well-drained freshcheese. maigre
low-fat cheese.
2rais, fra?che
fresh or chilled.
2raise
strawberry.
2raise des bois
wild strawberry.
2ramboise
raspberry.
2ran?aise, ? la
classic garnish of peas with lettuce, small white onions, and parsley.
2rangi"ane
almond custard filling.
2riandise
sweetmeat, petit four.
2ricadelle
fried minced meat patty.
2ricandeau
thinly sliced veal or a rump roast, braised with vegetables and white wine.
2ricass
classically, ingredients braised in wine sauce or butter with cream added!
currently denotes any mi+ture of ingredients--fish or meat--stewed or
saut?ed.
2ricot (de !eau)
veal shoulder simmered in white wine with vegetables.
2ris?(e)
)curly)! usually curly endive, the bitter salad green of the chicory family
sold in enormous round heads.
2rit(e)
fried.
2rite
3rench fry.
2ritons
coarse pork rillettes or a minced spread which includes organ meats.
2ritot
small organ meat fritter, where meat is partially cooked, then marinated in
oil, lemon 2uice, and herbs, dipped in batter and fried 2ust before serving!
also can refer to any small fried piece of meat or fish.
2riture
fried food! also a preparation of small fried fish, usually white-bait or smelt.
2roid(e)
cold.
2ruit confit
whole fruit preserved in sugar.
2ruits de mer
seafood.
-?noise
sponge cake.
-?sier
gi$$ard.
-alantine
classical preparation of boned meat or whole poultry that is stuffed or
rolled, cooked, then gla$ed with gelatin and served cold.
-alette des rois
puff pastry filled with almond pastry cream, traditional 0welfth 4ight
celebration cake.
-alinette
tub gurnard, /editerranean fish of the mullet family.
-ardiane
stew of beef or bull (toro) meat, with bacon, onions, garlic, and black
olives! served with rice! specialty of the "amargue, in 'rovence.
-argouillau
pear cake or tart! specialty of northern uvergne.
-arni(e)
garnished.
-arniture
garnish.
-eni?!ere
2uniper berry.
-entiane
gentian! a li&ueur made from this mountain flower.
-erminy
garnish of sorrel. lso, sorrel and cream soup.
-ibassier
round sweet bread from 'rovence, often flavored with lemon or orange
$est, orange-flower water, andBor almonds. lso sometimes called
fougasse or pompe ? lhuile.
-ibelotte
fricassee of rabbit in red or white wine.
-ibier
game, sometimes designated as gibier ? plume (feathered) or gibier ? poil
(furry).
-igot (de "r? sal
usually a leg of lamb (lamb gra$ed on the salt meadows along the tlantic
and 4ormandy coasts).
-igot de mer
a preparation, usually of large pieces of monkfish (lotte) oven-roasted like
a leg of lamb.
-igue (de)
haunch (of) certain game meats.
-illardeau
pri$ed oyster raised in 4ormandy and finished in claires, or fattening beds
on the tlantic coast.
-ingembre
ginger.
-irofle
clove.
-irolle
pri$ed pale orange wild mushroom! also called chanterelle.
-i!r?$ orange gi!r
frosted! orange sherbet served in its skin.
-nocchi
dumplings made of chou+ paste, potatoes, or semolina.
-ourmandise(s)
weakness for sweet things! (sweetmeats or candies).
-ousse d'ail
clove of garlic.
-ousse de !anille
vanilla bean.
-raine de moutarde
mustard seed.
-raisse
fat.
-raisserons
crisply fried pieces of duck or goose skin! cracklings.
-ranit
a type of sherbet! a sweetened, flavored ice.
-ra""e (de raisins)
cluster! bunch (of grapes).
-ratin
crust formed on top of a dish when browned in broiler or oven! also the
dish in which such food is cooked.
-ratin dau"hinoise
baked casserole of sliced potatoes, usually with cream, milk, and
sometimes cheese andBor eggs.
-ratin sa!oyarde
baked casserole of sliced potatoes, usually with bouillon, cheese, and
butter.
-ratin?(e)
having a crusty, browned top.
-ratin?e lyonnaise
bouillon flavored with port, garnished with beaten egg, topped with
cheese, and browned under a broiler.
-ratuit
free.
-renadin
small veal scallop.
-renaille
7efers to small, bite-si$e new potato of any variety.
-renouille (cuisse de)
frog (leg).
-ressini
breadsticks, seen along the "?te-d'$ur.
-ribiche, sauce
mayonnaise with capers, cornichons, hard-cooked eggs, and herbs.
-rill?(e)
grilled.
-rillade
grilled meat.
-riotte
shiny slightly acidic, reddish black cherry.
-risotte
parasol mushroom with a delicate flavor! also called champignon ? la
bague. cocherelle. and coulemelle.
-ri!e
thrush.
-roin d'ane
)donkeys snout)! ,yonnais name for a bitter winter salad green similar to
dandelion greens.
-rondin
red gurnard, a bony ocean fish, a member of the mullet family, used in fish
stews such as bouillabaisse.
-roseille
red currant.
-yromite
group of wild mushrooms, or gyromitra, known as false morels.
(achis
minced or chopped meat or fish preparation.
(achis
minced or chopped meat or fish preparation.
(areng ? lhuile
herring cured in oil, usually served with a salad of warm sliced potatoes.
(areng ? lhuile
herring cured in oil, usually served with a salad of warm sliced potatoes.
(areng balti'ue, bismar&
marinated herring.
(areng balti'ue, bismar&
marinated herring.
(areng bouffi
herring that is salted, then smoked.
(areng bouffi
herring that is salted, then smoked.
(aricot
bean.
beurre yellow bean
blancs (? la Bretonne white beans, usually dried! (white beans in
a sauce of onions, tomatoes, garlic, and herbs)
de mouton stew of mutton and white beans (also called Calicots)
gris green string bean mottled with purplish black! also called p?
landron a specialty of the "?te-d'$ur.
rouge red kidney bean! also, preparation of red beans in red wine
sec dried bean
vert green bean, usually fresh
(aricot
bean.
beurre yellow bean
blancs (? la Bretonne white beans, usually dried! (white beans in
a sauce of onions, tomatoes, garlic, and herbs)
de mouton stew of mutton and white beans (also called Calicots)
gris green string bean mottled with purplish black! also called p?
landron a specialty of the "?te-d'$ur.
rouge red kidney bean! also, preparation of red beans in red wine
sec dried bean
vert green bean, usually fresh
(irondelle
swallow.
(irondelle
swallow.
(ollandaise
sauce of butter, egg yolks, and lemon 2uice.
(ollandaise
sauce of butter, egg yolks, and lemon 2uice.
(omard (? lAmoricaine, ? lAm?ricaine)
lobster! (a classic dish of many variations, in which lobster is cut into
sections and browned, then simmered with shallots, minced onions,
tomatoes, "ognac, and white wine! served with a sauce of the reduced
cooking li&uid, enriched with butter).
(omard (? lAmoricaine, ? lAm?ricaine)
lobster! (a classic dish of many variations, in which lobster is cut into
sections and browned, then simmered with shallots, minced onions,
tomatoes, "ognac, and white wine! served with a sauce of the reduced
cooking li&uid, enriched with butter).
(ongroise, ? la
Cungarian style! usually with paprika and cream.
(ongroise, ? la
Cungarian style! usually with paprika and cream.
(ortillon
pictures&ue market garden plot built between crisscrossed canals on the
outskirts of miens, a city in the north.
(ortillon
pictures&ue market garden plot built between crisscrossed canals on the
outskirts of miens, a city in the north.
(uile
oil.
d!arachide peanut oil
de colza rapeseed oil
de ma?s corn oil
de noisette ha$lenut oil
de noix walnut oil
de p?pins de raisins grapeseed oil
de s?same sesame oil
de tournesol sunflower oil
d!olive (extra vierge olive oil (e+tra virgin, or the first cold
pressing)
(uile
oil.
d!arachide peanut oil
de colza rapeseed oil
de ma?s corn oil
de noisette ha$lenut oil
de noix walnut oil
de p?pins de raisins grapeseed oil
de s?same sesame oil
de tournesol sunflower oil
d!olive (extra vierge olive oil (e+tra virgin, or the first cold
pressing)
(ure de "orc or de marcassin
head of pig or boar - usually refers to headcheese preparation.
(ure de "orc or de marcassin
head of pig or boar - usually refers to headcheese preparation.
3le flottante
)floating island)! most commonly used interchangeably with oeufs ? la
neige, poached meringue floating in cr?me anglaise! classically, a layered
cake covered with whipped cream and served with custard sauce.
3m"?ratrice, ? l
usually a rice pudding dessert with candied fruit.
3m"?riale, ? l
classic haute cuisine garnish of mussels, cockscombs, crayfish, and other
e+travagant ingredients.
3m"eriale
variety of plum. lso, a large bottle for wine, holding about F &uarts (F
liters),
3ndienne, ? l
.ast #ndian style, usually with curry powder.
3nfusion
herb tea.
3sman bayaldi, imam bayaldi
)the priest fainted) - in 0urkish! a dish of eggplant stuffed with saut?ed
onions, tomatoes, and spices! served cold.
0alousie
)venetian blind)! classic small, latticed, flaky pastry filled with almond
paste and spread with 2am.
0ardini?re
refers to a garnish of fresh cooked vegetables.
0ulienne
cut into slivers, usually vegetables or meat.
4a&i
persimmon.
4ari
variant spelling of cary.
4ataifi (also &ataif)
thin strands of vermicelli-like dough, used in -reen and /iddle .astern
pastries and in some modern 3rench preparations
4ie!
deep-fried breast of chicken stuffed with herb and garlic butter.
4ir
an aperitif made with cr?me de cassis (black currant li&ueur) and most
commonly dry white wine, but sometimes red wine.
4ir royal
a 5ir made with "hampagne.
4irsch
eau-de-vie of wild black cherries.
4ouigh-amann
sweet, buttery pastry from %rittany.
5actaire
the edible lactaire pallidus mushroom, also called sanguine. pricot-
colored, with red, blood colored 2uices when raw.
5aguiole
"antal cheese from the area around the village of ,aguiole, in southern
uvergne, still made in rustic huts.
5ait
milk.
demi-?crem? semi-skimmed milk.
?crem? skimmed milk.
entier whole milk.
ribot from %rittany, buttermilk, served with cr?pes.
st?riliz? milk heated to a higher temperature than pasteuri$ed milk,
so that it stays fresh for several weeks.
5aitance
soft roe (often of herring), or eggs.
5aitier
made of or with milk! also denotes a commercially made product as
opposed to fermier, meaning farm made.
5aitue
lettuce.
5am"roie (? la bordelaise)
lamprey eel, ocean fish that swim into rivers along the tlantic in
springtime (hearty stew of lamprey eel and leeks in red wine).
5andaise, ? la
from the ,andes in southwestern 3rance! classically a garnish of garlic,
pine nuts, and goose fat.
5angoustine
clawed crustacean, smaller than either homard or langouste, with very
delicate meat. 5nown in %ritish waters as :ublin %ay prawn.
5anguedocienne
garnish, usually of tomatoes, eggplant, and wild c?pe mushrooms.
5a"in
rabbit.
5a"in de garenne
wild rabbit.
5aurier
bay laurel or bay leaf.
5entilles (de Puy)
lentils (pri$ed green lentils from the village of 'uy in the uvergne).
5i?!re (? la royale)
hare (cooked with red wine, shallots, onions, and cinnamon, then rolled
and stuffed with foie gras and truffles).
5ieu jaune
green pollack, in the cod family a pleasant, ine+pensive small yellow fish!
often sold under name colin! found in the tlantic.
5ieu noir
pollack, also called black cod! in the cod family a pleasant, ine+pensive
fish found in the .nglish "hannel and the tlantic.
5ima?on
land snail.
5imaces ? la su?arelle
snails cooked with onions, garlic, tomatoes, and sausage! specialty of
'rovence.
5imande
lemon sole, also called dab or sand dab, not as firm or pri$ed as sole,
found in the .nglish "hannel, the tlantic, and, rarely, in the
/editerranean.
5ingot
type of kidney-shaped dry white bean.
5isette
small ma&uereau, or mackerel.
5i!arot
village in 4ormandy that gives its name to an elastic and pungent thick
disc of cow's-milk cheese with reddish golden stripes around the edge.
5otte de ri!i?re (or de lac)
fine-fleshed river (or lake) fish, pri$ed for its large and flavorful liver. 4ot
related to the ocean fish lotte, or monkfish.
5ou!ine
%as&ue name for striped bass, fished in the %ay of -ascony.
5uzienne, ? la
prepared in the manner popular in Saint-8ean-de-,u$, a %as&ue fishing
port.
5yonnaise, ? la
in the style of ,yon! often garnished with onions.
*?daillon
round piece or slice, usually of fish or meat.
*?li-m?lo
an assortment of fish andBor seafood.
*ac?doine
diced mi+ed fruit or vegetables.
*acis
mace, the spice.
*adeleine (de ommercy)
small scalloped-shaped tea cake made famous by /arcel 'roust! (the
town in the ,orraine where the tea cakes are commerciali$ed).
*adril?ne, ? la
in the style of /adrid! with tomatoes. "lassically a garnish of peeled
chopped tomatoes for consomm?.
*agret de canard (or d'oie)
breast of fattened duck (or goose).
*aigre
thin, non-fatty
*aison, de la
of the house, or restaurant.
*altaise
orange-flavored hollandaise sauce.
*al!oisie, !inaigre de
vinegar made from the malvasia grape, used for the sweet, heavy
/almsey wine.
*andarine
tangerine.
*ani?re, de
in the style of.
*ara de Bois
small fragrant strawberry, like a cross between a domestic and wild
strawberry.
*arcassin
young boar. t one year, a wild boar will weight FD kg, a domesticated
boar <@D kg.
*archand de !in
wine merchant. lso, sauce made with red wine, meat stock, and chopped
shallots.
*arin
marinated.
*arinade
seasoned li&uid in which food, usually meat, is soaked for several hours.
0he li&uid seasons and tenderi$es at the same time.
*arion (glac
large (candied) chestnut.
*arjolaine
mar2oram. lso, multilayered chocolate and nut cake.
*armite
small covered pot! also a dish cooked in a small casserole.
*aroilles
village in the north that gives its name to a strong-tasting, thick, s&uare
cow's-milk cheese with a pale brick-red rind.
*ar'uise (au chocolat)
mousse-like (chocolate) cake.
*atelote (d'anguilles)
freshwater fish (or eel) stew.
*atignon
a garnish of mi+ed stewed vegetables.
*au!iette
wild meadow lark or skylark.
*elon de a!aillon
small canteloupe-like melon from "availlon, a town in 'rovence known for
its wholesale produce market.
*endiant, fruits du
traditional mi+ture of figs, almonds, ha$elnuts, and raisins, whose colors
suggest the robes of the mendicant friars it is named after.
*er!eille
hot sugared doughnut.
*ets selon la saison
seasonal preparation! according to the season.
*euni?re, ? la
)in the style of the millers wife)! refers to a fish that is seasoned, rolled in
flour, fried in butter! and served with lemon, parsley and hot melted butter.
*i-cru
half raw.
*i-cuit
half cooked.
*iche
a large round country-style loaf of bread. lso, %as&ue name for aniseed
cake-like bread.
*ie
interior or crumb of the bread (see 'ain de mie).
*iel
honey
*ignardise
see 'etit-four.
*ignon de canard
see :cmsiselle de canard.
*ignonette
small cubes, usually of beef. lso refers to coarsely ground black ot white
pepper.
*ijot?(e) ("lat)
simmered (dish or preparation).
*ille-feuille
refers to puff pastry with many thin layers! usually a cream-filled rectangle
of puff pastry, or a 4apoleon.
*imosa
garnish of chopped hard-cooked egg yolks.
*inute (? la)
)minute)! something &uickly grilled or fried in butter with lemon 2uice and
parsley (prepared at the last minute).
*i'ue
generally a large breaded dumpling, poached and served with stews and
meats! specialty of the Southwest.
*irabeau
garnish of anchovies, pitted olives, tarragon, and anchovy butter.
*irabelle
small sweet yellow plum. lso, colorless fruit brandy or eau-de-vie, made
from yellow plums.
*ire"oix
cubes of carrots and onions or mi+ed vegetables, usually used in braising
to boost the flavor of a meat dish.
*iroir
)mirror)! a dish that has a smooth gla$e! currently a fruit mousse cake with
a layer of fruit gla$e on top.
*iroton (de)
slice (of). lso, stew of meats flavored with onions.
*itonn
a simmered, soup-like dish.
*orbier
supple cow's-milk cheese from the 8ura! a thin sprinkling of ashes in the
center gives it its distinctive black stripe and light smoky flavor.
*orille
wild morel mushroom, dark brown and conical.
*oule de Bouzigues
iodine-strong mussel from the village of %ou$igues, on the /editerranean
coast.
*oules marini?re
mussels cooked in white wine with onions, shallots, butter, and herbs.
*oulin (? "oi!re)
mill (peppermill)! also used for oil and flour mills.
*ousseline
refers to ingredients that are usually lightened with whipped cream or egg
whites, as in sauces, or with butter, as in brioche mousseline.
*outarde (? lancienne, en graines)
mustard (old-style, coarse-grained).
*yrtille
bilberry (bluish black .uropean blueberry).
.age (? la)
)swimming)! aromatic poaching li&uid (served in).
.atte
woven loaf of bread.
.ature
refers to simple, unadorned preparations.
.a!arin
lamb or mutton stew.
.i!ernaise, ? la
in the style of 4evers! with carrots and onions.
.a!et
turnip.
.a!ette
)little boat)! small pastry boats.
.eufch?tel
white, creamy, delicate (and often heart-shaped) cow's-milk cheese,
named for village in 4ormandy where it is made.
.e)burg
lobster preparation with /adeira, egg yolks, and cream.
.i!ernaise, ? la
in the style of 4evers! with carrots and onions.
.oilly
a vermouth-based sauce.
.oisette
ha$elnut! also refers to small round piece (such as from a potato),
generally the si$e of a ha$elnut, lightly browned in butter. lso, center cut
of lamb chop. lso, dessert flavored with ha$elnuts.
.oix
general term for nut! also, walnut. lso, nut-si$e, typically une noi+ de
beurre, or lump of butter.
.on com"ris
see Service (non) compris.
.ormande
in the style of 4ormandy! sauce of seafood, cream, and mushrooms. lso
refers to fish or meat cooked with apple cider or "alvados! or dessert with
apples, usually served with cream.
.ote
another word for addition, bill or tab.
.ouilles
noodles.
.ou!eau, nou!elle
new or young.
.ou!eaut
a new offering.
#eufs ? la neige
)eggs in the snow)! sweetened whipped egg whites poached in milk and
served with vanilla custard sauce.
#euf
egg.
? la coque soft-cooked egg.
brouill? scrambled egg.
dur hard-cooked egg.
en meurette poached egg in red wine sauce.
mollet egg simmered in water for A minutes.
poch? poached egg.
saut? ? la po?le or oeuf sur le plat fried egg.
#ffert
offered! free or given.
#ie
goose.
#ignon
onion.
#iselle
sorrel.
#li!e de .yons
wrinkled black olive, first olive in 3rance to receive 6". lso used for oil.
#li!e noire (!erte)
black olive (green olive).
#li!es cass?es
fresh green olives cured in a rich fennel-infused brine! specialty of
'rovence.
#mble (ombre) che!alier
lake fish, similar to salmon trout, with firm, flaky flesh varying from white to
deep red. 3ound in lakes in the Savoie.
#melette nor!egienne
3rench version of %aked laska! a concoction of sponge cake covered
with ice cream and a layer of sweetened, stiffly beaten egg whites, then
browned &uickly in the oven.
#nglet
cut similar to beef flank steak! also cut of beef sold as biftek and entrec?
te, usually a tough cut, but better than flank steak.
#reille de "orc
cooked pigs ear! served grilled, with a coating of egg and bread crumb.
#reillette
thin, crisp rectangular dessert fritters, flavored with orange-flower water!
specialty of 'rovence.
#rientale, ? l
general name for vaguely .astern dishes cooked with saffron, tomatoes,
and sweet red peppers.
#rge ("erl
barley (pearl barley).
#rientale, ? l
general name for vaguely .astern dishes cooked with saffron, tomatoes,
and sweet red peppers.
#rigan
oregano.
#rtie
4ettle.
#seille
sorrel.
#sso bucco ? la ni?oise
saut?ed veal braised with tomatoes, garlic, onions, and orange $est!
specialty of the /editerranean.
#str?iculteur
6yster grower.
#ursin
sea urchin.
#ursinade
creamy sea urchin soup.
#ursinade
creamy sea urchin soup.
#u!ert
open.
P?bre d'ail
see 'oivre d'?ne.
P?che
peach. lso, fishing.
P?che Alexandra
cold dessert of poached peaches with ice cream and pur?ed strawberries.
P?che *elba
poached peach with vanilla ice cream and raspberry sauce.
P?cheur
)fisherman)! usually refers to fish preparations.
P?lerine
another name for scallop or co&uille Saint-8ac&ues.
P?"tie (au chocolat)
nugget! (chocolate chip).
P?rigourdine, ? la, or P?rigueux
sauce, usually with truffles and foie gras, named for the '?rigord in
southwestern 3rance.
Paillarde (de !eau)
thick slice (of veal)! also, piece of meat pounded flat and saute?ed.
Pailles ("ommes)
fried potato sticks.
Paillette
cheese straw, usually made with puff pastry and 'armesan cheese.
Pain
bread. lso, loaf of any kind.
aux cinq c?r?ales five-grain bread.
aux noix (aux noisettes bread, most often rye or wheat, filled with
walnuts (ha$elnuts).
aux raisins bread, most often rye or wheat, filled with raisins.
azyme unleavened bread, mat$oh.
bis brown bread.
bri? very dense, elongated loaf of unsalted white bread! specialty
of 4ormandy.
complet bread made partially or entirely from whole-wheat flour,
with bakers varying proportions according to their personal tastes.
cordon seldom-found regional country loaf decorated with a strip of
dough.
d!"ix variously shaped sourdough loaves, sometimes like a
sunflower, other times a chain-like loaf of four linked rounds.
de campagne country loaf! can vary from a white bread simply
dusted with flour to give it a rustic look (and fetch a higher price) to
a truly hearty loaf that may be a blend of white, whole wheat, and
perhaps rye flour with bran added. "omes in every shape.
&?cor? decorated.
de fantaisie generally any odd or imaginatively shaped bread.
.ven baguette de campagne falls into this category.
de '?nes classic almond sponge cake.
de mie rectangular white sandwich loaf that is nearly all mie
(interior crumb) and very little crust. #t is made for durability, its
flavor and te+ture developed for use in sandwiches. 1nlike most
3rench breads, it contains milk, sugar, and butter, and may contain
chemical preservatives.
d!?pices spice bread, a specialty of :i2on.
de seigle bread made from AD to =D percent rye flour and ED to FD
percent wheat flour.
de son legally a dietetic bread that is &uality controlled, containing
@D percent bran mi+ed with white flour.
grill? toast.
paill? country loaf from the %as&ue region.
sans sel salt-free bread.
viennois bread shaped like a baguette, with regular hori$ontal
slashes, usually containing white flour, sugar, powdered milk, water,
and yeast.
Palestine
classically a garnish of 8erusalem artichokes.
Palmier
palm leaf-shaped cookie made of sugared puff pastry.
Palmier, coeur de
heart of palm.
Panais
parnsip.
Panisse
a thick fried pancake of chickpea flour, served as accompaniment to meat!
specialty of 'rovence.
Pantin
small pork pastry.
Pa"illon
)butterfly)! small crinkle-shelled creuse oyster from the tlantic coast.
Pa"illote, en
cooked in parchment paper or foil wrapping.
Parfait
a dessert mousse! also, mousse-like mi+ture of chicken, duck, or goose
liver.
Paris-Brest, g?teau
classic, large, crown-shaped chou+ pastry filled with praline butter cream
and topped with chopped almonds.
Parisienne, ? la
varied vegetable garnish which generally includes potato balls that have
been fried and tossed in a meat gla$e.
Parmentier
dish with potatoes.
Passe-Pierre
edible seaweed.
Pastis
anise-flavored alcohol that becomes cloudy when water is added (the
most famous brands are 'ernod and 7icard). lso, name for tourti?re, the
flaky prune pastry from the southwest.
Pastiza
see g?teau bas&ue.
Pau"iette
slice of meat or fish, filled, rolled, then wrapped! served warm.
Pa!ot (graine de)
poppy (seed).
Pageot
a type of sea bream or porgy. 0he finest is pageot rouge, wonderful grilled.
'ageot blanc is drier and needs to be marinated in oil before cooking.
Paillarde (de !eau)
thick slice (of veal)! also, piece of meat pounded flat and saute?ed.
Pailles ("ommes)
fried potato sticks.
Paillette
cheese straw, usually made with puff pastry and 'armesan cheese.
Paleron
shoulder of beef.
Palestine
classically a garnish of 8erusalem artichokes.
Palette
upper shoulder of pork.
Palmier
palm leaf-shaped cookie made of sugared puff pastry.
Palmier, coeur de
heart of palm.
Palombe
wood or wild pigeon, or dove.
Palourde
pri$ed medium-si$e clam.
Pam"lemousse
grapefruit.
Pan?(e)
breaded.
Panade
panada, a thick mi+ture used to bind forcemeats and &uenelles, usually
flour and butter based, but can also contain fresh or toasted bread
crumbs, rice, or potatoes. lso refers to soup of bread, milk, and
sometimes cheese.
Panisse
a thick fried pancake of chickpea flour, served as accompaniment to meat!
specialty of 'rovence.
Panne'uet
rolled cr?pe, filled andBor covered with sweet or savory mi+ture.
Panoufle
-enerally discarded belly flap from saddle of lamb, veal, and beef!
sometimes grilled.
Pa"eton
eggplant, fried, pur?ed, and cooked in a ring mold! specialty of 'rovence.
Pa"illote, en
cooked in parchment paper or foil wrapping.
Pa'uet (en)
(in) a package or parcel.
Paris-Brest, g?teau
classic, large, crown-shaped chou+ pastry filled with praline butter cream
and topped with chopped almonds.
Parisienne, ? la
varied vegetable garnish which generally includes potato balls that have
been fried and tossed in a meat gla$e.
Parmentier
dish with potatoes.
Passe rassane
flavorful variety of winter pear.
Passe-Pierre
edible seaweed.
Past?'ue
watermelon.
Patte blanche
small crayfish no larger than @ <B@ ounces (=> g).
Patte rouge
large crayfish.
Pauchouse, "ochouse
stew of river fish that generally includes tanche (tench), perche (perch),
brochet (pike), and anguille (eel)! specialty of %urgundy.
Pau"iette
slice of meat or fish, filled, rolled, then wrapped! served warm.
Pa!? d'Auge
thick, ochre colored s&uare of cow's-milk cheese that comes from the
uge area of 4ormandy.
Pa!ot (graine de)
poppy (seed).
Paysan(ne) (? la)
country style! (garnish of carrots, turnips, onions, celery and bacon).
Peau
skin.
Pe'uillo
small red Spanish pepper, usually stuffed with salt cod pur?e.
Perce-"ierre
samphire, edible seaweed.
Perche
perch.
Perdreau
young partridge.
Perdrix
partridge.
Persil (sim"le)
parsley (flatleaf).
Persill
)parsleyed)! describes certain blue-veined cheeses. See also 8ambon
persill?.
Persillade
blend of chopped parsley and garlic.
Pet de nonne
)nuns fart)! small, dainty beignets, or fried pastry.
Petit d?jeuner
breakfast.
Petit sal
salt-cured portions of lean pork belly, often served with lentils.
Petit-beurre
popular tea cookie made with butter.
Petit-four (sucr? or sal?e)
tiny cake or pastry (sweet or savory)! in elegant restaurants, served with
cocktails before dinner or with coffee afterward! also called mignardise.
Petit-gris
small land snail.
Petit-"ois
small green pea.
Petite marmite
earthenware casserole! the broth served from it.
Pe'uillo
small red Spanish pepper, usually stuffed with salt cod pur?e.
Perce-"ierre
samphire, edible seaweed.
Perdrix
partridge.
P?rigourdine, ? la, or P?rigueux
sauce, usually with truffles and foie gras, named for the '?rigord in
southwestern 3rance.
Persil (sim"le)
parsley (flatleaf).
Persill
)parsleyed)! describes certain blue-veined cheeses. See also 8ambon
persill?.
Persillade
blend of chopped parsley and garlic.
P?tale
)petal)! very thin slice.
P?te
pastry or dough.
bris?e pie pastry
d!amande almond paste.
sabl?e sweeter, richer, and more crumbly pie dough than p?te
sucr?e, sometimes leavened.
sucr?e sweet pie pastry.
P?tes (fra?ches)
pasta (fresh).
Petit d?jeuner
breakfast.
Petit sal
salt-cured portions of lean pork belly, often served with lentils.
Petit-beurre
popular tea cookie made with butter.
Petit-four (sucr? or sal?e)
tiny cake or pastry (sweet or savory)! in elegant restaurants, served with
cocktails before dinner or with coffee afterward! also called mignardise.
Petit-gris
small land snail.
Petit-"ois
small green pea.
Petite marmite
earthenware casserole! the broth served from it.
Pi?ce
portion, piece.
Pibale
tiny eel, also called civelle.
Picholine, "itchouline
a variety of green olive, generally used to prepare olives casse?s!
specialty of 'rovence.
Picodon (m?thode 1ieulefit)
small disc of goat's-milk cheese, the best of which (&ualified as m?thode
:ieulefit) is hard, pi&uant, and pungent from having soaked in brandy and
aged a month in earthenware 2ars! specialty of northern 'rovence.
Piech
poached veal brisket stuffed with vegetables, herbs, and sometimes rice,
ham, eggs, or cheese! specialty of the /editerranean.
Pied de che!al
)horses foot)! giant tlantic coast oyster.
Pied de mouton
meaty cream-colored wild mushroom. lso, sheep's foot.
Pieds et "a'uets
)feet and packages)! mutton tripe rolled and cooked with sheep's feet,
white wine, and tomatoes! specialty of 'rovence and the /editerranean.
Pierre-7ui-9ire
)stone that moves)! a supple, tangy, flat disc of cow's-milk cheese with a
reddish rind, made by the %enedictine monks at the bbaye de la 'ierre-
Hui ;ire in %urgundy.
Pigeon (neau)
pigeon or s&uab (young pigeon or s&uab).
Pignons
pine nuts, found in the cones of pine trees growing in 'rovence and along
the southwestern tlantic coast.
Pilau, "ilaf
rice saut?ed with onion and simmered in broth.
Pilchard
name for sardines on the tlantic coast.
Piment
red pepper or pimento.
Piment
hot, peppery, spicy.
Piment (or "oi!re) de 0ama?'ue
allspice.
Piment d'+s"elette
slender, mildly hot chile pepper from .spelette, a village in the %as&ue
region.
Piment doux
sweet pepper.
Pim"ernelle
salad burnet, a salad green with a somewhat bitter taste.
Pince
claw. lso, tongs used when eating snails or seafood.
Pineau des harentes
sweet fortified wine from the "ognac region on the tlantic coast, served
as an aperitif.
Pintade(au)
(young) guinea fowl.
Pi"?rade
a dish of pepper! onions, tomatoes, and often ham and scrambled eggs!
specialty of the %as&ue region.
Pi'u
larded! studded.
Pi'uant(e)
sharp or spicy tasting.
Pi'uenchagne, "icanchagne
a pear tart with walnut or brioche crust! specialty of the %ourbonnais, a
province in uvergne.
Pissaladi?re
a flat open-face tart like a pi$$a, garnished with onions, olives, and
anchovies! specialty of 4ice.
Pissenlit
dandelion green.
Pistache
pistachio nut.
Pistil de safran
thread of saffron.
Pistou
sauce of basil, garlic, and olive oil! specialty of 'rovence. lso a rich
vegetable, bean, and pasta soup flavored with pistou sauce.
Pithi!iers
a town in the ,oire valley that gives its name to a classic large puff pastry
found filled with almond cream. lso, lark p?t?.
Plaice
a small, orange-spotted flounder or fluke, a flat ocean fish! also known as
plie franch or carrelet. 3ound in the .nglish "hannel.
Plat cuisin
dish containing ingredients that have cooked together, usually in a sauce.
Plat "rinci"al
main dish.
Plateau de fruits de mer
seafood platter combining raw and cooked shell-fish! usually includes
oysters, clams, mussels, langoustines, periwinkles, whelks, crabs, and tiny
shrimp.
Plie
see 'laice.
Plombi?re
classic dessert of vanilla ice cream, candied fruit, kirsch, and apricot 2am.
Pluche
small sprig of herbs or plants, generally used for garnish.
Pochouse
see 'auchouse.
Pogne
brioche flavored with orange-flower water and filled with fruits! specialty of
7omans-sur-#s?re, in the 7h?ne-lpes.
Point (
ripe or ready to eat, the perfect moment for eating a cheese or fruit. lso,
cooked medium rare.
Point(e) (d'as"erge)
tip (of asparagus).
Poire
pear.
Poire 6illiams
variety of pear! colorless fruit brandy, or eau-de-vie, often made from this
variety of pear.
Poireau
leek.
Pois (chiche)
pea (chickpea).
Poisson
fish.
d!eau douce freshwater fish.
de lac lake fish.
de mer ocean fish.
de rivi?re river fish.
de roche rock fish.
fum? smoked fish.
noble refers to pri$ed, thus e+pensive, variety of fish.
Poitrine
breast (of meat or poultry).
Poitrine demi-sel
unsmoked slab bacon.
Poitrine fum
smoked slab bacon.
Poi!rade
a peppery brown sauce made with wine, vinegar, and cooked vegetables
and strained before serving.
Poi!re
pepper.
d!ain 'roven?al name for wild savory. lso, small goat cheese
covered with sprigs of savory. lso known as p?bre d'ail and p?bre
d'ase.
en grain peppercorn.
frais de +adagascar green peppercorn.
gris black peppercorn.
moulu ground pepper.
noir black peppercorn.
rose pink peppercorn.
vert green peppercorn.
Poi!ron (doux)
(sweet bell) pepper.
Pojars&i
finely chopped meat or fish shaped like a cutlet and fried.
Polenta
cooked dish of cornmeal and water, usually with added butter and cheese!
also, cornmeal.
Pommade (beurre en)
usually refers to a thick, smooth paste! (creamed butter).
Pomme
apple.
P?toncle
tiny scallop, similar to merican bay scallop.
? langlaise boiled.
allumettes )match-sticks)! fries cut into very thin 2ulienne.
boulang?re potatoes cooked with the meat they accompany. lso,
a gratin of sliced potatoes, baked with milk or stock and sometimes
flavored with onions, bacon, and tomatoes.
darphin grated potatoes shaped into a cake.
dauphine mashed potatoes mi+ed with cbou+ pastry, shaped into
small balls and fried.
dauphinoise a gratin of sliced potatoes, baked with milk andBor
cream, garlic, cheese, and eggs.
duchesse mashed potatoes with butter, egg yolks, and nutmeg,
used for garnish.
en robe des champs( en robe de chambre potatoes boiled or
baked in their skin! potatoes in their 2ackets.
frites 3rench fries.
gratin?es browned potatoes, often with cheese.
lyonnaise potatoes saut?ed with onions.
macaire classic side dish of pur?ed potatoes shaped into small
balls and fried or baked in a flat cake.
mousseline potato pur?e enriched with butter, egg yolks, and
whipped cream.
paillasson fried pancake of grated potatoes.
pailles potatoes cut into 2ulienne strips, then fried.
Pont-)euf classic fries.
sarladaise sliced potatoes cooked with goose fat and (optionally)
truffles.
souffl?es small, thin slices of potatoes fried twice, causing them to
inflate so they resemble little pillows.
sous la c?ndre baked under cinders in a fireplace.
vapeur steamed or boiled potatoes.
Pommes de terre
potatoes.
Pommes en lair
carameli$ed apple slices, usually served with boudin noir (blood sausage).
Pom"e ? lhuile, "om"e de .o
see -ibassier.
Pom"e aux grattons
bread containing cracklings.
Pont l+!?'ue
village in 4ormandy that gives its name to a very tender, fragrant s&uare
of cow's milk cheese.
Porc (c?te de)
pork (chop).
Porc (carr? de)
pork (loin).
Porcelet
young suckling pig.
Porchetta
young pig stuffed with offal, herbs, and garlic, and toasted! seen in
charcuteries in 4ice.
Portugaise
elongated, crinkle-shell oyster.
Pot bouilli
another name for pot-au-feu.
Pot-au-feu
traditional dish of beef simmered with vegetables, often served in two or
mote courses! today chefs often use it to mean fish poached in fish stock
with vegetables.
Pot-de-cr?me
individual classic custard dessert, often chocolate.
Potage
soup.
Potimarron
see "itrouille.
Potiron
see "itrouille.
Potje!leisch
a mi+ed meat terrine, usually of veal, pork, and rabbit! specialty of the
4orth.
Poularde
fatted hen.
Poule au "ot
boiled stuffed chicken with vegetables! specialty of the city of %?arn in the
southwest.
Poule d'3nde
turkey hen.
Poule faisane
female pheasant.
Poulet (r?ti)
chicken (roast).
Poulet bas'uaise
%as&ue-style chicken, with tomatoes and sweet peppers.
Poulet de grain
corn-fed chicken.
Poule faisane
female pheasant.
Poulet (r?ti)
chicken (roast).
Poulette
tiny chicken.s
Poulet bas'uaise
%as&ue-style chicken, with tomatoes and sweet peppers.
Poulet de Bresse
high-&uality chicken raised on farms to e+acting specifications, from the
7h?ne-lpes.
Poulet de grain
corn-fed chicken.
Poulet fermier
free-range chicken.
Pouligny-/aint-Pierre
village in the ,oire valley that gives its name to a goat's-milk cheese
shaped like a truncated pyramid with a mottled, grayish rind and a
smooth-grained, ivory-white interior.
Pounti
(also spelled pounty) a pork meat loaf that generally includes Swiss chard
or spinach, eggs, milk, herbs, onions, and prunes! specialty of the
uvergne.
Poul"e
octopus.
Pousse-en-claire
6ysters that have been aged and fattened in claire, or oyster beds, for
four to eight months.
Pousse-"ierre
edible seaweed! also called sea beans.
Poussin
baby chicken.
Poutargue, boutargue
salted, pressed, and flattened mullet roe, generally spread on toast as an
appeti$er! specialty of 'rovence and the /editerranean.
Poutine
see 4onat.
Praire
small clam.
Pralin
ground carameli$ed almonds.
Praline
carameli$ed almonds.
Press&o"h
pork headcheese, often served with vinaigrette! specialty of lsace.
Primeur(r)
refers to early fresh fruits and vegetables, also to new wine.
Printani?re
garnish of a variety of spring vegetables cut into dice or balls.
Prix fixe
fi+ed-price menu.
Prix net
service included.
Profiterole(s)
classic chou pastry dessert, usually puffs of pastry filled with vanilla ice
cream and topped with hot chocolate sauce.
Puits d'amour
)wells of love)! classic small pastry crowns filled with pastry cream.
Pro!en?ale
in the style of 'rovence! usually includes garlic, tomatoes, andBor olive oil.
Prune (d'ente)
fresh plum! (variety of plum grown in the famed gen region of the
southwest).
Pruneau
prune.
7ueue (de boeuf)
tail (of beef!o+tail).
7uasi (de !eau)
standing rump (of veal).
7uatre ?"ices
spice blend of ground ginger, nutmeg, white pepper, and cloves.
7uiche lorraine
savory custard tart made with bacon, eggs, and cream.
7uatre-'uarts
)four &uarters)! pound cake made with e&ual weights of eggs, flour, butter,
and sugar.
7uenelle
dumpling, usually of veal, fish, or poultry.
7uetsche
small purple :amson plum.
8?ble de li?!re (la"in)
saddle of hare (rabbit).
8?glisse
licorice.
8?moulade (c?leri)
sauce of mayonnaise, capers, mustard, herbs, anchovies, and gherkins!
(dish of shredded celery root with mayonnaise).
8?ti
roast! meat roast.
7uatre-'uarts
)four &uarters)! pound cake made with e&ual weights of eggs, flour, butter,
and sugar.
7uenelle
dumpling, usually of veal, fish, or poultry.
7uetsche
small purple :amson plum.
8adis
small red radish.
8adis noir
large black radish, often served with cream, as a salad.
8afra?chi
cool, chilled, or fresh.
8aie (boucl?e)
skate or ray, found in the .nglish "hannel, tlantic, and /editerranean.
8aifort
horseradish.
8aisin
grape! raisin.
de *orinthe currant.
de Smyrne sultana.
sec raisin.
8ame'uin
small individual casserole. lso, a small tart. lso, a small goat's-milk
cheese from the %ugey, an area in the northern 7h?ne valley.
8amier
wood or wild pigeon.
8ascasse
gurnard, or scorpion fish in the rockfish family! an essential ingredient of
bouillabaisse, the fish stew of the /editerranean.
8atafia
li&ueur made by infusing nut or fruit in brandy.
8atatouille
a cooked dish of eggplant, $ucchini, onions, tomatoes, peppers, garlic,
and olive oil, served hot or cold! specialty of 'rovence.
8atte
small, bite-si$e potatoes, often used for pur?es.
8a!igote
classic thick vinaigrette sauce with vinegar, white wine, shallots, and
herbs. lso, cold mayonnaise with capers, onions, and herbs.
8a!iole de 8oyans
tiny ravioli pasta filled with goat cheese, from the 7h?ne-lpes.
8a!ioli ? la ni?oise
s&uare or round pasta filled with meat andBor swiss chard and baked with
grated cheese.
8eblochon
smooth, supple, creamy cow's-milk cheese from the Savoie in the lps.
8eine-laude
greengage plum.
8einette, reine de
fall and winter variety of apple, deep yellow with a red blush.
8eligieuse, "etite
)nun)! a small version of a classic pastry consisting of two chou+ puffs
filled with chocolate, coffee, or vanilla pastry cream, placed one on top of
another, and frosted with chocolate or coffee icing to resemble a nun in
her habit.
8e"as
meal.
8huharbe
rhubarb.
8igotte
small cow's-milk cheese from the ,yon region.
8illettes (d'oie)
minced spread of pork (goose)! can also be made with duck, fish, or
rabbit.
8illons
usually pork belly, cut up and cooked until crisp, then drained of fat! also
made of duck, goose, or rabbit.
8is d'agneau (de !eau)
lamb (veal) sweetbreads.
8issol
browned by frying, usually potatoes.
8iz
rice.
? la imp?ratrice cold rice pudding with candied fruit.
complet brown rice.
de *amargue nutty, fragrant rice grown in the "amargue, the
swampy area 2ust south of rles in 'rovence.
sauvage wild rice.
8izotto, risotto
creamy rice made by stirring rice constantly in stock as it cooks, then
mi+ing in other ingredients such as cheese or mushrooms.
8obe des cham"s, robe de chambre ("ommes
potatoes boiled or baked in their skin! potatoes in their 2ackets.
8ocamadour
village in southwestern 3rance which gives its name to a tiny disc of
cheese, once made of pure goat's or sheep's milk, now generally either
goat
8ognonnade
veal loin with kidneys attached.
8omarin
rosemary.
8ondelle
round slice--of lemon, for e+ample.
8o'uefort
disc of blue veined cheese of raw sheep's milk from southwestern 3rance,
aged in village of 7o&uefort-sur-Soul$on.
8o'uette
rocket or arugula, a spicy salad green.
8osette (de boeuf)
large dried pork (beef) sausage, from area around ,yon.
8ouelle
slice of meat or vegetable cut at an angle.
8ouennaise (canard ? la)
in the style of 7ouen! (classic dish of duck stuffed with its liver in a blood-
thickened sauce).
8ouget barbet, rouget de roche
red mullet, a pri$ed, e+pensive rock-fish, with sweet flesh and red skin! its
flavorful liver is reserved for sauces.
8ouget grondin
red gurnard, a large, common rockfish, less pri$ed than rouget barbet.
variety of galinette. n ingredient in bouillabaisse.
8ougette
a small red-leafed butterhead lettuce, specialty of 'rovence.
8ouille
mayonnaise of olive oil, garlic, chile peppers, bread, and fish broth! usually
served with fish soups, such as bouillabaisse.
8oul?(e)
rolled.
8oulade
meat or fish roll, or rolled-up vegetahle souffl?! larger than a paupiette,
and often stuffed.
8oussette
dogfish, also called salmonette because of its pinkish skin, found on the
tlantic coast. -ood when very fresh.
8o!e
breed of goat! also small round of 'rovencal soft goat's cheese, fragrant
with wild herbs.
8oyale, ? la
)royal-style)! rich classic preparation, usually with truffles and a cream
sauce.
8umstec&
rump steak.
8usse, salade ? la
cold mi+ed salad of peas and diced carrots and turnips in mayonnaise.
/abayon, zabaglione
frothy sweet sauce of egg yolks, sugar, wine, and flavoring that is whipped
while being cooked in a water bath.
/abodet
strong, earthy pork sausage of pigs head and skin, served hot! specialty of
,yon.
/aignant(e)
cooked rare, for meat, usually beef.
/aindoux
lard or pork fat.
/aint 0ac'ues, co'uille
sea scallop.
/aint--ermain
with peas.
/aint-(ubert
poivrade sauce with chestnuts and bacon added.
/aint-*arcellin
small flat disc of cow's-milk cheese (once made of goat's milk) made in
dairies in the #s?re, outside ,yon. 0he best is well aged and runny. 3ound
in 'aris, the ,yons area, and northern 'rovence.
/aint-.ectaire
village in the uvergne that gives its name to a supple, thick disc of cow's-
milk cheese with a mottled gray rind.
/aint-Pierre
8ohn :ory, a pri$ed mild, flat, white ocean fish. 5nown as soleil and 8ean
:or? in the 4orth, and poule de mer along the tlantic coast.
/aint-9incent
moist, buttery, thick cylinder of cow's-milk cheese from %urgundy with a
rust-colored rind! similar to .poisses, but aged a bit longer, therefore
stronger.
/ainte-*aure
village in the ,oire valley that gives its name to a soft, elongated cylinder
of goat's-milk cheese with a distinctive straw in the middle and a mottled,
natural blue rind.
/alade
salad! also, a head of lettuce.
/alade folle
mi+ed salad, usually including green beans and foie gras.
/alade lyonnaise
green salad with cubed bacon and soft-cooked eggs, often served with
herring and anchovies, andBor sheep's feet and chicken livers! specialty of
,yon! also called saladier lyonnais.
/alade ni?oise
salad with many variations, but usually with tomatoes, green beans,
anchovies, tuna, potatoes, black olives, capers, and artichokes.
/alade "anach
mi+ed salad.
/alade russe
mi+ed diced vegetables in mayonnaise.
/alade !erte
green salad.
/aladier (lyonnais)
see Salade lyonnaise.
/alers
"antal-type cheese, made in rustic cheese-making houses only when the
cows are in the uvergnes mountain pastures, from /ay to September.
/alicorne
edible seaweed, sea string bean! often pickled and served as a
condiment.
/almis
classic preparation of roasted game birds or poultry, with sauce made
from the pressed carcass.
/al"icon
diced vegetables, meat, andBor fish in a sauce, used as a stuffing, garnish,
or spread.
/alsifis
salsify, oyster plant.
/anglier
wild boar.
/angue
"orsican black pudding usually with grapes or herbs.
/anguine
)blood) orange, so named for its red 2uice.
/ansonnet
Starling or thrush.
/ardine
small sardine. ,arge sardines are called pilchards. 3ound year-round in
the /editerranean, from /ay to 6ctober in the tlantic.
/arladaise
as prepared in Sarlat in the :ordogne! with truffles.
/arrasin
buckwheat.
/arriette
summer savory. See poivre d'ain.
/ar, sargue
blacktail, a tiny flat fish of the sea bream family best grilled or baked.
/arcelle
teal, a species of wild duck.
/ardine
small sardine. ,arge sardines are called pilchards. 3ound year-round in
the /editerranean, from /ay to 6ctober in the tlantic.
/arladaise
as prepared in Sarlat in the :ordogne! with truffles.
/aucisse
small fresh sausage.
/aucisse chaude
warm sausage.
/aucisse de 2rancfort
hot dog.
/aucisse de /trasbourg
redskinned hot dog.
/aucisse de :oulouse
mild country-style pork sausage.
/aucisson
most often, a large air-dried sausage, such as salami, eaten sliced as a
cold cut! when fresh, usually called saucisson chaud, or hot sausage.
/aucisson ? lail
garlic sausage, usually to be cooked and served warm.
/aucisson d'Arles
dried salami-style sausage that blends pork, beef and gentle seasoning! a
specialty of rles, in 'rovence.
/aucisson de cam"agne
any country-style sausage.
/aucisson de 5yon
air-dried pork sausage, flavored with garlic and pepper and studded with
chunks of pork fat.
/aucisson de *orteau
see 8?sus de /orteau.
/aucisson en cro?te
sausage cooked in a pastry crust.
/auge
sage.
/aumon (sau!age)
salmon ()wild,) to differentiate from commercially raised salmon).
/aumon d'+cosse
Scottish salmon.
/aucisson sec
any dried sausage, or salami.
/aumon de fontaine
small, commercially raised salmon.
/aumon nor!?gien
4orwegian salmon.
/aumonette
see 7oussette.
/au"i'uet
classic aromatic wine sauce thickened with bread.
/au!age
wild.
/a!arin
yeast-leavened cake shaped like a ring, soaked in sweet syrup.
/a!oie (biscuit de)
sponge cake.
/a!oyarde
in the style of Savoy, usually flavored with -ruy?re cheese.
/carole
escarole.
/chieffele, schieffala, schifela
smoked pork shoulder, served hot and garnished with pickled turnips or a
potato and onion salad.
/ec (s?che)
dry or dried.
/eiche
cuttlefish. Seigle (pain de)
rye (bread).
/el gris
salt, unbleached sea salt.
/elles-sur-her
village in the ,oire valley identified with a small, flat, truncated cylinder of
goat's-milk cheese with a mottled blueish-gray rind (sometimes patted with
powdered charcoal) and a pure-white interior.
/elon grosseur (/;-;)
according to si$e, usually said of lobster or other seafood.
/elon le march
according to what is in season or available.
/elon "oid (/;P;)
according to weight, usually said of seafood. Semolina or crushed wheat.
lso used in 3rance as a savory garnish, particularly in 4orth frican
dishes such as couscous.
/el marin
sea salt.
/elon "oid (/;P;)
according to weight, usually said of seafood. Semolina or crushed wheat.
lso used in 3rance as a savory garnish, particularly in 4orth frican
dishes such as couscous.
/er"olet
wild thyme.
/er!ice
meal, mealtime, the serving of the meal. restaurant has two services if it
serves lunch and dinner! a dish en deu+ services, like canard press?. is
served in two courses.
/er!ice (non) com"ris
service charge (not) included in the listed menu prices (but invariably
included on the bill).
/er!ice en sus
service charge to be made in addition to menu prices. Same as service
non compris.
/im"le
simple, plain, unmi+ed. lso, a single scoop of ice cream.
/mitane
sauce of cream, onions, white wine, and lemon 2uice.
/oissons
dried or fresh white beans, from the area around Soissons, northeast of
'aris.
/oja ("ousse de)
soy bean (soy bean sprout).
/oja, sauce de
soy sauce.
/olette
small sole.
/ommelier
wine waiter.
/orbet
sherbet.
/oubise
onion sauce.
/oumaintrain
a spicy, supple flat disc of cow's-milk cheese with a red-brown rind! from
%urgundy.
/ou"ir de nonne
)nuns sighs)! fried chou+ pastry dusted with confectioners sugar. "reated
by a nun in an lsatian abbey. lso called pet de nonne.
/ouris
)mouse)! muscle that holds the leg of lamb to the bone! lamb shanks.
/"?tzel, s"aetzle, s"etzli
noodle-like lsatian egg and flour dumpling, served poached or fried.
/tea&-frites
classic 3rench dish of grilled steak served with 3rench-fried potatoes.
/toc&fish, stocaficada, estoficada, esto
flattened, dried cod found in southern 3rance. lso, a pur?e-like blend of
dried codfish, olive oil, tomatoes, sweet peppers, black olives, potatoes,
garlic, onions, and herbs! specialty of 4ice. Sometimes served with pistou.
/trasbourgeoise, ? la
ingredients typical of Strasbourg including sauerkraut, foie gras, and salt
pork.
/ucc?s ? la "raline
cake made with praline meringue layers, frosted with meringue and butter
cream.
/ucre
sugar.
/u"ion, su"ioun, su""ion
cuttlefish.
/u"r?me
a veal- or chicken-based white sauce thickened with flour and cream.
lso, a boneless breast of poultry or a filet of fish.
:ablier de sa"eur
)firemans apron)! tripe that is marinated, breaded, and grilled! specialty of
,yon.
:agine
spicy 4orth frican stew of veal, lamb, chicken, or pigeon, and vegetables.
:ami
3lat disc of cheese, made of cow's milk at the 0rappist monastery in the
Savoie village of 0ami?. Similar to 7eblochon.
:artare (de "oisson)
traditionally chopped raw beef, seasoned and garnished with raw egg,
capers, chopped onion, and parsley! (today, a popular highly seasoned
raw fish dish).
:arte :atin
carameli$ed upside-down apple pie, made famous by the 0atin sisters in
their hotel in ,amotte-%euvron, in the Sologne! a popular dessert, seen on
menus all over 3rance.
:artine
open-face sandwich! buttered bread.
:elline
a tiny violet-streaked clam, the si$e of a fingernail, seen in 'rovence and
the "amargue! generally seared with a bit of oil in a hot pan to open the
shells and seasoned with parsley and garlic.
:errine
earthenware container used for cooking meat, game, fish, or vegetable
mi+tures! also the p?t? cooked and served in such a container. #t differs
from a p?t? proper in that the terrine is actually sliced out of the container,
while a p?t? has been removed from its mold.
:?te de !eau ("orc)
head of veal (pork), usually used in headcheese.
:?tragone
spinach-like green, found in 'rovence.
:able d'h?te
open table or board. 6ften found in the countryside, these are private
homes that serve fi+ed meals and often have one or two guest rooms as
well.
:ablette (de chocolat)
bar (of chocolate).
:ablier de sa"eur
)firemans apron)! tripe that is marinated, breaded, and grilled! specialty of
,yon.
:acaud
pour or whiting-pour, a small, ine+pensive fish found in the tlantic and
/editerranean, usually fried.
:agine
spicy 4orth frican stew of veal, lamb, chicken, or pigeon, and vegetables.
:almouse
savory pastry triangle of cheese-flavored chou+ dough baked in puff
pastry.
:anche
tench, a river fish with a mild, delicate flavor! often an ingredient in
matelote and pauchouse, freshwater fish stews.
:a"enade
a blend of black olives, anchovies, capers, olive oil, and lemon 2uice,
sometimes with rum or canned tuna added! specialty of 'rovence.
:artare (de "oisson)
traditionally chopped raw beef, seasoned and garnished with raw egg,
capers, chopped onion, and parsley! (today, a popular highly seasoned
raw fish dish).
:arte
tart! open-face pie or flan, usually sweet.
:arte encalat
name for cheesecake in the uvergne.
:arte flamb
thin-crusted savory tart, much like a rectangular pi$$a, covered with
cream, onions, and bacon! specialty of lsace! also called 3lamekueche.
:arte :atin
carameli$ed upside-down apple pie, made famous by the 0atin sisters in
their hotel in ,amotte-%euvron, in the Sologne! a popular dessert, seen on
menus all over 3rance.
:artine
open-face sandwich! buttered bread.
:asse
cup! a coffee or tea cup.
:elline
a tiny violet-streaked clam, the si$e of a fingernail, seen in 'rovence and
the "amargue! generally seared with a bit of oil in a hot pan to open the
shells and seasoned with parsley and garlic.
:endre
tender.
:endron
cartilaginous meat cut from beef or veal ribs.
:errine
earthenware container used for cooking meat, game, fish, or vegetable
mi+tures! also the p?t? cooked and served in such a container. #t differs
from a p?t? proper in that the terrine is actually sliced out of the container,
while a p?t? has been removed from its mold.
:eurgoule
a sweet rice pudding with cinnamon! specialty of 4ormandy.
:hermidor (homard)
classic lobster dish! lobster split lengthwise, grilled, and served in the shell
with a cream sauce.
:hon (blanc) (germon)
tuna (white albacore).
:hon rouge
bluefin tuna.
:i?de
lukewarm.
:ian
an earthenware gratin dish! also vegetable gratins baked in such a dish!
from 'rovence.
:illeul
linden tree! linden-blossom herb tea.
:imbale
small round mold with straight or sloping slides! also, a mi+ture prepared
in such a mold.
:omates ? la "ro!en?ale
baked tomato halves sprinkled with garlic, parsley, and bread crumbs.
:omme
generic name for cheese, usually refers to a variety of cheeses in the
Savoie! also, the fresh cheese used to make "antal in the uvergne.
:omme arl?sienne
rectangular cheese made with a blend of goat's and cow's milk and
sprinkled with summer savory! also called tomme de "amargue! a
specialty of the ,anguedoc and rles, in 'rovence.
:omme fraiche
pressed cake of fresh milk curds, used in the regional dishes of the
uvergne.
:o"inambour
8erusalem artichoke.
:orr?fi
roasted, as in coffee beans and chocolate.
:oro (taureau)
bull! meat found in butcher shops in the ,anguedoc and 'ays %as&ue,
and sometimes on restaurant menus.
:orteau au fromage
goat cheese cheesecake from the 'oitou-"harentes along the tlantic
coast! a blackened, spherical loaf found at cheese shops throughout
3rance! once a homemade delicacy, today prepared industrially.
:ortue
turtle.
:ournedos
center portion of beef filet, usually grilled or saut?ed.
:ournedos 8ossini
saut?ed tournedos garnished with foie gras and truffles.
:ourte (aux blettes)
pie (common 4i?oise dessert pie filled with Swiss chard, eggs, cheese,
raisins, and pine nuts). lso, name for giant rounds of country bread found
in the uvergne and the southwest.
:ourteau
large crab.
:ourti?re
shallow three-legged cooking vessel, set over hot coals for baking. lso,
southwestern pastry dish filled with apples andBor prunes and sprinkled
with rmagnac.
:ourain, tourin, tourrin
generally a peasant soup of garlic, onions (and sometimes tomatoes), and
broth or water, thickened with egg yolks and seasoned with vinegar!
specialty of the southwest.
:ournedos 8ossini
saut?ed tournedos garnished with foie gras and truffles.
:ourti?re
shallow three-legged cooking vessel, set over hot coals for baking. lso,
southwestern pastry dish filled with apples andBor prunes and sprinkled
with rmagnac.
:r?!ise
radicchio, a bitter red salad green of the chicory family.
:ranche
slice.
:ra""iste
name given to the mild, lactic cow's-milk cheese made in a 0rappist
monastery in .chourgnac, in the southwest.
:ra!ers de "orc
spareribs.
:rain de c?tes
rib of beef.
:raiteur
caterer! delicatessen.
:ra""iste
name given to the mild, lactic cow's-milk cheese made in a 0rappist
monastery in .chourgnac, in the southwest.
:ri"es ? la mode de aen
beef tripe, carrots, onions, leeks, and spices, cooked in water, cider, and
"alvados (apple brandy)! specialty of 4ormandy.
:ri"le cr?me
legal name for cheese containing more than => percent butterfat, such as
%rillat-Savarin.
:ri"oux
mutton tripe.
:ri"oxa
%as&ue name for sheep's or calfs blood sausage served with spicy red
.spelette peppers.
:rom"ettes de la mort
dark brown wild mushroom, also known as )horn of plenty.)
:rouchia
flat omelet filled with spinach or Swiss chard! specialty of 'rovence.
:ruffade
a large layered and fried potato pancake made with bacon and fresh
"antal cheese! specialty of the uvergne.
:ruffe (truff
truffle (with truffles).
:ruffes sous la cendre
truffles wrapped in pastry or foil, gently warmed as they are buried in
ashes.
:ruite (au bleu)
trout (a preferred method of cooking trout, not live, as often assumed, but
rather in a )live condition.) 0he trout is gutted 2ust moments prior to
cooking, but neither washed nor scaled. #t is then plunged into a hot
mi+ture of vinegar and water, and the slimy lubricant that protects the skin
of the fish appears to turn the trout a bluish color. 0he fish is then removed
to a broth to finish its cooking.)
de lac lake trout.
de mer sea trout or brown trout.
de rivi?re river trout.
saumone? salmon trout.
:uile
literally, )curved roofing tile)! delicate almond-flavored cookie.
:uli"e
tulip-shaped cookie for serving ice cream or sorbet.
:urbot(in)
turbot (small turbot), 'ri$ed flatfish found in the tlantic and
/editerranean.
unilat?ral
6ne-sided - e.g.( saumon ? lunilat?ral G salmon grilled only on one side.
9?roni'ue, ? la
garnish of peeled white grapes. ;ert-pr?
a watercress garnish, sometimes including potatoes.
9ache
cow.
9acherin
dessert of baked meringue, with ice cream and whipped cream. lso a
strong, supple winter cheese encircled by a band of spruce, from the 8ura.
9all?e d'Auge
area of 4ormandy. lso, garnish of cooked apples and cream or "alvados
and cream.
9anille
vanilla.
9a"eur, ? la
steamed.
9arech
seaweed.
9eau
veal.
9elout
classic sauce based on veal, chicken, or fish stock, thickened with a rou+
of butter and flour! also, variously seasoned classic soups thickened with
cream and egg yolks.
9entr?che
pork belly.
9entre
belly or stomach.
9erdure (en)
garnish of green vegetables.
9erdurette
herb vinaigrette.
9erjus
the 2uice of unripe grapes, used to make a condiments used much like
vinegar in sauces.
9ernis
large fleshy clam with small red tongue and shiny varnish-like shell.
9er!eine
lemon verbena, herb tea.
9essie, en
cooked in a pigs bladder (usually chicken).
9iande
meat.
9ichy
with gla$ed carrots. lso, a brand of mineral water.
9ichyssoise
cold, creamy leek and potato soup.
9iennoise
coated in egg, breaded, and fried.
9ierge (sauce)
)virgin)! term for the best &uality olive oil, from the first pressing of the
olives! (sauce of olive oil, lemon 2uice, garlic, tomatoes, and fresh herbs.)
9ieux (!ielle)
old.
9ieux 5ille
thick, s&uare cheese named for the old part of the norths largest city,
made in the same way as /aroilles, with cow's milk, only salted more,
then aged si+ months until stinking ripe. lso called vieu+ puant, or )old
stinker.)
9in jaune
an amber yellow wine made in the 8ura with late harvested grapes. Stored
in oak casks, it can last up to a century.
9inaigre (!ieux)
vinegar (aged).
9inaigre de x?r
sherry vinegar.
9inaigrette
oil and vinegar dressing.
9iognier
increasingly popular white grape of the 7h?ne, used for the famed
"ondrieu .
9iolet de Pro!ence
braid of plump garlic, a specialty of 'rovence and the "?te-d'$ur.
9iolet or figue de mer
unusual iodine-strong, soft-shelled edible sea creature, with a yellowish
interior. delicacy along the /editerranean, particularly in /arseille.
9iolette
violet! its crystalli$ed petals are a specialty of 0oulouse.
9iroflay
classic garnish of spinach for poached or soft-cooked eggs.
9i!e or !i"?re de mer
weever! a small firm-fleshed ocean fish used in soups, such as
bouillabaisse, or grilled. 0he venomous spine is removed before cooking.
9ol-au-!ent
puff pastry shell.
9onnaissienne, ? la
in the style of ;onnas, a village in the 7h?ne-lpes. lso, cr?pes made
with potatoes.
6aterzooi
3lemish chicken stew cooked with aromatic herbs and vegetables in a
sauce of cream and chicken broth.
<?r?s (!inaigre de)
sherry (vinegar).
>este
$est, or citrus peel with white pith removed.
>e)elmai, ze)el)ai
lsatian onion tart.
>ingara, ? la
gypsy style! with tomato sauce. lso classically, a garnish of ham, tongue,
mushrooms, and truffles
Acajou
cashew nut.
Ar"ajon
a town in the #le-de-3rance! dried bean capital of 3rance! a dish containing
dried beans.
ajasse
a sort of clafoutis from the :ordogne, made with black cherries.
ajou
cashew nut.
ar"e ? la jui!e
braised marinated carp in aspic.
o' au !in jaune
chicken cooked in the sherry-like vin 2aune of the region, with cream,
butter! and tarragon, often garnished with morels! specialty of the 8ura.
o'uille /aint-0ac'ues
sea scallop.
1?jeuner
lunch.
1ijonnaise
:i2on style! usually with mustard.
2oudjou
a pungent goat-cheese spread, a blend of fresh and aged grated cheese
mi+ed with salt, pepper, brandy, and garlic and cured in a crock! specialty
of northern 'rovence.
-oujon
small catfish! generic name for a number of small fish. lso, preparation in
which the central part of larger fish is coated with bread crumbs, then
deep fried.
-oujonnette
generally used to describe a small piece of fish, such as sole, usually
fried.
0?sus de *orteau
plump smoked pork sausage that takes its name from the town of /orteau
in the 8ura! distinctive because a wooden peg is tied in the sausage
casing on one end! traditionally, the sausage eaten at "hristmas, hence its
name! also called saucisson de /orteau.
0alousie
)venetian blind)! classic small, latticed, flaky pastry filled with almond
paste and spread with 2am.
0ambon
ham! also refers to the leg, usually of pork, but also of poultry.
? los ham with the bone in
blanc lightly salted, un-smoked or very lightly smoked ham, served
cooked! sold, cold, in charcuteries as 2ambon de 'aris, glac?, or
demi-sel
cru salted or smoked ham that has been cured but not cooked
cuit cooked ham
d!"uvergne raw, dry, salt-cured smoked ham
de Bayonne raw, dry salt-cured ham, very pale in color
de Bourgogne See 2ambon persill?
de montagne any mountain ham, cured according to local custom
de Paris pale, lightly salted, cooked ham
de Parme #talian prosciutto from 'arma, air-dried and salt-cured
ham, sliced thin and served raw
de pays any country ham, cured according to local custom
de poulet boned stuffed chicken leg.
de #estphalie -erman 9estphalian ham, raw, cured, and
smoked.
de $or% smoked .nglish-style ham, usually poached
d!oie (or de canard breast of fattened goose (or duck), smoked,
salted, or sugar cured, somewhat resembling ham in flavor.
fum? smoked ham.
persill? cold cooked ham, cubed and preserved in parsleyed
gelatin, usually sliced from a terrine! a specialty of %urgundy.
sal? salt-cured ham.
sec dried ham.
0ambonneau
cured ham shank or pork knuckle.
0ambonnette
boned and stuffed knuckle of ham or poultry.
0ardini?re
refers to a garnish of fresh cooked vegetables.
0arret (de !eau, de "orc, de boeuf)
knuckle (of veal or pork), shin (of beef).
0erez
refers to sherry
0eune
young.
0onch
rush basket in which certain fresh sheep's - or goat's-milk cheeses of
'oitou (along the tlantic coast) are contained! thus, by e+tension, the
cheese itself.
0oue
cheek.
0ulienne
cut into slivers, usually vegetables or meat.
0uran?on
district in the %?arn, the area around 'au in southwestern 3rance, known
for its sweet and spicy white wine.
0us
2uice.
5ieu jaune
green pollack, in the cod family a pleasant, ine+pensive small yellow fish!
often sold under name colin! found in the tlantic.
*arjolaine
mar2oram. lso, multilayered chocolate and nut cake.
*ijot?(e) ("lat)
simmered (dish or preparation).
*ogette, mojette mougette
a kind of dried white bean from the tlantic coast.
*or!andelle, jambon ? la
in the style of the /orvan (ham in a pi&uant creamy sauce made with
white wine, vinegar, 2uniper berries, shallots, and cream).
Pata .?gra (jambon)
'ri$ed ham from Spain, literally )black feet.)
Petit d?jeuner
breakfast.
Piment (or "oi!re) de 0ama?'ue
allspice.
Plat du jour
todays special.
Pojars&i
finely chopped meat or fish shaped like a cutlet and fried.
Potje!leisch
a mi+ed meat terrine, usually of veal, pork, and rabbit! specialty of the
4orth.
/aint 0ac'ues, co'uille
sea scallop.
/oja ("ousse de)
soy bean (soy bean sprout).
/oja, sauce de
soy sauce.
9erjus
the 2uice of unripe grapes, used to make a condiments used much like
vinegar in sauces.
9in jaune
an amber yellow wine made in the 8ura with late harvested grapes. Stored in oak
casks, it can last up to a century
Baec&eoffe, bae&aoffa, bac&aofa, bac&eno
)baker's oven)! stew of wine, beef, lamb, pork, potatoes, and onions!
specialty of lsace.
Bera)ec&a, biere)ec&e, bire)ec&, bire)ec
dense, moist "hristmas fruit bread stuffed with dried pears, figs, and nuts!
specialty of 5aysersberg, a village in lsace.
Bibels&,s, bibbels&,se
fresh cheese seasoned with horseradish, herbs, and spices! specialty of
lsace.
Biftec&
steak.
+lze&aria
soup made with green beans, cabbage, and garlic! specialty of the
%as&ue region.
2ern&ase
young cheese shaped like a flying saucer and sprinkled with coarsely
ground pepper! specialty of lsace.
2lamme&ueche
thin-crusted savory tart, much like a rectangular pi$$a, covered with
cream, onions, and bacon! also called tarte flamb?e! specialty of lsace.
(addoc&
small fresh cod that have been salted and smoked.
(addoc&
small fresh cod that have been salted and smoked.
(areng balti'ue, bismar&
marinated herring.
(areng balti'ue, bismar&
marinated herring.
4a&i
persimmon.
4ari
variant spelling of cary.
4ataifi (also &ataif)
thin strands of vermicelli-like dough, used in -reen and /iddle .astern
pastries and in some modern 3rench preparations
4ie!
deep-fried breast of chicken stuffed with herb and garlic butter.
4ir
an aperitif made with cr?me de cassis (black currant li&ueur) and most
commonly dry white wine, but sometimes red wine.
4ir royal
a 5ir made with "hampagne.
4irsch
eau-de-vie of wild black cherries.
4ne"fla
lsatian dumpling, sometimes fried.
4ougelho"h, hougelhof, &ouglof, &ugelho"
sweet crown-shaped yeast cake, with almonds and raisins! specialty of
lsace.
4ouigh-amann
sweet, buttery pastry from %rittany.
4ummel
caraway seed li&ueur.
*o&a
refers to "offee! coffee-flavored dish.
Pojars&i
finely chopped meat or fish shaped like a cutlet and fried.
Press&o"h
pork headcheese, often served with vinaigrette! specialty of lsace.
8umstec&
rump steak.
/tea&-frites
classic 3rench dish of grilled steak served with 3rench-fried potatoes.
/toc&fish, stocaficada, estoficada, esto
flattened, dried cod found in southern 3rance. lso, a pur?e-like blend of
dried codfish, olive oil, tomatoes, sweet peppers, black olives, potatoes,
garlic, onions, and herbs! specialty of 4ice. Sometimes served with pistou.
a la Bourgeoise, ? la Bourgeoise
'repared in the family style.
a la, ? la
#n the style of! often used to describe the way a dish has been prepared.
See common variations below.
A?oli, ailloli
garlic mayonnaise. lso, salt cod, hard-cooked eggs, boiled snails, and
vegetables served with garlic mayonnaise! specialty of 'rovence.
Agneau (de lait)
lamb (young, milk-fed).
Agneau chilindron
saut? of lamb with potatoes and garlic, specialty of the %as&ue country.
Agneau de Paulliac
breed of lamb from the southwest.
Agnelet
baby milk-fed lamb.
Agnelle
ewe lamb.
Aiglefin', aigrefin, ?glefin
small fresh haddock, a type of cod.
Aigrelette, sauce
a sort of tart sauce.
Aiguillette
a long, thin slice of poultry, meat, or fish. lso, top part of beef rump.
Ail
garlic.
Aile
wing of poultry or game bird.
Aile et cuisse
used to describe white breast meat (aile) and dark thigh meat (cuisse),
usually of chicken.
Aill
with garlic.
Aillade
garlic sauce! also, dishes based on garlic.
Aillet
shoot of mild winter baby garlic, a specialty of the 'oitou-"harentes region
along the tlantic coast.
Airelle
wild cranberry.
Albuf?ra
b?chamel sauce with sweet peppers, prepared with chicken stock instead
of milk! classic sauce for poultry.
Algue(s)
edible seaweed.
Aligot
mashed potatoes with tomme (the fresh curds used in making "antal
cheese) and garlic! specialty of the uvergne.
Alisier, alizier
eau-de-vie with the taste of bitter almonds, made with the wild red
serviceberries that grow in the forests of lsace.
Allumette
)match)! puff pastry strips! also fried matchstick potatoes.
Alose
shad, a spring river fish plentiful in the ,oire and -ironde rivers.
Alouette
lark.
Aloyau
loin area of beef! beef sirloin, butcher's cut that includes the rump and
contre-filet.
Alsacienne, ? l'
in the style of lsace, often including sauerkraut, sausage, or foie gras.
Amuse-bouche or amusegueule
)amuse the mouth)! appeti$er.
Anchois (de ollioure)
anchovy (pri$ed salt-cured anchovy from "ollioure, a port town near the
Spanish border of the ,anguedoc), fished in the tlantic and the
/editerranean.
Ancienne, ? l'
in the old style.
Andouille
large smoked chitterling (tripe) sausage, usually served cold.
Andouillette
small chitterling (tripe) sausage, usually served grilled.
Ange ? che!al
)angel on horseback)! grilled bacon-wrapped oyster.
Anglaise, ? l'
.nglish style, plainly cooked.
Anguille (au !ert)
eel! (poached in herb sauce).
Anis ?toil
star anise.
Anise ?toil
star anise! also called badiane, anis de la chine. 0he anise plant! its dried
star-shaped fruit.
A""ellation d'origine contr?l?e (A#)
specific definition of a particular cheese, butter, fruit, wine, or poultry--once
passed down from generation to generation now recogni$ed by law--
regulating the animal breed or variety of fruit, the $one of production,
production techni&ues, composition of the product, its physical
characteristics, and its specific attributes.
Ar?mes ? la g?ne
generic name for a variety of tangy, lactic cheeses of the ,yon area that
have been steeped in g?ne, or dry marc, the dried grape skins left after
grapes are pressed for wine. "an be of cow's milk, goat's milk, or a
mi+ture.
Arachide (huile d'$ "?t? d')
peanut (oil! butter).
Arbousier (miel d')
trailing arbutus, small evergreen shrubby tree of the heather family, also
called strawberry tree, ground laurel and madrona tree with strawberry-like
fruit dotted with tiny bumps! (honey of). 1sed for making li&ueurs, 2ellies,
and 2ams.
Arc en ciel (truite)
rainbow (trout).
Ardennaise, ? l'
in the style of the rdennes, a d?partement in northern 3rance! generally a
dish with 2uniper berries.
Arl?sienne, ? l'
in the style of rles, a town in 'rovence! with tomatoes, onions, eggplant,
potatoes, rice, and sometimes olives.
Artichaut ? la Barigoule
in original form, artichokes cooked with mushrooms and oil! also, artichoke
stuffed with ham, onion, and garlic, browned in oil with onions and bacon,
then cooked in water or white wine! specialty of 'rovence.
As"erge (!iolette)
asparagus (purple-tipped asparagus, a specialty of the "?te-d'$ur).
Assiette anglaise
assorted cold meats, usually served as a first course.
Aulx
plural of ail (garlic).
A!eline
ha$elnut or filbert, better known as noisette.
B?atille
)tidbit)! dish combining various organ meats.
B?chamel
white sauce, made with butter, flour, and milk, usually flavored with onion,
bay leaf, pepper, and nutmeg.
Baguette au le!ain or ? l'ancienne
sourdough baguette.
Ballotine
usually poultry boned, stuffed, and rolled.
Barbouillade
stuffed eggplant, or an eggplant stew! also, a combination of beans and
artichokes.
Basilic
basil.
Bas'uaise, ? la
%as&ue style! usually with ham or tomatoes or red peppers.
Beignet de fleur de courgette
batter-fried $ucchini blossom! native to 'rovence and the /editerranean,
now popular all over 3rance.
Belle (?l?ne ("oire)
classic dessert of chilled poached fruit (pear), served on ice cream and
topped with hot chocolate sauce.
Belle!ue, en
classic presentation of whole fish, usually in aspic on a platter.
Belon
river in %rittany identified with a pri$ed flat-shelled (plate) oyster.
Belondines
%rittany creuses, or crinkle-shelled oysters that are affin?es or finished off
in the %elon river.
Bergamot (th? a la bergamote)
name for both a variety of orange and of pear! (earl grey tea.).
Beurre blanc
classic reduced sauce of vinegar! white wine, shallots, and butter
Beurre de *ont"ellier
classic butter sauce seasoned with olive oil, herbs, garlic, and anchovies.
Beurre demi-sel
butter (lightly salted).
Bi?re (en bouteille, ? la "ression)
beer (bottled, on tap).
Bibels&,s, bibbels&,se
fresh cheese seasoned with horseradish, herbs, and spices! specialty of
lsace.
Bigoud?ne, ? la
in the style of %igouden, a province in %rittany! (pommes) baked slices of
unpeeled potato! (rag?ut) sausage stewed with bacon and potato.
Billy Bi, Billy By
cream of mussel soup, specialty of the tlantic coast.
Biologi'ue
organic.
Biscuit ? la cuill?re
ladyfinger.
Bl? (noir)
wheat (buckwheat).
Blanc (de "oireau)
white portion (of leek).
Blanc (de !olaille)
usually breast (of chicken).
Blanc-manger
chilled pudding of almond milk with gelatin.
Blan'uette
classic mild stew of poached veal, lamb, chicken, or seafood, enriched
with an egg and cream white sauce! supposedly a dish for convalescents.
Blette, bette
Swiss chard.
Bleu
)blue)! cooked rare, usually for steak. See also Truite (au bleu).
Bleu d'Au!ergne
a strong, firm and moist, flattened cylinder of blue-veined cheese made
from cow's milk in the uvergne, sold wrapped in foil! still made on some
farms.
Bleu de Bresse
a cylinder of mild blue-veined cow's-milk cheese from the %resse area in
the 7h?ne-lps region! industrially made.
Bleu de -ex
thick, savory blue-veined disc of cow's-milk cheese from the 8ura! made in
only a handful of small dairies in the d?partement of the in.
Bleu des ausses
a firm, pungent, flat cylinder of blue-veined cow's-milk cheese, cured in
cellars similar to those used in making 7o&uefort.
Blini
small thick pancake, usually eaten with caviar.
Boeuf ? la ficelle
beef tied with string and poached in broth.
Boeuf ? la mode
beef marinated and braised in red wine, served with carrots, mushrooms,
onions, and turnips.
Boeuf gros sel
boiled beef, served with vegetables and coarse salt.
Boh?mienne, ? la
gypsy style! with rice, tomatoes, onions, sweet peppers, and paprika, in
various combinations.
Bolet
type of wild boletus mushroom. See C?pe.
Bordelaise
%ordeau+ style! also refers to a brown sauce of shallots, red wine, and
bone marrow.
Boudin blanc
white sausage of veal, chicken, or pork.
Bouillabaisse
popular /editerranean fish soup, most closely identified with /arseille,
ideally prepared with the freshest local fish, preferably rockfish.
0raditionally might include do$ens of different fish, but today generally
includes the specifically local rascasse (scorpion fish), Saint-'ierre (8ohn
:ory), fi?la (conger eel), galinette (gurnard or grondin), vive (weever), and
baudroie (monkfish) cooked in a broth of water, olive oil, onions, garlic,
tomatoes, parsley, and saffron. 0he fish is served separately from the
broth, which is poured over garlic-rubbed toast, and seasoned with rouille
which is stirred into the broth. ;aried additions include boiled potatoes,
orange peel, fennel, and shellfish. .+pensive shellfish are often added in
restaurant versions, but this practice is considered inauthentic.
Bouilliture
eel stew with red wine and prunes! specialty of the 'oitou-"harentes on
the tlantic coast.
Bouillon
stock or broth.
Boulang?re, ? la
in the style of the )baker's wife)! meat or poultry baked or braised with
onions and potatoes.
Boule
)ball)! a large round loaf of white bread, also known as a miche.
Boule de Picoulat
meatball from ,anguedoc, combining beef, pork, garlic, and eggs,
traditionally served with cooked white beans.
Boulette d'A!esnes
pepper-and-tarragon-flavored cheese, made from visually defective
/aroilles, formed into a cone, and colored red with paprika! named for
vesnes, a village in the 4orth.
Bourdaloue
hot poached fruit, sometimes wrapped in pastry often served with vanilla
custard! often pear.
Bourgeoise, ? la
with carrots, onions, braised lettuce, celery and bacon.
Bourguignonne, ? la
%urgundy style! often with red wine, onions, mushrooms, and bacon.
Bourriole
rye flour pancake, both sweet and savory! specialty of the uvergne.
Bouton de culotte
)trouser button)! tiny buttons of goat cheese from the ,yon area!
traditionally made on farms, aged until rock hard and pungent! today found
in many forms, from soft and young to hard and brittle.
Br?l?(e)
)burned)! usually refers to carameli$ation.
Bretonne, ? la
in the style of %rittany! a dish served with white beans! or may refer to a
white wine sauce with carrots, leeks, and celery.
Bretzel
a pret$el! specialty of lsace.
Brie de *elun
smaller than brie de /eau+, another raw-cow's-milk cheese, aged at least
one month, with a crackly rust-colored rind.
Brillat-/a!arin
(<=>>-<?@A) famed gastronome, coiner of food aphorisms, and author of
0he 'hysiology of 0aste! the high-fat, supple cow's-milk cheese from
4ormandy is named for him.
Broche, ? la
spit-roasted.
Brocoli
broccoli.
Brouill?(s)
scrambled, usually eggs.
Brouillade
a mi+ture of ingredients as in a stew or soup! also, scrambled eggs.
Bulot
large sea snail or whelk, also called buccin.
?leri (en branche)
celery (stalk).
?leri remoulade
popular first-course bistro dish of shredded celery root with tangy
mayonnaise.
?leri-ra!e
celeriac, celery root.
?r?ale
cereal.
?telette
thin chop or cutlet.
?!enole, ? la
"evennes style! garnished with chestnuts or mushrooms.
abillaud
fresh codfish, also currently called morue, known as doguette in the 4orth,
bakalua in the %as&ue region, eglefin in 'rovence.
aen, ? la mode de
in the style of "aen, a town in 4ormandy! a dish cooked in "alvados and
white wine andBor cider.
agouille
on the tlantic coast, name for small petit gris land snail, or escargot.
aill
clotted or curdled! curds of milk.
aille
&uail.
aillette
round pork sausage including chopped spinach or Swiss chard, garlic,
onions, parsley, bread, and egg and wrapped in cr?pine (caul fat)! served
hot or cold! specialty of northern 'rovence.
alisson d'Aix
:elicate, diamond-shaped 'roven?al sweet prepared with almonds,
candied oranges, melon or abricots, egg white, sugar, and confiture of
oranges or apricots.
almar
small s&uid, similar to encornet! with interior transparent cartilage instead
of a bone. lso called chipiron in the southwest.
al!ados
a d?partement in 4ormandy known for the famed apple brandy.
amomille
camomile, herb tea.
am"agne, ? la
country-style.
anard ? la "resse
roast duck served with a sauce of 2uices obtained from pressing the
carcass, combined with red wine and "ognac.
ancoillotte
spreadable cheese from the 8ura! usually blended with milk, spices, or
white wine when served.
annelle
cinnamon.
annois, ? la
in the style of "annes.
antal
large cylindrical cheese made in the uvergne from shredded and pressed
curds of cow's milk.
antalon
smaller version of "antal.
antalou"
cantaloupe melon.
a"ilotade
basically any leftover meat or poultry cooked to tenderness in a well-
reduced sauce.
aramelis
cooked with high heat to brown the sugar and heighten flavor.
argolade
a copious mi+ed grill of snails, lamb, pork sausage, and sometimes blood
sausage, cooked over vine clippings! specialty of "atalan, an area of
southern ,anguedoc.
ar"e ? la jui!e
braised marinated carp in aspic.
arrelet
see 'laice.
arte "romotionelle or conseill
a simple and ine+pensive fi+ed-price meal.
arte, ? la
menu (dishes, which are charged for individually, selected from a
restaurant's full list of offerings).
assolette
usually a dish presented in a small casserole.
assoulet
popular southwestern casserole of white beans, including various
combinations of sausages, duck, pork, lamb, mutton, and goose.
a!aillon
a town in 'rovence, known for its small, flavorful orange-fleshed melons.
endre (sous la)
ash (cooked by being buried in embers)! some cheeses made in wine-
producing regions are aged in the ash of burned rootstocks.
erfeuil
chervil.
er!elas
garlicky cured pork sausage! now also refers to fish and seafood sausage.
er!elle de canut
a soft, fresh herbed cheese known as )silkworker's brains)! specialty of
,yon.
er!elle(s)
brain(s), of calf or lamb.
h?telaine, ? la
elaborate garnish of artichoke hearts and chestnut pur?e, braised lettuce,
and saut?ed potatoes.
halutier
trawler! any flat fish caught with a trawl.
ham"!allon, c?telette d'agneau
traditional dish of lamb chops baked in alternating layers of potatoes and
onions! named for a village in northern %urgundy.
hanterelle
pri$ed pale orange wild mushroom! also called girolle.
hantilly
sweetened whipped cream.
ha"elure
bread crumbs.
harlotte
classic dessert in which a dish is lined with ladyfingers, filled with custard
or other filling, and served cold! in the hot version, the dish is lined with
crustless white bread saut?ed in butter, filled with fruit compote and
baked. lso a potato variety.
harolais
area of %urgundy! light colored cattle producing high-&uality beef! also,
firm white cylinder of cheese made with goat's or cow's milk, or a mi+ture
of the two.
he!al
horse, horse meat.
he!reuil
young roe buck or roe deer! venison.
hi"iron (? l'encre)
southwestern name for small s&uid, or encornet (in its own ink).
hi"olata
small sausage.
hocolat
chocolate.
amer( bittersweet chocolate, with very little sugar.
au lait( milk chocolate.
chaud( hot chocolate.
mi-amer( bittersweet chocolate, with more sugar than chocolat
amer.
noir( used interchangeably with chocolat amer.
hou de Bruxelles
brussels sprout.
hou de *ilan
Savoy cabbage.
hou-fleur
cauliflower.
houcroute (nou!elle)
sauerkraut (the season's first batch of sauerkraut, still crunchy and slightly
acidic)! also main dish of sauerkraut, various sausages, bacon, and pork,
served with potatoes! specialty of lsace and brasseries all over 3rance.
iboule
spring onion, or scallion.
iboulette
chives.
igale de mer
)sea cricket)! tender, crayfish-like, blunt-nosed rock lobster.
itron, orange, or "am"lemousse "ress?(e
lemon, orange, or grapefruit 2uice served with a carafe of tap water and
sugar! for sweetening to taste.
itronnelle
lemon grass, an oriental herb! also lemon balm (m?lisse).
itrouille
pumpkin, gourd. lso called courge, potiron, potimarron.
i!elle
spaghetti-like baby eel, also called pibale.
i!et de li?!re
2ugged hare, or wild rabbit stew.
l?mentine
small tangerine, from /orocco or Spain.
lafoutis
traditional custard tart, usually made with black cherries! specialty of the
southwest.
laire
oyster! also a designation given to certain oysters to indicate they have
been put in claires, or oyster beds in salt marshes, where they are
fattened up for several months before going to market.
lamart
'aris suburb once famous for its green peas! today a garnish of peas.
lout
studded with.
lo!isse
variety of very tiny clam, generally from the /editerranean.
ocherelle
parasol mushroom with a delicate flavor! also called champignon ? la
bague, coulemelle, and grisotte.
ochon (de lait)
pig (suckling).
ochonnaille(s)
pork product(s), usually an assortment of sausages andBor p?t?s served
as a first course.
oco blanc (rouge)
type of small white (red) shell bean, both fresh and dried, popular in
'rovence, where it is a traditional ingredient of the vegetable soupe au
pistou! also, coconut.
oco de Paim"ol
"ream-colored shell bean striated with purple, from %rittany, in season
from 8uly to 4ovember! the first bean in 3rance to receive 6".
oeur de filet
thickest (and best) part of beef filet, usually cut into chateaubriand steaks.
oeur de "almier
delicate shoots of the palm tree, generally served with a vinaigrette as an
hors d'oeuvre.
ol !ert
wild ()green-collared)) mallard duck.
ol?re, en
)anger)! method of presenting fish in which the tail is inserted in the
mouth, so it appears agitated.
olbert
method of preparing fish, coating with egg and bread crumbs and then
frying.
olin
hake, ocean fish related to cod! known as merluche in the 4orth,
merluchon in %rittany, bardot or merlan along the /editerranean.
olombe
dove.
olombo
mi+ture of spices, like a curry powder, used to season shellfish, meat or
poultry. ,ike curry, the mi+ may vary, but usually contains tumeric, rice
powder, coriander, pepper, cumin and fenugreek.
olza
rape, a plant of the mustard family, colorful yellow field crop grown
throughout 3rance, usually pressed into vegetable (rapeseed) oil.
ommander a!ant le re"as,
a selection of desserts that should be ordered when selecting first and
main courses, as they re&uire longer cooking.
om"let
filled up, with no more room for customers.
ongeler
to free$e.
onseill
advised, recommended.
ontre-filet
cut of sirloin taken above the loin on either side of the backbone, tied for
roasting or braising (can also be cut for grilling).
o'ue, ? la
served in a shell. See 6euf ? la co&ue.
o'uelet
young male chicken.
o'uillage(s)
shellfish.
o'uille
shell.
o'uille /aint-0ac'ues
sea scallop.
orail
coral-colored egg sac, found in scallops, spiny lobster, and crayfish.
oulant
refers to runny cheese.
oulemelle
parasol mushroom with a delicate flavor! also called champignon ? la
bague, cocherelle, and grisotte.
oulibiac
classic, elaborate, hot 7ussian p?t?, usually layers of salmon, rice, hard-
cooked eggs, mushrooms, and onions, wrapped in brioche.
oulis
pur?e of raw or cooked vegetables or fruit.
oulommiers
town in the #le-de-3rance that gives its name to a supple, fragrant disc of
cow's-milk cheese, slightly larger than "amembert.
ourt-bouillon
broth, or aromatic poaching li&uid.
ra'uelot
smoked herring.
ro?te de sel (en)
(in) a salt crust.
ro'ue au sel, ? la
served raw, with a small bowl of coarse salt for seasoning! tiny purple
artichokes and cherry tomatoes are served this way.
rottin de ha!ignol
small flattened ball of goat's-milk cheese from the ,oire valley."roustade
usually small pastry-wrapped dish! also regional southwestern pastry filled
with prunes andBor apples.
uilli?re (? la)
(to be eaten with a) spoon.
uisse (de "oulet)
leg or thigh (chicken drumstick).
ul
haunch or rear! usually of red meat.
ulotte
rump, usually of beef.
ulti!ateur
)truck farmer)! fresh vegetable soup.
1ariole
truncated cone or oval-shaped baking mold.
1emi-deuil
)in half mourning)! poached (usually chicken) with sliced truffles inserted
under the skin! also, sweetbreads with a truffled white sauce.
1emi-glace
concentrated beef-based sauce lightened with consomm?, or a lighter
brown sauce.
1emi-sel (buerre)
lightly salted (butter).
1emoiselle de canard
marinated raw duck tenderloin! also called mignon de canard.
1emoiselles de herbourg
small lobsters from the town of "herbourg in 4ormandy, cooked in a court-
bouillon and served in cooking 2uices. lso, restaurant name for %reton
lobsters weighing EDD to FDD grams (<D to <E ounces).
1entelle
)lace)! a portion of meat or fish so thinly sliced as to suggest a
resemblance. lso, large lace-thin sweet cr?pe.
1ents-de-lion
dandelion salad green! also called pissenlit.
1iable
)devil)! method of preparing poultry with a peppery sauce, often mustard-
based. lso, a round pottery casserole.
1ouillon, duillon
a whole pear wrapped and cooked in pastry! specialty of 4ormandy.
1ugl?r
white flour-based sauce with shallots, white wine, tomatoes, and parsley.
1uxelles
minced mushrooms and shallots saut?ed in butter, then mi+ed with cream.
+au min?rale
mineral water.
+chalote (gris)
shallot (pri$ed purplish shallot) elongated.
+chalote banane
banana-shaped onion.
+clade de moules
mussels roasted beneath a fire of pine needles! specialty of the tlantic
coast.
+ffiloch
frayed, shredded.
+glantine
wild rose 2am! specialty of lsace.
+glefin, ?grefin, aiglefin
small fresh haddock, a type of cod.
+lze&aria
soup made with green beans, cabbage, and garlic! specialty of the
%as&ue region.
+mmental
large wheel of cooked and pressed cow's-milk cheese, very mild in flavor,
with large interior holes! made in large commercial dairies in the 8ura.
+ntrec?te ma?tre d'h?tel
beef rib steak with sauce of red wine and shallots.
+"aule
shoulder (of veal, lamb, mutton, or pork).
+"erlan
smelt or whitebait, usually fried, often imported but still found in the
estuaries of the ,oire.
+"oisses blanc
fresh white .poisses cheese.
+'uille
sand eel, a long silvery fish that buries itself in the sand! eaten fried on the
tlantic coast.
+scali!ada
"atalan roasted vegetables, usually sweet peppers, eggplant and onions.
+scalo"e
thin slice of meat or fish.
+scarole
bitter salad green of the chicory family with thick broad-lobed leaves,
found in both flat and round heads.
+s"agnole, ? l
Spanish style! with tomatoes, peppers, onions, and garlic.
+sti!al
summer, used to denote seasonality of ingredients.
+stouffade ? la "ro!en?ale
beef stew with onions, garlic, carrots, and orange $est.
+toile
star! star-shaped.
+trille
small swimming crab.
2alette
veal breast stuffed with bacon and vegetables, browned, and poached in
broth! specialty of the uvergne.
2arigoule(tte)
'roven?al name for wild thyme.
2aux-filet
sirloin steak.
2a!ou(ille)
in 'rovence, tiny male (female) crab often used in soups.
2enouil
fennel.
2er ? che!al
)horseshoe)! a baguette that has that shape.
2euille de ch?ne
oak-leaf lettuce.
2euille de !igne
vine leaf.
2euillet
puff pastry.
2euilletage (en)
(in) puff pastry.
2icelle (boeuf ? la)
)string)! (beef suspended on a string and poached in broth). lso, small
thin baguette. lso, a small bottle of wine, as in carafe of %eau2olais.
2icelle "icarde
thin cr?pe wrapped around a slice of ham and topped with a cheesy
cream sauce! specialty of 'icardy, in the 4orth.
2ine de claire
elongated crinkle-shelled oyster that stays in fattening beds (claires) a
minimum of two months.
2l?tan
halibut, found in the .nglish "hannel and 4orth Sea.
2l?te
)flute)! usually a very thin baguette! also, form of champagne glass.
2lageolet
small white or pale green kidney-shaped dried bean.
2lagnarde, flaugnarde, flognarde
hot, fruit-filled batter cake made with eggs, flour, milk, and butter, and
sprinkled with sugar before serving! specialty of the southwest.
2lamber
to burn off the alcohol by igniting. 1sually the brandies or other li&ueurs to
be flamb?ed are warmed first, then lit as they are poured into the dish.
2lamiche (au *aroilles)
a vegetable tart with rich bread dough crust, commonly filled with leeks,
cream, and cheese! specialty of 'icardy, in the 4orth! (filled with cream,
egg, butter, and /aroilles cheese).
2lamme&ueche
thin-crusted savory tart, much like a rectangular pi$$a, covered with
cream, onions, and bacon! also called tarte flamb?e! specialty of lsace.
2lan
sweet or savory tart. lso, a crustless custard pie.
2lanchet
flank of beef or veal, used generally in stews.
2leur (de sel)
flower (fine, delicate sea salt, from %rittany or the "amargue).
2leur de courgette
$ucchini blossom.
2leuron
puff pastry crescent.
2lorentine
with spinach. lso, a cookie of nougatine and candied fruit brushed with a
layer of chocolate.
2oie blond de !olaille
chicken liver! also sometimes a chicken-liver mousse.
2oin (dan le)
(cooked in) hay.
2ontainebleau
creamy white fresh dessert cheese from the #le-de-3rance.
2ran?aise, ? la
classic garnish of peas with lettuce, small white onions, and parsley.
2ricadelle
fried minced meat patty.
-alantine
classical preparation of boned meat or whole poultry that is stuffed or
rolled, cooked, then gla$ed with gelatin and served cold.
-alette
round flat pastry, pancake, or cake! can also refer to pancake-like savory
preparations! in %rittany usually a savory buckwheat cr?pe, known as bl?
noir.
-alette bressane, galette de P?rouges
cream and sugar tart from the %resse area of the 7h?ne-lpes.
-alette des rois
puff pastry filled with almond pastry cream, traditional 0welfth 4ight
celebration cake.
-alinette
tub gurnard, /editerranean fish of the mullet family.
-argouillau
pear cake or tart! specialty of northern uvergne.
-el
aspic.
-ibelotte
fricassee of rabbit in red or white wine.
-igot (de "r? sal
usually a leg of lamb (lamb gra$ed on the salt meadows along the tlantic
and 4ormandy coasts).
-illardeau
pri$ed oyster raised in 4ormandy and finished in claires, or fattening beds
on the tlantic coast.
-irofle
clove.
-irolle
pri$ed pale orange wild mushroom! also called chanterelle.
-lac
iced, crystalli$ed, or gla$ed.
-lace
ice cream.
-o?ter (le)
to taste, to try! (childrens afternoon snack).
-ousse d'ail
clove of garlic.
-ousse de !anille
vanilla bean.
-ras-double
tripe baked with onions and white wine.
-ratin?e lyonnaise
bouillon flavored with port, garnished with beaten egg, topped with
cheese, and browned under a broiler.
-rattons, grattelons
crisply fried pieces of pork, goose, or duck skin! cracklings.
-rec'ue, ? la
cooked in seasoned mi+ture of oil, lemon 2uice, and water! refers to cold
vegetables, usually mushrooms.
-relette, sauce
cold sauce with a base of whipped cream.
-relot
small white bulb onion.
-renaille
7efers to small, bite-si$e new potato of any variety.
-renouille (cuisse de)
frog (leg).
-rill?(e)
grilled.
-rillade
grilled meat.
-ros sel
coarse salt.
-roseille
red currant.
(?telet, attelet
decorative skewer! currently used to mean meat or fish cooked on a
skewer.
(?telet, attelet
decorative skewer! currently used to mean meat or fish cooked on a
skewer.
(areng ? lhuile
herring cured in oil, usually served with a salad of warm sliced potatoes.
(areng ? lhuile
herring cured in oil, usually served with a salad of warm sliced potatoes.
(areng balti'ue, bismar&
marinated herring.
(areng balti'ue, bismar&
marinated herring.
(areng roll-mo"
marinated herring rolled around a small pickle.
(areng roll-mo"
marinated herring rolled around a small pickle.
(irondelle
swallow.
(irondelle
swallow.
(ollandaise
sauce of butter, egg yolks, and lemon 2uice.
(ollandaise
sauce of butter, egg yolks, and lemon 2uice.
(omard (? lAmoricaine, ? lAm?ricaine)
lobster! (a classic dish of many variations, in which lobster is cut into
sections and browned, then simmered with shallots, minced onions,
tomatoes, "ognac, and white wine! served with a sauce of the reduced
cooking li&uid, enriched with butter).
(omard (? lAmoricaine, ? lAm?ricaine)
lobster! (a classic dish of many variations, in which lobster is cut into
sections and browned, then simmered with shallots, minced onions,
tomatoes, "ognac, and white wine! served with a sauce of the reduced
cooking li&uid, enriched with butter).
(ongroise, ? la
Cungarian style! usually with paprika and cream.
(ongroise, ? la
Cungarian style! usually with paprika and cream.
(ortillon
pictures&ue market garden plot built between crisscrossed canals on the
outskirts of miens, a city in the north.
(ortillon
pictures&ue market garden plot built between crisscrossed canals on the
outskirts of miens, a city in the north.
(uile
oil.
d!arachide peanut oil
de colza rapeseed oil
de ma?s corn oil
de noisette ha$lenut oil
de noix walnut oil
de p?pins de raisins grapeseed oil
de s?same sesame oil
de tournesol sunflower oil
d!olive (extra vierge olive oil (e+tra virgin, or the first cold
pressing)
(uile
oil.
d!arachide peanut oil
de colza rapeseed oil
de ma?s corn oil
de noisette ha$lenut oil
de noix walnut oil
de p?pins de raisins grapeseed oil
de s?same sesame oil
de tournesol sunflower oil
d!olive (extra vierge olive oil (e+tra virgin, or the first cold
pressing)
3le flottante
)floating island)! most commonly used interchangeably with oeufs ? la
neige, poached meringue floating in cr?me anglaise! classically, a layered
cake covered with whipped cream and served with custard sauce.
3m"?ratrice, ? l
usually a rice pudding dessert with candied fruit.
3m"?riale, ? l
classic haute cuisine garnish of mussels, cockscombs, crayfish, and other
e+travagant ingredients.
3m"eriale
variety of plum. lso, a large bottle for wine, holding about F &uarts (F
liters),
3ndienne, ? l
.ast #ndian style, usually with curry powder.
3sman bayaldi, imam bayaldi
)the priest fainted) - in 0urkish! a dish of eggplant stuffed with saut?ed
onions, tomatoes, and spices! served cold.
0alousie
)venetian blind)! classic small, latticed, flaky pastry filled with almond
paste and spread with 2am.
0ulienne
cut into slivers, usually vegetables or meat.
4ataifi (also &ataif)
thin strands of vermicelli-like dough, used in -reen and /iddle .astern
pastries and in some modern 3rench preparations
4ir royal
a 5ir made with "hampagne.
4ne"fla
lsatian dumpling, sometimes fried.
4ougelho"h, hougelhof, &ouglof, &ugelho"
sweet crown-shaped yeast cake, with almonds and raisins! specialty of
lsace.
4ummel
caraway seed li&ueur.
5?ger (l?g?re)
light.
5?gume
vegetable.
5actaire
the edible lactaire pallidus mushroom, also called sanguine. pricot-
colored, with red, blood colored 2uices when raw.
5aguiole
"antal cheese from the area around the village of ,aguiole, in southern
uvergne, still made in rustic huts.
5ait
milk.
demi-?crem? semi-skimmed milk.
?crem? skimmed milk.
entier whole milk.
ribot from %rittany, buttermilk, served with cr?pes.
st?riliz? milk heated to a higher temperature than pasteuri$ed milk,
so that it stays fresh for several weeks.
5aitance
soft roe (often of herring), or eggs.
5aitier
made of or with milk! also denotes a commercially made product as
opposed to fermier, meaning farm made.
5aitue
lettuce.
5amelle
very thin strip.
5am"roie (? la bordelaise)
lamprey eel, ocean fish that swim into rivers along the tlantic in
springtime (hearty stew of lamprey eel and leeks in red wine).
5an?on
tiny fish, served fried.
5andaise, ? la
from the ,andes in southwestern 3rance! classically a garnish of garlic,
pine nuts, and goose fat.
5angouste
clawless spiny lobster or rock lobster! sometimes called crawfish, and
mistakenly crayfish.
5angoustine
clawed crustacean, smaller than either homard or langouste, with very
delicate meat. 5nown in %ritish waters as :ublin %ay prawn.
5angres
supple, tangy cylindrical cow's-milk cheese with a rust-colored rind! named
for village in "hampagne.
5angue (de chat)
tongue ()cat's tongue)! thin, narrow, delicate cookie often served with
sherbet or ice).
5anguedocienne
garnish, usually of tomatoes, eggplant, and wild c?pe mushrooms.
5a"ereau
young rabbit.
5a"in
rabbit.
5a"in de garenne
wild rabbit.
5ard
bacon.
5arder
to thread meat, fish, or liver with strips of fat for added moisture.
5ardon
cube of bacon.
5arme
)teardrop)! a very small portion of li&uid.
5aurier
bay laurel or bay leaf.
5a!aret
lake fish of the Savoie, similar to salmon.
5entilles (de Puy)
lentils (pri$ed green lentils from the village of 'uy in the uvergne).
5i?!re (? la royale)
hare (cooked with red wine, shallots, onions, and cinnamon, then rolled
and stuffed with foie gras and truffles).
5ieu jaune
green pollack, in the cod family a pleasant, ine+pensive small yellow fish!
often sold under name colin! found in the tlantic.
5ieu noir
pollack, also called black cod! in the cod family a pleasant, ine+pensive
fish found in the .nglish "hannel and the tlantic.
5ima?on
land snail.
5imaces ? la su?arelle
snails cooked with onions, garlic, tomatoes, and sausage! specialty of
'rovence.
5imande
lemon sole, also called dab or sand dab, not as firm or pri$ed as sole,
found in the .nglish "hannel, the tlantic, and, rarely, in the
/editerranean.
5ingot
type of kidney-shaped dry white bean.
5isette
small ma&uereau, or mackerel.
5i!arot
village in 4ormandy that gives its name to an elastic and pungent thick
disc of cow's-milk cheese with reddish golden stripes around the edge.
5otte
monkfish or angler fish, a large firm-fleshed ocean fish.
5otte de ri!i?re (or de lac)
fine-fleshed river (or lake) fish, pri$ed for its large and flavorful liver. 4ot
related to the ocean fish lotte, or monkfish.
5ou magret
breast of fattened duck.
5ou" de mer
wolf fish or ocean catfish! name for sea bass in the /editerranean.
5ou!ine
%as&ue name for striped bass, fished in the %ay of -ascony.
5ucullus
a classic, elaborate garnish of truffles cooked in /adeira and stuffed with
chicken forcemeat.
5umas
name for land snail in the 'oitou-"harentes region along the tlantic
coast.
5uzienne, ? la
prepared in the manner popular in Saint-8ean-de-,u$, a %as&ue fishing
port.
5yonnaise, ? la
in the style of ,yon! often garnished with onions.
*?daillon
round piece or slice, usually of fish or meat.
*?lange
mi+ture or blend.
*?li-m?lo
an assortment of fish andBor seafood.
*?nag?re, ? la
)in the style of the housewife)! usually a simple preparation including
onions, potatoes, and carrots.
*a?tre d'h?tel
headwaiter. lso, sauce of butter, parsley and lemon.
*adeleine (de ommercy)
small scalloped-shaped tea cake made famous by /arcel 'roust! (the
town in the ,orraine where the tea cakes are commerciali$ed).
*adril?ne, ? la
in the style of /adrid! with tomatoes. "lassically a garnish of peeled
chopped tomatoes for consomm?.
*aison, de la
of the house, or restaurant.
*altaise
orange-flavored hollandaise sauce.
*al!oisie, !inaigre de
vinegar made from the malvasia grape, used for the sweet, heavy
/almsey wine.
*ar?e la
literally )the tide)! usually used to indicate seafood that is fresh.
*ara?ch?r(e) (? la)
market gardener or truck farmer (market-garden style! usually refers to a
dish or salad that includes various greens).
*arion (glac
large (candied) chestnut.
*arjolaine
mar2oram. lso, multilayered chocolate and nut cake.
*armelade
traditionally a thick pur?e of fruit, or sweet stewed fruit! today pur?e of
vegetable, or stewed vegetables.
*aroilles
village in the north that gives its name to a strong-tasting, thick, s&uare
cow's-milk cheese with a pale brick-red rind.
*ar'uise (au chocolat)
mousse-like (chocolate) cake.
*atelote (d'anguilles)
freshwater fish (or eel) stew.
*elon de a!aillon
small canteloupe-like melon from "availlon, a town in 'rovence known for
its wholesale produce market.
*erlan
whiting.
*erle
blackbird.
*erlu
hake, a member of the codfish family often sold improperly in 'aris
markets as colin! found in the .nglish "hannel, tlantic, and
/editerranean.
*er!eille
hot sugared doughnut.
*esclum, mesclun
a mi+ture of at least seven multi-shaded salad greens from 'rovence.
*ets selon la saison
seasonal preparation! according to the season.
*eule
)millstone)! name for wheel of cheese in the 8ura.
*euni?re, ? la
)in the style of the millers wife)! refers to a fish that is seasoned, rolled in
flour, fried in butter! and served with lemon, parsley and hot melted butter.
*iel
honey
*ijot?(e) ("lat)
simmered (dish or preparation).
*ille-feuille
refers to puff pastry with many thin layers! usually a cream-filled rectangle
of puff pastry, or a 4apoleon.
*inute (? la)
)minute)! something &uickly grilled or fried in butter with lemon 2uice and
parsley (prepared at the last minute).
*irabelle
small sweet yellow plum. lso, colorless fruit brandy or eau-de-vie, made
from yellow plums.
*o?lle
beef bone marrow.
*ode de, ? la
in the style of.
*ollus'ue
mollusk.
*ont blanc
rich classic pastry of baked meringue, chestnut pur?e, and whipped
cream.
*ontagne, de la
from the mountains.
*orille
wild morel mushroom, dark brown and conical.
*or!andelle, jambon ? la
in the style of the /orvan (ham in a pi&uant creamy sauce made with
white wine, vinegar, 2uniper berries, shallots, and cream).
*or!andelle, r?"
grated potato mi+ed with eggs, cream, and cheese, baked until golden.
*ost?le
forkbeard mostelle! small /editerranean fish of the cod family.
*ouclade
creamy mussel stew from the 'oitou-"harentes on the tlantic "oast,
generally flavored with curry or saffron.
*oufflon
wild sheep.
*oule
mussel. lso a mold.
*oule d'+s"agne
large, sharp-shelled mussel, often served raw as part of a seafood platter.
*oule de bouchot
small, highly pri$ed cultivated mussel, raised on stakes driven into the
sediment of shallow coastal beds.
*oule de Bouzigues
iodine-strong mussel from the village of %ou$igues, on the /editerranean
coast.
*oule de "ar'ues
:utch cultivated mussel, usually raised in fattening beds or diverted
ponds.
*oules marini?re
mussels cooked in white wine with onions, shallots, butter, and herbs.
*oulin (? "oi!re)
mill (peppermill)! also used for oil and flour mills.
*ourtayrol, mourta?rol
a pot-au-feu of boiled beef, chicken, ham, and vegetables, flavored with
saffron and served over slices of bread! specialty of the uvergne.
*ousseline
refers to ingredients that are usually lightened with whipped cream or egg
whites, as in sauces, or with butter, as in brioche mousseline.
*outarde (? lancienne, en graines)
mustard (old-style, coarse-grained).
*ulard
breed of duck common to the southwest, fattened for its delicate liver, for
foie gras.
*ulet
the generic group of mullet, found in the .nglish "hannel, tlantic, and
/editerranean.
*yrtille
bilberry (bluish black .uropean blueberry).
.?fle
medlar! also called 8apanese lo&uat! tart fruit that resembles an apricot
and taste like a mango.
.age (? la)
)swimming)! aromatic poaching li&uid (served in).
.a!arraise, ? la
4avarre-style, with sweet peppers, onions, and garlic.
.eufch?tel
white, creamy, delicate (and often heart-shaped) cow's-milk cheese,
named for village in 4ormandy where it is made.
.i!ernaise, ? la
in the style of 4evers! with carrots and onions.
.oilly
a vermouth-based sauce.
.ougat glac
fro$en dessert of whipped cream and candied fruit.
.ouilles
noodles.
.ou!eau, nou!elle
new or young.
#eufs ? la neige
)eggs in the snow)! sweetened whipped egg whites poached in milk and
served with vanilla custard sauce.
#iselle
sorrel.
#li!e de .yons
wrinkled black olive, first olive in 3rance to receive 6". lso used for oil.
#li!e noire (!erte)
black olive (green olive).
#li!es cass?es
fresh green olives cured in a rich fennel-infused brine! specialty of
'rovence.
#mble (ombre) che!alier
lake fish, similar to salmon trout, with firm, flaky flesh varying from white to
deep red. 3ound in lakes in the Savoie.
#melette nor!egienne
3rench version of %aked laska! a concoction of sponge cake covered
with ice cream and a layer of sweetened, stiffly beaten egg whites, then
browned &uickly in the oven.
#nglet
cut similar to beef flank steak! also cut of beef sold as biftek and entrec?
te, usually a tough cut, but better than flank steak.
#reille de "orc
cooked pigs ear! served grilled, with a coating of egg and bread crumb.
#reillette
thin, crisp rectangular dessert fritters, flavored with orange-flower water!
specialty of 'rovence.
#rge ("erl
barley (pearl barley).
#rientale, ? l
general name for vaguely .astern dishes cooked with saffron, tomatoes,
and sweet red peppers.
#seille
sorrel.
#sso bucco ? la ni?oise
saut?ed veal braised with tomatoes, garlic, onions, and orange $est!
specialty of the /editerranean.
#str?iculteur
6yster grower.
P?bre d'ail
see 'oivre d'?ne.
P?che Alexandra
cold dessert of poached peaches with ice cream and pur?ed strawberries.
P?che *elba
poached peach with vanilla ice cream and raspberry sauce.
P?landron
see haricot gris.
P?lardon
small flat, dried, pungent disc of goat's milk cheese! specialty of the
,anguedoc.
P?lerine
another name for scallop or co&uille Saint-8ac&ues.
P?"tie (au chocolat)
nugget! (chocolate chip).
P?rigourdine, ? la, or P?rigueux
sauce, usually with truffles and foie gras, named for the '?rigord in
southwestern 3rance.
P?tale
)petal)! very thin slice.
P?toncle
tiny scallop, similar to merican bay scallop.
Paillarde (de !eau)
thick slice (of veal)! also, piece of meat pounded flat and saute?ed.
Pailles ("ommes)
fried potato sticks.
Paillette
cheese straw, usually made with puff pastry and 'armesan cheese.
Paleron
shoulder of beef.
Palestine
classically a garnish of 8erusalem artichokes.
Palette
upper shoulder of pork.
Palmier
palm leaf-shaped cookie made of sugared puff pastry.
Palmier, coeur de
heart of palm.
Palombe
wood or wild pigeon, or dove.
Palourde
pri$ed medium-si$e clam.
Pam"lemousse
grapefruit.
Panoufle
-enerally discarded belly flap from saddle of lamb, veal, and beef!
sometimes grilled.
Pa"illon
)butterfly)! small crinkle-shelled creuse oyster from the tlantic coast.
Pa"illote, en
cooked in parchment paper or foil wrapping.
Parisienne, ? la
varied vegetable garnish which generally includes potato balls that have
been fried and tossed in a meat gla$e.
Patte blanche
small crayfish no larger than @ <B@ ounces (=> g).
Paysan(ne) (? la)
country style! (garnish of carrots, turnips, onions, celery and bacon).
Pe'uillo
small red Spanish pepper, usually stuffed with salt cod pur?e.
Persil (sim"le)
parsley (flatleaf).
Persill
)parsleyed)! describes certain blue-veined cheeses. See also 8ambon
persill?.
Persillade
blend of chopped parsley and garlic.
Petit sal
salt-cured portions of lean pork belly, often served with lentils.
Petit-four (sucr? or sal?e)
tiny cake or pastry (sweet or savory)! in elegant restaurants, served with
cocktails before dinner or with coffee afterward! also called mignardise.
Pibale
tiny eel, also called civelle.
Picholine, "itchouline
a variety of green olive, generally used to prepare olives casse?s!
specialty of 'rovence.
Picodon (m?thode 1ieulefit)
small disc of goat's-milk cheese, the best of which (&ualified as m?thode
:ieulefit) is hard, pi&uant, and pungent from having soaked in brandy and
aged a month in earthenware 2ars! specialty of northern 'rovence.
Pied de che!al
)horses foot)! giant tlantic coast oyster.
Pilau, "ilaf
rice saut?ed with onion and simmered in broth.
Pilchard
name for sardines on the tlantic coast.
Piment d'+s"elette
slender, mildly hot chile pepper from .spelette, a village in the %as&ue
region.
Pim"ernelle
salad burnet, a salad green with a somewhat bitter taste.
Pissaladi?re
a flat open-face tart like a pi$$a, garnished with onions, olives, and
anchovies! specialty of 4ice.
Pissenlit
dandelion green.
Pistil de safran
thread of saffron.
Plaice
a small, orange-spotted flounder or fluke, a flat ocean fish! also known as
plie franch or carrelet. 3ound in the .nglish "hannel.
Plat cuisin
dish containing ingredients that have cooked together, usually in a sauce.
Plat du jour
todays special.
Plat "rinci"al
main dish.
Plate
flat-shelled oyster.
Plateau
platter.
Plateau de fruits de mer
seafood platter combining raw and cooked shell-fish! usually includes
oysters, clams, mussels, langoustines, periwinkles, whelks, crabs, and tiny
shrimp.
Plates c?tes
part of beef ribs usually used in pot-au feu.
Pleurote
very soft-fleshed, feather-edged wild mushrooms! also now being
cultivated commercially in several regions of 3rance.
Plie
see 'laice.
Plombi?re
classic dessert of vanilla ice cream, candied fruit, kirsch, and apricot 2am.
Pluche
small sprig of herbs or plants, generally used for garnish.
Po?l
pan-fried.
Poire 6illiams
variety of pear! colorless fruit brandy, or eau-de-vie, often made from this
variety of pear.
Poitrine demi-sel
unsmoked slab bacon.
Polenta
cooked dish of cornmeal and water, usually with added butter and cheese!
also, cornmeal.
Pommes en lair
carameli$ed apple slices, usually served with boudin noir (blood sausage).
Pom"e ? lhuile, "om"e de .o
see -ibassier.
Pont l+!?'ue
village in 4ormandy that gives its name to a very tender, fragrant s&uare
of cow's milk cheese.
Porcelet
young suckling pig.
Pot bouilli
another name for pot-au-feu.
Potje!leisch
a mi+ed meat terrine, usually of veal, pork, and rabbit! specialty of the
4orth.
Poularde
fatted hen.
Poule au "ot
boiled stuffed chicken with vegetables! specialty of the city of %?arn in the
southwest.
Poule d'3nde
turkey hen.
Poule faisane
female pheasant.
Poulet (r?ti)
chicken (roast).
Poulet bas'uaise
%as&ue-style chicken, with tomatoes and sweet peppers.
Poulet de Bresse
high-&uality chicken raised on farms to e+acting specifications, from the
7h?ne-lpes.
Poulet de grain
corn-fed chicken.
Poulet fermier
free-range chicken.
Poulette
tiny chicken.s
Pouligny-/aint-Pierre
village in the ,oire valley that gives its name to a goat's-milk cheese
shaped like a truncated pyramid with a mottled, grayish rind and a
smooth-grained, ivory-white interior.
Poul"e
octopus.
Pousse-en-claire
6ysters that have been aged and fattened in claire, or oyster beds, for
four to eight months.
Pr?-sal? (agneau de)
delicately salted lamb raised on the salt marshes of 4ormandy and the
tlantic coast.
Pralin
ground carameli$ed almonds.
Praline
carameli$ed almonds.
Profiterole(s)
classic chou pastry dessert, usually puffs of pastry filled with vanilla ice
cream and topped with hot chocolate sauce.
Pro!en?ale
in the style of 'rovence! usually includes garlic, tomatoes, andBor olive oil.
7uenelle
dumpling, usually of veal, fish, or poultry.
7uiche lorraine
savory custard tart made with bacon, eggs, and cream.
8?ble de li?!re (la"in)
saddle of hare (rabbit).
8?glisse
licorice.
8?moulade (c?leri)
sauce of mayonnaise, capers, mustard, herbs, anchovies, and gherkins!
(dish of shredded celery root with mayonnaise).
8aclette
rustic dish, from Swit$erland and the Savoie, of melted cheese served with
boiled potatoes, tiny pickled cucumbers, and onions! also, the cheese
used in the dish.
8aie (boucl?e)
skate or ray, found in the .nglish "hannel, tlantic, and /editerranean.
8atatouille
a cooked dish of eggplant, $ucchini, onions, tomatoes, peppers, garlic,
and olive oil, served hot or cold! specialty of 'rovence.
8a!iole de 8oyans
tiny ravioli pasta filled with goat cheese, from the 7h?ne-lpes.
8a!ioli ? la ni?oise
s&uare or round pasta filled with meat andBor swiss chard and baked with
grated cheese.
8eblochon
smooth, supple, creamy cow's-milk cheese from the Savoie in the lps.
8eine-laude
greengage plum.
8eligieuse, "etite
)nun)! a small version of a classic pastry consisting of two chou+ puffs
filled with chocolate, coffee, or vanilla pastry cream, placed one on top of
another, and frosted with chocolate or coffee icing to resemble a nun in
her habit.
8illettes (d'oie)
minced spread of pork (goose)! can also be made with duck, fish, or
rabbit.
8illons
usually pork belly, cut up and cooked until crisp, then drained of fat! also
made of duck, goose, or rabbit.
8issol
browned by frying, usually potatoes.
8ollot
spicy cow's-milk cheese with a washed ochre-colored rind, in small
cylinder or heart shape! from the 4orth.
8ondelle
round slice--of lemon, for e+ample.
8ouelle
slice of meat or vegetable cut at an angle.
8ouennaise (canard ? la)
in the style of 7ouen! (classic dish of duck stuffed with its liver in a blood-
thickened sauce).
8ouille
mayonnaise of olive oil, garlic, chile peppers, bread, and fish broth! usually
served with fish soups, such as bouillabaisse.
8oul?(e)
rolled.
8oulade
meat or fish roll, or rolled-up vegetahle souffl?! larger than a paupiette,
and often stuffed.
8oyale, ? la
)royal-style)! rich classic preparation, usually with truffles and a cream
sauce.
8usse, salade ? la
cold mi+ed salad of peas and diced carrots and turnips in mayonnaise.
/abayon, zabaglione
frothy sweet sauce of egg yolks, sugar, wine, and flavoring that is whipped
while being cooked in a water bath.
/aint 0ac'ues, co'uille
sea scallop.
/aint-*arcellin
small flat disc of cow's-milk cheese (once made of goat's milk) made in
dairies in the #s?re, outside ,yon. 0he best is well aged and runny. 3ound
in 'aris, the ,yons area, and northern 'rovence.
/al
salted.
/alade
salad! also, a head of lettuce.
/alade folle
mi+ed salad, usually including green beans and foie gras.
/alade lyonnaise
green salad with cubed bacon and soft-cooked eggs, often served with
herring and anchovies, andBor sheep's feet and chicken livers! specialty of
,yon! also called saladier lyonnais.
/alade ni?oise
salad with many variations, but usually with tomatoes, green beans,
anchovies, tuna, potatoes, black olives, capers, and artichokes.
/alade "anach
mi+ed salad.
/alade russe
mi+ed diced vegetables in mayonnaise.
/alade !erte
green salad.
/aladier (lyonnais)
see Salade lyonnaise.
/alers
"antal-type cheese, made in rustic cheese-making houses only when the
cows are in the uvergnes mountain pastures, from /ay to September.
/alicorne
edible seaweed, sea string bean! often pickled and served as a
condiment.
/almis
classic preparation of roasted game birds or poultry, with sauce made
from the pressed carcass.
/al"icon
diced vegetables, meat, andBor fish in a sauce, used as a stuffing, garnish,
or spread.
/alsifis
salsify, oyster plant.
/anglier
wild boar.
/arcelle
teal, a species of wild duck.
/arladaise
as prepared in Sarlat in the :ordogne! with truffles.
/aucisse de :oulouse
mild country-style pork sausage.
/aucisson ? lail
garlic sausage, usually to be cooked and served warm.
/aucisson d'Arles
dried salami-style sausage that blends pork, beef and gentle seasoning! a
specialty of rles, in 'rovence.
/aucisson de 5yon
air-dried pork sausage, flavored with garlic and pepper and studded with
chunks of pork fat.
/carole
escarole.
/chieffele, schieffala, schifela
smoked pork shoulder, served hot and garnished with pickled turnips or a
potato and onion salad.
/el (gros)
coarse salt.
/el gris
salt, unbleached sea salt.
/el marin
sea salt.
/elle
saddle (of meat).
/elles-sur-her
village in the ,oire valley identified with a small, flat, truncated cylinder of
goat's-milk cheese with a mottled blueish-gray rind (sometimes patted with
powdered charcoal) and a pure-white interior.
/elon grosseur (/;-;)
according to si$e, usually said of lobster or other seafood.
/elon le march
according to what is in season or available.
/elon "oid (/;P;)
according to weight, usually said of seafood. Semolina or crushed wheat.
lso used in 3rance as a savory garnish, particularly in 4orth frican
dishes such as couscous.
/er"olet
wild thyme.
/im"le
simple, plain, unmi+ed. lso, a single scoop of ice cream.
/olette
small sole.
/ommelier
wine waiter.
/ouffl
light, mi+ture of pur?ed ingredients, egg yolks, and whipped egg whites,
which puffs up when baked! sweet or savory, hot or cold.
/"?tzel, s"aetzle, s"etzli
noodle-like lsatian egg and flour dumpling, served poached or fried.
/trasbourgeoise, ? la
ingredients typical of Strasbourg including sauerkraut, foie gras, and salt
pork.
/ucc?s ? la "raline
cake made with praline meringue layers, frosted with meringue and butter
cream.
:able d'h?te
open table or board. 6ften found in the countryside, these are private
homes that serve fi+ed meals and often have one or two guest rooms as
well.
:ablette (de chocolat)
bar (of chocolate).
:ablier de sa"eur
)firemans apron)! tripe that is marinated, breaded, and grilled! specialty of
,yon.
:almouse
savory pastry triangle of cheese-flavored chou+ dough baked in puff
pastry.
:arte encalat
name for cheesecake in the uvergne.
:arte flamb
thin-crusted savory tart, much like a rectangular pi$$a, covered with
cream, onions, and bacon! specialty of lsace! also called 3lamekueche.
:elline
a tiny violet-streaked clam, the si$e of a fingernail, seen in 'rovence and
the "amargue! generally seared with a bit of oil in a hot pan to open the
shells and seasoned with parsley and garlic.
:eurgoule
a sweet rice pudding with cinnamon! specialty of 4ormandy.
:hon (blanc) (germon)
tuna (white albacore).
:illeul
linden tree! linden-blossom herb tea.
:imbale
small round mold with straight or sloping slides! also, a mi+ture prepared
in such a mold.
:omates ? la "ro!en?ale
baked tomato halves sprinkled with garlic, parsley, and bread crumbs.
:omme arl?sienne
rectangular cheese made with a blend of goat's and cow's milk and
sprinkled with summer savory! also called tomme de "amargue! a
specialty of the ,anguedoc and rles, in 'rovence.
:ourte (aux blettes)
pie (common 4i?oise dessert pie filled with Swiss chard, eggs, cheese,
raisins, and pine nuts). lso, name for giant rounds of country bread found
in the uvergne and the southwest.
:ri"es ? la mode de aen
beef tripe, carrots, onions, leeks, and spices, cooked in water, cider, and
"alvados (apple brandy)! specialty of 4ormandy.
:ri"le cr?me
legal name for cheese containing more than => percent butterfat, such as
%rillat-Savarin.
:rom"ettes de la mort
dark brown wild mushroom, also known as )horn of plenty.)
:ruffes sous la cendre
truffles wrapped in pastry or foil, gently warmed as they are buried in
ashes.
:ruite (au bleu)
trout (a preferred method of cooking trout, not live, as often assumed, but
rather in a )live condition.) 0he trout is gutted 2ust moments prior to
cooking, but neither washed nor scaled. #t is then plunged into a hot
mi+ture of vinegar and water, and the slimy lubricant that protects the skin
of the fish appears to turn the trout a bluish color. 0he fish is then removed
to a broth to finish its cooking.)
de lac lake trout.
de mer sea trout or brown trout.
de rivi?re river trout.
saumone? salmon trout.
:uile
literally, )curved roofing tile)! delicate almond-flavored cookie.
:uli"e
tulip-shaped cookie for serving ice cream or sorbet.
unilat?ral
6ne-sided - e.g.( saumon ? lunilat?ral G salmon grilled only on one side.
9?roni'ue, ? la
garnish of peeled white grapes. ;ert-pr?
a watercress garnish, sometimes including potatoes.
9all?e d'Auge
area of 4ormandy. lso, garnish of cooked apples and cream or "alvados
and cream.
9anille
vanilla.
9a"eur, ? la
steamed.
9elout
classic sauce based on veal, chicken, or fish stock, thickened with a rou+
of butter and flour! also, variously seasoned classic soups thickened with
cream and egg yolks.
9ieux (!ielle)
old.
9ieux 5ille
thick, s&uare cheese named for the old part of the norths largest city,
made in the same way as /aroilles, with cow's milk, only salted more,
then aged si+ months until stinking ripe. lso called vieu+ puant, or )old
stinker.)
9iolet de Pro!ence
braid of plump garlic, a specialty of 'rovence and the "?te-d'$ur.
9iolet or figue de mer
unusual iodine-strong, soft-shelled edible sea creature, with a yellowish
interior. delicacy along the /editerranean, particularly in /arseille.
9iolette
violet! its crystalli$ed petals are a specialty of 0oulouse.
9iroflay
classic garnish of spinach for poached or soft-cooked eggs.
9ol-au-!ent
puff pastry shell.
9olont? (
at the customer's discretion.
9onnaissienne, ? la
in the style of ;onnas, a village in the 7h?ne-lpes. lso, cr?pes made
with potatoes.
>e)elmai, ze)el)ai
lsatian onion tart.
>ingara, ? la
gypsy style! with tomato sauce. lso classically, a garnish of ham, tongue,
mushrooms, and truffles.
Affam
starving.
Agrume(s)
citrus fruit(s).
Allumette
)match)! puff pastry strips! also fried matchstick potatoes.
Am?ricaine, Amoricaine
sauce of white wine, "ognac, tomatoes, and butter.
Amande
almond.
Amande de mer
smooth-shelled shellfish, like a small clam, with a sweet, almost almond
flavor.
Amandine
with almonds.
Ambroisie
ambrosia.
Amer
bitter! as in unsweetened chocolate.
Ami du hambertin
)friend of "hambertin wine)! moist and buttery short cylinder of cow's milk
cheese with a rust-colored rind, made near the village of -evrey-
"hambertin in %urgundy. Similar to .poisses cheese.
Amourette(s)
spinal bone marrow of calf or o+.
Amuse-bouche or amusegueule
)amuse the mouth)! appeti$er.
Ar?mes ? la g?ne
generic name for a variety of tangy, lactic cheeses of the ,yon area that
have been steeped in g?ne, or dry marc, the dried grape skins left after
grapes are pressed for wine. "an be of cow's milk, goat's milk, or a
mi+ture.
Araign?e de mer
spider crab.
Arbousier (miel d')
trailing arbutus, small evergreen shrubby tree of the heather family, also
called strawberry tree, ground laurel and madrona tree with strawberry-like
fruit dotted with tiny bumps! (honey of). 1sed for making li&ueurs, 2ellies,
and 2ams.
Armagnac
brandy from the rmagnac area of Southwestern 3rance.
Aromate
aromatic herb, vegetable, or flavoring.
Aum?ni?re
)beggar's purse)! thin cr?pe, filled and tied like a bundle.
Azyme, "ain
unleavened bread! mat$o.
B?chamel
white sauce, made with butter, flour, and milk, usually flavored with onion,
bay leaf, pepper, and nutmeg.
Baba au rhum
sponge cake soaked in rum syrup.
Bergamot (th? a la bergamote)
name for both a variety of orange and of pear! (earl grey tea.).
Beurre de *ont"ellier
classic butter sauce seasoned with olive oil, herbs, garlic, and anchovies.
Beurre demi-sel
butter (lightly salted).
Bibels&,s, bibbels&,se
fresh cheese seasoned with horseradish, herbs, and spices! specialty of
lsace.
Blanc-manger
chilled pudding of almond milk with gelatin.
Boeuf ? la mode
beef marinated and braised in red wine, served with carrots, mushrooms,
onions, and turnips.
Boh?mienne, ? la
gypsy style! with rice, tomatoes, onions, sweet peppers, and paprika, in
various combinations.
Boisson (non) com"rise
drink (not) included.
Bombe
molded, layered ice cream dessert.
Bonne femme (cuisine)
meat garnish of bacon, potatoes, mushrooms, and onions! fish garnish of
shallots, parsley, mushrooms, and potatoes! or white wine sauce with
shallots, mushrooms, and lemon 2uice! (home-style cooking).
Brandade (de morue)
a warm garlicky pur?e (of salt cod) with milk or cream or oil, and
sometimes mashed potatoes! specialty of 'rovence! currently used to
denote a variety of flavored mashed potato dishes.
Brebis (fromage de)
sheep (sheep's-milk cheese).
Brie de *eaux
)king of cheese,) the flat wheel of cheese made only with raw cow's milk
and aged at least four weeks! from /eau+, 2ust east of 'aris! brie made
with pasteuri$ed milk does not have the right to be called brie de /eau+.
Brie de *elun
smaller than brie de /eau+, another raw-cow's-milk cheese, aged at least
one month, with a crackly rust-colored rind.
?leri remoulade
popular first-course bistro dish of shredded celery root with tangy
mayonnaise.
aen, ? la mode de
in the style of "aen, a town in 4ormandy! a dish cooked in "alvados and
white wine andBor cider.
almar
small s&uid, similar to encornet! with interior transparent cartilage instead
of a bone. lso called chipiron in the southwest.
amembert (de .ormandie)
village in 4ormandy that gives its name to a supple, fragrant cheese made
of cow's milk.
amomille
camomile, herb tea.
am"agnard(e) (assiette)
country-style, rustic! (an informal buffet of cold meats, terrines, etc.).
am"agne, ? la
country-style.
aramelis
cooked with high heat to brown the sugar and heighten flavor.
ardamome
cardamon.
arte "romotionelle or conseill
a simple and ine+pensive fi+ed-price meal.
assis (cr?me de)
black currant (black currant li&ueur).
h?!re (fromage de)
goat (goat's-milk cheese).
ham"?tre
rustic! describes a simple presentation of a variety of ingredients.
ham"ignon
mushroom.
? la bague( parasol mushroom with a delicate flavor! also called
coulemelle, cocherelle, and grisotte.
de bois( wild mushroom, from the woods.
de Paris( most common cultivated mushroom.
sauvage( wild mushroom.
ham"!allon, c?telette d'agneau
traditional dish of lamb chops baked in alternating layers of potatoes and
onions! named for a village in northern %urgundy.
ha"on de mer
/editerranean fish, in the rascasse or scorpion-fish family.
hemise, en
wrapped with pastry.
hi"s, "ommes
potato chips.
hou de mer
sea kale.
hou de *ilan
Savoy cabbage.
igale de mer
)sea cricket)! tender, crayfish-like, blunt-nosed rock lobster.
itron, orange, or "am"lemousse "ress?(e
lemon, orange, or grapefruit 2uice served with a carafe of tap water and
sugar! for sweetening to taste.
l?mentine
small tangerine, from /orocco or Spain.
lamart
'aris suburb once famous for its green peas! today a garnish of peas.
oco de Paim"ol
"ream-colored shell bean striated with purple, from %rittany, in season
from 8uly to 4ovember! the first bean in 3rance to receive 6".
oeur de "almier
delicate shoots of the palm tree, generally served with a vinaigrette as an
hors d'oeuvre.
olombe
dove.
olombo
mi+ture of spices, like a curry powder, used to season shellfish, meat or
poultry. ,ike curry, the mi+ may vary, but usually contains tumeric, rice
powder, coriander, pepper, cumin and fenugreek.
ommander a!ant le re"as,
a selection of desserts that should be ordered when selecting first and
main courses, as they re&uire longer cooking.
om"let
filled up, with no more room for customers.
om"ote
stewed fresh or dried fruit.
om"otier
fruit bowl! also stewed ftuit.
om"ris
see Service (non) compris.
omt
large wheel of cheese of cooked and pressed cow's milk! the best is made
of raw milk and aged for si+ months, still made by independent
cheesemakers in the 8ura mountains.
oncombre
cucumber.
onsomm
clear soup.
onsommation(s)
)consumption)! drinks, meals, and snacks available in a cafe or bar.
oulemelle
parasol mushroom with a delicate flavor! also called champignon ? la
bague, cocherelle, and grisotte.
oulommiers
town in the #le-de-3rance that gives its name to a supple, fragrant disc of
cow's-milk cheese, slightly larger than "amembert.
ourge (muscade)
generic term for s&uash or gourd (bright orange pumpkin).
r?mant
sparkling wine.
r?me
cream.
aigre( sour cream.
anglaise( light egg-custard cream.
brulee( rich custard dessert with a top of carameli$ed sugar.
caramel( vanilla custard with caramel sauce.
catalane( creamy anise flavored custard from the southern
,anguedoc.
chantilly( sweetened whipped cream.
?paisse( thick cream.
fleurette( li&uid heavy cream.
fouett?e( whipped cream.
fra?che( thick sour! heavy cream.
p?tissi?re( custard filling for pastries and cakes.
plombi?res( custard filled with fresh fruits and egg whites.
rambe
sea kale, or chou de mer.
rami'ue
brioche with raisins or currants! specialty of the 4orth.
riste marine
edible algae.
ro'ue-madame
open-face sandwich of ham and cheese with an egg grilled on top.
ro'ue-monsieur
toasted ham and cheese sandwich.
ro'uembouche
chou+ pastry rounds filled with cream and coated with a sugar gla$e, often
served in a conical tower at special events.
urcuma
turmeric.
1amier
)checkerboard)! arrangement of vegetables or other ingredients in
alternating colors like a checkerboard! also, a cake with such a pattern of
light and dark pieces.
1atte (de mer)
date (date-shaped pri$ed wild /editerranean mussel).
1emi
half! also, an ?-ounce (@>D ml) glass of beer! also, a half-bottle of wine.
1emi-deuil
)in half mourning)! poached (usually chicken) with sliced truffles inserted
under the skin! also, sweetbreads with a truffled white sauce.
1emi-glace
concentrated beef-based sauce lightened with consomm?, or a lighter
brown sauce.
1emi-sec
usually refers to goat cheese that is in the intermediate aging stage
between one e+treme of soft and fresh and the other e+treme of hard and
aged.
1emi-sel (buerre)
lightly salted (butter).
1emi-tasse
small cup! after-dinner coffee cup.
1emoiselle de canard
marinated raw duck tenderloin! also called mignon de canard.
1emoiselles de herbourg
small lobsters from the town of "herbourg in 4ormandy, cooked in a court-
bouillon and served in cooking 2uices. lso, restaurant name for %reton
lobsters weighing EDD to FDD grams (<D to <E ounces).
1oyenn? de omice
a variety of pear.
+au min?rale
mineral water.
+clade de moules
mussels roasted beneath a fire of pine needles! specialty of the tlantic
coast.
+mbeurr? de chou
buttery cooked cabbage.
+minc
thin slice, usually of meat.
+mmental
large wheel of cooked and pressed cow's-milk cheese, very mild in flavor,
with large interior holes! made in large commercial dairies in the 8ura.
+mond
skinned by blanching, such as almonds, tomatoes.
+ntrec?te ma?tre d'h?tel
beef rib steak with sauce of red wine and shallots.
+ntremets
dessert.
+"i de ma
ear of sweet corn.
+"igramme
classic dish of grilled breaded lamb chop and a piece of braised lamb
breast shaped like a chop, breaded, and grilled! crops up on modern
menus as an elegant dish of breaded and fried baby lamb chops paired
with lamb sweetbreads and tongue.
2a?on (? ma)
(my) way of preparing a dish.
2erm
closed.
2erme (fermier, fermi?re)
farm (farmer)! in cheese, refers to farm-made cheese, often used to mean
raw-milk cheese! in chickens, refers to free-range chickens.
2lamber
to burn off the alcohol by igniting. 1sually the brandies or other li&ueurs to
be flamb?ed are warmed first, then lit as they are poured into the dish.
2lamiche (au *aroilles)
a vegetable tart with rich bread dough crust, commonly filled with leeks,
cream, and cheese! specialty of 'icardy, in the 4orth! (filled with cream,
egg, butter, and /aroilles cheese).
2lamme&ueche
thin-crusted savory tart, much like a rectangular pi$$a, covered with
cream, onions, and bacon! also called tarte flamb?e! specialty of lsace.
2ourme d'Ambert
cylindrical blue-veined cow's-milk cheese, made in dairies around the town
of mbert in the uvergne.
2r?mi
)&uivering)! often refers to barely cooked oysters.
2ramboise
raspberry.
2romage
cheese. blanc
a smooth low-fat cheese similar to cottage cheese. d'alpage
cheese made in mountain pastures during the prime summer milking
period. .chourgnac
delicately flavored, ochre-skinned cheese made of cow's milk by the
monks at the .chourgnac monasteryin the :ordogne. fort
pungent cheese. frais
smooth, runny fresh cheese, like cottage cheese.
2romage de t?te
headcheese, usually pork.
2ruits de mer
seafood.
2um
smoked.
2umet
fish stock.
-amba
large prawn.
-endarme
salted and smoked herring.
-erminy
garnish of sorrel. lso, sorrel and cream soup.
-ermon
albacore or long-fin tuna.
-igot de mer
a preparation, usually of large pieces of monkfish (lotte) oven-roasted like
a leg of lamb.
-ingembre
ginger.
-ourmandise(s)
weakness for sweet things! (sweetmeats or candies).
-raine de moutarde
mustard seed.
-rand cr?me
large or double espresso with milk.
-ras (march? au)
fatty! (market of fattened poultry and their livers).
-yromite
group of wild mushrooms, or gyromitra, known as false morels.
(areng balti'ue, bismar&
marinated herring.
(areng balti'ue, bismar&
marinated herring.
(areng roll-mo"
marinated herring rolled around a small pickle.
(areng roll-mo"
marinated herring rolled around a small pickle.
(omard (? lAmoricaine, ? lAm?ricaine)
lobster! (a classic dish of many variations, in which lobster is cut into
sections and browned, then simmered with shallots, minced onions,
tomatoes, "ognac, and white wine! served with a sauce of the reduced
cooking li&uid, enriched with butter).
(omard (? lAmoricaine, ? lAm?ricaine)
lobster! (a classic dish of many variations, in which lobster is cut into
sections and browned, then simmered with shallots, minced onions,
tomatoes, "ognac, and white wine! served with a sauce of the reduced
cooking li&uid, enriched with butter).
(ure de "orc or de marcassin
head of pig or boar - usually refers to headcheese preparation.
(ure de "orc or de marcassin
head of pig or boar - usually refers to headcheese preparation.
(ure de saumon
a salmon )headcheese,) or p?t?, prepared with salmon meat, not actually
the head.
(ure de saumon
a salmon )headcheese,) or p?t?, prepared with salmon meat, not actually
the head.
3m"?ratrice, ? l
usually a rice pudding dessert with candied fruit.
3m"?riale, ? l
classic haute cuisine garnish of mussels, cockscombs, crayfish, and other
e+travagant ingredients.
3m"eriale
variety of plum. lso, a large bottle for wine, holding about F &uarts (F
liters),
3sman bayaldi, imam bayaldi
)the priest fainted) - in 0urkish! a dish of eggplant stuffed with saut?ed
onions, tomatoes, and spices! served cold.
0?sus de *orteau
plump smoked pork sausage that takes its name from the town of /orteau
in the 8ura! distinctive because a wooden peg is tied in the sausage
casing on one end! traditionally, the sausage eaten at "hristmas, hence its
name! also called saucisson de /orteau.
0ambon
ham! also refers to the leg, usually of pork, but also of poultry.
? los ham with the bone in
blanc lightly salted, un-smoked or very lightly smoked ham, served
cooked! sold, cold, in charcuteries as 2ambon de 'aris, glac?, or
demi-sel
cru salted or smoked ham that has been cured but not cooked
cuit cooked ham
d!"uvergne raw, dry, salt-cured smoked ham
de Bayonne raw, dry salt-cured ham, very pale in color
de Bourgogne See 2ambon persill?
de montagne any mountain ham, cured according to local custom
de Paris pale, lightly salted, cooked ham
de Parme #talian prosciutto from 'arma, air-dried and salt-cured
ham, sliced thin and served raw
de pays any country ham, cured according to local custom
de poulet boned stuffed chicken leg.
de #estphalie -erman 9estphalian ham, raw, cured, and
smoked.
de $or% smoked .nglish-style ham, usually poached
d!oie (or de canard breast of fattened goose (or duck), smoked,
salted, or sugar cured, somewhat resembling ham in flavor.
fum? smoked ham.
persill? cold cooked ham, cubed and preserved in parsleyed
gelatin, usually sliced from a terrine! a specialty of %urgundy.
sal? salt-cured ham.
sec dried ham.
0ambonneau
cured ham shank or pork knuckle.
0ambonnette
boned and stuffed knuckle of ham or poultry.
4ouigh-amann
sweet, buttery pastry from %rittany.
4ummel
caraway seed li&ueur.
5?gume
vegetable.
5amelle
very thin strip.
5am"roie (? la bordelaise)
lamprey eel, ocean fish that swim into rivers along the tlantic in
springtime (hearty stew of lamprey eel and leeks in red wine).
5arme
)teardrop)! a very small portion of li&uid.
5ima?on
land snail.
5imaces ? la su?arelle
snails cooked with onions, garlic, tomatoes, and sausage! specialty of
'rovence.
5imande
lemon sole, also called dab or sand dab, not as firm or pri$ed as sole,
found in the .nglish "hannel, the tlantic, and, rarely, in the
/editerranean.
5ou magret
breast of fattened duck.
5ou" de mer
wolf fish or ocean catfish! name for sea bass in the /editerranean.
5umas
name for land snail in the 'oitou-"harentes region along the tlantic
coast.
*?che
dark small-leafed salad green known as lambs lettuce or corn salad. lso
called doucette.
*?chon
early morning snack of sausage, wine, cheese, and bread! also, the caf?
that offers the snack! particular to ,yon.
*?daillon
round piece or slice, usually of fish or meat.
*?lange
mi+ture or blend.
*?li-m?lo
an assortment of fish andBor seafood.
*?nag?re, ? la
)in the style of the housewife)! usually a simple preparation including
onions, potatoes, and carrots.
*?re (de ronces)
blackberry (bush).
*?rou
a large grouper, an e+cellent tropical or near-tropical fish, generally
imported from 4orth frica but sometimes found in the tlantic and
/editerranean.
*?ture
corn bread from the %as&ue region.
*a
corn.
*a?tre d'h?tel
headwaiter. lso, sauce of butter, parsley and lemon.
*ac?doine
diced mi+ed fruit or vegetables.
*acaron
macaroon, small cookie of almonds, egg whites, and sugar.
*acaronade
a rich blend of wild and domestic mushrooms and chunks of foie gras,
smothered in fresh pasta! specialty of the southwest. lso, macaroni with
mushrooms, bacon, white wine, and 'armesan cheese! an
accompaniment to a beef stew, or daube! specialty of 'rovence.
*acis
mace, the spice.
*ad?re
/adeira.
*adeleine (de ommercy)
small scalloped-shaped tea cake made famous by /arcel 'roust! (the
town in the ,orraine where the tea cakes are commerciali$ed).
*adril?ne, ? la
in the style of /adrid! with tomatoes. "lassically a garnish of peeled
chopped tomatoes for consomm?.
*agret de canard (or d'oie)
breast of fattened duck (or goose).
*aigre
thin, non-fatty
*aison, de la
of the house, or restaurant.
*altaise
orange-flavored hollandaise sauce.
*al!oisie, !inaigre de
vinegar made from the malvasia grape, used for the sweet, heavy
/almsey wine.
*andarine
tangerine.
*ange-tout
)eat it all)! a podless green runner bean! a sweet pea! a snow pea. lso, a
variety of apple.
*angue
mango.
*ani?re, de
in the style of.
*a'uereau
mackerel! lisette is a small mackerel.
*ar?e la
literally )the tide)! usually used to indicate seafood that is fresh.
*ara de Bois
small fragrant strawberry, like a cross between a domestic and wild
strawberry.
*ara?ch?r(e) (? la)
market gardener or truck farmer (market-garden style! usually refers to a
dish or salad that includes various greens).
*arbr
striped sea bream, /editerranean fish that is e+cellent grilled.
*arc
eau-de-vie distilled from pressed grape skins and seeds or other fruits.
*arcassin
young boar. t one year, a wild boar will weight FD kg, a domesticated
boar <@D kg.
*archand de !in
wine merchant. lso, sauce made with red wine, meat stock, and chopped
shallots.
*arennes
flat-shelled green-tinged plate oyster. lso the 3rench coastal village
where flat-shelled oysters are raised.
*arin
marinated.
*arinade
seasoned li&uid in which food, usually meat, is soaked for several hours.
0he li&uid seasons and tenderi$es at the same time.
*arion (glac
large (candied) chestnut.
*arjolaine
mar2oram. lso, multilayered chocolate and nut cake.
*armelade
traditionally a thick pur?e of fruit, or sweet stewed fruit! today pur?e of
vegetable, or stewed vegetables.
*armite
small covered pot! also a dish cooked in a small casserole.
*aroilles
village in the north that gives its name to a strong-tasting, thick, s&uare
cow's-milk cheese with a pale brick-red rind.
*ar'uise (au chocolat)
mousse-like (chocolate) cake.
*atelote (d'anguilles)
freshwater fish (or eel) stew.
*atignon
a garnish of mi+ed stewed vegetables.
*au!iette
wild meadow lark or skylark.
*elon de a!aillon
small canteloupe-like melon from "availlon, a town in 'rovence known for
its wholesale produce market.
*endiant, fruits du
traditional mi+ture of figs, almonds, ha$elnuts, and raisins, whose colors
suggest the robes of the mendicant friars it is named after.
*enthe
mint.
*erguez
small spicy sausage.
*erlan
whiting.
*erle
blackbird.
*erlu
hake, a member of the codfish family often sold improperly in 'aris
markets as colin! found in the .nglish "hannel, tlantic, and
/editerranean.
*er!eille
hot sugared doughnut.
*esclum, mesclun
a mi+ture of at least seven multi-shaded salad greens from 'rovence.
*ets
dish or preparation.
*ets selon la saison
seasonal preparation! according to the season.
*eule
)millstone)! name for wheel of cheese in the 8ura.
*euni?re, ? la
)in the style of the millers wife)! refers to a fish that is seasoned, rolled in
flour, fried in butter! and served with lemon, parsley and hot melted butter.
*eurette
in, or with, a red wine sauce. lso, a %urgundian fish stew.
*i-cru
half raw.
*i-cuit
half cooked.
*iche
a large round country-style loaf of bread. lso, %as&ue name for aniseed
cake-like bread.
*ie
interior or crumb of the bread (see 'ain de mie).
*iel
honey
*ignardise
see 'etit-four.
*ignon de canard
see :cmsiselle de canard.
*ignonette
small cubes, usually of beef. lso refers to coarsely ground black ot white
pepper.
*ijot?(e) ("lat)
simmered (dish or preparation).
*ille-feuille
refers to puff pastry with many thin layers! usually a cream-filled rectangle
of puff pastry, or a 4apoleon.
*imosa
garnish of chopped hard-cooked egg yolks.
*inute (? la)
)minute)! something &uickly grilled or fried in butter with lemon 2uice and
parsley (prepared at the last minute).
*i'ue
generally a large breaded dumpling, poached and served with stews and
meats! specialty of the Southwest.
*irabeau
garnish of anchovies, pitted olives, tarragon, and anchovy butter.
*irabelle
small sweet yellow plum. lso, colorless fruit brandy or eau-de-vie, made
from yellow plums.
*ire"oix
cubes of carrots and onions or mi+ed vegetables, usually used in braising
to boost the flavor of a meat dish.
*iroir
)mirror)! a dish that has a smooth gla$e! currently a fruit mousse cake with
a layer of fruit gla$e on top.
*iroton (de)
slice (of). lso, stew of meats flavored with onions.
*itonn
a simmered, soup-like dish.
*o?lle
beef bone marrow.
*ode de, ? la
in the style of.
*ogette, mojette mougette
a kind of dried white bean from the tlantic coast.
*o&a
refers to "offee! coffee-flavored dish.
*ollus'ue
mollusk.
*ont blanc
rich classic pastry of baked meringue, chestnut pur?e, and whipped
cream.
*ontagne, de la
from the mountains.
*ontmorency
garnished with cherries! historically a village known for its cherries, now a
suburb of 'aris.
*orbier
supple cow's-milk cheese from the 8ura! a thin sprinkling of ashes in the
center gives it its distinctive black stripe and light smoky flavor.
*orceau
piece or small portion.
*orille
wild morel mushroom, dark brown and conical.
*ornay
classic cream sauce enriched with egg yolks and cheese.
*orue
salt cod! also currently used to mean fresh cod, which is cabillaud.
*or!andelle, jambon ? la
in the style of the /orvan (ham in a pi&uant creamy sauce made with
white wine, vinegar, 2uniper berries, shallots, and cream).
*or!andelle, r?"
grated potato mi+ed with eggs, cream, and cheese, baked until golden.
*osa?'ue
)mosaic!) a presentation of /i+ed ingredients.
*ost?le
forkbeard mostelle! small /editerranean fish of the cod family.
*ouclade
creamy mussel stew from the 'oitou-"harentes on the tlantic "oast,
generally flavored with curry or saffron.
*oufflon
wild sheep.
*oule
mussel. lso a mold.
*oule d'+s"agne
large, sharp-shelled mussel, often served raw as part of a seafood platter.
*oule de bouchot
small, highly pri$ed cultivated mussel, raised on stakes driven into the
sediment of shallow coastal beds.
*oule de Bouzigues
iodine-strong mussel from the village of %ou$igues, on the /editerranean
coast.
*oule de "ar'ues
:utch cultivated mussel, usually raised in fattening beds or diverted
ponds.
*oules marini?re
mussels cooked in white wine with onions, shallots, butter, and herbs.
*oulin (? "oi!re)
mill (peppermill)! also used for oil and flour mills.
*ourone
%as&ue name for red bell pepper.
*ourtayrol, mourta?rol
a pot-au-feu of boiled beef, chicken, ham, and vegetables, flavored with
saffron and served over slices of bread! specialty of the uvergne.
*ousse
light, airy mi+ture usually containing eggs and cream, either sweet or
savory.
*ousseline
refers to ingredients that are usually lightened with whipped cream or egg
whites, as in sauces, or with butter, as in brioche mousseline.
*ousseron
tiny, delicate, wild mushroom.
*outarde (? lancienne, en graines)
mustard (old-style, coarse-grained).
*outon
mutton.
*uge
grey mullet.
*ulard
breed of duck common to the southwest, fattened for its delicate liver, for
foie gras.
*ulet
the generic group of mullet, found in the .nglish "hannel, tlantic, and
/editerranean.
*unster
village in lsace that gives its name to a disc of soft, tangy cow's-milk
cheese with a brick red rind and a penetrating aroma! the cheese is also
sometimes cured with cumin seeds.
*uscade
nutmeg.
*uscat de (ambourg
variety of popular purple table grape, grown in 'rovence.
*useau de "orc (or de boeuf)
vinegared pork (or beef).
*yrtille
bilberry (bluish black .uropean blueberry).
*yst?re
truncated cone-shaped ice cream dessert. lso, dessert of cooked
meringue with ice cream and chocolate cake.
.on com"ris
see Service (non) compris.
.ormande
in the style of 4ormandy! sauce of seafood, cream, and mushrooms. lso
refers to fish or meat cooked with apple cider or "alvados! or dessert with
apples, usually served with cream.
#mble (ombre) che!alier
lake fish, similar to salmon trout, with firm, flaky flesh varying from white to
deep red. 3ound in lakes in the Savoie.
#melette nor!egienne
3rench version of %aked laska! a concoction of sponge cake covered
with ice cream and a layer of sweetened, stiffly beaten egg whites, then
browned &uickly in the oven.
P?che *elba
poached peach with vanilla ice cream and raspberry sauce.
Pailles ("ommes)
fried potato sticks.
Palmier
palm leaf-shaped cookie made of sugared puff pastry.
Palmier, coeur de
heart of palm.
Palombe
wood or wild pigeon, or dove.
Pam"lemousse
grapefruit.
Parfum
flavor.
Parmentier
dish with potatoes.
Pata .?gra (jambon)
'ri$ed ham from Spain, literally )black feet.)
Persil (sim"le)
parsley (flatleaf).
Petite marmite
earthenware casserole! the broth served from it.
Picodon (m?thode 1ieulefit)
small disc of goat's-milk cheese, the best of which (&ualified as m?thode
:ieulefit) is hard, pi&uant, and pungent from having soaked in brandy and
aged a month in earthenware 2ars! specialty of northern 'rovence.
Pied de mouton
meaty cream-colored wild mushroom. lso, sheep's foot.
Piment
red pepper or pimento.
Piment
hot, peppery, spicy.
Piment (or "oi!re) de 0ama?'ue
allspice.
Piment d'+s"elette
slender, mildly hot chile pepper from .spelette, a village in the %as&ue
region.
Piment doux
sweet pepper.
Pim"ernelle
salad burnet, a salad green with a somewhat bitter taste.
Plateau de fruits de mer
seafood platter combining raw and cooked shell-fish! usually includes
oysters, clams, mussels, langoustines, periwinkles, whelks, crabs, and tiny
shrimp.
Plombi?re
classic dessert of vanilla ice cream, candied fruit, kirsch, and apricot 2am.
Poire 6illiams
variety of pear! colorless fruit brandy, or eau-de-vie, often made from this
variety of pear.
Poitrine demi-sel
unsmoked slab bacon.
Poitrine fum
smoked slab bacon.
Pommade (beurre en)
usually refers to a thick, smooth paste! (creamed butter).
Pomme
apple.
Pommes de terre
potatoes.
? langlaise boiled.
allumettes )match-sticks)! fries cut into very thin 2ulienne.
boulang?re potatoes cooked with the meat they accompany. lso,
a gratin of sliced potatoes, baked with milk or stock and sometimes
flavored with onions, bacon, and tomatoes.
darphin grated potatoes shaped into a cake.
dauphine mashed potatoes mi+ed with cbou+ pastry, shaped into
small balls and fried.
dauphinoise a gratin of sliced potatoes, baked with milk andBor
cream, garlic, cheese, and eggs.
duchesse mashed potatoes with butter, egg yolks, and nutmeg,
used for garnish.
en robe des champs( en robe de chambre potatoes boiled or
baked in their skin! potatoes in their 2ackets.
frites 3rench fries.
gratin?es browned potatoes, often with cheese.
lyonnaise potatoes saut?ed with onions.
macaire classic side dish of pur?ed potatoes shaped into small
balls and fried or baked in a flat cake.
mousseline potato pur?e enriched with butter, egg yolks, and
whipped cream.
paillasson fried pancake of grated potatoes.
pailles potatoes cut into 2ulienne strips, then fried.
Pont-)euf classic fries.
sarladaise sliced potatoes cooked with goose fat and (optionally)
truffles.
souffl?es small, thin slices of potatoes fried twice, causing them to
inflate so they resemble little pillows.
sous la c?ndre baked under cinders in a fireplace.
vapeur steamed or boiled potatoes.
Pommes en lair
carameli$ed apple slices, usually served with boudin noir (blood sausage).
Pom"e ? lhuile, "om"e de .o
see -ibassier.
Pom"e aux grattons
bread containing cracklings.
Pot-de-cr?me
individual classic custard dessert, often chocolate.
Potimarron
see "itrouille.
Poulet fermier
free-range chicken.
Primeur(r)
refers to early fresh fruits and vegetables, also to new wine.
Puits d'amour
)wells of love)! classic small pastry crowns filled with pastry cream.
8?moulade (c?leri)
sauce of mayonnaise, capers, mustard, herbs, anchovies, and gherkins!
(dish of shredded celery root with mayonnaise).
8ame'uin
small individual casserole. lso, a small tart. lso, a small goat's-milk
cheese from the %ugey, an area in the northern 7h?ne valley.
8amier
wood or wild pigeon.
8hum
rum.
8obe des cham"s, robe de chambre ("ommes
potatoes boiled or baked in their skin! potatoes in their 2ackets.
8ocamadour
village in southwestern 3rance which gives its name to a tiny disc of
cheese, once made of pure goat's or sheep's milk, now generally either
goat
8omanoff
fruit, often strawberries, macerated in li&ueur and topped with whipped
cream.
8omarin
rosemary.
8umstec&
rump steak.
/aint--ermain
with peas.
/aint-*arcellin
small flat disc of cow's-milk cheese (once made of goat's milk) made in
dairies in the #s?re, outside ,yon. 0he best is well aged and runny. 3ound
in 'aris, the ,yons area, and northern 'rovence.
/ainte-*aure
village in the ,oire valley that gives its name to a soft, elongated cylinder
of goat's-milk cheese with a distinctive straw in the middle and a mottled,
natural blue rind.
/almis
classic preparation of roasted game birds or poultry, with sauce made
from the pressed carcass.
/aucisson de cam"agne
any country-style sausage.
/aucisson de *orteau
see 8?sus de /orteau.
/aumon (sau!age)
salmon ()wild,) to differentiate from commercially raised salmon).
/aumon d'+cosse
Scottish salmon.
/aumon de fontaine
small, commercially raised salmon.
/aumon fum
smoked salmon.
/aumon nor!?gien
4orwegian salmon.
/aumonette
see 7oussette.
/el marin
sea salt.
/elon le march
according to what is in season or available.
/er!ice (non) com"ris
service charge (not) included in the listed menu prices (but invariably
included on the bill).
/im"le
simple, plain, unmi+ed. lso, a single scoop of ice cream.
/mitane
sauce of cream, onions, white wine, and lemon 2uice.
/ommelier
wine waiter.
/oumaintrain
a spicy, supple flat disc of cow's-milk cheese with a red-brown rind! from
%urgundy.
/"oom
wine or fruit 2uice mi+ed with egg whites, whipped, and fro$en to create a
frothy iced dessert.
/u"r?me
a veal- or chicken-based white sauce thickened with flour and cream.
lso, a boneless breast of poultry or a filet of fish.
:almouse
savory pastry triangle of cheese-flavored chou+ dough baked in puff
pastry.
:ami
3lat disc of cheese, made of cow's milk at the 0rappist monastery in the
Savoie village of 0ami?. Similar to 7eblochon.
:arama
carp roe, often made into a spread of the same name.
:arte flamb
thin-crusted savory tart, much like a rectangular pi$$a, covered with
cream, onions, and bacon! specialty of lsace! also called 3lamekueche.
:hermidor (homard)
classic lobster dish! lobster split lengthwise, grilled, and served in the shell
with a cream sauce.
:hon (blanc) (germon)
tuna (white albacore).
:hym
thyme.
:imbale
small round mold with straight or sloping slides! also, a mi+ture prepared
in such a mold.
:omates ? la "ro!en?ale
baked tomato halves sprinkled with garlic, parsley, and bread crumbs.
:omme
generic name for cheese, usually refers to a variety of cheeses in the
Savoie! also, the fresh cheese used to make "antal in the uvergne.
:omme arl?sienne
rectangular cheese made with a blend of goat's and cow's milk and
sprinkled with summer savory! also called tomme de "amargue! a
specialty of the ,anguedoc and rles, in 'rovence.
:omme fraiche
pressed cake of fresh milk curds, used in the regional dishes of the
uvergne.
:o"inambour
8erusalem artichoke.
:orteau au fromage
goat cheese cheesecake from the 'oitou-"harentes along the tlantic
coast! a blackened, spherical loaf found at cheese shops throughout
3rance! once a homemade delicacy, today prepared industrially.
:ri"es ? la mode de aen
beef tripe, carrots, onions, leeks, and spices, cooked in water, cider, and
"alvados (apple brandy)! specialty of 4ormandy.
:ri"le cr?me
legal name for cheese containing more than => percent butterfat, such as
%rillat-Savarin.
:rom"ettes de la mort
dark brown wild mushroom, also known as )horn of plenty.)
9iolet or figue de mer
unusual iodine-strong, soft-shelled edible sea creature, with a yellowish
interior. delicacy along the /editerranean, particularly in /arseille.
9i!e or !i"?re de mer
weever! a small firm-fleshed ocean fish used in soups, such as
bouillabaisse, or grilled. 0he venomous spine is removed before cooking.
>e)elmai, ze)el)ai
lsatian onion tart.
A "oint
cooked medium rare.
Abondance
firm thick wheel of cow's-milk cheese from the Savoie, a d?partement in
the lps.
Achatine
land snail, or escargot, imported from "hina and #ndonesia! less pri$ed
than other varieties.
Addition
bill.
Affin
aged, as with cheese.
Affinage
process of aging cheese.
Agneau (de lait)
lamb (young, milk-fed).
Agneau chilindron
saut? of lamb with potatoes and garlic, specialty of the %as&ue country.
Agneau de Paulliac
breed of lamb from the southwest.
Agnelet
baby milk-fed lamb.
Agnelle
ewe lamb.
Aiglefin', aigrefin, ?glefin
small fresh haddock, a type of cod.
Aisy cendr
thick disc of cow's-milk cheese, washed with eau-de-vie and patted with
wood ashes! also called cendre d'aisy( a specialty of %urgundy.
Alsacienne, ? l'
in the style of lsace, often including sauerkraut, sausage, or foie gras.
Am?ricaine, Amoricaine
sauce of white wine, "ognac, tomatoes, and butter.
Amande
almond.
Amande de mer
smooth-shelled shellfish, like a small clam, with a sweet, almost almond
flavor.
Amandine
with almonds.
Ami du hambertin
)friend of "hambertin wine)! moist and buttery short cylinder of cow's milk
cheese with a rust-colored rind, made near the village of -evrey-
"hambertin in %urgundy. Similar to .poisses cheese.
Ananas
pineapple.
Ancho?ade
sauce that is a blend of olive oil, anchovies, and garlic, usually served with
raw vegetables! specialty of 'rovence! also, paste of anchovies and garlic,
spread on toast.
Anchois (de ollioure)
anchovy (pri$ed salt-cured anchovy from "ollioure, a port town near the
Spanish border of the ,anguedoc), fished in the tlantic and the
/editerranean.
Ancienne, ? l'
in the old style.
Andouille
large smoked chitterling (tripe) sausage, usually served cold.
Andouillette
small chitterling (tripe) sausage, usually served grilled.
Aneth
dill.
Ange ? che!al
)angel on horseback)! grilled bacon-wrapped oyster.
Anglaise, ? l'
.nglish style, plainly cooked.
Anguille (au !ert)
eel! (poached in herb sauce).
Anis
anise or aniseed.
Anis ?toil
star anise.
Anise ?toil
star anise! also called badiane, anis de la chine. 0he anise plant! its dried
star-shaped fruit.
A""ellation d'origine contr?l?e (A#)
specific definition of a particular cheese, butter, fruit, wine, or poultry--once
passed down from generation to generation now recogni$ed by law--
regulating the animal breed or variety of fruit, the $one of production,
production techni&ues, composition of the product, its physical
characteristics, and its specific attributes.
Ar?mes ? la g?ne
generic name for a variety of tangy, lactic cheeses of the ,yon area that
have been steeped in g?ne, or dry marc, the dried grape skins left after
grapes are pressed for wine. "an be of cow's milk, goat's milk, or a
mi+ture.
Araign?e de mer
spider crab.
Arc en ciel (truite)
rainbow (trout).
Ardennaise, ? l'
in the style of the rdennes, a d?partement in northern 3rance! generally a
dish with 2uniper berries.
Ardi gasna
%as&ue name for sheep's-milk cheese.
Arl?sienne, ? l'
in the style of rles, a town in 'rovence! with tomatoes, onions, eggplant,
potatoes, rice, and sometimes olives.
Armagnac
brandy from the rmagnac area of Southwestern 3rance.
Ar"ajon
a town in the #le-de-3rance! dried bean capital of 3rance! a dish containing
dried beans.
Assaisonn
seasoned! seasoned with.
Assiette anglaise
assorted cold meats, usually served as a first course.
Aubergine
eggplant.
Aum?ni?re
)beggar's purse)! thin cr?pe, filled and tied like a bundle.
Au!ergnat(e)
in the style of the uvergne! often with cabbage, sausage, and bacon.
A!eline
ha$elnut or filbert, better known as noisette.
A!oine
oat.
Azyme, "ain
unleavened bread! mat$o.
B?arnaise
tarragon-flavored sauce of egg yolks, butter, shallots, white wine, vinegar!
and herbs.
B?cassine
small bird, a snipe.
B?che de .o
"hristmas cake shaped like a log (b?che), a sponge cake often flavored
with chestnuts and chocolate.
B?tard, "ain
)bastard bread)! traditional long, thin white loaf, larger than a baguette.
B?ton
small white wand of bread, smaller than a baguette.
B?tonnet
garnish of vegetables cut into small sticks.
Badiane
star anise.
Baec&eoffe, bae&aoffa, bac&aofa, bac&eno
)baker's oven)! stew of wine, beef, lamb, pork, potatoes, and onions!
specialty of lsace.
Bagna caud
sauce of anchovies, olive oil, and garlic, for dipping raw vegetables!
specialty of 4ice.
Baguette au le!ain or ? l'ancienne
sourdough baguette.
Baign
bathed.
Ballotine
usually poultry boned, stuffed, and rolled.
Banane
banana.
Banon
village in the lps of 'rovence, source of dried chestnut leaves
traditionally used to wrap goat cheese, which was washed with eau-de-vie
and aged for several months! today refers to various goat's-milk cheese or
mi+ed goat-and cow's-milk cheese from the region, sometimes wrapped in
fresh green or dried brown chestnut leaves and tied with raffia.
Baron
hind&uarters of lamb, including both legs.
Beignet
fritter or doughnut.
Beignet de fleur de courgette
batter-fried $ucchini blossom! native to 'rovence and the /editerranean,
now popular all over 3rance.
Belle (?l?ne ("oire)
classic dessert of chilled poached fruit (pear), served on ice cream and
topped with hot chocolate sauce.
Belle!ue, en
classic presentation of whole fish, usually in aspic on a platter.
Belon
river in %rittany identified with a pri$ed flat-shelled (plate) oyster.
Belondines
%rittany creuses, or crinkle-shelled oysters that are affin?es or finished off
in the %elon river.
Berrichonne
garnish of bruised cabbage, gla$ed baby onions, chestnuts, and lean
bacon named for the old province of %erry.
Beurre blanc
classic reduced sauce of vinegar! white wine, shallots, and butter
Beurre de *ont"ellier
classic butter sauce seasoned with olive oil, herbs, garlic, and anchovies.
Beurre des harentes
finest 3rench butter, from the region of 'oitou-"harentes along the tlantic
coast.
Beurre noir
sauce of browned butter, lemon 2uice or vinegar, parsley, and sometimes
capers! traditionally served with raie, or skate.
Beurre noisette
lightly browned butter.
Bi?re (en bouteille, ? la "ression)
beer (bottled, on tap).
Bien cuit(e)
cooked well done.
Bigorneau
periwinkle, tiny sea snail.
Bigoud?ne, ? la
in the style of %igouden, a province in %rittany! (pommes) baked slices of
unpeeled potato! (rag?ut) sausage stewed with bacon and potato.
Bl? (noir)
wheat (buckwheat).
Blanc (de "oireau)
white portion (of leek).
Blanc (de !olaille)
usually breast (of chicken).
Blanc-manger
chilled pudding of almond milk with gelatin.
Blan'uette
classic mild stew of poached veal, lamb, chicken, or seafood, enriched
with an egg and cream white sauce! supposedly a dish for convalescents.
Bleu d'Au!ergne
a strong, firm and moist, flattened cylinder of blue-veined cheese made
from cow's milk in the uvergne, sold wrapped in foil! still made on some
farms.
Blini
small thick pancake, usually eaten with caviar.
Boh?mienne, ? la
gypsy style! with rice, tomatoes, onions, sweet peppers, and paprika, in
various combinations.
Boisson (non) com"rise
drink (not) included.
Bon-chr?tien
)good "hristian)! a variety of pear, also known as poire 9illiam's.
Bonbon
candy or sweet.
Bondon
small cylinder of delicately flavored, mushroomy cow's-milk cheese made
in the 4eufch?tel area in 4ormandy.
Bonite
a tuna, or oceanic bonito.
Bonne femme (cuisine)
meat garnish of bacon, potatoes, mushrooms, and onions! fish garnish of
shallots, parsley, mushrooms, and potatoes! or white wine sauce with
shallots, mushrooms, and lemon 2uice! (home-style cooking).
Boudin
technically, a meat sausage, but generically any sausage-shaped mi+ture.
Boudin blanc
white sausage of veal, chicken, or pork.
Boudin noir
pork blood sausage.
Bouillon
stock or broth.
Boulang?re, ? la
in the style of the )baker's wife)! meat or poultry baked or braised with
onions and potatoes.
Boulette d'A!esnes
pepper-and-tarragon-flavored cheese, made from visually defective
/aroilles, formed into a cone, and colored red with paprika! named for
vesnes, a village in the 4orth.
Bou'uet garni
typically fresh whole parsley bay leaf and thyme tied together with string
and tucked into stews! the package is removed prior to serving.
Bourguignonne, ? la
%urgundy style! often with red wine, onions, mushrooms, and bacon.
Bouton de culotte
)trouser button)! tiny buttons of goat cheese from the ,yon area!
traditionally made on farms, aged until rock hard and pungent! today found
in many forms, from soft and young to hard and brittle.
Branche, en
refers to whole vegetables or herbs.
Brandade (de morue)
a warm garlicky pur?e (of salt cod) with milk or cream or oil, and
sometimes mashed potatoes! specialty of 'rovence! currently used to
denote a variety of flavored mashed potato dishes.
Bretonne, ? la
in the style of %rittany! a dish served with white beans! or may refer to a
white wine sauce with carrots, leeks, and celery.
Brie de *elun
smaller than brie de /eau+, another raw-cow's-milk cheese, aged at least
one month, with a crackly rust-colored rind.
Brillat-/a!arin
(<=>>-<?@A) famed gastronome, coiner of food aphorisms, and author of
0he 'hysiology of 0aste! the high-fat, supple cow's-milk cheese from
4ormandy is named for him.
Brochet(on)
freshwater pike (small pike).
Brugnon
nectarine.
Brunoise
tiny diced vegetables.
Buccin
large sea snail or whelk, also called bulot.
Bugne
deep-fried yeast-dough fritter or doughnut dusted with confectioner's
sugar! popular in and around ,yon before .aster.
Buisson
)bush)! generally a dish including vegetables arranged like a bush!
classically a crayfish presentation.
Buron
traditional hut where cheese is made in the uvergne mountains.
?leri (en branche)
celery (stalk).
?te d'agneau
lamb chop.
?!enole, ? la
"evennes style! garnished with chestnuts or mushrooms.
aen, ? la mode de
in the style of "aen, a town in 4ormandy! a dish cooked in "alvados and
white wine andBor cider.
af?ine
caffeine.
alisson d'Aix
:elicate, diamond-shaped 'roven?al sweet prepared with almonds,
candied oranges, melon or abricots, egg white, sugar, and confiture of
oranges or apricots.
amembert (de .ormandie)
village in 4ormandy that gives its name to a supple, fragrant cheese made
of cow's milk.
am"agnard(e) (assiette)
country-style, rustic! (an informal buffet of cold meats, terrines, etc.).
am"agne, ? la
country-style.
anada
cooking apple.
ana"
originally a slice of crustless bread! now also used to refer to a variety of
hors d'oeuvre consisting of toasted or fried bread, spread with forcemeat,
cheese, and other flavorings.
anard
duck.
anard ? la "resse
roast duck served with a sauce of 2uices obtained from pressing the
carcass, combined with red wine and "ognac.
anard sau!age
wild duck, usually mallard.
ancoillotte
spreadable cheese from the 8ura! usually blended with milk, spices, or
white wine when served.
aneton
young male duck.
anette
young female duck.
annelle
cinnamon.
annois, ? la
in the style of "annes.
anon
the marrow bone
antal
large cylindrical cheese made in the uvergne from shredded and pressed
curds of cow's milk.
antalon
smaller version of "antal.
antalou"
cantaloupe melon.
a"ucine
nasturtium! the leaves and flowers are used in salads.
arbonnade
braised beef stew prepared with beer and onions! specialty of the 4orth!
also refers to a cut of beef.
ardon
cardoon! large celery-like vegetable in the artichoke family, popular in
,yon, 'rovence, and the /editerranean area.
arr? d'agneau
rack (ribs) or loin of lamb! also crown roast.
arte "romotionelle or conseill
a simple and ine+pensive fi+ed-price meal.
ar!i (grain de)
caraway (seed).
asseron
cuttlefish.
assonade
soft brown sugar! demerara sugar.
a!aillon
a town in 'rovence, known for its small, flavorful orange-fleshed melons.
a!iar d'aubergine
cold seasoned eggplant puree.
endre (sous la)
ash (cooked by being buried in embers)! some cheeses made in wine-
producing regions are aged in the ash of burned rootstocks.
erdon
%ubbly (p?tillant) wine (red or white?) from the %ugey.
erise noire
black cherry.
erneau
walnut meat.
er!elle de canut
a soft, fresh herbed cheese known as )silkworker's brains)! specialty of
,yon.
h?taigne
chestnut, smaller than marron, with multiple nut meats.
h?telaine, ? la
elaborate garnish of artichoke hearts and chestnut pur?e, braised lettuce,
and saut?ed potatoes.
ham"ignon
mushroom.
? la bague( parasol mushroom with a delicate flavor! also called
coulemelle, cocherelle, and grisotte.
de bois( wild mushroom, from the woods.
de Paris( most common cultivated mushroom.
sauvage( wild mushroom.
ham"!allon, c?telette d'agneau
traditional dish of lamb chops baked in alternating layers of potatoes and
onions! named for a village in northern %urgundy.
hanterelle
pri$ed pale orange wild mushroom! also called girolle.
hantilly
sweetened whipped cream.
ha"on
capon, or castrated chicken.
ha"on de mer
/editerranean fish, in the rascasse or scorpion-fish family.
harbon de bois, au
charcoal-grilled.
harentais
variety of sweet cantaloupe, or melon, originally from the "harentes, on
the tlantic coast.
hateaubriand
thick filet steak, traditionally served with saut?ed potatoes and a sauce of
white wine, dark beef stock, butter, shallots, and herbs, or with a b?
arnaise sauce.
hausson
a filled pastry turnover, sweet or savory.
hemise, en
wrapped with pastry.
he!eux d'ange
)angel's hair)! thin vermicelli pasta.
hicons du .ord
%elgian endive.
hiffonnade
shredded herbs and vegetables, usually green.
hinchard
also called saurel, scad or horse mackerel! tlantic and /editerranean fish
similar to mackerel.
hi"iron (? l'encre)
southwestern name for small s&uid, or encornet (in its own ink).
horon, sauce
b?arnaise sauce with tomatoes.
hou de *ilan
Savoy cabbage.
hou-na!et
rutabaga.
houcroute (nou!elle)
sauerkraut (the season's first batch of sauerkraut, still crunchy and slightly
acidic)! also main dish of sauerkraut, various sausages, bacon, and pork,
served with potatoes! specialty of lsace and brasseries all over 3rance.
itron
lemon.
itron !ert
lime.
itron, orange, or "am"lemousse "ress?(e
lemon, orange, or grapefruit 2uice served with a carafe of tap water and
sugar! for sweetening to taste.
itronnelle
lemon grass, an oriental herb! also lemon balm (m?lisse).
l?mentine
small tangerine, from /orocco or Spain.
ochon (de lait)
pig (suckling).
ochonnaille(s)
pork product(s), usually an assortment of sausages andBor p?t?s served
as a first course.
oco blanc (rouge)
type of small white (red) shell bean, both fresh and dried, popular in
'rovence, where it is a traditional ingredient of the vegetable soupe au
pistou! also, coconut.
oing
&uince.
ol?re, en
)anger)! method of presenting fish in which the tail is inserted in the
mouth, so it appears agitated.
olin
hake, ocean fish related to cod! known as merluche in the 4orth,
merluchon in %rittany, bardot or merlan along the /editerranean.
ommander a!ant le re"as,
a selection of desserts that should be ordered when selecting first and
main courses, as they re&uire longer cooking.
oncass
coarsely chopped.
oncombre
cucumber.
onf?rence
a variety of pear.
onfiserie
candy, sweet, or confection! a candy shop.
onfit
a preserve, generally pieces of duck, goose, or pork cooked and
preserved in their own fat! also fruit or vegetables preserved in sugar!
alcohol, or vinegar.
onfiture
2am.
onfiture de !ieux gar?on
varied fresh fruits macerated in alcohol.
ongeler
to free$e.
ongre
conger eel! a large ocean fish resembling a freshwater eel (anguille
onseill
advised, recommended.
onsomm
clear soup.
onsommation(s)
)consumption)! drinks, meals, and snacks available in a cafe or bar.
ontre-filet
cut of sirloin taken above the loin on either side of the backbone, tied for
roasting or braising (can also be cut for grilling).
on!ersation
puff pastry tart with sugar gla$ing and an almond or cream filling.
o' (au !in)
mature male chicken (stewed in wine sauce).
o' au !in jaune
chicken cooked in the sherry-like vin 2aune of the region, with cream,
butter! and tarragon, often garnished with morels! specialty of the 8ura.
o'uille /aint-0ac'ues
sea scallop.
oriandre
coriander! either the fresh herb or dried seeds.
orne d'abondance
)horn of plenty)! dark brown wild mushroom, also called trompette de la
mort.
ornet
cornet-shaped! usually refers to foods rolled conically! also an ice cream
cone, and a conical pastry filled with cream.
ornichon
gherkin! tiny tart cucumber pickle.
ou d'oie (de canard) farci
neck skin of goose (of duck), stuffed with meat and spices, much like
sausage.
oulant
refers to runny cheese.
ouronne
)crown)! ring or circle, usually of bread.
ourt-bouillon
broth, or aromatic poaching li&uid.
r?mant
sparkling wine.
r?"ine
caul fat.
r?"inette
traditionally, a small sausage patty wrapped in caul fat! today boned
poultry wrapped in caul fat.
ra"audine
preparation of grilled poultry or game bird with backbone removed.
ra'uant
crunchy.
resson(ade)
watercress (watercress sauce).
riste marine
edible algae.
ro?te (en)
crust! (in) pastry.
ro?te de sel (en)
(in) a salt crust.
ro?tons
small cubes of toasted or fried bread.
ro'ue-monsieur
toasted ham and cheese sandwich.
rosne
small, unusual tuber! with a subtle artichoke-like flavor! known as a
"hinese or 8apanese artichoke.
rottin de ha!ignol
small flattened ball of goat's-milk cheese from the ,oire valley."roustade
usually small pastry-wrapped dish! also regional southwestern pastry filled
with prunes andBor apples.
ure-dent
toothpick.
1?caf?in? or d?ca
decaffeinated coffee.
1?gustation
tasting or sampling.
1?jeuner
lunch.
1?ner
dinner! to dine.
1arne
a rectangular portion of fish filet! also a fish steak, usually of salmon.
1au"hin
cow's-milk cheese shaped like a dauphin, or dolphin! from the 4orth.
1emoiselle de canard
marinated raw duck tenderloin! also called mignon de canard.
1ent, dent
one of a generic group of /editerranean fish known as dorade, similar to
porgy.
1entelle
)lace)! a portion of meat or fish so thinly sliced as to suggest a
resemblance. lso, large lace-thin sweet cr?pe.
1ents-de-lion
dandelion salad green! also called pissenlit.
1ijonnaise
:i2on style! usually with mustard.
1inde
turkey hen.
1indon(neau)
turkey (young turkey).
1iscr?tion,
on menus usually refers to wine, which may be consumed--without limit--
at the customers discretion.
1odine
cold stuffed boned poultry.
1ouillon, duillon
a whole pear wrapped and cooked in pastry! specialty of 4ormandy.
1oyenn? de omice
a variety of pear.
+au du robinet
tap water.
+au min?rale
mineral water.
+chalote banane
banana-shaped onion.
+chine
sparerib.
+glantine
wild rose 2am! specialty of lsace.
+glefin, ?grefin, aiglefin
small fresh haddock, a type of cod.
+minc
thin slice, usually of meat.
+mmental
large wheel of cooked and pressed cow's-milk cheese, very mild in flavor,
with large interior holes! made in large commercial dairies in the 8ura.
+mond
skinned by blanching, such as almonds, tomatoes.
+n sus
see Service en sus.
+nchaud
pork filet with garlic! specialty of :ordogne.
+ncornet
small ille+ s&uid, also called calmar! in %as&ue region called chipiron.
+ncre
s&uid ink.
+ndi!e
%elgian endive! also chicory salad green.
+ntier, enti?re
whole, entire.
+ntr
first course.
+ntrec?te
beef rib steak.
+ntrec?te ma?tre d'h?tel
beef rib steak with sauce of red wine and shallots.
+ntremets
dessert.
+"erlan
smelt or whitebait, usually fried, often imported but still found in the
estuaries of the ,oire.
+"inard
spinach.
+"ine !inette
highbush cranberry.
+"oisses blanc
fresh white .poisses cheese.
+scargot de Bourgogne
land snail prepared with butter! garlic, and parsley.
+s"adon
swordfish found in the gulf of -ascony, tlantic, and /editerranean.
+s"agnole, ? l
Spanish style! with tomatoes, peppers, onions, and garlic.
+stofinado
a pur?e-like blend of dried codfish, potatoes, garlic, parsley, eggs, walnut
oil, and milk, served with triangles of toast! specialty of the uvergne.
+stouffade ? la "ro!en?ale
beef stew with onions, garlic, carrots, and orange $est.
+stragon
tarragon.
2a?on (? ma)
(my) way of preparing a dish.
2aisan(e)
pheasant.
2aisand
game that has been hung to age.
2anes
green tops of root vegetables such as carrots, radishes, turnips.
2arine
flour. compl?te
whole wheat flour. d'avoine
oat flour. de bl?
wheat flour! white flour. de ma?s
corn flour. de sarrasin
buckwheat flour. de seigle
rye flour. de son
bran flour.
2enouil
fennel.
2ern&ase
young cheese shaped like a flying saucer and sprinkled with coarsely
ground pepper! specialty of lsace.
2euille de ch?ne
oak-leaf lettuce.
2euille de !igne
vine leaf.
2euilletage (en)
(in) puff pastry.
2iadone
"orsican flan made from cheese and oranges.
2inanci?re
/adiera sauce with truffle 2uice.
2inancier
small rectangular almond cake.
2ine de claire
elongated crinkle-shelled oyster that stays in fattening beds (claires) a
minimum of two months.
2ines herbes
mi+ture of herbs, usually chervil, parsley, chives, tarragon.
2l?tan
halibut, found in the .nglish "hannel and 4orth Sea.
2lagnarde, flaugnarde, flognarde
hot, fruit-filled batter cake made with eggs, flour, milk, and butter, and
sprinkled with sugar before serving! specialty of the southwest.
2lan
sweet or savory tart. lso, a crustless custard pie.
2lanchet
flank of beef or veal, used generally in stews.
2leuron
puff pastry crescent.
2lorentine
with spinach. lso, a cookie of nougatine and candied fruit brushed with a
layer of chocolate.
2oie blond de !olaille
chicken liver! also sometimes a chicken-liver mousse.
2oie gras d'oie (de canard)
liver of fattened goose (duck).
2oin (dan le)
(cooked in) hay.
2ond
cooking 2uices from meat, used to make sauces. lso, bottom.
2ond d'artichaut
heart and base of an artichoke.
2ondant
)melting)! refers to cooked, worked sugar that is flavored, then used for
icing cakes. lso, the bittersweet chocolate high in cocoa butter used for
making the shiniest chocolates. lso, pur?ed meat, fish, or vegetables
shaped in cro&uettes.
2ondu(e)
melted.
2ontainebleau
creamy white fresh dessert cheese from the #le-de-3rance.
2rais, bien ?gout
well-drained freshcheese. maigre
low-fat cheese.
2ran?aise, ? la
classic garnish of peas with lettuce, small white onions, and parsley.
2rangi"ane
almond custard filling.
2riandise
sweetmeat, petit four.
2ricandeau
thinly sliced veal or a rump roast, braised with vegetables and white wine.
2ritons
coarse pork rillettes or a minced spread which includes organ meats.
2ruit confit
whole fruit preserved in sugar.
-?noise
sponge cake.
-alantine
classical preparation of boned meat or whole poultry that is stuffed or
rolled, cooked, then gla$ed with gelatin and served cold.
-alette bressane, galette de P?rouges
cream and sugar tart from the %resse area of the 7h?ne-lpes.
-alinette
tub gurnard, /editerranean fish of the mullet family.
-anache
classically a rich mi+ture of chocolate and cr?me fra?che used as a filling
for cakes and chocolate truffles! currently may also include such flavorings
as wild strawberries and cinnamon.
-ardiane
stew of beef or bull (toro) meat, with bacon, onions, garlic, and black
olives! served with rice! specialty of the "amargue, in 'rovence.
-arni(e)
garnished.
-arniture
garnish.
-asconnade
roast leg of lamb with garlic and anchovies! specialty of the southwest.
-endarme
salted and smoked herring.
-eni?!ere
2uniper berry.
-entiane
gentian! a li&ueur made from this mountain flower.
-erminy
garnish of sorrel. lso, sorrel and cream soup.
-ermon
albacore or long-fin tuna.
-ingembre
ginger.
-i!r?$ orange gi!r
frosted! orange sherbet served in its skin.
-nocchi
dumplings made of chou+ paste, potatoes, or semolina.
-oujon
small catfish! generic name for a number of small fish. lso, preparation in
which the central part of larger fish is coated with bread crumbs, then
deep fried.
-oujonnette
generally used to describe a small piece of fish, such as sole, usually
fried.
-ourmandise(s)
weakness for sweet things! (sweetmeats or candies).
-ousse de !anille
vanilla bean.
-raine de moutarde
mustard seed.
-raisserons
crisply fried pieces of duck or goose skin! cracklings.
-rand cr?me
large or double espresso with milk.
-rand cru
top-ranking wine.
-rand !eneur
)chief huntsman)! usually a brown sauce for game, with red currant 2elly.
-ranit
a type of sherbet! a sweetened, flavored ice.
-ra""e (de raisins)
cluster! bunch (of grapes).
-ratin
crust formed on top of a dish when browned in broiler or oven! also the
dish in which such food is cooked.
-ratin dau"hinoise
baked casserole of sliced potatoes, usually with cream, milk, and
sometimes cheese andBor eggs.
-ratin sa!oyarde
baked casserole of sliced potatoes, usually with bouillon, cheese, and
butter.
-ratin?(e)
having a crusty, browned top.
-ratin?e lyonnaise
bouillon flavored with port, garnished with beaten egg, topped with
cheese, and browned under a broiler.
-rattons, grattelons
crisply fried pieces of pork, goose, or duck skin! cracklings.
-renade
pomegranate.
-renadin
small veal scallop.
-renaille
7efers to small, bite-si$e new potato of any variety.
-renouille (cuisse de)
frog (leg).
-ressini
breadsticks, seen along the "?te-d'$ur.
-roin d'ane
)donkeys snout)! ,yonnais name for a bitter winter salad green similar to
dandelion greens.
-rondin
red gurnard, a bony ocean fish, a member of the mullet family, used in fish
stews such as bouillabaisse.
(areng
herring, found in the tlantic, the .nglish "hannel (the best between
:unker&ue and 3?camp), and the mouth of the -ironde river.
(areng
herring, found in the tlantic, the .nglish "hannel (the best between
:unker&ue and 3?camp), and the mouth of the -ironde river.
(areng ? lhuile
herring cured in oil, usually served with a salad of warm sliced potatoes.
(areng ? lhuile
herring cured in oil, usually served with a salad of warm sliced potatoes.
(areng balti'ue, bismar&
marinated herring.
(areng balti'ue, bismar&
marinated herring.
(areng bouffi
herring that is salted, then smoked.
(areng bouffi
herring that is salted, then smoked.
(areng "ec
freshly salted young herring.
(areng "ec
freshly salted young herring.
(areng roll-mo"
marinated herring rolled around a small pickle.
(areng roll-mo"
marinated herring rolled around a small pickle.
(areng saur
smoked herring.
(areng saur
smoked herring.
(erbes de Pro!ence
mi+ture of thyme, rosemary, summer savory, and bay leaf, often dried and
blended.
(erbes de Pro!ence
mi+ture of thyme, rosemary, summer savory, and bay leaf, often dried and
blended.
(irondelle
swallow.
(irondelle
swallow.
(ollandaise
sauce of butter, egg yolks, and lemon 2uice.
(ollandaise
sauce of butter, egg yolks, and lemon 2uice.
(omard (? lAmoricaine, ? lAm?ricaine)
lobster! (a classic dish of many variations, in which lobster is cut into
sections and browned, then simmered with shallots, minced onions,
tomatoes, "ognac, and white wine! served with a sauce of the reduced
cooking li&uid, enriched with butter).
(omard (? lAmoricaine, ? lAm?ricaine)
lobster! (a classic dish of many variations, in which lobster is cut into
sections and browned, then simmered with shallots, minced onions,
tomatoes, "ognac, and white wine! served with a sauce of the reduced
cooking li&uid, enriched with butter).
(ongroise, ? la
Cungarian style! usually with paprika and cream.
(ongroise, ? la
Cungarian style! usually with paprika and cream.
(ortillon
pictures&ue market garden plot built between crisscrossed canals on the
outskirts of miens, a city in the north.
(ortillon
pictures&ue market garden plot built between crisscrossed canals on the
outskirts of miens, a city in the north.
(ure de "orc or de marcassin
head of pig or boar - usually refers to headcheese preparation.
(ure de "orc or de marcassin
head of pig or boar - usually refers to headcheese preparation.
(ure de saumon
a salmon )headcheese,) or p?t?, prepared with salmon meat, not actually
the head.
(ure de saumon
a salmon )headcheese,) or p?t?, prepared with salmon meat, not actually
the head.
3le flottante
)floating island)! most commonly used interchangeably with oeufs ? la
neige, poached meringue floating in cr?me anglaise! classically, a layered
cake covered with whipped cream and served with custard sauce.
3ndienne, ? l
.ast #ndian style, usually with curry powder.
3nfusion
herb tea.
3sman bayaldi, imam bayaldi
)the priest fainted) - in 0urkish! a dish of eggplant stuffed with saut?ed
onions, tomatoes, and spices! served cold.
0ambon
ham! also refers to the leg, usually of pork, but also of poultry.
? los ham with the bone in
blanc lightly salted, un-smoked or very lightly smoked ham, served
cooked! sold, cold, in charcuteries as 2ambon de 'aris, glac?, or
demi-sel
cru salted or smoked ham that has been cured but not cooked
cuit cooked ham
d!"uvergne raw, dry, salt-cured smoked ham
de Bayonne raw, dry salt-cured ham, very pale in color
de Bourgogne See 2ambon persill?
de montagne any mountain ham, cured according to local custom
de Paris pale, lightly salted, cooked ham
de Parme #talian prosciutto from 'arma, air-dried and salt-cured
ham, sliced thin and served raw
de pays any country ham, cured according to local custom
de poulet boned stuffed chicken leg.
de #estphalie -erman 9estphalian ham, raw, cured, and
smoked.
de $or% smoked .nglish-style ham, usually poached
d!oie (or de canard breast of fattened goose (or duck), smoked,
salted, or sugar cured, somewhat resembling ham in flavor.
fum? smoked ham.
persill? cold cooked ham, cubed and preserved in parsleyed
gelatin, usually sliced from a terrine! a specialty of %urgundy.
sal? salt-cured ham.
sec dried ham.
0ambonneau
cured ham shank or pork knuckle.
0ambonnette
boned and stuffed knuckle of ham or poultry.
0ardini?re
refers to a garnish of fresh cooked vegetables.
0eune
young.
0onch
rush basket in which certain fresh sheep's - or goat's-milk cheeses of
'oitou (along the tlantic coast) are contained! thus, by e+tension, the
cheese itself.
0ulienne
cut into slivers, usually vegetables or meat.
0uran?on
district in the %?arn, the area around 'au in southwestern 3rance, known
for its sweet and spicy white wine.
4ne"fla
lsatian dumpling, sometimes fried.
4ouigh-amann
sweet, buttery pastry from %rittany.
5aitance
soft roe (often of herring), or eggs.
5an?on
tiny fish, served fried.
5andaise, ? la
from the ,andes in southwestern 3rance! classically a garnish of garlic,
pine nuts, and goose fat.
5angouste
clawless spiny lobster or rock lobster! sometimes called crawfish, and
mistakenly crayfish.
5angoustine
clawed crustacean, smaller than either homard or langouste, with very
delicate meat. 5nown in %ritish waters as :ublin %ay prawn.
5angres
supple, tangy cylindrical cow's-milk cheese with a rust-colored rind! named
for village in "hampagne.
5angue (de chat)
tongue ()cat's tongue)! thin, narrow, delicate cookie often served with
sherbet or ice).
5anguedocienne
garnish, usually of tomatoes, eggplant, and wild c?pe mushrooms.
5a"in
rabbit.
5a"in de garenne
wild rabbit.
5ardon
cube of bacon.
5entilles (de Puy)
lentils (pri$ed green lentils from the village of 'uy in the uvergne).
5ieu jaune
green pollack, in the cod family a pleasant, ine+pensive small yellow fish!
often sold under name colin! found in the tlantic.
5ieu noir
pollack, also called black cod! in the cod family a pleasant, ine+pensive
fish found in the .nglish "hannel and the tlantic.
5ima?on
land snail.
5imande
lemon sole, also called dab or sand dab, not as firm or pri$ed as sole,
found in the .nglish "hannel, the tlantic, and, rarely, in the
/editerranean.
5ingot
type of kidney-shaped dry white bean.
5ou!ine
%as&ue name for striped bass, fished in the %ay of -ascony.
5uzienne, ? la
prepared in the manner popular in Saint-8ean-de-,u$, a %as&ue fishing
port.
5yonnaise, ? la
in the style of ,yon! often garnished with onions.
*?chon
early morning snack of sausage, wine, cheese, and bread! also, the caf?
that offers the snack! particular to ,yon.
*?daillon
round piece or slice, usually of fish or meat.
*?lange
mi+ture or blend.
*?nag?re, ? la
)in the style of the housewife)! usually a simple preparation including
onions, potatoes, and carrots.
*?re (de ronces)
blackberry (bush).
*ac?doine
diced mi+ed fruit or vegetables.
*acaron
macaroon, small cookie of almonds, egg whites, and sugar.
*acaronade
a rich blend of wild and domestic mushrooms and chunks of foie gras,
smothered in fresh pasta! specialty of the southwest. lso, macaroni with
mushrooms, bacon, white wine, and 'armesan cheese! an
accompaniment to a beef stew, or daube! specialty of 'rovence.
*adeleine (de ommercy)
small scalloped-shaped tea cake made famous by /arcel 'roust! (the
town in the ,orraine where the tea cakes are commerciali$ed).
*adril?ne, ? la
in the style of /adrid! with tomatoes. "lassically a garnish of peeled
chopped tomatoes for consomm?.
*agret de canard (or d'oie)
breast of fattened duck (or goose).
*aison, de la
of the house, or restaurant.
*al!oisie, !inaigre de
vinegar made from the malvasia grape, used for the sweet, heavy
/almsey wine.
*andarine
tangerine.
*ange-tout
)eat it all)! a podless green runner bean! a sweet pea! a snow pea. lso, a
variety of apple.
*angue
mango.
*ani?re, de
in the style of.
*arcassin
young boar. t one year, a wild boar will weight FD kg, a domesticated
boar <@D kg.
*archand de !in
wine merchant. lso, sauce made with red wine, meat stock, and chopped
shallots.
*arennes
flat-shelled green-tinged plate oyster. lso the 3rench coastal village
where flat-shelled oysters are raised.
*arin
marinated.
*arinade
seasoned li&uid in which food, usually meat, is soaked for several hours.
0he li&uid seasons and tenderi$es at the same time.
*arion (glac
large (candied) chestnut.
*arjolaine
mar2oram. lso, multilayered chocolate and nut cake.
*atelote (d'anguilles)
freshwater fish (or eel) stew.
*atignon
a garnish of mi+ed stewed vegetables.
*elon de a!aillon
small canteloupe-like melon from "availlon, a town in 'rovence known for
its wholesale produce market.
*endiant, fruits du
traditional mi+ture of figs, almonds, ha$elnuts, and raisins, whose colors
suggest the robes of the mendicant friars it is named after.
*enthe
mint.
*erlan
whiting.
*esclum, mesclun
a mi+ture of at least seven multi-shaded salad greens from 'rovence.
*ets selon la saison
seasonal preparation! according to the season.
*euni?re, ? la
)in the style of the millers wife)! refers to a fish that is seasoned, rolled in
flour, fried in butter! and served with lemon, parsley and hot melted butter.
*ignardise
see 'etit-four.
*ignon de canard
see :cmsiselle de canard.
*ignonette
small cubes, usually of beef. lso refers to coarsely ground black ot white
pepper.
*inute (? la)
)minute)! something &uickly grilled or fried in butter with lemon 2uice and
parsley (prepared at the last minute).
*iroton (de)
slice (of). lso, stew of meats flavored with onions.
*itonn
a simmered, soup-like dish.
*ont blanc
rich classic pastry of baked meringue, chestnut pur?e, and whipped
cream.
*ontagne, de la
from the mountains.
*ontmorency
garnished with cherries! historically a village known for its cherries, now a
suburb of 'aris.
*ornay
classic cream sauce enriched with egg yolks and cheese.
*or!andelle, jambon ? la
in the style of the /orvan (ham in a pi&uant creamy sauce made with
white wine, vinegar, 2uniper berries, shallots, and cream).
*or!andelle, r?"
grated potato mi+ed with eggs, cream, and cheese, baked until golden.
*oufflon
wild sheep.
*oule d'+s"agne
large, sharp-shelled mussel, often served raw as part of a seafood platter.
*oules marini?re
mussels cooked in white wine with onions, shallots, butter, and herbs.
*oulin (? "oi!re)
mill (peppermill)! also used for oil and flour mills.
*ourone
%as&ue name for red bell pepper.
*ousseline
refers to ingredients that are usually lightened with whipped cream or egg
whites, as in sauces, or with butter, as in brioche mousseline.
*ousseron
tiny, delicate, wild mushroom.
*outarde (? lancienne, en graines)
mustard (old-style, coarse-grained).
*outon
mutton.
*unster
village in lsace that gives its name to a disc of soft, tangy cow's-milk
cheese with a brick red rind and a penetrating aroma! the cheese is also
sometimes cured with cumin seeds.
.?fle
medlar! also called 8apanese lo&uat! tart fruit that resembles an apricot
and taste like a mango.
.age (? la)
)swimming)! aromatic poaching li&uid (served in).
.antua
sauce of crayfish, butter, cream, and, traditionally truffles! also garnish of
crayfish.
.a""
covered, as with a sauce.
.atte
woven loaf of bread.
.ature
refers to simple, unadorned preparations.
.a!arin
lamb or mutton stew.
.a!arraise, ? la
4avarre-style, with sweet peppers, onions, and garlic.
.a!et
turnip.
.a!ette
)little boat)! small pastry boats.
.eufch?tel
white, creamy, delicate (and often heart-shaped) cow's-milk cheese,
named for village in 4ormandy where it is made.
.e)burg
lobster preparation with /adeira, egg yolks, and cream.
.i!ernaise, ? la
in the style of 4evers! with carrots and onions.
.oilly
a vermouth-based sauce.
.oisette
ha$elnut! also refers to small round piece (such as from a potato),
generally the si$e of a ha$elnut, lightly browned in butter. lso, center cut
of lamb chop. lso, dessert flavored with ha$elnuts.
.oix
general term for nut! also, walnut. lso, nut-si$e, typically une noi+ de
beurre, or lump of butter.
.on com"ris
see Service (non) compris.
.onat
small river fish in 'rovence, usually fried. lso known as poutine.
.ormande
in the style of 4ormandy! sauce of seafood, cream, and mushrooms. lso
refers to fish or meat cooked with apple cider or "alvados! or dessert with
apples, usually served with cream.
.ote
another word for addition, bill or tab.
.ougat
candy of roasted almonds, egg whites, and honey! specialty of /ont?
limar.
.ougat glac
fro$en dessert of whipped cream and candied fruit.
.ouilles
noodles.
.ou!eau, nou!elle
new or young.
.ou!eaut
a new offering.
#eufs ? la neige
)eggs in the snow)! sweetened whipped egg whites poached in milk and
served with vanilla custard sauce.
#ignon
onion.
#li!e de .yons
wrinkled black olive, first olive in 3rance to receive 6". lso used for oil.
#li!e noire (!erte)
black olive (green olive).
#melette nor!egienne
3rench version of %aked laska! a concoction of sponge cake covered
with ice cream and a layer of sweetened, stiffly beaten egg whites, then
browned &uickly in the oven.
#nglet
cut similar to beef flank steak! also cut of beef sold as biftek and entrec?
te, usually a tough cut, but better than flank steak.
#rientale, ? l
general name for vaguely .astern dishes cooked with saffron, tomatoes,
and sweet red peppers.
#rigan
oregano.
#sso bucco ? la ni?oise
saut?ed veal braised with tomatoes, garlic, onions, and orange $est!
specialty of the /editerranean.
#ursin
sea urchin.
#ursinade
creamy sea urchin soup.
P?che Alexandra
cold dessert of poached peaches with ice cream and pur?ed strawberries.
P?landron
see haricot gris.
P?lardon
small flat, dried, pungent disc of goat's milk cheese! specialty of the
,anguedoc.
P?lerine
another name for scallop or co&uille Saint-8ac&ues.
P?rigourdine, ? la, or P?rigueux
sauce, usually with truffles and foie gras, named for the '?rigord in
southwestern 3rance.
P?toncle
tiny scallop, similar to merican bay scallop.
Pain
bread. lso, loaf of any kind.
aux cinq c?r?ales five-grain bread.
aux noix (aux noisettes bread, most often rye or wheat, filled with
walnuts (ha$elnuts).
aux raisins bread, most often rye or wheat, filled with raisins.
azyme unleavened bread, mat$oh.
bis brown bread.
bri? very dense, elongated loaf of unsalted white bread! specialty
of 4ormandy.
complet bread made partially or entirely from whole-wheat flour,
with bakers varying proportions according to their personal tastes.
cordon seldom-found regional country loaf decorated with a strip of
dough.
d!"ix variously shaped sourdough loaves, sometimes like a
sunflower, other times a chain-like loaf of four linked rounds.
de campagne country loaf! can vary from a white bread simply
dusted with flour to give it a rustic look (and fetch a higher price) to
a truly hearty loaf that may be a blend of white, whole wheat, and
perhaps rye flour with bran added. "omes in every shape.
&?cor? decorated.
de fantaisie generally any odd or imaginatively shaped bread.
.ven baguette de campagne falls into this category.
de '?nes classic almond sponge cake.
de mie rectangular white sandwich loaf that is nearly all mie
(interior crumb) and very little crust. #t is made for durability, its
flavor and te+ture developed for use in sandwiches. 1nlike most
3rench breads, it contains milk, sugar, and butter, and may contain
chemical preservatives.
d!?pices spice bread, a specialty of :i2on.
de seigle bread made from AD to =D percent rye flour and ED to FD
percent wheat flour.
de son legally a dietetic bread that is &uality controlled, containing
@D percent bran mi+ed with white flour.
grill? toast.
paill? country loaf from the %as&ue region.
sans sel salt-free bread.
viennois bread shaped like a baguette, with regular hori$ontal
slashes, usually containing white flour, sugar, powdered milk, water,
and yeast.
Paleron
shoulder of beef.
Palestine
classically a garnish of 8erusalem artichokes.
Pan bagna
large round bread roll, split, brushed with olive oil, and filled with a variable
mi+ture including anchovies, onions, black olives, green peppers,
tomatoes, and celery! cafe specialty from 4ice.
Pan?(e)
breaded.
Panach
mi+ed! now liberally used menu term to denote any mi+ture.
Panade
panada, a thick mi+ture used to bind forcemeats and &uenelles, usually
flour and butter based, but can also contain fresh or toasted bread
crumbs, rice, or potatoes. lso refers to soup of bread, milk, and
sometimes cheese.
Panais
parnsip.
Panisse
a thick fried pancake of chickpea flour, served as accompaniment to meat!
specialty of 'rovence.
Panne'uet
rolled cr?pe, filled andBor covered with sweet or savory mi+ture.
Panoufle
-enerally discarded belly flap from saddle of lamb, veal, and beef!
sometimes grilled.
Pantin
small pork pastry.
Pa"eton
eggplant, fried, pur?ed, and cooked in a ring mold! specialty of 'rovence.
Pa"illon
)butterfly)! small crinkle-shelled creuse oyster from the tlantic coast.
Pa"illote, en
cooked in parchment paper or foil wrapping.
Pa'uet (en)
(in) a package or parcel.
Parisienne, ? la
varied vegetable garnish which generally includes potato balls that have
been fried and tossed in a meat gla$e.
Parmentier
dish with potatoes.
Passe rassane
flavorful variety of winter pear.
Pata .?gra (jambon)
'ri$ed ham from Spain, literally )black feet.)
Patte blanche
small crayfish no larger than @ <B@ ounces (=> g).
Pa!ot (graine de)
poppy (seed).
Paysan(ne) (? la)
country style! (garnish of carrots, turnips, onions, celery and bacon).
Pet de nonne
)nuns fart)! small, dainty beignets, or fried pastry.
Petit d?jeuner
breakfast.
Picholine, "itchouline
a variety of green olive, generally used to prepare olives casse?s!
specialty of 'rovence.
Picodon (m?thode 1ieulefit)
small disc of goat's-milk cheese, the best of which (&ualified as m?thode
:ieulefit) is hard, pi&uant, and pungent from having soaked in brandy and
aged a month in earthenware 2ars! specialty of northern 'rovence.
Pied de mouton
meaty cream-colored wild mushroom. lso, sheep's foot.
Pigeon (neau)
pigeon or s&uab (young pigeon or s&uab).
Pignons
pine nuts, found in the cones of pine trees growing in 'rovence and along
the southwestern tlantic coast.
Piment
red pepper or pimento.
Piment
hot, peppery, spicy.
Piment (or "oi!re) de 0ama?'ue
allspice.
Piment d'+s"elette
slender, mildly hot chile pepper from .spelette, a village in the %as&ue
region.
Piment doux
sweet pepper.
Pim"ernelle
salad burnet, a salad green with a somewhat bitter taste.
Pince
claw. lso, tongs used when eating snails or seafood.
Pineau des harentes
sweet fortified wine from the "ognac region on the tlantic coast, served
as an aperitif.
Pintade(au)
(young) guinea fowl.
Pi'uant(e)
sharp or spicy tasting.
Pi'uenchagne, "icanchagne
a pear tart with walnut or brioche crust! specialty of the %ourbonnais, a
province in uvergne.
Pissenlit
dandelion green.
Pistil de safran
thread of saffron.
Plat cuisin
dish containing ingredients that have cooked together, usually in a sauce.
Plat "rinci"al
main dish.
Pogne
brioche flavored with orange-flower water and filled with fruits! specialty of
7omans-sur-#s?re, in the 7h?ne-lpes.
Point (
ripe or ready to eat, the perfect moment for eating a cheese or fruit. lso,
cooked medium rare.
Point(e) (d'as"erge)
tip (of asparagus).
Poisson
fish.
d!eau douce freshwater fish.
de lac lake fish.
de mer ocean fish.
de rivi?re river fish.
de roche rock fish.
fum? smoked fish.
noble refers to pri$ed, thus e+pensive, variety of fish.
Poitrine
breast (of meat or poultry).
Poitrine demi-sel
unsmoked slab bacon.
Poitrine fum
smoked slab bacon.
Poi!ron (doux)
(sweet bell) pepper.
Polenta
cooked dish of cornmeal and water, usually with added butter and cheese!
also, cornmeal.
Pommade (beurre en)
usually refers to a thick, smooth paste! (creamed butter).
Pommes en lair
carameli$ed apple slices, usually served with boudin noir (blood sausage).
Pom"e ? lhuile, "om"e de .o
see -ibassier.
Pom"e aux grattons
bread containing cracklings.
Pont l+!?'ue
village in 4ormandy that gives its name to a very tender, fragrant s&uare
of cow's milk cheese.
Potimarron
see "itrouille.
Potiron
see "itrouille.
Poule d'3nde
turkey hen.
Poule faisane
female pheasant.
Poulet de grain
corn-fed chicken.
Pouligny-/aint-Pierre
village in the ,oire valley that gives its name to a goat's-milk cheese
shaped like a truncated pyramid with a mottled, grayish rind and a
smooth-grained, ivory-white interior.
Pounti
(also spelled pounty) a pork meat loaf that generally includes Swiss chard
or spinach, eggs, milk, herbs, onions, and prunes! specialty of the
uvergne.
Pousse-en-claire
6ysters that have been aged and fattened in claire, or oyster beds, for
four to eight months.
Poussin
baby chicken.
Poutine
see 4onat.
Pr?-sal? (agneau de)
delicately salted lamb raised on the salt marshes of 4ormandy and the
tlantic coast.
Pralin
ground carameli$ed almonds.
Praline
carameli$ed almonds.
Printani?re
garnish of a variety of spring vegetables cut into dice or balls.
Prix net
service included.
Pro!en?ale
in the style of 'rovence! usually includes garlic, tomatoes, andBor olive oil.
Prune (d'ente)
fresh plum! (variety of plum grown in the famed gen region of the
southwest).
Pruneau
prune.
7uenelle
dumpling, usually of veal, fish, or poultry.
7uiche lorraine
savory custard tart made with bacon, eggs, and cream.
8?ble de li?!re (la"in)
saddle of hare (rabbit).
8adis noir
large black radish, often served with cream, as a salad.
8aisin
grape! raisin.
de *orinthe currant.
de Smyrne sultana.
sec raisin.
8ame'uin
small individual casserole. lso, a small tart. lso, a small goat's-milk
cheese from the %ugey, an area in the northern 7h?ne valley.
8a!iole de 8oyans
tiny ravioli pasta filled with goat cheese, from the 7h?ne-lpes.
8a!ioli ? la ni?oise
s&uare or round pasta filled with meat andBor swiss chard and baked with
grated cheese.
8eblochon
smooth, supple, creamy cow's-milk cheese from the Savoie in the lps.
8eine-laude
greengage plum.
8einette, reine de
fall and winter variety of apple, deep yellow with a red blush.
8illons
usually pork belly, cut up and cooked until crisp, then drained of fat! also
made of duck, goose, or rabbit.
8is d'agneau (de !eau)
lamb (veal) sweetbreads.
8ognonnade
veal loin with kidneys attached.
8ognons
kidneys.
8omanoff
fruit, often strawberries, macerated in li&ueur and topped with whipped
cream.
8omarin
rosemary.
8ondelle
round slice--of lemon, for e+ample.
8ouennaise (canard ? la)
in the style of 7ouen! (classic dish of duck stuffed with its liver in a blood-
thickened sauce).
8ouget grondin
red gurnard, a large, common rockfish, less pri$ed than rouget barbet.
variety of galinette. n ingredient in bouillabaisse.
/abayon, zabaglione
frothy sweet sauce of egg yolks, sugar, wine, and flavoring that is whipped
while being cooked in a water bath.
/afran
saffron.
/aignant(e)
cooked rare, for meat, usually beef.
/aindoux
lard or pork fat.
/aint 0ac'ues, co'uille
sea scallop.
/aint--ermain
with peas.
/aint-(ubert
poivrade sauce with chestnuts and bacon added.
/aint-*arcellin
small flat disc of cow's-milk cheese (once made of goat's milk) made in
dairies in the #s?re, outside ,yon. 0he best is well aged and runny. 3ound
in 'aris, the ,yons area, and northern 'rovence.
/aint-.ectaire
village in the uvergne that gives its name to a supple, thick disc of cow's-
milk cheese with a mottled gray rind.
/aint-Pierre
8ohn :ory, a pri$ed mild, flat, white ocean fish. 5nown as soleil and 8ean
:or? in the 4orth, and poule de mer along the tlantic coast.
/aint-9incent
moist, buttery, thick cylinder of cow's-milk cheese from %urgundy with a
rust-colored rind! similar to .poisses, but aged a bit longer, therefore
stronger.
/ainte-*aure
village in the ,oire valley that gives its name to a soft, elongated cylinder
of goat's-milk cheese with a distinctive straw in the middle and a mottled,
natural blue rind.
/alade lyonnaise
green salad with cubed bacon and soft-cooked eggs, often served with
herring and anchovies, andBor sheep's feet and chicken livers! specialty of
,yon! also called saladier lyonnais.
/alade ni?oise
salad with many variations, but usually with tomatoes, green beans,
anchovies, tuna, potatoes, black olives, capers, and artichokes.
/alade "anach
mi+ed salad.
/aladier (lyonnais)
see Salade lyonnaise.
/alicorne
edible seaweed, sea string bean! often pickled and served as a
condiment.
/al"icon
diced vegetables, meat, andBor fish in a sauce, used as a stuffing, garnish,
or spread.
/andre
pickerel, perch-like river fish, found in the Sa?ne and 7hine.
/ang
blood.
/anglier
wild boar.
/angue
"orsican black pudding usually with grapes or herbs.
/anguine
)blood) orange, so named for its red 2uice.
/ansonnet
Starling or thrush.
/ardine
small sardine. ,arge sardines are called pilchards. 3ound year-round in
the /editerranean, from /ay to 6ctober in the tlantic.
/arrasin
buckwheat.
/aucisse de 2rancfort
hot dog.
/aucisson
most often, a large air-dried sausage, such as salami, eaten sliced as a
cold cut! when fresh, usually called saucisson chaud, or hot sausage.
/aucisson ? lail
garlic sausage, usually to be cooked and served warm.
/aucisson d'Arles
dried salami-style sausage that blends pork, beef and gentle seasoning! a
specialty of rles, in 'rovence.
/aucisson de cam"agne
any country-style sausage.
/aucisson de 5yon
air-dried pork sausage, flavored with garlic and pepper and studded with
chunks of pork fat.
/aucisson de *orteau
see 8?sus de /orteau.
/aucisson en cro?te
sausage cooked in a pastry crust.
/aucisson sec
any dried sausage, or salami.
/aumon (sau!age)
salmon ()wild,) to differentiate from commercially raised salmon).
/aumon d'+cosse
Scottish salmon.
/aumon de fontaine
small, commercially raised salmon.
/aumon fum
smoked salmon.
/aumon nor!?gien
4orwegian salmon.
/aumonette
see 7oussette.
/a!arin
yeast-leavened cake shaped like a ring, soaked in sweet syrup.
/el marin
sea salt.
/elon grosseur (/;-;)
according to si$e, usually said of lobster or other seafood.
/elon le march
according to what is in season or available.
/elon "oid (/;P;)
according to weight, usually said of seafood. Semolina or crushed wheat.
lso used in 3rance as a savory garnish, particularly in 4orth frican
dishes such as couscous.
/er!ice (non) com"ris
service charge (not) included in the listed menu prices (but invariably
included on the bill).
/er!ice en sus
service charge to be made in addition to menu prices. Same as service
non compris.
/mitane
sauce of cream, onions, white wine, and lemon 2uice.
/oissons
dried or fresh white beans, from the area around Soissons, northeast of
'aris.
/oumaintrain
a spicy, supple flat disc of cow's-milk cheese with a red-brown rind! from
%urgundy.
/ou"ir de nonne
)nuns sighs)! fried chou+ pastry dusted with confectioners sugar. "reated
by a nun in an lsatian abbey. lso called pet de nonne.
/ucc?s ? la "raline
cake made with praline meringue layers, frosted with meringue and butter
cream.
/u"ion, su"ioun, su""ion
cuttlefish.
:?tragone
spinach-like green, found in 'rovence.
:agine
spicy 4orth frican stew of veal, lamb, chicken, or pigeon, and vegetables.
:anche
tench, a river fish with a mild, delicate flavor! often an ingredient in
matelote and pauchouse, freshwater fish stews.
:a"enade
a blend of black olives, anchovies, capers, olive oil, and lemon 2uice,
sometimes with rum or canned tuna added! specialty of 'rovence.
:artare (de "oisson)
traditionally chopped raw beef, seasoned and garnished with raw egg,
capers, chopped onion, and parsley! (today, a popular highly seasoned
raw fish dish).
:arte encalat
name for cheesecake in the uvergne.
:arte :atin
carameli$ed upside-down apple pie, made famous by the 0atin sisters in
their hotel in ,amotte-%euvron, in the Sologne! a popular dessert, seen on
menus all over 3rance.
:artine
open-face sandwich! buttered bread.
:elline
a tiny violet-streaked clam, the si$e of a fingernail, seen in 'rovence and
the "amargue! generally seared with a bit of oil in a hot pan to open the
shells and seasoned with parsley and garlic.
:endre
tender.
:endron
cartilaginous meat cut from beef or veal ribs.
:errine
earthenware container used for cooking meat, game, fish, or vegetable
mi+tures! also the p?t? cooked and served in such a container. #t differs
from a p?t? proper in that the terrine is actually sliced out of the container,
while a p?t? has been removed from its mold.
:hon (blanc) (germon)
tuna (white albacore).
:hon rouge
bluefin tuna.
:ian
an earthenware gratin dish! also vegetable gratins baked in such a dish!
from 'rovence.
:omates ? la "ro!en?ale
baked tomato halves sprinkled with garlic, parsley, and bread crumbs.
:omme arl?sienne
rectangular cheese made with a blend of goat's and cow's milk and
sprinkled with summer savory! also called tomme de "amargue! a
specialty of the ,anguedoc and rles, in 'rovence.
:o"inambour
8erusalem artichoke.
:ourain, tourin, tourrin
generally a peasant soup of garlic, onions (and sometimes tomatoes), and
broth or water, thickened with egg yolks and seasoned with vinegar!
specialty of the southwest.
:ournedos
center portion of beef filet, usually grilled or saut?ed.
:ournedos 8ossini
saut?ed tournedos garnished with foie gras and truffles.
:ouron
mar$ipan loaf, or a cake of almond paste, often layered and flavored with
nuts or candied fruits and sold by the slice! specialty of the %as&ue region.
:rain de c?tes
rib of beef.
:ranche
slice.
:ri"es ? la mode de aen
beef tripe, carrots, onions, leeks, and spices, cooked in water, cider, and
"alvados (apple brandy)! specialty of 4ormandy.
:ron?on
cut of meat or fish resulting in a piece that is longer than it is wide!
generally refers to slices from the largest part of a fish.
:ruffes sous la cendre
truffles wrapped in pastry or foil, gently warmed as they are buried in
ashes.
:urban
usually a mi+ture or combination of ingredients cooked in a ring mold.
:urbot(in)
turbot (small turbot), 'ri$ed flatfish found in the tlantic and
/editerranean.
unilat?ral
6ne-sided - e.g.( saumon ? lunilat?ral G salmon grilled only on one side.
9?roni'ue, ? la
garnish of peeled white grapes. ;ert-pr?
a watercress garnish, sometimes including potatoes.
9acherin
dessert of baked meringue, with ice cream and whipped cream. lso a
strong, supple winter cheese encircled by a band of spruce, from the 8ura.
9anille
vanilla.
9entr?che
pork belly.
9entre
belly or stomach.
9erdure (en)
garnish of green vegetables.
9ernis
large fleshy clam with small red tongue and shiny varnish-like shell.
9er!eine
lemon verbena, herb tea.
9essie, en
cooked in a pigs bladder (usually chicken).
9iande
meat.
9iennoise
coated in egg, breaded, and fried.
9in jaune
an amber yellow wine made in the 8ura with late harvested grapes. Stored
in oak casks, it can last up to a century.
9inaigre (!ieux)
vinegar (aged).
9inaigre de x?r
sherry vinegar.
9inaigrette
oil and vinegar dressing.
9iognier
increasingly popular white grape of the 7h?ne, used for the famed
"ondrieu .
9iolet de Pro!ence
braid of plump garlic, a specialty of 'rovence and the "?te-d'$ur.
9ol-au-!ent
puff pastry shell.
9olont? (
at the customer's discretion.
9onnaissienne, ? la
in the style of ;onnas, a village in the 7h?ne-lpes. lso, cr?pes made
with potatoes.
<?r?s (!inaigre de)
sherry (vinegar).
>ingara, ? la
gypsy style! with tomato sauce. lso classically, a garnish of ham, tongue,
mushrooms, and truffles.
a la Bourgeoise, ? la Bourgeoise
'repared in the family style.
A "oint
cooked medium rare.
A?ado
roast lamb shoulder stuffed with parsley, chervil, and garlic.
A?go bouido
garlic soup, served with oil, over slices of bread! a specialty of 'rovence.
A?go saou
)water-salt) in 'roven*al! a fish soup that includes, of course, water and
salt, plus a mi+ture of small white fish, onions, potatoes, tomatoes, garlic,
herbs, and olive oil! specialty of 'rovence.
A?oli, ailloli
garlic mayonnaise. lso, salt cod, hard-cooked eggs, boiled snails, and
vegetables served with garlic mayonnaise! specialty of 'rovence.
Abondance
firm thick wheel of cow's-milk cheese from the Savoie, a d?partement in
the lps.
Abricot
apricot.
Acajou
cashew nut.
Addition
bill.
Agneau chilindron
saut? of lamb with potatoes and garlic, specialty of the %as&ue country.
Aigre-doux
sweet and sour.
Aligot
mashed potatoes with tomme (the fresh curds used in making "antal
cheese) and garlic! specialty of the uvergne.
Alose
shad, a spring river fish plentiful in the ,oire and -ironde rivers.
Alouette
lark.
Aloyau
loin area of beef! beef sirloin, butcher's cut that includes the rump and
contre-filet.
Am?ricaine, Amoricaine
sauce of white wine, "ognac, tomatoes, and butter.
Ambroisie
ambrosia.
Amourette(s)
spinal bone marrow of calf or o+.
Amuse-bouche or amusegueule
)amuse the mouth)! appeti$er.
Ancho?ade
sauce that is a blend of olive oil, anchovies, and garlic, usually served with
raw vegetables! specialty of 'rovence! also, paste of anchovies and garlic,
spread on toast.
Anchois (de ollioure)
anchovy (pri$ed salt-cured anchovy from "ollioure, a port town near the
Spanish border of the ,anguedoc), fished in the tlantic and the
/editerranean.
Andouille
large smoked chitterling (tripe) sausage, usually served cold.
Andouillette
small chitterling (tripe) sausage, usually served grilled.
Anis ?toil
star anise.
Anise ?toil
star anise! also called badiane, anis de la chine. 0he anise plant! its dried
star-shaped fruit.
A#
see Appellation d'origine contr?l?e.
A""ellation d'origine contr?l?e (A#)
specific definition of a particular cheese, butter, fruit, wine, or poultry--once
passed down from generation to generation now recogni$ed by law--
regulating the animal breed or variety of fruit, the $one of production,
production techni&ues, composition of the product, its physical
characteristics, and its specific attributes.
Arbousier (miel d')
trailing arbutus, small evergreen shrubby tree of the heather family, also
called strawberry tree, ground laurel and madrona tree with strawberry-like
fruit dotted with tiny bumps! (honey of). 1sed for making li&ueurs, 2ellies,
and 2ams.
Ardoise
blackboard! bistros often use a blackboard to list specialties in place of a
printed menu.
Aromate
aromatic herb, vegetable, or flavoring.
Aros?(e)
sprinkled, basted, moistened with li&uid.
Ar"ajon
a town in the #le-de-3rance! dried bean capital of 3rance! a dish containing
dried beans.
Artichaut ? la Barigoule
in original form, artichokes cooked with mushrooms and oil! also, artichoke
stuffed with ham, onion, and garlic, browned in oil with onions and bacon,
then cooked in water or white wine! specialty of 'rovence.
As"erge (!iolette)
asparagus (purple-tipped asparagus, a specialty of the "?te-d'$ur).
Assaisonn
seasoned! seasoned with.
Assoif
parched, thirsty.
Assorti(e)
assorted.
Aurore
tomato and cream sauce.
A!ocat
avocado.
A!oine
oat.
Axoa
a dish of ground veal, onions, and the local fresh chiles, piment
d'.spelette! specialty of the %as&ue region.
B?che de .o
"hristmas cake shaped like a log (b?che), a sponge cake often flavored
with chestnuts and chocolate.
B?ton
small white wand of bread, smaller than a baguette.
B?tonnet
garnish of vegetables cut into small sticks.
Baec&eoffe, bae&aoffa, bac&aofa, bac&eno
)baker's oven)! stew of wine, beef, lamb, pork, potatoes, and onions!
specialty of lsace.
Baguette au le!ain or ? l'ancienne
sourdough baguette.
Baie rose
pink peppercorn.
Ballotine
usually poultry boned, stuffed, and rolled.
Banon
village in the lps of 'rovence, source of dried chestnut leaves
traditionally used to wrap goat cheese, which was washed with eau-de-vie
and aged for several months! today refers to various goat's-milk cheese or
mi+ed goat-and cow's-milk cheese from the region, sometimes wrapped in
fresh green or dried brown chestnut leaves and tied with raffia.
Barbouillade
stuffed eggplant, or an eggplant stew! also, a combination of beans and
artichokes.
Baron
hind&uarters of lamb, including both legs.
Baudroie
in 'rovence, the name for monkfish or anglerfish, the large, firm-fleshed
ocean fish also known as lotte and gigot de met, also a specialty of
'rovence, a fish soup that includes potstoes, onions, fresh mushrooms,
garlic, fresh or dried orange $est, artichokes, tomatoes, and herbs.
Ba!aroise
cold dessert! a rich custard made with cream and gelatin.
Beignet de fleur de courgette
batter-fried $ucchini blossom! native to 'rovence and the /editerranean,
now popular all over 3rance.
Belle (?l?ne ("oire)
classic dessert of chilled poached fruit (pear), served on ice cream and
topped with hot chocolate sauce.
Belon
river in %rittany identified with a pri$ed flat-shelled (plate) oyster.
Belondines
%rittany creuses, or crinkle-shelled oysters that are affin?es or finished off
in the %elon river.
Bergamot (th? a la bergamote)
name for both a variety of orange and of pear! (earl grey tea.).
Berrichonne
garnish of bruised cabbage, gla$ed baby onions, chestnuts, and lean
bacon named for the old province of %erry.
Beurre de *ont"ellier
classic butter sauce seasoned with olive oil, herbs, garlic, and anchovies.
Beurre noir
sauce of browned butter, lemon 2uice or vinegar, parsley, and sometimes
capers! traditionally served with raie, or skate.
Beurre noisette
lightly browned butter.
Bi?re (en bouteille, ? la "ression)
beer (bottled, on tap).
Bigorneau
periwinkle, tiny sea snail.
Bigoud?ne, ? la
in the style of %igouden, a province in %rittany! (pommes) baked slices of
unpeeled potato! (rag?ut) sausage stewed with bacon and potato.
Biologi'ue
organic.
Bistrotier
bistro owner.
Bl? (noir)
wheat (buckwheat).
Blanc (de "oireau)
white portion (of leek).
Blanc (de !olaille)
usually breast (of chicken).
Boeuf ? la ficelle
beef tied with string and poached in broth.
Boeuf ? la mode
beef marinated and braised in red wine, served with carrots, mushrooms,
onions, and turnips.
Boeuf gros sel
boiled beef, served with vegetables and coarse salt.
Boh?mienne, ? la
gypsy style! with rice, tomatoes, onions, sweet peppers, and paprika, in
various combinations.
Boisson (non) com"rise
drink (not) included.
Bolet
type of wild boletus mushroom. See C?pe.
Bombe
molded, layered ice cream dessert.
Bon-chr?tien
)good "hristian)! a variety of pear, also known as poire 9illiam's.
Bonbon
candy or sweet.
Bondon
small cylinder of delicately flavored, mushroomy cow's-milk cheese made
in the 4eufch?tel area in 4ormandy.
Bonite
a tuna, or oceanic bonito.
Bonne femme (cuisine)
meat garnish of bacon, potatoes, mushrooms, and onions! fish garnish of
shallots, parsley, mushrooms, and potatoes! or white wine sauce with
shallots, mushrooms, and lemon 2uice! (home-style cooking).
Bordelaise
%ordeau+ style! also refers to a brown sauce of shallots, red wine, and
bone marrow.
Bouch
)tiny mouthful)! may refer to a bite-si$e pastry or to a vol-au-vent.
Bouchoteur
mussel fisherman! a dish containing mussels.
Boudin
technically, a meat sausage, but generically any sausage-shaped mi+ture.
Boudin blanc
white sausage of veal, chicken, or pork.
Boudin noir
pork blood sausage.
Boudouses
literally, to pout! tiny oysters from %rittany that refuse to grow to normal
si$e! iodine rich and pri$ed.
Bouillabaisse
popular /editerranean fish soup, most closely identified with /arseille,
ideally prepared with the freshest local fish, preferably rockfish.
0raditionally might include do$ens of different fish, but today generally
includes the specifically local rascasse (scorpion fish), Saint-'ierre (8ohn
:ory), fi?la (conger eel), galinette (gurnard or grondin), vive (weever), and
baudroie (monkfish) cooked in a broth of water, olive oil, onions, garlic,
tomatoes, parsley, and saffron. 0he fish is served separately from the
broth, which is poured over garlic-rubbed toast, and seasoned with rouille
which is stirred into the broth. ;aried additions include boiled potatoes,
orange peel, fennel, and shellfish. .+pensive shellfish are often added in
restaurant versions, but this practice is considered inauthentic.
Bouilliture
eel stew with red wine and prunes! specialty of the 'oitou-"harentes on
the tlantic coast.
Bouillon
stock or broth.
Boulang?re, ? la
in the style of the )baker's wife)! meat or poultry baked or braised with
onions and potatoes.
Boule
)ball)! a large round loaf of white bread, also known as a miche.
Boule de Picoulat
meatball from ,anguedoc, combining beef, pork, garlic, and eggs,
traditionally served with cooked white beans.
Boulette d'A!esnes
pepper-and-tarragon-flavored cheese, made from visually defective
/aroilles, formed into a cone, and colored red with paprika! named for
vesnes, a village in the 4orth.
Bou'uet
large reddish shrimp. See also Crevette rose.
Bou'uet garni
typically fresh whole parsley bay leaf and thyme tied together with string
and tucked into stews! the package is removed prior to serving.
Bou'ueti?re
garnished with bou&uets of vegetables.
Bourdaloue
hot poached fruit, sometimes wrapped in pastry often served with vanilla
custard! often pear.
Bourgeoise, ? la
with carrots, onions, braised lettuce, celery and bacon.
Bourguignonne, ? la
%urgundy style! often with red wine, onions, mushrooms, and bacon.
Bouribot
spicy red-wine duck stew.
Bourride
a /editerranean fish soup that generally includes a mi+ture of small white
fish, onions, tomatoes, garlic, herbs, and olive oil, thickened with egg yolks
and a?oli (garlic mayonnaise)! there are many variations.
Bourriole
rye flour pancake, both sweet and savory! specialty of the uvergne.
Boutargue, "outargue
salty paste prepared from dried mullet or tuna roe, mashed with oil!
specialty of 'rovence.
Bouton de culotte
)trouser button)! tiny buttons of goat cheese from the ,yon area!
traditionally made on farms, aged until rock hard and pungent! today found
in many forms, from soft and young to hard and brittle.
Brandade (de morue)
a warm garlicky pur?e (of salt cod) with milk or cream or oil, and
sometimes mashed potatoes! specialty of 'rovence! currently used to
denote a variety of flavored mashed potato dishes.
Brassado
a doughnut that is boiled, then baked, much like a bagel! specialty of
'rovence.
Brayaude, gigot
leg of lamb studded with garlic, cooked in white wine, and served with red
beans, braised cabbage, or chestnuts.
Brebis (fromage de)
sheep (sheep's-milk cheese).
Bretonne, ? la
in the style of %rittany! a dish served with white beans! or may refer to a
white wine sauce with carrots, leeks, and celery.
Brioche
buttery egg-enriched yeast bread.
Brocciu
soft, young, sheep's milk cheese from "orsica.
Broche, ? la
spit-roasted.
Brochet(on)
freshwater pike (small pike).
Brochette
cubes of meat or fish and vegetables on a skewer.
Brocoli
broccoli.
Brouet
old term for soup.
Brouill?(s)
scrambled, usually eggs.
Brouillade
a mi+ture of ingredients as in a stew or soup! also, scrambled eggs.
Brousse
a very fresh and unsalted (thus bland) sheep's- or goat's-milk cheese, not
unlike #talian ricotta! specialty of 4ice and /arseille.
Broutard
young goat.
Brugnon
nectarine.
Brunoise
tiny diced vegetables.
Buffet froid
variety of dishes served cold, sometimes from a buffet.
Buisson
)bush)! generally a dish including vegetables arranged like a bush!
classically a crayfish presentation.
Bulot
large sea snail or whelk, also called buccin.
Buron
traditional hut where cheese is made in the uvergne mountains.
?leri remoulade
popular first-course bistro dish of shredded celery root with tangy
mayonnaise.
?te de boeuf
beef blade or rib steak.
?!enole, ? la
"evennes style! garnished with chestnuts or mushrooms.
ab?cou(s)
small, round goat's-milk cheese from the southwest, sometimes made with
a mi+ of goat's and cow's milk.
acahou?te, cacahouette, cacachu?te
prepared peanut-roasted, dry roasted, or salted. raw peanut is arachide.
acao
cocoa! powdered cocoa.
aen, ? la mode de
in the style of "aen, a town in 4ormandy! a dish cooked in "alvados and
white wine andBor cider.
agouille
on the tlantic coast, name for small petit gris land snail, or escargot.
ajou
cashew nut.
alisson d'Aix
:elicate, diamond-shaped 'roven?al sweet prepared with almonds,
candied oranges, melon or abricots, egg white, sugar, and confiture of
oranges or apricots.
al!ados
a d?partement in 4ormandy known for the famed apple brandy.
amembert (de .ormandie)
village in 4ormandy that gives its name to a supple, fragrant cheese made
of cow's milk.
amomille
camomile, herb tea.
ancoillotte
spreadable cheese from the 8ura! usually blended with milk, spices, or
white wine when served.
aneton
young male duck.
annois, ? la
in the style of "annes.
anon
the marrow bone
antalon
smaller version of "antal.
antalou"
cantaloupe melon.
a"ilotade
basically any leftover meat or poultry cooked to tenderness in a well-
reduced sauce.
arbonnade
braised beef stew prepared with beer and onions! specialty of the 4orth!
also refers to a cut of beef.
ardamome
cardamon.
ardon
cardoon! large celery-like vegetable in the artichoke family, popular in
,yon, 'rovence, and the /editerranean area.
argolade
a copious mi+ed grill of snails, lamb, pork sausage, and sometimes blood
sausage, cooked over vine clippings! specialty of "atalan, an area of
southern ,anguedoc.
arotte
carrot.
arr? de "ort
rack (ribs) or loin of pork! also crown roast.
arte "romotionelle or conseill
a simple and ine+pensive fi+ed-price meal.
asse-cro?te
)break bread)! slang for snack.
asseron
cuttlefish.
assolette
usually a dish presented in a small casserole.
assonade
soft brown sugar! demerara sugar.
assoulet
popular southwestern casserole of white beans, including various
combinations of sausages, duck, pork, lamb, mutton, and goose.
a!aillon
a town in 'rovence, known for its small, flavorful orange-fleshed melons.
endre (sous la)
ash (cooked by being buried in embers)! some cheeses made in wine-
producing regions are aged in the ash of burned rootstocks.
erdon
%ubbly (p?tillant) wine (red or white?) from the %ugey.
erise noire
black cherry.
h?!re (fromage de)
goat (goat's-milk cheese).
ham"ignon
mushroom.
? la bague( parasol mushroom with a delicate flavor! also called
coulemelle, cocherelle, and grisotte.
de bois( wild mushroom, from the woods.
de Paris( most common cultivated mushroom.
sauvage( wild mushroom.
ham"!allon, c?telette d'agneau
traditional dish of lamb chops baked in alternating layers of potatoes and
onions! named for a village in northern %urgundy.
haource
soft and fruity cylindrical cow's-milk cheese, with a >D percent fat content!
takes its name from a village in "hampagne.
ha"on
capon, or castrated chicken.
ha"on de mer
/editerranean fish, in the rascasse or scorpion-fish family.
harbon de bois, au
charcoal-grilled.
harlotte
classic dessert in which a dish is lined with ladyfingers, filled with custard
or other filling, and served cold! in the hot version, the dish is lined with
crustless white bread saut?ed in butter, filled with fruit compote and
baked. lso a potato variety.
harolais
area of %urgundy! light colored cattle producing high-&uality beef! also,
firm white cylinder of cheese made with goat's or cow's milk, or a mi+ture
of the two.
haud-froid
)hot-cold)! cooked poultry dish served cold, usually covered with a cooked
sauce, then with aspic.
hausson
a filled pastry turnover, sweet or savory.
hicons du .ord
%elgian endive.
hicor?e (fris?e)
a bitter salad green (curly endive)! also chicory, a coffee substitute.
"hicor?e de %ru+elles
%elgian endive.
hiffonnade
shredded herbs and vegetables, usually green.
hi"iron (? l'encre)
southwestern name for small s&uid, or encornet (in its own ink).
hi"olata
small sausage.
hi"s, "ommes
potato chips.
hocolat
chocolate.
amer( bittersweet chocolate, with very little sugar.
au lait( milk chocolate.
chaud( hot chocolate.
mi-amer( bittersweet chocolate, with more sugar than chocolat
amer.
noir( used interchangeably with chocolat amer.
hoix, au
a choice! usually meaning one may choose from several offerings.
horizo
highly spiced Spanish sausage.
horon, sauce
b?arnaise sauce with tomatoes.
hou
cabbage.
hou de Bruxelles
brussels sprout.
hou de mer
sea kale.
hou de *ilan
Savoy cabbage.
hou fris
kale.
hou rouge
red cabbage.
hou !ert
curly green Savoy cabbage.
hou-fleur
cauliflower.
hou-na!et
rutabaga.
hou-ra!e
kohlrabi.
houcas
2ackdaw! .uropean blackbird, like a crow, but smaller.
houcroute (nou!elle)
sauerkraut (the season's first batch of sauerkraut, still crunchy and slightly
acidic)! also main dish of sauerkraut, various sausages, bacon, and pork,
served with potatoes! specialty of lsace and brasseries all over 3rance.
houx, "?te
cream pastry dough.
iboule
spring onion, or scallion.
iboulette
chives.
itron
lemon.
itron !ert
lime.
itron, orange, or "am"lemousse "ress?(e
lemon, orange, or grapefruit 2uice served with a carafe of tap water and
sugar! for sweetening to taste.
itronnelle
lemon grass, an oriental herb! also lemon balm (m?lisse).
itrouille
pumpkin, gourd. lso called courge, potiron, potimarron.
i!et de tri"es d'oies
a stew of goose innards, saut?ed in fat with onions, shallots, and garlic,
then cooked in wine vinegar and diluted with water, and thickened with
goose blood! from -ascony.
lafoutis
traditional custard tart, usually made with black cherries! specialty of the
southwest.
lout
studded with.
lo!isse
variety of very tiny clam, generally from the /editerranean.
ocherelle
parasol mushroom with a delicate flavor! also called champignon ? la
bague, coulemelle, and grisotte.
ochon (de lait)
pig (suckling).
ochonnaille(s)
pork product(s), usually an assortment of sausages andBor p?t?s served
as a first course.
oco blanc (rouge)
type of small white (red) shell bean, both fresh and dried, popular in
'rovence, where it is a traditional ingredient of the vegetable soupe au
pistou! also, coconut.
oco de Paim"ol
"ream-colored shell bean striated with purple, from %rittany, in season
from 8uly to 4ovember! the first bean in 3rance to receive 6".
ocotte
a high-sided cooking pot (casserole) with a lid! a small ramekin dish for
baking and serving eggs and other preparations.
oeur
heart.
oeur de filet
thickest (and best) part of beef filet, usually cut into chateaubriand steaks.
oeur de "almier
delicate shoots of the palm tree, generally served with a vinaigrette as an
hors d'oeuvre.
offre
)chest)! refers to the body of a lobster or other crustacean, or of a
butchered animal.
oiffe
traditional lacy hat! sausage patty wrapped in caul fat.
oing
&uince.
ol !ert
wild ()green-collared)) mallard duck.
ol?re, en
)anger)! method of presenting fish in which the tail is inserted in the
mouth, so it appears agitated.
olbert
method of preparing fish, coating with egg and bread crumbs and then
frying.
olin
hake, ocean fish related to cod! known as merluche in the 4orth,
merluchon in %rittany, bardot or merlan along the /editerranean.
olombe
dove.
olombo
mi+ture of spices, like a curry powder, used to season shellfish, meat or
poultry. ,ike curry, the mi+ may vary, but usually contains tumeric, rice
powder, coriander, pepper, cumin and fenugreek.
olza
rape, a plant of the mustard family, colorful yellow field crop grown
throughout 3rance, usually pressed into vegetable (rapeseed) oil.
ommander a!ant le re"as,
a selection of desserts that should be ordered when selecting first and
main courses, as they re&uire longer cooking.
om"let
filled up, with no more room for customers.
om"ote
stewed fresh or dried fruit.
om"otier
fruit bowl! also stewed ftuit.
om"ris
see Service (non) compris.
omt
large wheel of cheese of cooked and pressed cow's milk! the best is made
of raw milk and aged for si+ months, still made by independent
cheesemakers in the 8ura mountains.
oncass
coarsely chopped.
oncombre
cucumber.
onf?rence
a variety of pear.
onfiserie
candy, sweet, or confection! a candy shop.
onfit
a preserve, generally pieces of duck, goose, or pork cooked and
preserved in their own fat! also fruit or vegetables preserved in sugar!
alcohol, or vinegar.
onfiture
2am.
onfiture de !ieux gar?on
varied fresh fruits macerated in alcohol.
ongeler
to free$e.
ongre
conger eel! a large ocean fish resembling a freshwater eel (anguille
onseill
advised, recommended.
onsomm
clear soup.
onsommation(s)
)consumption)! drinks, meals, and snacks available in a cafe or bar.
ontre-filet
cut of sirloin taken above the loin on either side of the backbone, tied for
roasting or braising (can also be cut for grilling).
on!ersation
puff pastry tart with sugar gla$ing and an almond or cream filling.
o"eau(x)
shaving(s), such as from chocolate, cheese, or vegetables.
o' (au !in)
mature male chicken (stewed in wine sauce).
o' au !in jaune
chicken cooked in the sherry-like vin 2aune of the region, with cream,
butter! and tarragon, often garnished with morels! specialty of the 8ura.
o' de bruy?re
wood grouse.
o'ue
cockle, a tiny, mild-flavored, clam-like shellfish.
o'ue, ? la
served in a shell. See 6euf ? la co&ue.
o'uelet
young male chicken.
o'uillage(s)
shellfish.
o'uille
shell.
o'uille /aint-0ac'ues
sea scallop.
orail
coral-colored egg sac, found in scallops, spiny lobster, and crayfish.
orb
a /editerranean bluefish.
oriandre
coriander! either the fresh herb or dried seeds.
orne d'abondance
)horn of plenty)! dark brown wild mushroom, also called trompette de la
mort.
ornet
cornet-shaped! usually refers to foods rolled conically! also an ice cream
cone, and a conical pastry filled with cream.
ornichon
gherkin! tiny tart cucumber pickle.
otriade
a fish stew, usually including mackerel, whiting, conger eel, sorrel, butter,
potatoes, and vinegar! specialty of %rittany.
ou d'oie (de canard) farci
neck skin of goose (of duck), stuffed with meat and spices, much like
sausage.
oulant
refers to runny cheese.
oulemelle
parasol mushroom with a delicate flavor! also called champignon ? la
bague, cocherelle, and grisotte.
oulibiac
classic, elaborate, hot 7ussian p?t?, usually layers of salmon, rice, hard-
cooked eggs, mushrooms, and onions, wrapped in brioche.
oulis
pur?e of raw or cooked vegetables or fruit.
oulommiers
town in the #le-de-3rance that gives its name to a supple, fragrant disc of
cow's-milk cheese, slightly larger than "amembert.
ourge (muscade)
generic term for s&uash or gourd (bright orange pumpkin).
ourgette
$ucchini.
ouronne
)crown)! ring or circle, usually of bread.
ourt-bouillon
broth, or aromatic poaching li&uid.
ouscous
granules of semolina, or hard wheat flour! also refers to a hearty 4orth
frican dish that includes the steamed grain, broth, vegetables, meats, hot
sauce, and sometimes chickpeas and raisins.
outeau
ra$or clam.
ou!ert
a place setting, including dishes, silver, glassware, and linen.
ou!erture
bittersweet chocolate high in cocoa butter! used for making the shiniest
chocolates.
r?te (de co')
(cocks) comb.
ra'uelot
smoked herring.
resson(ade)
watercress (watercress sauce).
re!ette rose
small firm-fleshed shrimp that turns red when cooked! when large, called
bou&uet.
ro?te (en)
crust! (in) pastry.
ro?te de sel (en)
(in) a salt crust.
ro?tons
small cubes of toasted or fried bread.
ro'ue au sel, ? la
served raw, with a small bowl of coarse salt for seasoning! tiny purple
artichokes and cherry tomatoes are served this way.
ro'ue-madame
open-face sandwich of ham and cheese with an egg grilled on top.
ro'ue-monsieur
toasted ham and cheese sandwich.
ro'uembouche
chou+ pastry rounds filled with cream and coated with a sugar gla$e, often
served in a conical tower at special events.
ro'uette
ground meat, fish, fowl, or vegetables bound with eggs or sauce, shaped
into various forms, usually coated in bread crumbs, and deep fried.
rosne
small, unusual tuber! with a subtle artichoke-like flavor! known as a
"hinese or 8apanese artichoke.
rottin de ha!ignol
small flattened ball of goat's-milk cheese from the ,oire valley."roustade
usually small pastry-wrapped dish! also regional southwestern pastry filled
with prunes andBor apples.
uisse (de "oulet)
leg or thigh (chicken drumstick).
uissot, cuisseau
haunch of veal, venison, or wild boar.
ulotte
rump, usually of beef.
1?caf?in? or d?ca
decaffeinated coffee.
1?corti'u?(e)
shelled or peeled.
1?gustation
tasting or sampling.
1?soss
boned.
1ariole
truncated cone or oval-shaped baking mold.
1artois
puff pastry rectangles layered with an almond cream filling as a dessert, or
stuffed with meat or fish as an hors-d'oeuvre.
1emoiselle de canard
marinated raw duck tenderloin! also called mignon de canard.
1emoiselles de herbourg
small lobsters from the town of "herbourg in 4ormandy, cooked in a court-
bouillon and served in cooking 2uices. lso, restaurant name for %reton
lobsters weighing EDD to FDD grams (<D to <E ounces).
1ents-de-lion
dandelion salad green! also called pissenlit.
1ie""oise
:ieppe style! usually white wine, mussels, shrimp, mushrooms, and
cream.
1ijonnaise
:i2on style! usually with mustard.
1indon(neau)
turkey (young turkey).
1iot
pork sausage cooked in wine, often served with a potato gratin! specialty
of the Savoie.
1iscr?tion,
on menus usually refers to wine, which may be consumed--without limit--
at the customers discretion.
1odine
cold stuffed boned poultry.
1or
browned until golden.
1orade
generic name for group of ocean fish, the most pri$ed of which is daurade,
similar to porgy.
1os
back! also the meatiest portion of fish.
1oucette
see /?che.
1ouceur
sweet or dessert.
1ouillon, duillon
a whole pear wrapped and cooked in pastry! specialty of 4ormandy.
1oux, douce
sweet.
1oyenn? de omice
a variety of pear.
1ur (oeuf)
hard (hard-cooked egg).
+au de source
spring water.
+au du robinet
tap water.
+chalote (gris)
shallot (pri$ed purplish shallot) elongated.
+chalote banane
banana-shaped onion.
+clade de moules
mussels roasted beneath a fire of pine needles! specialty of the tlantic
coast.
+ffiloch
frayed, shredded.
+mbeurr? de chou
buttery cooked cabbage.
+mond
skinned by blanching, such as almonds, tomatoes.
+ncornet
small ille+ s&uid, also called calmar! in %as&ue region called chipiron.
+"oisses
village in %urgundy that gives its name to a buttery disc of cow's milk
cheese with a strong, smooth taste and rust-colored rind.
+"oisses blanc
fresh white .poisses cheese.
+scalo"e
thin slice of meat or fish.
+scargot
land snail.
+scargot de Bourgogne
land snail prepared with butter! garlic, and parsley.
+scargot "etit-gris
small land snail.
+scarole
bitter salad green of the chicory family with thick broad-lobed leaves,
found in both flat and round heads.
+s"adon
swordfish found in the gulf of -ascony, tlantic, and /editerranean.
+s"agnole, ? l
Spanish style! with tomatoes, peppers, onions, and garlic.
+stoficado
a pur?e-like blend of dried codfish, olive oil, tomatoes, sweet peppers,
black olives, potatoes, garlic, onions, and herbs! also called stockfish ni?
oise! specialty of 4ice.
+stofinado
a pur?e-like blend of dried codfish, potatoes, garlic, parsley, eggs, walnut
oil, and milk, served with triangles of toast! specialty of the uvergne.
+stouffade ? la "ro!en?ale
beef stew with onions, garlic, carrots, and orange $est.
+stragon
tarragon.
+toff
stuffed.
+toile
star! star-shaped.
+touff?$ ?tu!
literally )smothered)! method of cooking very slowly in a tightly covered
pan with almost no li&uid.
2a?on (? ma)
(my) way of preparing a dish.
2agot
)bundle)! meat shaped into a small ball.
2ait, "as tro"
refers to a cheese that has been aged for a shorter time and is blander!
also for a cheese that will ripen at home.
2arigoule(tte)
'roven?al name for wild thyme.
2a!orite d'artichaut
classic vegetable dish of artichoke stuffed with asparagus, covered with a
cheese sauce, and browned.
2a!ou(ille)
in 'rovence, tiny male (female) crab often used in soups.
2enouil
fennel.
2eu de bois, au
cooked over a wood fires.
2iadone
"orsican flan made from cheese and oranges.
2icelle (boeuf ? la)
)string)! (beef suspended on a string and poached in broth). lso, small
thin baguette. lso, a small bottle of wine, as in carafe of %eau2olais.
2lageolet
small white or pale green kidney-shaped dried bean.
2lagnarde, flaugnarde, flognarde
hot, fruit-filled batter cake made with eggs, flour, milk, and butter, and
sprinkled with sugar before serving! specialty of the southwest.
2lamiche (au *aroilles)
a vegetable tart with rich bread dough crust, commonly filled with leeks,
cream, and cheese! specialty of 'icardy, in the 4orth! (filled with cream,
egg, butter, and /aroilles cheese).
2leur de courgette
$ucchini blossom.
2leuron
puff pastry crescent.
2lorentine
with spinach. lso, a cookie of nougatine and candied fruit brushed with a
layer of chocolate.
2oie
liver.
2oie blond de !olaille
chicken liver! also sometimes a chicken-liver mousse.
2oie de !eau
calfs liver.
2oie gras d'oie (de canard)
liver of fattened goose (duck).
2oin (dan le)
(cooked in) hay.
2ond
cooking 2uices from meat, used to make sauces. lso, bottom.
2ond d'artichaut
heart and base of an artichoke.
2ondant
)melting)! refers to cooked, worked sugar that is flavored, then used for
icing cakes. lso, the bittersweet chocolate high in cocoa butter used for
making the shiniest chocolates. lso, pur?ed meat, fish, or vegetables
shaped in cro&uettes.
2ondu(e)
melted.
2ontainebleau
creamy white fresh dessert cheese from the #le-de-3rance.
2oresti?re
garnish of wild mushrooms, bacon, and potatoes.
2ouace
a kind of brioche! specialty of the uvergne.
2ouchtrou
"ow's milk cheese from the uvergne, made when there is not enough
milk to make an entire wheel of "antal.
2oudjou
a pungent goat-cheese spread, a blend of fresh and aged grated cheese
mi+ed with salt, pepper, brandy, and garlic and cured in a crock! specialty
of northern 'rovence.
2ougasse
a crusty lattice-like bread made of baguette dough or puff pastry often
flavored with anchovies, black olives, herbs, spices, or onions! specialty of
'rovence and the /editerranean. lso, a sweet bread of 'rovence
flavored with orange-flower water, oil, and sometimes almonds.
2our (au)
(baked in an) oven.
2ourme d'Ambert
cylindrical blue-veined cow's-milk cheese, made in dairies around the town
of mbert in the uvergne.
2ourr
stuffed or filled.
2oyot
classic sauce made of b?arnaise with meat gla$e.
2rais, bien ?gout
well-drained freshcheese. maigre
low-fat cheese.
2raise des bois
wild strawberry.
2ramboise
raspberry.
2ricot (de !eau)
veal shoulder simmered in white wine with vegetables.
2ritons
coarse pork rillettes or a minced spread which includes organ meats.
2ritot
small organ meat fritter, where meat is partially cooked, then marinated in
oil, lemon 2uice, and herbs, dipped in batter and fried 2ust before serving!
also can refer to any small fried piece of meat or fish.
2roid(e)
cold.
2romage
cheese. blanc
a smooth low-fat cheese similar to cottage cheese. d'alpage
cheese made in mountain pastures during the prime summer milking
period. .chourgnac
delicately flavored, ochre-skinned cheese made of cow's milk by the
monks at the .chourgnac monasteryin the :ordogne. fort
pungent cheese. frais
smooth, runny fresh cheese, like cottage cheese.
2romage de t?te
headcheese, usually pork.
2ruit confit
whole fruit preserved in sugar.
-?noise
sponge cake.
-alette bressane, galette de P?rouges
cream and sugar tart from the %resse area of the 7h?ne-lpes.
-alette des rois
puff pastry filled with almond pastry cream, traditional 0welfth 4ight
celebration cake.
-argouillau
pear cake or tart! specialty of northern uvergne.
-asconnade
roast leg of lamb with garlic and anchovies! specialty of the southwest.
-as"acho
a cold soup, usually containing tomatoes, cucumber, onions, and sweet
peppers! originally of Spanish origin.
-ermon
albacore or long-fin tuna.
-ibelotte
fricassee of rabbit in red or white wine.
-igot (de "r? sal
usually a leg of lamb (lamb gra$ed on the salt meadows along the tlantic
and 4ormandy coasts).
-igot de mer
a preparation, usually of large pieces of monkfish (lotte) oven-roasted like
a leg of lamb.
-irofle
clove.
-irolle
pri$ed pale orange wild mushroom! also called chanterelle.
-i!r?$ orange gi!r
frosted! orange sherbet served in its skin.
-nocchi
dumplings made of chou+ paste, potatoes, or semolina.
-o?t
taste.
-o?ter (le)
to taste, to try! (childrens afternoon snack).
-oret
young pig.
-oug?re
cheese-flavored chou+ pastry.
-oujon
small catfish! generic name for a number of small fish. lso, preparation in
which the central part of larger fish is coated with bread crumbs, then
deep fried.
-oujonnette
generally used to describe a small piece of fish, such as sole, usually
fried.
-ourmandise(s)
weakness for sweet things! (sweetmeats or candies).
-ousse d'ail
clove of garlic.
-ousse de !anille
vanilla bean.
-raine de moutarde
mustard seed.
-raisserons
crisply fried pieces of duck or goose skin! cracklings.
-ras-double
tripe baked with onions and white wine.
-ratin dau"hinoise
baked casserole of sliced potatoes, usually with cream, milk, and
sometimes cheese andBor eggs.
-ratin sa!oyarde
baked casserole of sliced potatoes, usually with bouillon, cheese, and
butter.
-ratin?e lyonnaise
bouillon flavored with port, garnished with beaten egg, topped with
cheese, and browned under a broiler.
-rattons, grattelons
crisply fried pieces of pork, goose, or duck skin! cracklings.
-relot
small white bulb onion.
-renouille (cuisse de)
frog (leg).
-riotte
shiny slightly acidic, reddish black cherry.
-risotte
parasol mushroom with a delicate flavor! also called champignon ? la
bague. cocherelle. and coulemelle.
-roin d'ane
)donkeys snout)! ,yonnais name for a bitter winter salad green similar to
dandelion greens.
-rondin
red gurnard, a bony ocean fish, a member of the mullet family, used in fish
stews such as bouillabaisse.
-ros sel
coarse salt.
-roseille
red currant.
-yromite
group of wild mushrooms, or gyromitra, known as false morels.
(addoc&
small fresh cod that have been salted and smoked.
(addoc&
small fresh cod that have been salted and smoked.
(areng bouffi
herring that is salted, then smoked.
(areng bouffi
herring that is salted, then smoked.
(areng roll-mo"
marinated herring rolled around a small pickle.
(areng roll-mo"
marinated herring rolled around a small pickle.
(aricot
bean.
beurre yellow bean
blancs (? la Bretonne white beans, usually dried! (white beans in
a sauce of onions, tomatoes, garlic, and herbs)
de mouton stew of mutton and white beans (also called Calicots)
gris green string bean mottled with purplish black! also called p?
landron a specialty of the "?te-d'$ur.
rouge red kidney bean! also, preparation of red beans in red wine
sec dried bean
vert green bean, usually fresh
(aricot
bean.
beurre yellow bean
blancs (? la Bretonne white beans, usually dried! (white beans in
a sauce of onions, tomatoes, garlic, and herbs)
de mouton stew of mutton and white beans (also called Calicots)
gris green string bean mottled with purplish black! also called p?
landron a specialty of the "?te-d'$ur.
rouge red kidney bean! also, preparation of red beans in red wine
sec dried bean
vert green bean, usually fresh
(erbes de Pro!ence
mi+ture of thyme, rosemary, summer savory, and bay leaf, often dried and
blended.
(erbes de Pro!ence
mi+ture of thyme, rosemary, summer savory, and bay leaf, often dried and
blended.
(irondelle
swallow.
(irondelle
swallow.
(oche"ot
a thick stew, usually of o+tail! specialty of 3landers, in the north.
(oche"ot
a thick stew, usually of o+tail! specialty of 3landers, in the north.
(ollandaise
sauce of butter, egg yolks, and lemon 2uice.
(ollandaise
sauce of butter, egg yolks, and lemon 2uice.
(omard (? lAmoricaine, ? lAm?ricaine)
lobster! (a classic dish of many variations, in which lobster is cut into
sections and browned, then simmered with shallots, minced onions,
tomatoes, "ognac, and white wine! served with a sauce of the reduced
cooking li&uid, enriched with butter).
(omard (? lAmoricaine, ? lAm?ricaine)
lobster! (a classic dish of many variations, in which lobster is cut into
sections and browned, then simmered with shallots, minced onions,
tomatoes, "ognac, and white wine! served with a sauce of the reduced
cooking li&uid, enriched with butter).
(ongroise, ? la
Cungarian style! usually with paprika and cream.
(ongroise, ? la
Cungarian style! usually with paprika and cream.
(ors-d'oeu!re
appeti$er! can also refer to a first course.
(ors-d'oeu!re
appeti$er! can also refer to a first course.
(ortillon
pictures&ue market garden plot built between crisscrossed canals on the
outskirts of miens, a city in the north.
(ortillon
pictures&ue market garden plot built between crisscrossed canals on the
outskirts of miens, a city in the north.
(ure de "orc or de marcassin
head of pig or boar - usually refers to headcheese preparation.
(ure de "orc or de marcassin
head of pig or boar - usually refers to headcheese preparation.
(ure de saumon
a salmon )headcheese,) or p?t?, prepared with salmon meat, not actually
the head.
(ure de saumon
a salmon )headcheese,) or p?t?, prepared with salmon meat, not actually
the head.
(yso"e
hyssop! fragrant, mint-like thistle found in 'rovence, used in salads and in
cooking.
(yso"e
hyssop! fragrant, mint-like thistle found in 'rovence, used in salads and in
cooking.
3le flottante
)floating island)! most commonly used interchangeably with oeufs ? la
neige, poached meringue floating in cr?me anglaise! classically, a layered
cake covered with whipped cream and served with custard sauce.
3nfusion
herb tea.
0?sus de *orteau
plump smoked pork sausage that takes its name from the town of /orteau
in the 8ura! distinctive because a wooden peg is tied in the sausage
casing on one end! traditionally, the sausage eaten at "hristmas, hence its
name! also called saucisson de /orteau.
0alousie
)venetian blind)! classic small, latticed, flaky pastry filled with almond
paste and spread with 2am.
0ambon
ham! also refers to the leg, usually of pork, but also of poultry.
? los ham with the bone in
blanc lightly salted, un-smoked or very lightly smoked ham, served
cooked! sold, cold, in charcuteries as 2ambon de 'aris, glac?, or
demi-sel
cru salted or smoked ham that has been cured but not cooked
cuit cooked ham
d!"uvergne raw, dry, salt-cured smoked ham
de Bayonne raw, dry salt-cured ham, very pale in color
de Bourgogne See 2ambon persill?
de montagne any mountain ham, cured according to local custom
de Paris pale, lightly salted, cooked ham
de Parme #talian prosciutto from 'arma, air-dried and salt-cured
ham, sliced thin and served raw
de pays any country ham, cured according to local custom
de poulet boned stuffed chicken leg.
de #estphalie -erman 9estphalian ham, raw, cured, and
smoked.
de $or% smoked .nglish-style ham, usually poached
d!oie (or de canard breast of fattened goose (or duck), smoked,
salted, or sugar cured, somewhat resembling ham in flavor.
fum? smoked ham.
persill? cold cooked ham, cubed and preserved in parsleyed
gelatin, usually sliced from a terrine! a specialty of %urgundy.
sal? salt-cured ham.
sec dried ham.
0ambonneau
cured ham shank or pork knuckle.
0ambonnette
boned and stuffed knuckle of ham or poultry.
0arret (de !eau, de "orc, de boeuf)
knuckle (of veal or pork), shin (of beef).
0onch
rush basket in which certain fresh sheep's - or goat's-milk cheeses of
'oitou (along the tlantic coast) are contained! thus, by e+tension, the
cheese itself.
0oue
cheek.
0uran?on
district in the %?arn, the area around 'au in southwestern 3rance, known
for its sweet and spicy white wine.
4ataifi (also &ataif)
thin strands of vermicelli-like dough, used in -reen and /iddle .astern
pastries and in some modern 3rench preparations
4ir royal
a 5ir made with "hampagne.
4ougelho"h, hougelhof, &ouglof, &ugelho"
sweet crown-shaped yeast cake, with almonds and raisins! specialty of
lsace.
4ouigh-amann
sweet, buttery pastry from %rittany.
5aguiole
"antal cheese from the area around the village of ,aguiole, in southern
uvergne, still made in rustic huts.
5am"roie (? la bordelaise)
lamprey eel, ocean fish that swim into rivers along the tlantic in
springtime (hearty stew of lamprey eel and leeks in red wine).
5an?on
tiny fish, served fried.
5angouste
clawless spiny lobster or rock lobster! sometimes called crawfish, and
mistakenly crayfish.
5angoustine
clawed crustacean, smaller than either homard or langouste, with very
delicate meat. 5nown in %ritish waters as :ublin %ay prawn.
5anguedocienne
garnish, usually of tomatoes, eggplant, and wild c?pe mushrooms.
5ardon
cube of bacon.
5i?!re (? la royale)
hare (cooked with red wine, shallots, onions, and cinnamon, then rolled
and stuffed with foie gras and truffles).
5ieu noir
pollack, also called black cod! in the cod family a pleasant, ine+pensive
fish found in the .nglish "hannel and the tlantic.
5ima?on
land snail.
5ingot
type of kidney-shaped dry white bean.
5i!arot
village in 4ormandy that gives its name to an elastic and pungent thick
disc of cow's-milk cheese with reddish golden stripes around the edge.
5otte
monkfish or angler fish, a large firm-fleshed ocean fish.
5otte de ri!i?re (or de lac)
fine-fleshed river (or lake) fish, pri$ed for its large and flavorful liver. 4ot
related to the ocean fish lotte, or monkfish.
5ou magret
breast of fattened duck.
5ou" de mer
wolf fish or ocean catfish! name for sea bass in the /editerranean.
5ou!ine
%as&ue name for striped bass, fished in the %ay of -ascony.
5yonnaise, ? la
in the style of ,yon! often garnished with onions.
*?chon
early morning snack of sausage, wine, cheese, and bread! also, the caf?
that offers the snack! particular to ,yon.
*?daillon
round piece or slice, usually of fish or meat.
*?li-m?lo
an assortment of fish andBor seafood.
*?re (de ronces)
blackberry (bush).
*?rou
a large grouper, an e+cellent tropical or near-tropical fish, generally
imported from 4orth frica but sometimes found in the tlantic and
/editerranean.
*ac?doine
diced mi+ed fruit or vegetables.
*acaron
macaroon, small cookie of almonds, egg whites, and sugar.
*acaronade
a rich blend of wild and domestic mushrooms and chunks of foie gras,
smothered in fresh pasta! specialty of the southwest. lso, macaroni with
mushrooms, bacon, white wine, and 'armesan cheese! an
accompaniment to a beef stew, or daube! specialty of 'rovence.
*adeleine (de ommercy)
small scalloped-shaped tea cake made famous by /arcel 'roust! (the
town in the ,orraine where the tea cakes are commerciali$ed).
*agret de canard (or d'oie)
breast of fattened duck (or goose).
*aison, de la
of the house, or restaurant.
*al!oisie, !inaigre de
vinegar made from the malvasia grape, used for the sweet, heavy
/almsey wine.
*ange-tout
)eat it all)! a podless green runner bean! a sweet pea! a snow pea. lso, a
variety of apple.
*ara de Bois
small fragrant strawberry, like a cross between a domestic and wild
strawberry.
*arion (glac
large (candied) chestnut.
*arjolaine
mar2oram. lso, multilayered chocolate and nut cake.
*aroilles
village in the north that gives its name to a strong-tasting, thick, s&uare
cow's-milk cheese with a pale brick-red rind.
*ar'uise (au chocolat)
mousse-like (chocolate) cake.
*atelote (d'anguilles)
freshwater fish (or eel) stew.
*atignon
a garnish of mi+ed stewed vegetables.
*elon de a!aillon
small canteloupe-like melon from "availlon, a town in 'rovence known for
its wholesale produce market.
*ets selon la saison
seasonal preparation! according to the season.
*ignon de canard
see :cmsiselle de canard.
*ignonette
small cubes, usually of beef. lso refers to coarsely ground black ot white
pepper.
*ijot?(e) ("lat)
simmered (dish or preparation).
*imosa
garnish of chopped hard-cooked egg yolks.
*ire"oix
cubes of carrots and onions or mi+ed vegetables, usually used in braising
to boost the flavor of a meat dish.
*iroir
)mirror)! a dish that has a smooth gla$e! currently a fruit mousse cake with
a layer of fruit gla$e on top.
*iroton (de)
slice (of). lso, stew of meats flavored with onions.
*itonn
a simmered, soup-like dish.
*o?lle
beef bone marrow.
*ode de, ? la
in the style of.
*ogette, mojette mougette
a kind of dried white bean from the tlantic coast.
*o&a
refers to "offee! coffee-flavored dish.
*ollus'ue
mollusk.
*ont blanc
rich classic pastry of baked meringue, chestnut pur?e, and whipped
cream.
*ontagne, de la
from the mountains.
*ontmorency
garnished with cherries! historically a village known for its cherries, now a
suburb of 'aris.
*orbier
supple cow's-milk cheese from the 8ura! a thin sprinkling of ashes in the
center gives it its distinctive black stripe and light smoky flavor.
*orceau
piece or small portion.
*orille
wild morel mushroom, dark brown and conical.
*ornay
classic cream sauce enriched with egg yolks and cheese.
*orue
salt cod! also currently used to mean fresh cod, which is cabillaud.
*or!andelle, jambon ? la
in the style of the /orvan (ham in a pi&uant creamy sauce made with
white wine, vinegar, 2uniper berries, shallots, and cream).
*or!andelle, r?"
grated potato mi+ed with eggs, cream, and cheese, baked until golden.
*osa?'ue
)mosaic!) a presentation of /i+ed ingredients.
*ost?le
forkbeard mostelle! small /editerranean fish of the cod family.
*ouclade
creamy mussel stew from the 'oitou-"harentes on the tlantic "oast,
generally flavored with curry or saffron.
*oufflon
wild sheep.
*oule
mussel. lso a mold.
*oule d'+s"agne
large, sharp-shelled mussel, often served raw as part of a seafood platter.
*oule de bouchot
small, highly pri$ed cultivated mussel, raised on stakes driven into the
sediment of shallow coastal beds.
*oule de Bouzigues
iodine-strong mussel from the village of %ou$igues, on the /editerranean
coast.
*oule de "ar'ues
:utch cultivated mussel, usually raised in fattening beds or diverted
ponds.
*oules marini?re
mussels cooked in white wine with onions, shallots, butter, and herbs.
*oulin (? "oi!re)
mill (peppermill)! also used for oil and flour mills.
*ourone
%as&ue name for red bell pepper.
*ourtayrol, mourta?rol
a pot-au-feu of boiled beef, chicken, ham, and vegetables, flavored with
saffron and served over slices of bread! specialty of the uvergne.
*ousse
light, airy mi+ture usually containing eggs and cream, either sweet or
savory.
*ousseline
refers to ingredients that are usually lightened with whipped cream or egg
whites, as in sauces, or with butter, as in brioche mousseline.
*ousseron
tiny, delicate, wild mushroom.
*outarde (? lancienne, en graines)
mustard (old-style, coarse-grained).
*outon
mutton.
*uscat de (ambourg
variety of popular purple table grape, grown in 'rovence.
*useau de "orc (or de boeuf)
vinegared pork (or beef).
.oilly
a vermouth-based sauce.
.oisette
ha$elnut! also refers to small round piece (such as from a potato),
generally the si$e of a ha$elnut, lightly browned in butter. lso, center cut
of lamb chop. lso, dessert flavored with ha$elnuts.
.oix
general term for nut! also, walnut. lso, nut-si$e, typically une noi+ de
beurre, or lump of butter.
.on com"ris
see Service (non) compris.
.onat
small river fish in 'rovence, usually fried. lso known as poutine.
.ormande
in the style of 4ormandy! sauce of seafood, cream, and mushrooms. lso
refers to fish or meat cooked with apple cider or "alvados! or dessert with
apples, usually served with cream.
.ote
another word for addition, bill or tab.
.ougat
candy of roasted almonds, egg whites, and honey! specialty of /ont?
limar.
.ougat glac
fro$en dessert of whipped cream and candied fruit.
.ouilles
noodles.
.ou!eau, nou!elle
new or young.
.ou!eaut
a new offering.
#euf
egg.
? la coque soft-cooked egg.
brouill? scrambled egg.
dur hard-cooked egg.
en meurette poached egg in red wine sauce.
mollet egg simmered in water for A minutes.
poch? poached egg.
saut? ? la po?le or oeuf sur le plat fried egg.
#eufs ? la neige
)eggs in the snow)! sweetened whipped egg whites poached in milk and
served with vanilla custard sauce.
#ffert
offered! free or given.
#ie
goose.
#ignon
onion.
#iselle
sorrel.
#li!e de .yons
wrinkled black olive, first olive in 3rance to receive 6". lso used for oil.
#li!e noire (!erte)
black olive (green olive).
#li!es cass?es
fresh green olives cured in a rich fennel-infused brine! specialty of
'rovence.
#mble (ombre) che!alier
lake fish, similar to salmon trout, with firm, flaky flesh varying from white to
deep red. 3ound in lakes in the Savoie.
#melette nor!egienne
3rench version of %aked laska! a concoction of sponge cake covered
with ice cream and a layer of sweetened, stiffly beaten egg whites, then
browned &uickly in the oven.
#nglet
cut similar to beef flank steak! also cut of beef sold as biftek and entrec?
te, usually a tough cut, but better than flank steak.
#reille de "orc
cooked pigs ear! served grilled, with a coating of egg and bread crumb.
#reillette
thin, crisp rectangular dessert fritters, flavored with orange-flower water!
specialty of 'rovence.
#rge ("erl
barley (pearl barley).
#rientale, ? l
general name for vaguely .astern dishes cooked with saffron, tomatoes,
and sweet red peppers.
#rigan
oregano.
#rtie
4ettle.
#seille
sorrel.
#sso bucco ? la ni?oise
saut?ed veal braised with tomatoes, garlic, onions, and orange $est!
specialty of the /editerranean.
#str?iculteur
6yster grower.
#ursin
sea urchin.
#ursinade
creamy sea urchin soup.
#u!ert
open.
P?landron
see haricot gris.
P?lardon
small flat, dried, pungent disc of goat's milk cheese! specialty of the
,anguedoc.
P?"tie (au chocolat)
nugget! (chocolate chip).
P?rigourdine, ? la, or P?rigueux
sauce, usually with truffles and foie gras, named for the '?rigord in
southwestern 3rance.
P?toncle
tiny scallop, similar to merican bay scallop.
Pageot
a type of sea bream or porgy. 0he finest is pageot rouge, wonderful grilled.
'ageot blanc is drier and needs to be marinated in oil before cooking.
Pailles ("ommes)
fried potato sticks.
Paleron
shoulder of beef.
Palmier, coeur de
heart of palm.
Palombe
wood or wild pigeon, or dove.
Palourde
pri$ed medium-si$e clam.
Pam"lemousse
grapefruit.
Panoufle
-enerally discarded belly flap from saddle of lamb, veal, and beef!
sometimes grilled.
Pa"eton
eggplant, fried, pur?ed, and cooked in a ring mold! specialty of 'rovence.
Pa"illon
)butterfly)! small crinkle-shelled creuse oyster from the tlantic coast.
Pa"illote, en
cooked in parchment paper or foil wrapping.
Pata .?gra (jambon)
'ri$ed ham from Spain, literally )black feet.)
Patagos
clam.
Patte rouge
large crayfish.
Pauchouse, "ochouse
stew of river fish that generally includes tanche (tench), perche (perch),
brochet (pike), and anguille (eel)! specialty of %urgundy.
Pa!ot (graine de)
poppy (seed).
Pe'uillo
small red Spanish pepper, usually stuffed with salt cod pur?e.
Pet de nonne
)nuns fart)! small, dainty beignets, or fried pastry.
Petit-four (sucr? or sal?e)
tiny cake or pastry (sweet or savory)! in elegant restaurants, served with
cocktails before dinner or with coffee afterward! also called mignardise.
Petit-"ois
small green pea.
Picholine, "itchouline
a variety of green olive, generally used to prepare olives casse?s!
specialty of 'rovence.
Picodon (m?thode 1ieulefit)
small disc of goat's-milk cheese, the best of which (&ualified as m?thode
:ieulefit) is hard, pi&uant, and pungent from having soaked in brandy and
aged a month in earthenware 2ars! specialty of northern 'rovence.
Pied de mouton
meaty cream-colored wild mushroom. lso, sheep's foot.
Pigeon (neau)
pigeon or s&uab (young pigeon or s&uab).
Pignons
pine nuts, found in the cones of pine trees growing in 'rovence and along
the southwestern tlantic coast.
Piment (or "oi!re) de 0ama?'ue
allspice.
Piment doux
sweet pepper.
Pistou
sauce of basil, garlic, and olive oil! specialty of 'rovence. lso a rich
vegetable, bean, and pasta soup flavored with pistou sauce.
Plat du jour
todays special.
Pleurote
very soft-fleshed, feather-edged wild mushrooms! also now being
cultivated commercially in several regions of 3rance.
Plombi?re
classic dessert of vanilla ice cream, candied fruit, kirsch, and apricot 2am.
Po?l
pan-fried.
Poch
poached.
Pochouse
see 'auchouse.
Pogne
brioche flavored with orange-flower water and filled with fruits! specialty of
7omans-sur-#s?re, in the 7h?ne-lpes.
Point (
ripe or ready to eat, the perfect moment for eating a cheese or fruit. lso,
cooked medium rare.
Point(e) (d'as"erge)
tip (of asparagus).
Poire
pear.
Poire 6illiams
variety of pear! colorless fruit brandy, or eau-de-vie, often made from this
variety of pear.
Poireau
leek.
Pois (chiche)
pea (chickpea).
Poisson
fish.
d!eau douce freshwater fish.
de lac lake fish.
de mer ocean fish.
de rivi?re river fish.
de roche rock fish.
fum? smoked fish.
noble refers to pri$ed, thus e+pensive, variety of fish.
Poitrine
breast (of meat or poultry).
Poitrine demi-sel
unsmoked slab bacon.
Poitrine fum
smoked slab bacon.
Poi!rade
a peppery brown sauce made with wine, vinegar, and cooked vegetables
and strained before serving.
Poi!re
pepper.
d!ain 'roven?al name for wild savory. lso, small goat cheese
covered with sprigs of savory. lso known as p?bre d'ail and p?bre
d'ase.
en grain peppercorn.
frais de +adagascar green peppercorn.
gris black peppercorn.
moulu ground pepper.
noir black peppercorn.
rose pink peppercorn.
vert green peppercorn.
Poi!ron (doux)
(sweet bell) pepper.
Pojars&i
finely chopped meat or fish shaped like a cutlet and fried.
Polenta
cooked dish of cornmeal and water, usually with added butter and cheese!
also, cornmeal.
Pommade (beurre en)
usually refers to a thick, smooth paste! (creamed butter).
Pomme
apple.
Pommes de terre
potatoes.
? langlaise boiled.
allumettes )match-sticks)! fries cut into very thin 2ulienne.
boulang?re potatoes cooked with the meat they accompany. lso,
a gratin of sliced potatoes, baked with milk or stock and sometimes
flavored with onions, bacon, and tomatoes.
darphin grated potatoes shaped into a cake.
dauphine mashed potatoes mi+ed with cbou+ pastry, shaped into
small balls and fried.
dauphinoise a gratin of sliced potatoes, baked with milk andBor
cream, garlic, cheese, and eggs.
duchesse mashed potatoes with butter, egg yolks, and nutmeg,
used for garnish.
en robe des champs( en robe de chambre potatoes boiled or
baked in their skin! potatoes in their 2ackets.
frites 3rench fries.
gratin?es browned potatoes, often with cheese.
lyonnaise potatoes saut?ed with onions.
macaire classic side dish of pur?ed potatoes shaped into small
balls and fried or baked in a flat cake.
mousseline potato pur?e enriched with butter, egg yolks, and
whipped cream.
paillasson fried pancake of grated potatoes.
pailles potatoes cut into 2ulienne strips, then fried.
Pont-)euf classic fries.
sarladaise sliced potatoes cooked with goose fat and (optionally)
truffles.
souffl?es small, thin slices of potatoes fried twice, causing them to
inflate so they resemble little pillows.
sous la c?ndre baked under cinders in a fireplace.
vapeur steamed or boiled potatoes.
Pommes en lair
carameli$ed apple slices, usually served with boudin noir (blood sausage).
Pom"e ? lhuile, "om"e de .o
see -ibassier.
Pom"e aux grattons
bread containing cracklings.
Pont l+!?'ue
village in 4ormandy that gives its name to a very tender, fragrant s&uare
of cow's milk cheese.
Porc (c?te de)
pork (chop).
Porc (carr? de)
pork (loin).
Porcelet
young suckling pig.
Porchetta
young pig stuffed with offal, herbs, and garlic, and toasted! seen in
charcuteries in 4ice.
Porto (au)
(with) port.
Portugaise
elongated, crinkle-shell oyster.
Pot
traditional hearty meat soup, usually containing pork, cabbage, and
potatoes.
Pot bouilli
another name for pot-au-feu.
Pot-au-feu
traditional dish of beef simmered with vegetables, often served in two or
mote courses! today chefs often use it to mean fish poached in fish stock
with vegetables.
Pot-de-cr?me
individual classic custard dessert, often chocolate.
Potage
soup.
Potimarron
see "itrouille.
Potiron
see "itrouille.
Potje!leisch
a mi+ed meat terrine, usually of veal, pork, and rabbit! specialty of the
4orth.
Poularde
fatted hen.
Poule au "ot
boiled stuffed chicken with vegetables! specialty of the city of %?arn in the
southwest.
Poule d'3nde
turkey hen.
Poule faisane
female pheasant.
Poulet (r?ti)
chicken (roast).
Poulet bas'uaise
%as&ue-style chicken, with tomatoes and sweet peppers.
Poulet de Bresse
high-&uality chicken raised on farms to e+acting specifications, from the
7h?ne-lpes.
Poulet de grain
corn-fed chicken.
Poulet fermier
free-range chicken.
Poulette
tiny chicken.s
Pouligny-/aint-Pierre
village in the ,oire valley that gives its name to a goat's-milk cheese
shaped like a truncated pyramid with a mottled, grayish rind and a
smooth-grained, ivory-white interior.
Poul"e
octopus.
Pounti
(also spelled pounty) a pork meat loaf that generally includes Swiss chard
or spinach, eggs, milk, herbs, onions, and prunes! specialty of the
uvergne.
Pousse-en-claire
6ysters that have been aged and fattened in claire, or oyster beds, for
four to eight months.
Pousse-"ierre
edible seaweed! also called sea beans.
Poussin
baby chicken.
Poutargue, boutargue
salted, pressed, and flattened mullet roe, generally spread on toast as an
appeti$er! specialty of 'rovence and the /editerranean.
Poutine
see 4onat.
Press&o"h
pork headcheese, often served with vinaigrette! specialty of lsace.
Profiterole(s)
classic chou pastry dessert, usually puffs of pastry filled with vanilla ice
cream and topped with hot chocolate sauce.
Pro!en?ale
in the style of 'rovence! usually includes garlic, tomatoes, andBor olive oil.
Puits d'amour
)wells of love)! classic small pastry crowns filled with pastry cream.
7ueue (de boeuf)
tail (of beef!o+tail).
7uiche lorraine
savory custard tart made with bacon, eggs, and cream.
8?moulade (c?leri)
sauce of mayonnaise, capers, mustard, herbs, anchovies, and gherkins!
(dish of shredded celery root with mayonnaise).
8a?to
red wine sauce that generally includes onions, tomatoes, garlic, herbs,
olives, and capers, usually served warm over grilled fish! specialty of
'rovence.
8adis noir
large black radish, often served with cream, as a salad.
8ago?t
stew! usually of meat.
8aie (boucl?e)
skate or ray, found in the .nglish "hannel, tlantic, and /editerranean.
8aifort
horseradish.
8atatouille
a cooked dish of eggplant, $ucchini, onions, tomatoes, peppers, garlic,
and olive oil, served hot or cold! specialty of 'rovence.
8a!igote
classic thick vinaigrette sauce with vinegar, white wine, shallots, and
herbs. lso, cold mayonnaise with capers, onions, and herbs.
8a!iole de 8oyans
tiny ravioli pasta filled with goat cheese, from the 7h?ne-lpes.
8a!ioli ? la ni?oise
s&uare or round pasta filled with meat andBor swiss chard and baked with
grated cheese.
8eblochon
smooth, supple, creamy cow's-milk cheese from the Savoie in the lps.
8igotte
small cow's-milk cheese from the ,yon region.
8illettes (d'oie)
minced spread of pork (goose)! can also be made with duck, fish, or
rabbit.
8illons
usually pork belly, cut up and cooked until crisp, then drained of fat! also
made of duck, goose, or rabbit.
8issol
browned by frying, usually potatoes.
8izotto, risotto
creamy rice made by stirring rice constantly in stock as it cooks, then
mi+ing in other ingredients such as cheese or mushrooms.
8obe des cham"s, robe de chambre ("ommes
potatoes boiled or baked in their skin! potatoes in their 2ackets.
8ocamadour
village in southwestern 3rance which gives its name to a tiny disc of
cheese, once made of pure goat's or sheep's milk, now generally either
goat
8ognonnade
veal loin with kidneys attached.
8ognons
kidneys.
8ollot
spicy cow's-milk cheese with a washed ochre-colored rind, in small
cylinder or heart shape! from the 4orth.
8omanoff
fruit, often strawberries, macerated in li&ueur and topped with whipped
cream.
8omarin
rosemary.
8ondelle
round slice--of lemon, for e+ample.
8o'uefort
disc of blue veined cheese of raw sheep's milk from southwestern 3rance,
aged in village of 7o&uefort-sur-Soul$on.
8o'uette
rocket or arugula, a spicy salad green.
8os
rare! used for veal, duck, or liver. lso, rose-colored wine.
8osette (de boeuf)
large dried pork (beef) sausage, from area around ,yon.
8ouelle
slice of meat or vegetable cut at an angle.
8ouennaise (canard ? la)
in the style of 7ouen! (classic dish of duck stuffed with its liver in a blood-
thickened sauce).
8ouget barbet, rouget de roche
red mullet, a pri$ed, e+pensive rock-fish, with sweet flesh and red skin! its
flavorful liver is reserved for sauces.
8ouget grondin
red gurnard, a large, common rockfish, less pri$ed than rouget barbet.
variety of galinette. n ingredient in bouillabaisse.
8ougette
a small red-leafed butterhead lettuce, specialty of 'rovence.
8ouille
mayonnaise of olive oil, garlic, chile peppers, bread, and fish broth! usually
served with fish soups, such as bouillabaisse.
8oul?(e)
rolled.
8oulade
meat or fish roll, or rolled-up vegetahle souffl?! larger than a paupiette,
and often stuffed.
8oussette
dogfish, also called salmonette because of its pinkish skin, found on the
tlantic coast. -ood when very fresh.
8oux
sauce base or thickening of flour and butter.
8o!e
breed of goat! also small round of 'rovencal soft goat's cheese, fragrant
with wild herbs.
8oyale, ? la
)royal-style)! rich classic preparation, usually with truffles and a cream
sauce.
/abayon, zabaglione
frothy sweet sauce of egg yolks, sugar, wine, and flavoring that is whipped
while being cooked in a water bath.
/abodet
strong, earthy pork sausage of pigs head and skin, served hot! specialty of
,yon.
/aindoux
lard or pork fat.
/aint 0ac'ues, co'uille
sea scallop.
/alade folle
mi+ed salad, usually including green beans and foie gras.
/alade lyonnaise
green salad with cubed bacon and soft-cooked eggs, often served with
herring and anchovies, andBor sheep's feet and chicken livers! specialty of
,yon! also called saladier lyonnais.
/alade ni?oise
salad with many variations, but usually with tomatoes, green beans,
anchovies, tuna, potatoes, black olives, capers, and artichokes.
/aladier (lyonnais)
see Salade lyonnaise.
/alicorne
edible seaweed, sea string bean! often pickled and served as a
condiment.
/al"icon
diced vegetables, meat, andBor fish in a sauce, used as a stuffing, garnish,
or spread.
/ansonnet
Starling or thrush.
/aucisse de 2rancfort
hot dog.
/aucisse de /trasbourg
redskinned hot dog.
/aucisse de :oulouse
mild country-style pork sausage.
/aucisson
most often, a large air-dried sausage, such as salami, eaten sliced as a
cold cut! when fresh, usually called saucisson chaud, or hot sausage.
/aucisson ? lail
garlic sausage, usually to be cooked and served warm.
/aucisson d'Arles
dried salami-style sausage that blends pork, beef and gentle seasoning! a
specialty of rles, in 'rovence.
/aucisson de cam"agne
any country-style sausage.
/aucisson de 5yon
air-dried pork sausage, flavored with garlic and pepper and studded with
chunks of pork fat.
/aucisson de *orteau
see 8?sus de /orteau.
/aucisson en cro?te
sausage cooked in a pastry crust.
/aucisson sec
any dried sausage, or salami.
/aumon (sau!age)
salmon ()wild,) to differentiate from commercially raised salmon).
/aumon d'+cosse
Scottish salmon.
/aumon de fontaine
small, commercially raised salmon.
/aumon fum
smoked salmon.
/aumon nor!?gien
4orwegian salmon.
/aumonette
see 7oussette.
/a!oie (biscuit de)
sponge cake.
/a!oyarde
in the style of Savoy, usually flavored with -ruy?re cheese.
/carole
escarole.
/el (gros)
coarse salt.
/elon grosseur (/;-;)
according to si$e, usually said of lobster or other seafood.
/elon le march
according to what is in season or available.
/elon "oid (/;P;)
according to weight, usually said of seafood. Semolina or crushed wheat.
lso used in 3rance as a savory garnish, particularly in 4orth frican
dishes such as couscous.
/er"olet
wild thyme.
/er!ice (non) com"ris
service charge (not) included in the listed menu prices (but invariably
included on the bill).
/occa
a very thin, round cr?pe made with chickpea flour, sold on the streets of
4ice and eaten as a snack.
/oissons
dried or fresh white beans, from the area around Soissons, northeast of
'aris.
/oja ("ousse de)
soy bean (soy bean sprout).
/oja, sauce de
soy sauce.
/olette
small sole.
/ommelier
wine waiter.
/orbet
sherbet.
/oubise
onion sauce.
/ouffl
light, mi+ture of pur?ed ingredients, egg yolks, and whipped egg whites,
which puffs up when baked! sweet or savory, hot or cold.
/oumaintrain
a spicy, supple flat disc of cow's-milk cheese with a red-brown rind! from
%urgundy.
/ou"ir de nonne
)nuns sighs)! fried chou+ pastry dusted with confectioners sugar. "reated
by a nun in an lsatian abbey. lso called pet de nonne.
/ouris
)mouse)! muscle that holds the leg of lamb to the bone! lamb shanks.
/"oom
wine or fruit 2uice mi+ed with egg whites, whipped, and fro$en to create a
frothy iced dessert.
/toc&fish, stocaficada, estoficada, esto
flattened, dried cod found in southern 3rance. lso, a pur?e-like blend of
dried codfish, olive oil, tomatoes, sweet peppers, black olives, potatoes,
garlic, onions, and herbs! specialty of 4ice. Sometimes served with pistou.
/trasbourgeoise, ? la
ingredients typical of Strasbourg including sauerkraut, foie gras, and salt
pork.
/u"ion, su"ioun, su""ion
cuttlefish.
:?te de !eau ("orc)
head of veal (pork), usually used in headcheese.
:?tragone
spinach-like green, found in 'rovence.
:ablette (de chocolat)
bar (of chocolate).
:almouse
savory pastry triangle of cheese-flavored chou+ dough baked in puff
pastry.
:artare (de "oisson)
traditionally chopped raw beef, seasoned and garnished with raw egg,
capers, chopped onion, and parsley! (today, a popular highly seasoned
raw fish dish).
:endron
cartilaginous meat cut from beef or veal ribs.
:eurgoule
a sweet rice pudding with cinnamon! specialty of 4ormandy.
:hermidor (homard)
classic lobster dish! lobster split lengthwise, grilled, and served in the shell
with a cream sauce.
:hon (blanc) (germon)
tuna (white albacore).
:hon rouge
bluefin tuna.
:omates ? la "ro!en?ale
baked tomato halves sprinkled with garlic, parsley, and bread crumbs.
:omme
generic name for cheese, usually refers to a variety of cheeses in the
Savoie! also, the fresh cheese used to make "antal in the uvergne.
:omme arl?sienne
rectangular cheese made with a blend of goat's and cow's milk and
sprinkled with summer savory! also called tomme de "amargue! a
specialty of the ,anguedoc and rles, in 'rovence.
:omme fraiche
pressed cake of fresh milk curds, used in the regional dishes of the
uvergne.
:o"inambour
8erusalem artichoke.
:oro (taureau)
bull! meat found in butcher shops in the ,anguedoc and 'ays %as&ue,
and sometimes on restaurant menus.
:orr?fi
roasted, as in coffee beans and chocolate.
:orteau au fromage
goat cheese cheesecake from the 'oitou-"harentes along the tlantic
coast! a blackened, spherical loaf found at cheese shops throughout
3rance! once a homemade delicacy, today prepared industrially.
:ortue
turtle.
:oucy
village in %urgundy that gives its name to a local fresh goat cheese.
:ourain, tourin, tourrin
generally a peasant soup of garlic, onions (and sometimes tomatoes), and
broth or water, thickened with egg yolks and seasoned with vinegar!
specialty of the southwest.
:ournedos
center portion of beef filet, usually grilled or saut?ed.
:ournedos 8ossini
saut?ed tournedos garnished with foie gras and truffles.
:ouron
mar$ipan loaf, or a cake of almond paste, often layered and flavored with
nuts or candied fruits and sold by the slice! specialty of the %as&ue region.
:ourte (aux blettes)
pie (common 4i?oise dessert pie filled with Swiss chard, eggs, cheese,
raisins, and pine nuts). lso, name for giant rounds of country bread found
in the uvergne and the southwest.
:ourteau
large crab.
:ourti?re
shallow three-legged cooking vessel, set over hot coals for baking. lso,
southwestern pastry dish filled with apples andBor prunes and sprinkled
with rmagnac.
:ra!ers de "orc
spareribs.
:ri"es ? la mode de aen
beef tripe, carrots, onions, leeks, and spices, cooked in water, cider, and
"alvados (apple brandy)! specialty of 4ormandy.
:ri"oux
mutton tripe.
:ri"oxa
%as&ue name for sheep's or calfs blood sausage served with spicy red
.spelette peppers.
:rom"ettes de la mort
dark brown wild mushroom, also known as )horn of plenty.)
:ron?on
cut of meat or fish resulting in a piece that is longer than it is wide!
generally refers to slices from the largest part of a fish.
:rouchia
flat omelet filled with spinach or Swiss chard! specialty of 'rovence.
:ruffes sous la cendre
truffles wrapped in pastry or foil, gently warmed as they are buried in
ashes.
:toro
fish soup from the %as&ue region. Cistorically, the li&uid that remained
after poaching cod was seasoned with herbs and used to cook vegetables
and potatoes. 0oday, a more elaborate version includes the addition of
lotte, mullet, mussels, conger eel, langoustines, and wine.
:urbot(in)
turbot (small turbot), 'ri$ed flatfish found in the tlantic and
/editerranean.
9?roni'ue, ? la
garnish of peeled white grapes. ;ert-pr?
a watercress garnish, sometimes including potatoes.
9elout
classic sauce based on veal, chicken, or fish stock, thickened with a rou+
of butter and flour! also, variously seasoned classic soups thickened with
cream and egg yolks.
9ichyssoise
cold, creamy leek and potato soup.
9iennoise
coated in egg, breaded, and fried.
9iognier
increasingly popular white grape of the 7h?ne, used for the famed
"ondrieu .
9iolet de Pro!ence
braid of plump garlic, a specialty of 'rovence and the "?te-d'$ur.
9iolet or figue de mer
unusual iodine-strong, soft-shelled edible sea creature, with a yellowish
interior. delicacy along the /editerranean, particularly in /arseille.
9iolette
violet! its crystalli$ed petals are a specialty of 0oulouse.
9iroflay
classic garnish of spinach for poached or soft-cooked eggs.
9i!e or !i"?re de mer
weever! a small firm-fleshed ocean fish used in soups, such as
bouillabaisse, or grilled. 0he venomous spine is removed before cooking.
9ol-au-!ent
puff pastry shell.
9olont? (
at the customer's discretion.
9onnaissienne, ? la
in the style of ;onnas, a village in the 7h?ne-lpes. lso, cr?pes made
with potatoes.
6aterzooi
3lemish chicken stew cooked with aromatic herbs and vegetables in a
sauce of cream and chicken broth.
=aourt
yogurt.
?"eautre
poor mans wheat from 'rovence! spelt.
A "oint
cooked medium rare.
Agneau de Paulliac
breed of lamb from the southwest.
A"?ritif
a before-dinner drink that stimulates the appetite, usually somewhat sweet
or mildly bitter.
A""ellation d'origine contr?l?e (A#)
specific definition of a particular cheese, butter, fruit, wine, or poultry--once
passed down from generation to generation now recogni$ed by law--
regulating the animal breed or variety of fruit, the $one of production,
production techni&ues, composition of the product, its physical
characteristics, and its specific attributes.
Arachide (huile d'$ "?t? d')
peanut (oil! butter).
Ar"ajon
a town in the #le-de-3rance! dried bean capital of 3rance! a dish containing
dried beans.
As"erge (!iolette)
asparagus (purple-tipped asparagus, a specialty of the "?te-d'$ur).
Assiette de "?cheur
assorted fish platter.
Azyme, "ain
unleavened bread! mat$o.
B?tard, "ain
)bastard bread)! traditional long, thin white loaf, larger than a baguette.
Belle (?l?ne ("oire)
classic dessert of chilled poached fruit (pear), served on ice cream and
topped with hot chocolate sauce.
Beurre de *ont"ellier
classic butter sauce seasoned with olive oil, herbs, garlic, and anchovies.
Bi?re (en bouteille, ? la "ression)
beer (bottled, on tap).
Blanc (de "oireau)
white portion (of leek).
Boisson (non) com"rise
drink (not) included.
Boule de Picoulat
meatball from ,anguedoc, combining beef, pork, garlic, and eggs,
traditionally served with cooked white beans.
Boutargue, "outargue
salty paste prepared from dried mullet or tuna roe, mashed with oil!
specialty of 'rovence.
?"e
large, meaty wild boletus mushroom.
am"agnard(e) (assiette)
country-style, rustic! (an informal buffet of cold meats, terrines, etc.).
am"agne, ? la
country-style.
ana"
originally a slice of crustless bread! now also used to refer to a variety of
hors d'oeuvre consisting of toasted or fried bread, spread with forcemeat,
cheese, and other flavorings.
anard ? la "resse
roast duck served with a sauce of 2uices obtained from pressing the
carcass, combined with red wine and "ognac.
antalou"
cantaloupe melon.
a"ilotade
basically any leftover meat or poultry cooked to tenderness in a well-
reduced sauce.
a"re
caper.
a"ucine
nasturtium! the leaves and flowers are used in salads.
ar"e
carp.
ar"e ? la jui!e
braised marinated carp in aspic.
arr? de "ort
rack (ribs) or loin of pork! also crown roast.
arte "romotionelle or conseill
a simple and ine+pensive fi+ed-price meal.
a!iar du Puy
green lentils from ,e 'uy, in the uvergne.
ham"?tre
rustic! describes a simple presentation of a variety of ingredients.
ham"ignon
mushroom.
? la bague( parasol mushroom with a delicate flavor! also called
coulemelle, cocherelle, and grisotte.
de bois( wild mushroom, from the woods.
de Paris( most common cultivated mushroom.
sauvage( wild mushroom.
ham"!allon, c?telette d'agneau
traditional dish of lamb chops baked in alternating layers of potatoes and
onions! named for a village in northern %urgundy.
ha"eau
)hat)! small round loaf, topped with a little dough hat.
ha"elure
bread crumbs.
ha"on
capon, or castrated chicken.
ha"on de mer
/editerranean fish, in the rascasse or scorpion-fish family.
hi"iron (? l'encre)
southwestern name for small s&uid, or encornet (in its own ink).
hi"olata
small sausage.
hi"s, "ommes
potato chips.
houx, "?te
cream pastry dough.
itron, orange, or "am"lemousse "ress?(e
lemon, orange, or grapefruit 2uice served with a carafe of tap water and
sugar! for sweetening to taste.
i!et de tri"es d'oies
a stew of goose innards, saut?ed in fat with onions, shallots, and garlic,
then cooked in wine vinegar and diluted with water, and thickened with
goose blood! from -ascony.
oco de Paim"ol
"ream-colored shell bean striated with purple, from %rittany, in season
from 8uly to 4ovember! the first bean in 3rance to receive 6".
oeur de "almier
delicate shoots of the palm tree, generally served with a vinaigrette as an
hors d'oeuvre.
ommander a!ant le re"as,
a selection of desserts that should be ordered when selecting first and
main courses, as they re&uire longer cooking.
om"let
filled up, with no more room for customers.
om"ote
stewed fresh or dried fruit.
om"otier
fruit bowl! also stewed ftuit.
om"ris
see Service (non) compris.
o"eau(x)
shaving(s), such as from chocolate, cheese, or vegetables.
r?"e
thin pancake.
r?"es /uzette
hot cr?pe dessert flamed with orange li&ueur.
r?"ine
caul fat.
r?"inette
traditionally, a small sausage patty wrapped in caul fat! today boned
poultry wrapped in caul fat.
ra"audine
preparation of grilled poultry or game bird with backbone removed.
uisse (de "oulet)
leg or thigh (chicken drumstick).
1au"hin
cow's-milk cheese shaped like a dauphin, or dolphin! from the 4orth.
1ie""oise
:ieppe style! usually white wine, mussels, shrimp, mushrooms, and
cream.
+"ais(se)
thick.
+"aule
shoulder (of veal, lamb, mutton, or pork).
+"erlan
smelt or whitebait, usually fried, often imported but still found in the
estuaries of the ,oire.
+"i de ma
ear of sweet corn.
+"ice
spice.
+"igramme
classic dish of grilled breaded lamb chop and a piece of braised lamb
breast shaped like a chop, breaded, and grilled! crops up on modern
menus as an elegant dish of breaded and fried baby lamb chops paired
with lamb sweetbreads and tongue.
+"inard
spinach.
+"ine !inette
highbush cranberry.
+"oisses
village in %urgundy that gives its name to a buttery disc of cow's milk
cheese with a strong, smooth taste and rust-colored rind.
+"oisses blanc
fresh white .poisses cheese.
+scalo"e
thin slice of meat or fish.
+scargot "etit-gris
small land snail.
+s"adon
swordfish found in the gulf of -ascony, tlantic, and /editerranean.
+s"agnole, ? l
Spanish style! with tomatoes, peppers, onions, and garlic.
+stouffade ? la "ro!en?ale
beef stew with onions, garlic, carrots, and orange $est.
+x"ress
espresso coffee.
2ait, "as tro"
refers to a cheese that has been aged for a shorter time and is blander!
also for a cheese that will ripen at home.
2icelle "icarde
thin cr?pe wrapped around a slice of ham and topped with a cheesy
cream sauce! specialty of 'icardy, in the 4orth.
2rangi"ane
almond custard filling.
2ra""
usually refers to a drink served very cold or with ice, often shaken.
-alette bressane, galette de P?rouges
cream and sugar tart from the %resse area of the 7h?ne-lpes.
-as"acho
a cold soup, usually containing tomatoes, cucumber, onions, and sweet
peppers! originally of Spanish origin.
-igot (de "r? sal
usually a leg of lamb (lamb gra$ed on the salt meadows along the tlantic
and 4ormandy coasts).
-ra""e (de raisins)
cluster! bunch (of grapes).
-ratin dau"hinoise
baked casserole of sliced potatoes, usually with cream, milk, and
sometimes cheese andBor eggs.
(areng "ec
freshly salted young herring.
(areng "ec
freshly salted young herring.
(areng roll-mo"
marinated herring rolled around a small pickle.
(areng roll-mo"
marinated herring rolled around a small pickle.
(erbes de Pro!ence
mi+ture of thyme, rosemary, summer savory, and bay leaf, often dried and
blended.
(erbes de Pro!ence
mi+ture of thyme, rosemary, summer savory, and bay leaf, often dried and
blended.
(oche"ot
a thick stew, usually of o+tail! specialty of 3landers, in the north.
(oche"ot
a thick stew, usually of o+tail! specialty of 3landers, in the north.
(ure de "orc or de marcassin
head of pig or boar - usually refers to headcheese preparation.
(ure de "orc or de marcassin
head of pig or boar - usually refers to headcheese preparation.
(yso"e
hyssop! fragrant, mint-like thistle found in 'rovence, used in salads and in
cooking.
(yso"e
hyssop! fragrant, mint-like thistle found in 'rovence, used in salads and in
cooking.
3m"?ratrice, ? l
usually a rice pudding dessert with candied fruit.
3m"?riale, ? l
classic haute cuisine garnish of mussels, cockscombs, crayfish, and other
e+travagant ingredients.
3m"eriale
variety of plum. lso, a large bottle for wine, holding about F &uarts (F
liters),
0arret (de !eau, de "orc, de boeuf)
knuckle (of veal or pork), shin (of beef).
4ne"fla
lsatian dumpling, sometimes fried.
4ougelho"h, hougelhof, &ouglof, &ugelho"
sweet crown-shaped yeast cake, with almonds and raisins! specialty of
lsace.
5am"roie (? la bordelaise)
lamprey eel, ocean fish that swim into rivers along the tlantic in
springtime (hearty stew of lamprey eel and leeks in red wine).
5a"ereau
young rabbit.
5a"in
rabbit.
5a"in de garenne
wild rabbit.
5entilles (de Puy)
lentils (pri$ed green lentils from the village of 'uy in the uvergne).
5ou" de mer
wolf fish or ocean catfish! name for sea bass in the /editerranean.
*ijot?(e) ("lat)
simmered (dish or preparation).
*ire"oix
cubes of carrots and onions or mi+ed vegetables, usually used in braising
to boost the flavor of a meat dish.
*or!andelle, r?"
grated potato mi+ed with eggs, cream, and cheese, baked until golden.
*oule d'+s"agne
large, sharp-shelled mussel, often served raw as part of a seafood platter.
*oule de "ar'ues
:utch cultivated mussel, usually raised in fattening beds or diverted
ponds.
*oulin (? "oi!re)
mill (peppermill)! also used for oil and flour mills.
*useau de "orc (or de boeuf)
vinegared pork (or beef).
.a""
covered, as with a sauce.
.on com"ris
see Service (non) compris.
#reille de "orc
cooked pigs ear! served grilled, with a coating of egg and bread crumb.
#rge ("erl
barley (pearl barley).
P?bre d'ail
see 'oivre d'?ne.
P?che
peach. lso, fishing.
P?che Alexandra
cold dessert of poached peaches with ice cream and pur?ed strawberries.
P?che *elba
poached peach with vanilla ice cream and raspberry sauce.
P?cheur
)fisherman)! usually refers to fish preparations.
P?landron
see haricot gris.
P?lardon
small flat, dried, pungent disc of goat's milk cheese! specialty of the
,anguedoc.
P?lerine
another name for scallop or co&uille Saint-8ac&ues.
P?"tie (au chocolat)
nugget! (chocolate chip).
P?rigourdine, ? la, or P?rigueux
sauce, usually with truffles and foie gras, named for the '?rigord in
southwestern 3rance.
P?t
minced meat that is molded, spiced, baked, and served hot or cold.
P?tale
)petal)! very thin slice.
P?te
pastry or dough.
bris?e pie pastry
d!amande almond paste.
sabl?e sweeter, richer, and more crumbly pie dough than p?te
sucr?e, sometimes leavened.
sucr?e sweet pie pastry.
P?tes (fra?ches)
pasta (fresh).
P?toncle
tiny scallop, similar to merican bay scallop.
Pageot
a type of sea bream or porgy. 0he finest is pageot rouge, wonderful grilled.
'ageot blanc is drier and needs to be marinated in oil before cooking.
Paillarde (de !eau)
thick slice (of veal)! also, piece of meat pounded flat and saute?ed.
Pailles ("ommes)
fried potato sticks.
Paillette
cheese straw, usually made with puff pastry and 'armesan cheese.
Pain
bread. lso, loaf of any kind.
aux cinq c?r?ales five-grain bread.
aux noix (aux noisettes bread, most often rye or wheat, filled with
walnuts (ha$elnuts).
aux raisins bread, most often rye or wheat, filled with raisins.
azyme unleavened bread, mat$oh.
bis brown bread.
bri? very dense, elongated loaf of unsalted white bread! specialty
of 4ormandy.
complet bread made partially or entirely from whole-wheat flour,
with bakers varying proportions according to their personal tastes.
cordon seldom-found regional country loaf decorated with a strip of
dough.
d!"ix variously shaped sourdough loaves, sometimes like a
sunflower, other times a chain-like loaf of four linked rounds.
de campagne country loaf! can vary from a white bread simply
dusted with flour to give it a rustic look (and fetch a higher price) to
a truly hearty loaf that may be a blend of white, whole wheat, and
perhaps rye flour with bran added. "omes in every shape.
&?cor? decorated.
de fantaisie generally any odd or imaginatively shaped bread.
.ven baguette de campagne falls into this category.
de '?nes classic almond sponge cake.
de mie rectangular white sandwich loaf that is nearly all mie
(interior crumb) and very little crust. #t is made for durability, its
flavor and te+ture developed for use in sandwiches. 1nlike most
3rench breads, it contains milk, sugar, and butter, and may contain
chemical preservatives.
d!?pices spice bread, a specialty of :i2on.
de seigle bread made from AD to =D percent rye flour and ED to FD
percent wheat flour.
de son legally a dietetic bread that is &uality controlled, containing
@D percent bran mi+ed with white flour.
grill? toast.
paill? country loaf from the %as&ue region.
sans sel salt-free bread.
viennois bread shaped like a baguette, with regular hori$ontal
slashes, usually containing white flour, sugar, powdered milk, water,
and yeast.
Paleron
shoulder of beef.
Palestine
classically a garnish of 8erusalem artichokes.
Palette
upper shoulder of pork.
Palmier
palm leaf-shaped cookie made of sugared puff pastry.
Palmier, coeur de
heart of palm.
Palombe
wood or wild pigeon, or dove.
Palourde
pri$ed medium-si$e clam.
Pam"lemousse
grapefruit.
Pan bagna
large round bread roll, split, brushed with olive oil, and filled with a variable
mi+ture including anchovies, onions, black olives, green peppers,
tomatoes, and celery! cafe specialty from 4ice.
Pan?(e)
breaded.
Panach
mi+ed! now liberally used menu term to denote any mi+ture.
Panade
panada, a thick mi+ture used to bind forcemeats and &uenelles, usually
flour and butter based, but can also contain fresh or toasted bread
crumbs, rice, or potatoes. lso refers to soup of bread, milk, and
sometimes cheese.
Panais
parnsip.
Panisse
a thick fried pancake of chickpea flour, served as accompaniment to meat!
specialty of 'rovence.
Panne'uet
rolled cr?pe, filled andBor covered with sweet or savory mi+ture.
Panoufle
-enerally discarded belly flap from saddle of lamb, veal, and beef!
sometimes grilled.
Pantin
small pork pastry.
Pa"eton
eggplant, fried, pur?ed, and cooked in a ring mold! specialty of 'rovence.
Pa"illon
)butterfly)! small crinkle-shelled creuse oyster from the tlantic coast.
Pa"illote, en
cooked in parchment paper or foil wrapping.
Pa'uet (en)
(in) a package or parcel.
Parfait
a dessert mousse! also, mousse-like mi+ture of chicken, duck, or goose
liver.
Parfum
flavor.
Paris-Brest, g?teau
classic, large, crown-shaped chou+ pastry filled with praline butter cream
and topped with chopped almonds.
Parisienne, ? la
varied vegetable garnish which generally includes potato balls that have
been fried and tossed in a meat gla$e.
Parmentier
dish with potatoes.
Passe rassane
flavorful variety of winter pear.
Passe-Pierre
edible seaweed.
Past?'ue
watermelon.
Pastis
anise-flavored alcohol that becomes cloudy when water is added (the
most famous brands are 'ernod and 7icard). lso, name for tourti?re, the
flaky prune pastry from the southwest.
Pastiza
see g?teau bas&ue.
Pata .?gra (jambon)
'ri$ed ham from Spain, literally )black feet.)
Patagos
clam.
Patte blanche
small crayfish no larger than @ <B@ ounces (=> g).
Patte rouge
large crayfish.
Pauchouse, "ochouse
stew of river fish that generally includes tanche (tench), perche (perch),
brochet (pike), and anguille (eel)! specialty of %urgundy.
Pau"iette
slice of meat or fish, filled, rolled, then wrapped! served warm.
Pa!
)paving stone)! usually a thick slice of boned beef or calfs liver. lso, a
kind of pastry.
Pa!? d'Auge
thick, ochre colored s&uare of cow's-milk cheese that comes from the
uge area of 4ormandy.
Pa!ot (graine de)
poppy (seed).
Paysan(ne) (? la)
country style! (garnish of carrots, turnips, onions, celery and bacon).
Peau
skin.
Pe'uillo
small red Spanish pepper, usually stuffed with salt cod pur?e.
Perce-"ierre
samphire, edible seaweed.
Perche
perch.
Perdreau
young partridge.
Perdrix
partridge.
Persil (sim"le)
parsley (flatleaf).
Persill
)parsleyed)! describes certain blue-veined cheeses. See also 8ambon
persill?.
Persillade
blend of chopped parsley and garlic.
Pet de nonne
)nuns fart)! small, dainty beignets, or fried pastry.
Petit d?jeuner
breakfast.
Petit sal
salt-cured portions of lean pork belly, often served with lentils.
Petit-beurre
popular tea cookie made with butter.
Petit-four (sucr? or sal?e)
tiny cake or pastry (sweet or savory)! in elegant restaurants, served with
cocktails before dinner or with coffee afterward! also called mignardise.
Petit-gris
small land snail.
Petit-"ois
small green pea.
Petite marmite
earthenware casserole! the broth served from it.
Pi?ce
portion, piece.
Pibale
tiny eel, also called civelle.
Picholine, "itchouline
a variety of green olive, generally used to prepare olives casse?s!
specialty of 'rovence.
Picodon (m?thode 1ieulefit)
small disc of goat's-milk cheese, the best of which (&ualified as m?thode
:ieulefit) is hard, pi&uant, and pungent from having soaked in brandy and
aged a month in earthenware 2ars! specialty of northern 'rovence.
Piech
poached veal brisket stuffed with vegetables, herbs, and sometimes rice,
ham, eggs, or cheese! specialty of the /editerranean.
Pied de che!al
)horses foot)! giant tlantic coast oyster.
Pied de mouton
meaty cream-colored wild mushroom. lso, sheep's foot.
Pieds et "a'uets
)feet and packages)! mutton tripe rolled and cooked with sheep's feet,
white wine, and tomatoes! specialty of 'rovence and the /editerranean.
Pierre-7ui-9ire
)stone that moves)! a supple, tangy, flat disc of cow's-milk cheese with a
reddish rind, made by the %enedictine monks at the bbaye de la 'ierre-
Hui ;ire in %urgundy.
Pigeon (neau)
pigeon or s&uab (young pigeon or s&uab).
Pignons
pine nuts, found in the cones of pine trees growing in 'rovence and along
the southwestern tlantic coast.
Pilau, "ilaf
rice saut?ed with onion and simmered in broth.
Pilchard
name for sardines on the tlantic coast.
Piment
red pepper or pimento.
Piment
hot, peppery, spicy.
Piment (or "oi!re) de 0ama?'ue
allspice.
Piment d'+s"elette
slender, mildly hot chile pepper from .spelette, a village in the %as&ue
region.
Piment doux
sweet pepper.
Pim"ernelle
salad burnet, a salad green with a somewhat bitter taste.
Pince
claw. lso, tongs used when eating snails or seafood.
Pineau des harentes
sweet fortified wine from the "ognac region on the tlantic coast, served
as an aperitif.
Pintade(au)
(young) guinea fowl.
Pi"?rade
a dish of pepper! onions, tomatoes, and often ham and scrambled eggs!
specialty of the %as&ue region.
Pi'u
larded! studded.
Pi'uant(e)
sharp or spicy tasting.
Pi'uenchagne, "icanchagne
a pear tart with walnut or brioche crust! specialty of the %ourbonnais, a
province in uvergne.
Pissaladi?re
a flat open-face tart like a pi$$a, garnished with onions, olives, and
anchovies! specialty of 4ice.
Pissenlit
dandelion green.
Pistache
pistachio nut.
Pistil de safran
thread of saffron.
Pistou
sauce of basil, garlic, and olive oil! specialty of 'rovence. lso a rich
vegetable, bean, and pasta soup flavored with pistou sauce.
Pithi!iers
a town in the ,oire valley that gives its name to a classic large puff pastry
found filled with almond cream. lso, lark p?t?.
Plaice
a small, orange-spotted flounder or fluke, a flat ocean fish! also known as
plie franch or carrelet. 3ound in the .nglish "hannel.
Plat cuisin
dish containing ingredients that have cooked together, usually in a sauce.
Plat du jour
todays special.
Plat "rinci"al
main dish.
Plate
flat-shelled oyster.
Plateau
platter.
Plateau de fruits de mer
seafood platter combining raw and cooked shell-fish! usually includes
oysters, clams, mussels, langoustines, periwinkles, whelks, crabs, and tiny
shrimp.
Plates c?tes
part of beef ribs usually used in pot-au feu.
Pleurote
very soft-fleshed, feather-edged wild mushrooms! also now being
cultivated commercially in several regions of 3rance.
Plie
see 'laice.
Plombi?re
classic dessert of vanilla ice cream, candied fruit, kirsch, and apricot 2am.
Pluche
small sprig of herbs or plants, generally used for garnish.
Po?l
pan-fried.
Poch
poached.
Pochouse
see 'auchouse.
Pogne
brioche flavored with orange-flower water and filled with fruits! specialty of
7omans-sur-#s?re, in the 7h?ne-lpes.
Point (
ripe or ready to eat, the perfect moment for eating a cheese or fruit. lso,
cooked medium rare.
Point(e) (d'as"erge)
tip (of asparagus).
Poire
pear.
Poire 6illiams
variety of pear! colorless fruit brandy, or eau-de-vie, often made from this
variety of pear.
Poireau
leek.
Pois (chiche)
pea (chickpea).
Poisson
fish.
d!eau douce freshwater fish.
de lac lake fish.
de mer ocean fish.
de rivi?re river fish.
de roche rock fish.
fum? smoked fish.
noble refers to pri$ed, thus e+pensive, variety of fish.
Poitrine
breast (of meat or poultry).
Poitrine demi-sel
unsmoked slab bacon.
Poitrine fum
smoked slab bacon.
Poi!rade
a peppery brown sauce made with wine, vinegar, and cooked vegetables
and strained before serving.
Poi!re
pepper.
d!ain 'roven?al name for wild savory. lso, small goat cheese
covered with sprigs of savory. lso known as p?bre d'ail and p?bre
d'ase.
en grain peppercorn.
frais de +adagascar green peppercorn.
gris black peppercorn.
moulu ground pepper.
noir black peppercorn.
rose pink peppercorn.
vert green peppercorn.
Poi!ron (doux)
(sweet bell) pepper.
Pojars&i
finely chopped meat or fish shaped like a cutlet and fried.
Polenta
cooked dish of cornmeal and water, usually with added butter and cheese!
also, cornmeal.
Pommade (beurre en)
usually refers to a thick, smooth paste! (creamed butter).
Pomme
apple.
Pommes de terre
potatoes.
? langlaise boiled.
allumettes )match-sticks)! fries cut into very thin 2ulienne.
boulang?re potatoes cooked with the meat they accompany. lso,
a gratin of sliced potatoes, baked with milk or stock and sometimes
flavored with onions, bacon, and tomatoes.
darphin grated potatoes shaped into a cake.
dauphine mashed potatoes mi+ed with cbou+ pastry, shaped into
small balls and fried.
dauphinoise a gratin of sliced potatoes, baked with milk andBor
cream, garlic, cheese, and eggs.
duchesse mashed potatoes with butter, egg yolks, and nutmeg,
used for garnish.
en robe des champs( en robe de chambre potatoes boiled or
baked in their skin! potatoes in their 2ackets.
frites 3rench fries.
gratin?es browned potatoes, often with cheese.
lyonnaise potatoes saut?ed with onions.
macaire classic side dish of pur?ed potatoes shaped into small
balls and fried or baked in a flat cake.
mousseline potato pur?e enriched with butter, egg yolks, and
whipped cream.
paillasson fried pancake of grated potatoes.
pailles potatoes cut into 2ulienne strips, then fried.
Pont-)euf classic fries.
sarladaise sliced potatoes cooked with goose fat and (optionally)
truffles.
souffl?es small, thin slices of potatoes fried twice, causing them to
inflate so they resemble little pillows.
sous la c?ndre baked under cinders in a fireplace.
vapeur steamed or boiled potatoes.
Pommes en lair
carameli$ed apple slices, usually served with boudin noir (blood sausage).
Pom"e ? lhuile, "om"e de .o
see -ibassier.
Pom"e aux grattons
bread containing cracklings.
Pont l+!?'ue
village in 4ormandy that gives its name to a very tender, fragrant s&uare
of cow's milk cheese.
Porc (c?te de)
pork (chop).
Porc (carr? de)
pork (loin).
Porcelet
young suckling pig.
Porchetta
young pig stuffed with offal, herbs, and garlic, and toasted! seen in
charcuteries in 4ice.
Porto (au)
(with) port.
Portugaise
elongated, crinkle-shell oyster.
Pot
traditional hearty meat soup, usually containing pork, cabbage, and
potatoes.
Pot bouilli
another name for pot-au-feu.
Pot-au-feu
traditional dish of beef simmered with vegetables, often served in two or
mote courses! today chefs often use it to mean fish poached in fish stock
with vegetables.
Pot-de-cr?me
individual classic custard dessert, often chocolate.
Potage
soup.
Potimarron
see "itrouille.
Potiron
see "itrouille.
Potje!leisch
a mi+ed meat terrine, usually of veal, pork, and rabbit! specialty of the
4orth.
Poularde
fatted hen.
Poule au "ot
boiled stuffed chicken with vegetables! specialty of the city of %?arn in the
southwest.
Poule d'3nde
turkey hen.
Poule faisane
female pheasant.
Poulet (r?ti)
chicken (roast).
Poulet bas'uaise
%as&ue-style chicken, with tomatoes and sweet peppers.
Poulet de Bresse
high-&uality chicken raised on farms to e+acting specifications, from the
7h?ne-lpes.
Poulet de grain
corn-fed chicken.
Poulet fermier
free-range chicken.
Poulette
tiny chicken.s
Pouligny-/aint-Pierre
village in the ,oire valley that gives its name to a goat's-milk cheese
shaped like a truncated pyramid with a mottled, grayish rind and a
smooth-grained, ivory-white interior.
Poul"e
octopus.
Pounti
(also spelled pounty) a pork meat loaf that generally includes Swiss chard
or spinach, eggs, milk, herbs, onions, and prunes! specialty of the
uvergne.
Pousse-en-claire
6ysters that have been aged and fattened in claire, or oyster beds, for
four to eight months.
Pousse-"ierre
edible seaweed! also called sea beans.
Poussin
baby chicken.
Poutargue, boutargue
salted, pressed, and flattened mullet roe, generally spread on toast as an
appeti$er! specialty of 'rovence and the /editerranean.
Poutine
see 4onat.
Pr?-sal? (agneau de)
delicately salted lamb raised on the salt marshes of 4ormandy and the
tlantic coast.
Praire
small clam.
Pralin
ground carameli$ed almonds.
Praline
carameli$ed almonds.
Press&o"h
pork headcheese, often served with vinaigrette! specialty of lsace.
Primeur(r)
refers to early fresh fruits and vegetables, also to new wine.
Printani?re
garnish of a variety of spring vegetables cut into dice or balls.
Prix fixe
fi+ed-price menu.
Prix net
service included.
Profiterole(s)
classic chou pastry dessert, usually puffs of pastry filled with vanilla ice
cream and topped with hot chocolate sauce.
Pro!en?ale
in the style of 'rovence! usually includes garlic, tomatoes, andBor olive oil.
Prune (d'ente)
fresh plum! (variety of plum grown in the famed gen region of the
southwest).
Pruneau
prune.
Puits d'amour
)wells of love)! classic small pastry crowns filled with pastry cream.
7uatre ?"ices
spice blend of ground ginger, nutmeg, white pepper, and cloves.
8?ble de li?!re (la"in)
saddle of hare (rabbit).
8?"
grated or shredded.
8eligieuse, "etite
)nun)! a small version of a classic pastry consisting of two chou+ puffs
filled with chocolate, coffee, or vanilla pastry cream, placed one on top of
another, and frosted with chocolate or coffee icing to resemble a nun in
her habit.
8e"as
meal.
8obe des cham"s, robe de chambre ("ommes
potatoes boiled or baked in their skin! potatoes in their 2ackets.
/aint-Pierre
8ohn :ory, a pri$ed mild, flat, white ocean fish. 5nown as soleil and 8ean
:or? in the 4orth, and poule de mer along the tlantic coast.
/alade "anach
mi+ed salad.
/al"icon
diced vegetables, meat, andBor fish in a sauce, used as a stuffing, garnish,
or spread.
/aucisson de cam"agne
any country-style sausage.
/au"i'uet
classic aromatic wine sauce thickened with bread.
/elon "oid (/;P;)
according to weight, usually said of seafood. Semolina or crushed wheat.
lso used in 3rance as a savory garnish, particularly in 4orth frican
dishes such as couscous.
/er"olet
wild thyme.
/er!ice (non) com"ris
service charge (not) included in the listed menu prices (but invariably
included on the bill).
/im"le
simple, plain, unmi+ed. lso, a single scoop of ice cream.
/oja ("ousse de)
soy bean (soy bean sprout).
/ou"ir de nonne
)nuns sighs)! fried chou+ pastry dusted with confectioners sugar. "reated
by a nun in an lsatian abbey. lso called pet de nonne.
/"?tzel, s"aetzle, s"etzli
noodle-like lsatian egg and flour dumpling, served poached or fried.
/"oom
wine or fruit 2uice mi+ed with egg whites, whipped, and fro$en to create a
frothy iced dessert.
/ucc?s ? la "raline
cake made with praline meringue layers, frosted with meringue and butter
cream.
/u"ion, su"ioun, su""ion
cuttlefish.
/u"r?me
a veal- or chicken-based white sauce thickened with flour and cream.
lso, a boneless breast of poultry or a filet of fish.
:?te de !eau ("orc)
head of veal (pork), usually used in headcheese.
:ablier de sa"eur
)firemans apron)! tripe that is marinated, breaded, and grilled! specialty of
,yon.
:a"enade
a blend of black olives, anchovies, capers, olive oil, and lemon 2uice,
sometimes with rum or canned tuna added! specialty of 'rovence.
:artare (de "oisson)
traditionally chopped raw beef, seasoned and garnished with raw egg,
capers, chopped onion, and parsley! (today, a popular highly seasoned
raw fish dish).
:omates ? la "ro!en?ale
baked tomato halves sprinkled with garlic, parsley, and bread crumbs.
:o"inambour
8erusalem artichoke.
:ra""iste
name given to the mild, lactic cow's-milk cheese made in a 0rappist
monastery in .chourgnac, in the southwest.
:ra!ers de "orc
spareribs.
:ri"es ? la mode de aen
beef tripe, carrots, onions, leeks, and spices, cooked in water, cider, and
"alvados (apple brandy)! specialty of 4ormandy.
:ri"le cr?me
legal name for cheese containing more than => percent butterfat, such as
%rillat-Savarin.
:ri"oux
mutton tripe.
:ri"oxa
%as&ue name for sheep's or calfs blood sausage served with spicy red
.spelette peppers.
:rom"ettes de la mort
dark brown wild mushroom, also known as )horn of plenty.)
:uli"e
tulip-shaped cookie for serving ice cream or sorbet.
9a"eur, ? la
steamed.
9iolet de Pro!ence
braid of plump garlic, a specialty of 'rovence and the "?te-d'$ur.
9i!e or !i"?re de mer
weever! a small firm-fleshed ocean fish used in soups, such as
bouillabaisse, or grilled. 0he venomous spine is removed before cooking.
A?ado
roast lamb shoulder stuffed with parsley, chervil, and garlic.
A?go bouido
garlic soup, served with oil, over slices of bread! a specialty of 'rovence.
Abondance
firm thick wheel of cow's-milk cheese from the Savoie, a d?partement in
the lps.
Addition
bill.
Agneau (de lait)
lamb (young, milk-fed).
Agneau chilindron
saut? of lamb with potatoes and garlic, specialty of the %as&ue country.
Agneau de Paulliac
breed of lamb from the southwest.
Aigre-doux
sweet and sour.
Aillade
garlic sauce! also, dishes based on garlic.
Aisy cendr
thick disc of cow's-milk cheese, washed with eau-de-vie and patted with
wood ashes! also called cendre d'aisy( a specialty of %urgundy.
Amande
almond.
Amande de mer
smooth-shelled shellfish, like a small clam, with a sweet, almost almond
flavor.
Amandine
with almonds.
Ami du hambertin
)friend of "hambertin wine)! moist and buttery short cylinder of cow's milk
cheese with a rust-colored rind, made near the village of -evrey-
"hambertin in %urgundy. Similar to .poisses cheese.
Ancho?ade
sauce that is a blend of olive oil, anchovies, and garlic, usually served with
raw vegetables! specialty of 'rovence! also, paste of anchovies and garlic,
spread on toast.
Anchois (de ollioure)
anchovy (pri$ed salt-cured anchovy from "ollioure, a port town near the
Spanish border of the ,anguedoc), fished in the tlantic and the
/editerranean.
Andouille
large smoked chitterling (tripe) sausage, usually served cold.
Andouillette
small chitterling (tripe) sausage, usually served grilled.
A""ellation d'origine contr?l?e (A#)
specific definition of a particular cheese, butter, fruit, wine, or poultry--once
passed down from generation to generation now recogni$ed by law--
regulating the animal breed or variety of fruit, the $one of production,
production techni&ues, composition of the product, its physical
characteristics, and its specific attributes.
Arachide (huile d'$ "?t? d')
peanut (oil! butter).
Araign?e de mer
spider crab.
Arbousier (miel d')
trailing arbutus, small evergreen shrubby tree of the heather family, also
called strawberry tree, ground laurel and madrona tree with strawberry-like
fruit dotted with tiny bumps! (honey of). 1sed for making li&ueurs, 2ellies,
and 2ams.
Ardennaise, ? l'
in the style of the rdennes, a d?partement in northern 3rance! generally a
dish with 2uniper berries.
Ardi gasna
%as&ue name for sheep's-milk cheese.
Ardoise
blackboard! bistros often use a blackboard to list specialties in place of a
printed menu.
Assiette de "?cheur
assorted fish platter.
B?che de .o
"hristmas cake shaped like a log (b?che), a sponge cake often flavored
with chestnuts and chocolate.
B?tard, "ain
)bastard bread)! traditional long, thin white loaf, larger than a baguette.
Badiane
star anise.
Bagna caud
sauce of anchovies, olive oil, and garlic, for dipping raw vegetables!
specialty of 4ice.
Barbouillade
stuffed eggplant, or an eggplant stew! also, a combination of beans and
artichokes.
Barder
to cover poultry or meat with strips of uncured bacon, to add moisture
while cooking.
Baudroie
in 'rovence, the name for monkfish or anglerfish, the large, firm-fleshed
ocean fish also known as lotte and gigot de met, also a specialty of
'rovence, a fish soup that includes potstoes, onions, fresh mushrooms,
garlic, fresh or dried orange $est, artichokes, tomatoes, and herbs.
Beignet de fleur de courgette
batter-fried $ucchini blossom! native to 'rovence and the /editerranean,
now popular all over 3rance.
Belondines
%rittany creuses, or crinkle-shelled oysters that are affin?es or finished off
in the %elon river.
Beurre de *ont"ellier
classic butter sauce seasoned with olive oil, herbs, garlic, and anchovies.
Beurre demi-sel
butter (lightly salted).
Beurre des harentes
finest 3rench butter, from the region of 'oitou-"harentes along the tlantic
coast.
Beurre du cru
butter given the appellation d'origine contr?l?e pedigree.
Bigarade
orange sauce.
Bigoud?ne, ? la
in the style of %igouden, a province in %rittany! (pommes) baked slices of
unpeeled potato! (rag?ut) sausage stewed with bacon and potato.
Blanc (de "oireau)
white portion (of leek).
Blanc (de !olaille)
usually breast (of chicken).
Bleu d'Au!ergne
a strong, firm and moist, flattened cylinder of blue-veined cheese made
from cow's milk in the uvergne, sold wrapped in foil! still made on some
farms.
Bleu de Bresse
a cylinder of mild blue-veined cow's-milk cheese from the %resse area in
the 7h?ne-lps region! industrially made.
Bleu de -ex
thick, savory blue-veined disc of cow's-milk cheese from the 8ura! made in
only a handful of small dairies in the d?partement of the in.
Bleu des ausses
a firm, pungent, flat cylinder of blue-veined cow's-milk cheese, cured in
cellars similar to those used in making 7o&uefort.
Boeuf ? la mode
beef marinated and braised in red wine, served with carrots, mushrooms,
onions, and turnips.
Bondon
small cylinder of delicately flavored, mushroomy cow's-milk cheese made
in the 4eufch?tel area in 4ormandy.
Bordelaise
%ordeau+ style! also refers to a brown sauce of shallots, red wine, and
bone marrow.
Boudin
technically, a meat sausage, but generically any sausage-shaped mi+ture.
Boudin blanc
white sausage of veal, chicken, or pork.
Boudin noir
pork blood sausage.
Boudouses
literally, to pout! tiny oysters from %rittany that refuse to grow to normal
si$e! iodine rich and pri$ed.
Boule de Picoulat
meatball from ,anguedoc, combining beef, pork, garlic, and eggs,
traditionally served with cooked white beans.
Boulette d'A!esnes
pepper-and-tarragon-flavored cheese, made from visually defective
/aroilles, formed into a cone, and colored red with paprika! named for
vesnes, a village in the 4orth.
Bourdaloue
hot poached fruit, sometimes wrapped in pastry often served with vanilla
custard! often pear.
Bourride
a /editerranean fish soup that generally includes a mi+ture of small white
fish, onions, tomatoes, garlic, herbs, and olive oil, thickened with egg yolks
and a?oli (garlic mayonnaise)! there are many variations.
Bouton de culotte
)trouser button)! tiny buttons of goat cheese from the ,yon area!
traditionally made on farms, aged until rock hard and pungent! today found
in many forms, from soft and young to hard and brittle.
Brandade (de morue)
a warm garlicky pur?e (of salt cod) with milk or cream or oil, and
sometimes mashed potatoes! specialty of 'rovence! currently used to
denote a variety of flavored mashed potato dishes.
Brassado
a doughnut that is boiled, then baked, much like a bagel! specialty of
'rovence.
Brayaude, gigot
leg of lamb studded with garlic, cooked in white wine, and served with red
beans, braised cabbage, or chestnuts.
Brebis (fromage de)
sheep (sheep's-milk cheese).
Brie de *eaux
)king of cheese,) the flat wheel of cheese made only with raw cow's milk
and aged at least four weeks! from /eau+, 2ust east of 'aris! brie made
with pasteuri$ed milk does not have the right to be called brie de /eau+.
Brie de *elun
smaller than brie de /eau+, another raw-cow's-milk cheese, aged at least
one month, with a crackly rust-colored rind.
Brouillade
a mi+ture of ingredients as in a stew or soup! also, scrambled eggs.
Broutard
young goat.
Buffet froid
variety of dishes served cold, sometimes from a buffet.
?drat
a variety of /editerranean lemon.
?leri remoulade
popular first-course bistro dish of shredded celery root with tangy
mayonnaise.
?te d'agneau
lamb chop.
?te de boeuf
beef blade or rib steak.
?te de !eau
veal chop.
abillaud
fresh codfish, also currently called morue, known as doguette in the 4orth,
bakalua in the %as&ue region, eglefin in 'rovence.
aen, ? la mode de
in the style of "aen, a town in 4ormandy! a dish cooked in "alvados and
white wine andBor cider.
alisson d'Aix
:elicate, diamond-shaped 'roven?al sweet prepared with almonds,
candied oranges, melon or abricots, egg white, sugar, and confiture of
oranges or apricots.
al!ados
a d?partement in 4ormandy known for the famed apple brandy.
amembert (de .ormandie)
village in 4ormandy that gives its name to a supple, fragrant cheese made
of cow's milk.
am"agnard(e) (assiette)
country-style, rustic! (an informal buffet of cold meats, terrines, etc.).
anada
cooking apple.
anard
duck.
anard ? la "resse
roast duck served with a sauce of 2uices obtained from pressing the
carcass, combined with red wine and "ognac.
anard sau!age
wild duck, usually mallard.
a"ilotade
basically any leftover meat or poultry cooked to tenderness in a well-
reduced sauce.
arafe (d'eau)
pitcher (of tap water). Couse wine is often offered in a carafe. full carafe
contains one liter! a demi-carafe contains half a liter! a &uart contains one-
fourth of a liter.
arbonnade
braised beef stew prepared with beer and onions! specialty of the 4orth!
also refers to a cut of beef.
ardamome
cardamon.
arde
white rib, or stalk, portion of Swiss chard.
ardon
cardoon! large celery-like vegetable in the artichoke family, popular in
,yon, 'rovence, and the /editerranean area.
argolade
a copious mi+ed grill of snails, lamb, pork sausage, and sometimes blood
sausage, cooked over vine clippings! specialty of "atalan, an area of
southern ,anguedoc.
arr? d'agneau
rack (ribs) or loin of lamb! also crown roast.
arr? de "ort
rack (ribs) or loin of pork! also crown roast.
arr? de !eau
rack (ribs) or loin of veal! also crown roast.
ar!i (grain de)
caraway (seed).
assis (cr?me de)
black currant (black currant li&ueur).
assonade
soft brown sugar! demerara sugar.
a!iar d'aubergine
cold seasoned eggplant puree.
a!iar du Puy
green lentils from ,e 'uy, in the uvergne.
endre (sous la)
ash (cooked by being buried in embers)! some cheeses made in wine-
producing regions are aged in the ash of burned rootstocks.
erdon
%ubbly (p?tillant) wine (red or white?) from the %ugey.
er!elle de canut
a soft, fresh herbed cheese known as )silkworker's brains)! specialty of
,yon.
h?!re (fromage de)
goat (goat's-milk cheese).
ham"!allon, c?telette d'agneau
traditional dish of lamb chops baked in alternating layers of potatoes and
onions! named for a village in northern %urgundy.
ha"on de mer
/editerranean fish, in the rascasse or scorpion-fish family.
harbon de bois, au
charcoal-grilled.
hateaubriand
thick filet steak, traditionally served with saut?ed potatoes and a sauce of
white wine, dark beef stock, butter, shallots, and herbs, or with a b?
arnaise sauce.
haud(e)
hot or warm.
haud-froid
)hot-cold)! cooked poultry dish served cold, usually covered with a cooked
sauce, then with aspic.
haudr
tlantic fish stew, often including sole, skate, small eels, potatoes, butter,
white wine, and seasoning.
he!eux d'ange
)angel's hair)! thin vermicelli pasta.
hicons du .ord
%elgian endive.
hiffonnade
shredded herbs and vegetables, usually green.
hinchard
also called saurel, scad or horse mackerel! tlantic and /editerranean fish
similar to mackerel.
hou de Bruxelles
brussels sprout.
hou de mer
sea kale.
hou de *ilan
Savoy cabbage.
idre
bottled, mildly alcoholic cider, either apple or pear.
igale de mer
)sea cricket)! tender, crayfish-like, blunt-nosed rock lobster.
i!et de li?!re
2ugged hare, or wild rabbit stew.
i!et de tri"es d'oies
a stew of goose innards, saut?ed in fat with onions, shallots, and garlic,
then cooked in wine vinegar and diluted with water, and thickened with
goose blood! from -ascony.
ochon (de lait)
pig (suckling).
oco de Paim"ol
"ream-colored shell bean striated with purple, from %rittany, in season
from 8uly to 4ovember! the first bean in 3rance to receive 6".
oeur de filet
thickest (and best) part of beef filet, usually cut into chateaubriand steaks.
oeur de "almier
delicate shoots of the palm tree, generally served with a vinaigrette as an
hors d'oeuvre.
ommander a!ant le re"as,
a selection of desserts that should be ordered when selecting first and
main courses, as they re&uire longer cooking.
onfiture de !ieux gar?on
varied fresh fruits macerated in alcohol.
o' de bruy?re
wood grouse.
oriandre
coriander! either the fresh herb or dried seeds.
orne d'abondance
)horn of plenty)! dark brown wild mushroom, also called trompette de la
mort.
otriade
a fish stew, usually including mackerel, whiting, conger eel, sorrel, butter,
potatoes, and vinegar! specialty of %rittany.
ou d'oie (de canard) farci
neck skin of goose (of duck), stuffed with meat and spices, much like
sausage.
ourge (muscade)
generic term for s&uash or gourd (bright orange pumpkin).
r?te (de co')
(cocks) comb.
ra"audine
preparation of grilled poultry or game bird with backbone removed.
resson(ade)
watercress (watercress sauce).
ro?te de sel (en)
(in) a salt crust.
ro'ue-madame
open-face sandwich of ham and cheese with an egg grilled on top.
rottin de ha!ignol
small flattened ball of goat's-milk cheese from the ,oire valley."roustade
usually small pastry-wrapped dish! also regional southwestern pastry filled
with prunes andBor apples.
rudit
raw vegetable.
uisse (de "oulet)
leg or thigh (chicken drumstick).
ure-dent
toothpick.
1
diced pieces.
1?caf?in? or d?ca
decaffeinated coffee.
1?corti'u?(e)
shelled or peeled.
1?gustation
tasting or sampling.
1?jeuner
lunch.
1?ner
dinner! to dine.
1?soss
boned.
1amier
)checkerboard)! arrangement of vegetables or other ingredients in
alternating colors like a checkerboard! also, a cake with such a pattern of
light and dark pieces.
1ariole
truncated cone or oval-shaped baking mold.
1arne
a rectangular portion of fish filet! also a fish steak, usually of salmon.
1artois
puff pastry rectangles layered with an almond cream filling as a dessert, or
stuffed with meat or fish as an hors-d'oeuvre.
1atte (de mer)
date (date-shaped pri$ed wild /editerranean mussel).
1aube
a stew, usually of beef lamb, or mutton, with red wine, onions, andBor
tomatoes! specialty of many regions, particularly 'roven?e and the
tlantic coast.
1au"hin
cow's-milk cheese shaped like a dauphin, or dolphin! from the 4orth.
1aurade
sea bream, similar to porgy, the most pri$ed of a group of ocean fish
known as dorade.
1emi
half! also, an ?-ounce (@>D ml) glass of beer! also, a half-bottle of wine.
1emi-deuil
)in half mourning)! poached (usually chicken) with sliced truffles inserted
under the skin! also, sweetbreads with a truffled white sauce.
1emi-glace
concentrated beef-based sauce lightened with consomm?, or a lighter
brown sauce.
1emi-sec
usually refers to goat cheese that is in the intermediate aging stage
between one e+treme of soft and fresh and the other e+treme of hard and
aged.
1emi-sel (buerre)
lightly salted (butter).
1emi-tasse
small cup! after-dinner coffee cup.
1emoiselle de canard
marinated raw duck tenderloin! also called mignon de canard.
1emoiselles de herbourg
small lobsters from the town of "herbourg in 4ormandy, cooked in a court-
bouillon and served in cooking 2uices. lso, restaurant name for %reton
lobsters weighing EDD to FDD grams (<D to <E ounces).
1ent, dent
one of a generic group of /editerranean fish known as dorade, similar to
porgy.
1entelle
)lace)! a portion of meat or fish so thinly sliced as to suggest a
resemblance. lso, large lace-thin sweet cr?pe.
1ents-de-lion
dandelion salad green! also called pissenlit.
1iable
)devil)! method of preparing poultry with a peppery sauce, often mustard-
based. lso, a round pottery casserole.
1ie""oise
:ieppe style! usually white wine, mussels, shrimp, mushrooms, and
cream.
1igestif
general term for spirits served after dinner! such as rmagnac, "ognac,
marc, eau-de-vie.
1ijonnaise
:i2on style! usually with mustard.
1inde
turkey hen.
1indon(neau)
turkey (young turkey).
1iot
pork sausage cooked in wine, often served with a potato gratin! specialty
of the Savoie.
1iscr?tion,
on menus usually refers to wine, which may be consumed--without limit--
at the customers discretion.
1odine
cold stuffed boned poultry.
1or
browned until golden.
1orade
generic name for group of ocean fish, the most pri$ed of which is daurade,
similar to porgy.
1os
back! also the meatiest portion of fish.
1oucette
see /?che.
1ouceur
sweet or dessert.
1ouillon, duillon
a whole pear wrapped and cooked in pastry! specialty of 4ormandy.
1oux, douce
sweet.
1oyenn? de omice
a variety of pear.
1ugl?r
white flour-based sauce with shallots, white wine, tomatoes, and parsley.
1ur (oeuf)
hard (hard-cooked egg).
1uxelles
minced mushrooms and shallots saut?ed in butter, then mi+ed with cream.
+au de source
spring water.
+au du robinet
tap water.
+au-de-!ie
literally, )water of life)! brandy, usually fruit-based.
+clade de moules
mussels roasted beneath a fire of pine needles! specialty of the tlantic
coast.
+mbeurr? de chou
buttery cooked cabbage.
+mond
skinned by blanching, such as almonds, tomatoes.
+nchaud
pork filet with garlic! specialty of :ordogne.
+ndi!e
%elgian endive! also chicory salad green.
+ntrec?te ma?tre d'h?tel
beef rib steak with sauce of red wine and shallots.
+"i de ma
ear of sweet corn.
+"inard
spinach.
+scali!ada
"atalan roasted vegetables, usually sweet peppers, eggplant and onions.
+scargot de Bourgogne
land snail prepared with butter! garlic, and parsley.
+s"adon
swordfish found in the gulf of -ascony, tlantic, and /editerranean.
+s'ueixada
in "atalan literally means )shredded!) a shredded salt cod salad.
+stoficado
a pur?e-like blend of dried codfish, olive oil, tomatoes, sweet peppers,
black olives, potatoes, garlic, onions, and herbs! also called stockfish ni?
oise! specialty of 4ice.
+stofinado
a pur?e-like blend of dried codfish, potatoes, garlic, parsley, eggs, walnut
oil, and milk, served with triangles of toast! specialty of the uvergne.
+stouffade ? la "ro!en?ale
beef stew with onions, garlic, carrots, and orange $est.
2aisand
game that has been hung to age.
2a!orite d'artichaut
classic vegetable dish of artichoke stuffed with asparagus, covered with a
cheese sauce, and browned.
2eu de bois, au
cooked over a wood fires.
2euille de ch?ne
oak-leaf lettuce.
2euille de !igne
vine leaf.
2iadone
"orsican flan made from cheese and oranges.
2icelle "icarde
thin cr?pe wrapped around a slice of ham and topped with a cheesy
cream sauce! specialty of 'icardy, in the 4orth.
2ine de claire
elongated crinkle-shelled oyster that stays in fattening beds (claires) a
minimum of two months.
2lagnarde, flaugnarde, flognarde
hot, fruit-filled batter cake made with eggs, flour, milk, and butter, and
sprinkled with sugar before serving! specialty of the southwest.
2leur (de sel)
flower (fine, delicate sea salt, from %rittany or the "amargue).
2leur de courgette
$ucchini blossom.
2oie blond de !olaille
chicken liver! also sometimes a chicken-liver mousse.
2oie de !eau
calfs liver.
2oie gras d'oie (de canard)
liver of fattened goose (duck).
2oin (dan le)
(cooked in) hay.
2ond
cooking 2uices from meat, used to make sauces. lso, bottom.
2ond d'artichaut
heart and base of an artichoke.
2ondant
)melting)! refers to cooked, worked sugar that is flavored, then used for
icing cakes. lso, the bittersweet chocolate high in cocoa butter used for
making the shiniest chocolates. lso, pur?ed meat, fish, or vegetables
shaped in cro&uettes.
2ondu(e)
melted.
2oudjou
a pungent goat-cheese spread, a blend of fresh and aged grated cheese
mi+ed with salt, pepper, brandy, and garlic and cured in a crock! specialty
of northern 'rovence.
2ourme d'Ambert
cylindrical blue-veined cow's-milk cheese, made in dairies around the town
of mbert in the uvergne.
2raise des bois
wild strawberry.
2riandise
sweetmeat, petit four.
2ricadelle
fried minced meat patty.
2ricandeau
thinly sliced veal or a rump roast, braised with vegetables and white wine.
2ricot (de !eau)
veal shoulder simmered in white wine with vegetables.
2roid(e)
cold.
2romage de t?te
headcheese, usually pork.
2ruits de mer
seafood.
-alette bressane, galette de P?rouges
cream and sugar tart from the %resse area of the 7h?ne-lpes.
-alette des rois
puff pastry filled with almond pastry cream, traditional 0welfth 4ight
celebration cake.
-ardiane
stew of beef or bull (toro) meat, with bacon, onions, garlic, and black
olives! served with rice! specialty of the "amargue, in 'rovence.
-asconnade
roast leg of lamb with garlic and anchovies! specialty of the southwest.
-aude
thick corn-flour porridge served hot, or cold and sliced, with cream.
-endarme
salted and smoked herring.
-igot (de "r? sal
usually a leg of lamb (lamb gra$ed on the salt meadows along the tlantic
and 4ormandy coasts).
-igot de mer
a preparation, usually of large pieces of monkfish (lotte) oven-roasted like
a leg of lamb.
-igue (de)
haunch (of) certain game meats.
-illardeau
pri$ed oyster raised in 4ormandy and finished in claires, or fattening beds
on the tlantic coast.
-ourmandise(s)
weakness for sweet things! (sweetmeats or candies).
-ousse d'ail
clove of garlic.
-ousse de !anille
vanilla bean.
-raine de moutarde
mustard seed.
-rand cr?me
large or double espresso with milk.
-rand cru
top-ranking wine.
-rand !eneur
)chief huntsman)! usually a brown sauce for game, with red currant 2elly.
-ra""e (de raisins)
cluster! bunch (of grapes).
-ras-double
tripe baked with onions and white wine.
-ratin dau"hinoise
baked casserole of sliced potatoes, usually with cream, milk, and
sometimes cheese andBor eggs.
-ratin sa!oyarde
baked casserole of sliced potatoes, usually with bouillon, cheese, and
butter.
-renade
pomegranate.
-renadin
small veal scallop.
-renouille (cuisse de)
frog (leg).
-rillade
grilled meat.
-roin d'ane
)donkeys snout)! ,yonnais name for a bitter winter salad green similar to
dandelion greens.
-rondin
red gurnard, a bony ocean fish, a member of the mullet family, used in fish
stews such as bouillabaisse.
(addoc&
small fresh cod that have been salted and smoked.
(addoc&
small fresh cod that have been salted and smoked.
(erbes de Pro!ence
mi+ture of thyme, rosemary, summer savory, and bay leaf, often dried and
blended.
(erbes de Pro!ence
mi+ture of thyme, rosemary, summer savory, and bay leaf, often dried and
blended.
(irondelle
swallow.
(irondelle
swallow.
(ollandaise
sauce of butter, egg yolks, and lemon 2uice.
(ollandaise
sauce of butter, egg yolks, and lemon 2uice.
(omard (? lAmoricaine, ? lAm?ricaine)
lobster! (a classic dish of many variations, in which lobster is cut into
sections and browned, then simmered with shallots, minced onions,
tomatoes, "ognac, and white wine! served with a sauce of the reduced
cooking li&uid, enriched with butter).
(omard (? lAmoricaine, ? lAm?ricaine)
lobster! (a classic dish of many variations, in which lobster is cut into
sections and browned, then simmered with shallots, minced onions,
tomatoes, "ognac, and white wine! served with a sauce of the reduced
cooking li&uid, enriched with butter).
(ors-d'oeu!re
appeti$er! can also refer to a first course.
(ors-d'oeu!re
appeti$er! can also refer to a first course.
(ure de "orc or de marcassin
head of pig or boar - usually refers to headcheese preparation.
(ure de "orc or de marcassin
head of pig or boar - usually refers to headcheese preparation.
(ure de saumon
a salmon )headcheese,) or p?t?, prepared with salmon meat, not actually
the head.
(ure de saumon
a salmon )headcheese,) or p?t?, prepared with salmon meat, not actually
the head.
3ndienne, ? l
.ast #ndian style, usually with curry powder.
3sman bayaldi, imam bayaldi
)the priest fainted) - in 0urkish! a dish of eggplant stuffed with saut?ed
onions, tomatoes, and spices! served cold.
0?sus de *orteau
plump smoked pork sausage that takes its name from the town of /orteau
in the 8ura! distinctive because a wooden peg is tied in the sausage
casing on one end! traditionally, the sausage eaten at "hristmas, hence its
name! also called saucisson de /orteau.
0ardini?re
refers to a garnish of fresh cooked vegetables.
0arret (de !eau, de "orc, de boeuf)
knuckle (of veal or pork), shin (of beef).
5am"roie (? la bordelaise)
lamprey eel, ocean fish that swim into rivers along the tlantic in
springtime (hearty stew of lamprey eel and leeks in red wine).
5andaise, ? la
from the ,andes in southwestern 3rance! classically a garnish of garlic,
pine nuts, and goose fat.
5angue (de chat)
tongue ()cat's tongue)! thin, narrow, delicate cookie often served with
sherbet or ice).
5anguedocienne
garnish, usually of tomatoes, eggplant, and wild c?pe mushrooms.
5a"in de garenne
wild rabbit.
5ard
bacon.
5arder
to thread meat, fish, or liver with strips of fat for added moisture.
5ardon
cube of bacon.
5entilles (de Puy)
lentils (pri$ed green lentils from the village of 'uy in the uvergne).
5imande
lemon sole, also called dab or sand dab, not as firm or pri$ed as sole,
found in the .nglish "hannel, the tlantic, and, rarely, in the
/editerranean.
5otte de ri!i?re (or de lac)
fine-fleshed river (or lake) fish, pri$ed for its large and flavorful liver. 4ot
related to the ocean fish lotte, or monkfish.
5ou" de mer
wolf fish or ocean catfish! name for sea bass in the /editerranean.
*?daillon
round piece or slice, usually of fish or meat.
*?re (de ronces)
blackberry (bush).
*a?tre d'h?tel
headwaiter. lso, sauce of butter, parsley and lemon.
*ac?doine
diced mi+ed fruit or vegetables.
*acaronade
a rich blend of wild and domestic mushrooms and chunks of foie gras,
smothered in fresh pasta! specialty of the southwest. lso, macaroni with
mushrooms, bacon, white wine, and 'armesan cheese! an
accompaniment to a beef stew, or daube! specialty of 'rovence.
*ad?re
/adeira.
*adeleine (de ommercy)
small scalloped-shaped tea cake made famous by /arcel 'roust! (the
town in the ,orraine where the tea cakes are commerciali$ed).
*adril?ne, ? la
in the style of /adrid! with tomatoes. "lassically a garnish of peeled
chopped tomatoes for consomm?.
*agret de canard (or d'oie)
breast of fattened duck (or goose).
*aison, de la
of the house, or restaurant.
*al!oisie, !inaigre de
vinegar made from the malvasia grape, used for the sweet, heavy
/almsey wine.
*andarine
tangerine.
*ani?re, de
in the style of.
*ara de Bois
small fragrant strawberry, like a cross between a domestic and wild
strawberry.
*archand de !in
wine merchant. lso, sauce made with red wine, meat stock, and chopped
shallots.
*arinade
seasoned li&uid in which food, usually meat, is soaked for several hours.
0he li&uid seasons and tenderi$es at the same time.
*armelade
traditionally a thick pur?e of fruit, or sweet stewed fruit! today pur?e of
vegetable, or stewed vegetables.
*atelote (d'anguilles)
freshwater fish (or eel) stew.
*elon de a!aillon
small canteloupe-like melon from "availlon, a town in 'rovence known for
its wholesale produce market.
*endiant, fruits du
traditional mi+ture of figs, almonds, ha$elnuts, and raisins, whose colors
suggest the robes of the mendicant friars it is named after.
*ignardise
see 'etit-four.
*ignon de canard
see :cmsiselle de canard.
*iroton (de)
slice (of). lso, stew of meats flavored with onions.
*ode de, ? la
in the style of.
*ontagne, de la
from the mountains.
*or!andelle, jambon ? la
in the style of the /orvan (ham in a pi&uant creamy sauce made with
white wine, vinegar, 2uniper berries, shallots, and cream).
*or!andelle, r?"
grated potato mi+ed with eggs, cream, and cheese, baked until golden.
*ouclade
creamy mussel stew from the 'oitou-"harentes on the tlantic "oast,
generally flavored with curry or saffron.
*oule d'+s"agne
large, sharp-shelled mussel, often served raw as part of a seafood platter.
*oule de bouchot
small, highly pri$ed cultivated mussel, raised on stakes driven into the
sediment of shallow coastal beds.
*oule de Bouzigues
iodine-strong mussel from the village of %ou$igues, on the /editerranean
coast.
*oule de "ar'ues
:utch cultivated mussel, usually raised in fattening beds or diverted
ponds.
*outarde (? lancienne, en graines)
mustard (old-style, coarse-grained).
*ulard
breed of duck common to the southwest, fattened for its delicate liver, for
foie gras.
*uscade
nutmeg.
*uscat de (ambourg
variety of popular purple table grape, grown in 'rovence.
*useau de "orc (or de boeuf)
vinegared pork (or beef).
.ormande
in the style of 4ormandy! sauce of seafood, cream, and mushrooms. lso
refers to fish or meat cooked with apple cider or "alvados! or dessert with
apples, usually served with cream.
#li!e de .yons
wrinkled black olive, first olive in 3rance to receive 6". lso used for oil.
#reille de "orc
cooked pigs ear! served grilled, with a coating of egg and bread crumb.
#ursinade
creamy sea urchin soup.
P?bre d'ail
see 'oivre d'?ne.
P?che Alexandra
cold dessert of poached peaches with ice cream and pur?ed strawberries.
P?landron
see haricot gris.
P?lardon
small flat, dried, pungent disc of goat's milk cheese! specialty of the
,anguedoc.
P?rigourdine, ? la, or P?rigueux
sauce, usually with truffles and foie gras, named for the '?rigord in
southwestern 3rance.
Paillarde (de !eau)
thick slice (of veal)! also, piece of meat pounded flat and saute?ed.
Palmier, coeur de
heart of palm.
Palourde
pri$ed medium-si$e clam.
Panade
panada, a thick mi+ture used to bind forcemeats and &uenelles, usually
flour and butter based, but can also contain fresh or toasted bread
crumbs, rice, or potatoes. lso refers to soup of bread, milk, and
sometimes cheese.
Pa!? d'Auge
thick, ochre colored s&uare of cow's-milk cheese that comes from the
uge area of 4ormandy.
Pa!ot (graine de)
poppy (seed).
Perdreau
young partridge.
Perdrix
partridge.
Persillade
blend of chopped parsley and garlic.
Pet de nonne
)nuns fart)! small, dainty beignets, or fried pastry.
Petit d?jeuner
breakfast.
Picodon (m?thode 1ieulefit)
small disc of goat's-milk cheese, the best of which (&ualified as m?thode
:ieulefit) is hard, pi&uant, and pungent from having soaked in brandy and
aged a month in earthenware 2ars! specialty of northern 'rovence.
Pied de che!al
)horses foot)! giant tlantic coast oyster.
Pied de mouton
meaty cream-colored wild mushroom. lso, sheep's foot.
Pieds et "a'uets
)feet and packages)! mutton tripe rolled and cooked with sheep's feet,
white wine, and tomatoes! specialty of 'rovence and the /editerranean.
Pilchard
name for sardines on the tlantic coast.
Piment (or "oi!re) de 0ama?'ue
allspice.
Piment d'+s"elette
slender, mildly hot chile pepper from .spelette, a village in the %as&ue
region.
Piment doux
sweet pepper.
Pineau des harentes
sweet fortified wine from the "ognac region on the tlantic coast, served
as an aperitif.
Pintade(au)
(young) guinea fowl.
Pi"?rade
a dish of pepper! onions, tomatoes, and often ham and scrambled eggs!
specialty of the %as&ue region.
Pissaladi?re
a flat open-face tart like a pi$$a, garnished with onions, olives, and
anchovies! specialty of 4ice.
Pistil de safran
thread of saffron.
Plat du jour
todays special.
Plateau de fruits de mer
seafood platter combining raw and cooked shell-fish! usually includes
oysters, clams, mussels, langoustines, periwinkles, whelks, crabs, and tiny
shrimp.
Point(e) (d'as"erge)
tip (of asparagus).
Poitrine demi-sel
unsmoked slab bacon.
Poi!rade
a peppery brown sauce made with wine, vinegar, and cooked vegetables
and strained before serving.
Poi!ron (doux)
(sweet bell) pepper.
Pommade (beurre en)
usually refers to a thick, smooth paste! (creamed butter).
Pommes de terre
potatoes.
? langlaise boiled.
allumettes )match-sticks)! fries cut into very thin 2ulienne.
boulang?re potatoes cooked with the meat they accompany. lso,
a gratin of sliced potatoes, baked with milk or stock and sometimes
flavored with onions, bacon, and tomatoes.
darphin grated potatoes shaped into a cake.
dauphine mashed potatoes mi+ed with cbou+ pastry, shaped into
small balls and fried.
dauphinoise a gratin of sliced potatoes, baked with milk andBor
cream, garlic, cheese, and eggs.
duchesse mashed potatoes with butter, egg yolks, and nutmeg,
used for garnish.
en robe des champs( en robe de chambre potatoes boiled or
baked in their skin! potatoes in their 2ackets.
frites 3rench fries.
gratin?es browned potatoes, often with cheese.
lyonnaise potatoes saut?ed with onions.
macaire classic side dish of pur?ed potatoes shaped into small
balls and fried or baked in a flat cake.
mousseline potato pur?e enriched with butter, egg yolks, and
whipped cream.
paillasson fried pancake of grated potatoes.
pailles potatoes cut into 2ulienne strips, then fried.
Pont-)euf classic fries.
sarladaise sliced potatoes cooked with goose fat and (optionally)
truffles.
souffl?es small, thin slices of potatoes fried twice, causing them to
inflate so they resemble little pillows.
sous la c?ndre baked under cinders in a fireplace.
vapeur steamed or boiled potatoes.
Pom"e ? lhuile, "om"e de .o
see -ibassier.
Porc (c?te de)
pork (chop).
Porc (carr? de)
pork (loin).
Pot-de-cr?me
individual classic custard dessert, often chocolate.
Poularde
fatted hen.
Poule d'3nde
turkey hen.
Poulet de Bresse
high-&uality chicken raised on farms to e+acting specifications, from the
7h?ne-lpes.
Poulet de grain
corn-fed chicken.
Pr?-sal? (agneau de)
delicately salted lamb raised on the salt marshes of 4ormandy and the
tlantic coast.
Prune (d'ente)
fresh plum! (variety of plum grown in the famed gen region of the
southwest).
Puits d'amour
)wells of love)! classic small pastry crowns filled with pastry cream.
7uasi (de !eau)
standing rump (of veal).
7ueue (de boeuf)
tail (of beef!o+tail).
8?ble de li?!re (la"in)
saddle of hare (rabbit).
8?moulade (c?leri)
sauce of mayonnaise, capers, mustard, herbs, anchovies, and gherkins!
(dish of shredded celery root with mayonnaise).
8adis
small red radish.
8adis noir
large black radish, often served with cream, as a salad.
8a!iole de 8oyans
tiny ravioli pasta filled with goat cheese, from the 7h?ne-lpes.
8eine-laude
greengage plum.
8einette, reine de
fall and winter variety of apple, deep yellow with a red blush.
8illettes (d'oie)
minced spread of pork (goose)! can also be made with duck, fish, or
rabbit.
8is d'agneau (de !eau)
lamb (veal) sweetbreads.
8obe des cham"s, robe de chambre ("ommes
potatoes boiled or baked in their skin! potatoes in their 2ackets.
8ocamadour
village in southwestern 3rance which gives its name to a tiny disc of
cheese, once made of pure goat's or sheep's milk, now generally either
goat
8ognonnade
veal loin with kidneys attached.
8ondelle
round slice--of lemon, for e+ample.
8osette (de boeuf)
large dried pork (beef) sausage, from area around ,yon.
8ouennaise (canard ? la)
in the style of 7ouen! (classic dish of duck stuffed with its liver in a blood-
thickened sauce).
8ouget barbet, rouget de roche
red mullet, a pri$ed, e+pensive rock-fish, with sweet flesh and red skin! its
flavorful liver is reserved for sauces.
8ouget grondin
red gurnard, a large, common rockfish, less pri$ed than rouget barbet.
variety of galinette. n ingredient in bouillabaisse.
8oulade
meat or fish roll, or rolled-up vegetahle souffl?! larger than a paupiette,
and often stuffed.
8usse, salade ? la
cold mi+ed salad of peas and diced carrots and turnips in mayonnaise.
/abodet
strong, earthy pork sausage of pigs head and skin, served hot! specialty of
,yon.
/aindoux
lard or pork fat.
/alade
salad! also, a head of lettuce.
/alade folle
mi+ed salad, usually including green beans and foie gras.
/alade lyonnaise
green salad with cubed bacon and soft-cooked eggs, often served with
herring and anchovies, andBor sheep's feet and chicken livers! specialty of
,yon! also called saladier lyonnais.
/alade ni?oise
salad with many variations, but usually with tomatoes, green beans,
anchovies, tuna, potatoes, black olives, capers, and artichokes.
/alade "anach
mi+ed salad.
/alade russe
mi+ed diced vegetables in mayonnaise.
/alade !erte
green salad.
/aladier (lyonnais)
see Salade lyonnaise.
/andre
pickerel, perch-like river fish, found in the Sa?ne and 7hine.
/ardine
small sardine. ,arge sardines are called pilchards. 3ound year-round in
the /editerranean, from /ay to 6ctober in the tlantic.
/arladaise
as prepared in Sarlat in the :ordogne! with truffles.
/aucisse chaude
warm sausage.
/aucisse de 2rancfort
hot dog.
/aucisse de /trasbourg
redskinned hot dog.
/aucisse de :oulouse
mild country-style pork sausage.
/aucisson d'Arles
dried salami-style sausage that blends pork, beef and gentle seasoning! a
specialty of rles, in 'rovence.
/aucisson de cam"agne
any country-style sausage.
/aucisson de 5yon
air-dried pork sausage, flavored with garlic and pepper and studded with
chunks of pork fat.
/aucisson de *orteau
see 8?sus de /orteau.
/aumon d'+cosse
Scottish salmon.
/aumon de fontaine
small, commercially raised salmon.
/a!oie (biscuit de)
sponge cake.
/a!oyarde
in the style of Savoy, usually flavored with -ruy?re cheese.
/elon "oid (/;P;)
according to weight, usually said of seafood. Semolina or crushed wheat.
lso used in 3rance as a savory garnish, particularly in 4orth frican
dishes such as couscous.
/oja ("ousse de)
soy bean (soy bean sprout).
/oja, sauce de
soy sauce.
/ou"ir de nonne
)nuns sighs)! fried chou+ pastry dusted with confectioners sugar. "reated
by a nun in an lsatian abbey. lso called pet de nonne.
/toc&fish, stocaficada, estoficada, esto
flattened, dried cod found in southern 3rance. lso, a pur?e-like blend of
dried codfish, olive oil, tomatoes, sweet peppers, black olives, potatoes,
garlic, onions, and herbs! specialty of 4ice. Sometimes served with pistou.
:?te de !eau ("orc)
head of veal (pork), usually used in headcheese.
:able d'h?te
open table or board. 6ften found in the countryside, these are private
homes that serve fi+ed meals and often have one or two guest rooms as
well.
:ablette (de chocolat)
bar (of chocolate).
:ablier de sa"eur
)firemans apron)! tripe that is marinated, breaded, and grilled! specialty of
,yon.
:acaud
pour or whiting-pour, a small, ine+pensive fish found in the tlantic and
/editerranean, usually fried.
:a"enade
a blend of black olives, anchovies, capers, olive oil, and lemon 2uice,
sometimes with rum or canned tuna added! specialty of 'rovence.
:artare (de "oisson)
traditionally chopped raw beef, seasoned and garnished with raw egg,
capers, chopped onion, and parsley! (today, a popular highly seasoned
raw fish dish).
:endre
tender.
:endron
cartilaginous meat cut from beef or veal ribs.
:hermidor (homard)
classic lobster dish! lobster split lengthwise, grilled, and served in the shell
with a cream sauce.
:i?de
lukewarm.
:ournedos
center portion of beef filet, usually grilled or saut?ed.
:ournedos 8ossini
saut?ed tournedos garnished with foie gras and truffles.
:rain de c?tes
rib of beef.
:ra!ers de "orc
spareribs.
:ri"es ? la mode de aen
beef tripe, carrots, onions, leeks, and spices, cooked in water, cider, and
"alvados (apple brandy)! specialty of 4ormandy.
:rom"ettes de la mort
dark brown wild mushroom, also known as )horn of plenty.)
:ruffade
a large layered and fried potato pancake made with bacon and fresh
"antal cheese! specialty of the uvergne.
:ruffes sous la cendre
truffles wrapped in pastry or foil, gently warmed as they are buried in
ashes.
9all?e d'Auge
area of 4ormandy. lso, garnish of cooked apples and cream or "alvados
and cream.
9erdure (en)
garnish of green vegetables.
9erdurette
herb vinaigrette.
9iande
meat.
9inaigre de x?r
sherry vinegar.
9iolet de Pro!ence
braid of plump garlic, a specialty of 'rovence and the "?te-d'$ur.
9iolet or figue de mer
unusual iodine-strong, soft-shelled edible sea creature, with a yellowish
interior. delicacy along the /editerranean, particularly in /arseille.
9i!e or !i"?re de mer
weever! a small firm-fleshed ocean fish used in soups, such as
bouillabaisse, or grilled. 0he venomous spine is removed before cooking.
<?r?s (!inaigre de)
sherry (vinegar).
Bar'uette
)small boat)! pastry shaped like a small boat.
Bas'uaise, ? la
%as&ue style! usually with ham or tomatoes or red peppers.
Biologi'ue
organic.
Blan'uette
classic mild stew of poached veal, lamb, chicken, or seafood, enriched
with an egg and cream white sauce! supposedly a dish for convalescents.
Bou'uet
large reddish shrimp. See also Crevette rose.
Bou'uet garni
typically fresh whole parsley bay leaf and thyme tied together with string
and tucked into stews! the package is removed prior to serving.
Bou'ueti?re
garnished with bou&uets of vegetables.
o' (au !in)
mature male chicken (stewed in wine sauce).
o' au !in jaune
chicken cooked in the sherry-like vin 2aune of the region, with cream,
butter! and tarragon, often garnished with morels! specialty of the 8ura.
o' de bruy?re
wood grouse.
o'ue
cockle, a tiny, mild-flavored, clam-like shellfish.
o'ue, ? la
served in a shell. See 6euf ? la co&ue.
o'uelet
young male chicken.
o'uillage(s)
shellfish.
o'uille
shell.
o'uille /aint-0ac'ues
sea scallop.
r?te (de co')
(cocks) comb.
rami'ue
brioche with raisins or currants! specialty of the 4orth.
ra'uant
crunchy.
ra'uelot
smoked herring.
ri'ue
potato pancake from the uvergne.
ro'ue au sel, ? la
served raw, with a small bowl of coarse salt for seasoning! tiny purple
artichokes and cherry tomatoes are served this way.
ro'ue-madame
open-face sandwich of ham and cheese with an egg grilled on top.
ro'ue-monsieur
toasted ham and cheese sandwich.
ro'uembouche
chou+ pastry rounds filled with cream and coated with a sugar gla$e, often
served in a conical tower at special events.
ro'uette
ground meat, fish, fowl, or vegetables bound with eggs or sauce, shaped
into various forms, usually coated in bread crumbs, and deep fried.
1?corti'u?(e)
shelled or peeled.
+'uille
sand eel, a long silvery fish that buries itself in the sand! eaten fried on the
tlantic coast.
+s'ueixada
in "atalan literally means )shredded!) a shredded salt cod salad.
-rec'ue, ? la
cooked in seasoned mi+ture of oil, lemon 2uice, and water! refers to cold
vegetables, usually mushrooms.
(areng balti'ue, bismar&
marinated herring.
(areng balti'ue, bismar&
marinated herring.
*a'uereau
mackerel! lisette is a small mackerel.
*ar'uise (au chocolat)
mousse-like (chocolate) cake.
*i'ue
generally a large breaded dumpling, poached and served with stews and
meats! specialty of the Southwest.
*ollus'ue
mollusk.
*osa?'ue
)mosaic!) a presentation of /i+ed ingredients.
*oule de "ar'ues
:utch cultivated mussel, usually raised in fattening beds or diverted
ponds.
Panne'uet
rolled cr?pe, filled andBor covered with sweet or savory mi+ture.
Pa'uet (en)
(in) a package or parcel.
Past?'ue
watermelon.
Pe'uillo
small red Spanish pepper, usually stuffed with salt cod pur?e.
Pieds et "a'uets
)feet and packages)! mutton tripe rolled and cooked with sheep's feet,
white wine, and tomatoes! specialty of 'rovence and the /editerranean.
Pierre-7ui-9ire
)stone that moves)! a supple, tangy, flat disc of cow's-milk cheese with a
reddish rind, made by the %enedictine monks at the bbaye de la 'ierre-
Hui ;ire in %urgundy.
Piment (or "oi!re) de 0ama?'ue
allspice.
Pi'u
larded! studded.
Pi'uant(e)
sharp or spicy tasting.
Pi'uenchagne, "icanchagne
a pear tart with walnut or brioche crust! specialty of the %ourbonnais, a
province in uvergne.
Pont l+!?'ue
village in 4ormandy that gives its name to a very tender, fragrant s&uare
of cow's milk cheese.
Poulet bas'uaise
%as&ue-style chicken, with tomatoes and sweet peppers.
7uasi (de !eau)
standing rump (of veal).
7uatre ?"ices
spice blend of ground ginger, nutmeg, white pepper, and cloves.
7uatre-'uarts
)four &uarters)! pound cake made with e&ual weights of eggs, flour, butter,
and sugar.
7uenelle
dumpling, usually of veal, fish, or poultry.
7uetsche
small purple :amson plum.
7ueue (de boeuf)
tail (of beef!o+tail).
7uiche lorraine
savory custard tart made with bacon, eggs, and cream.
8ame'uin
small individual casserole. lso, a small tart. lso, a small goat's-milk
cheese from the %ugey, an area in the northern 7h?ne valley.
8o'uefort
disc of blue veined cheese of raw sheep's milk from southwestern 3rance,
aged in village of 7o&uefort-sur-Soul$on.
8o'uette
rocket or arugula, a spicy salad green.
/aint 0ac'ues, co'uille
sea scallop.
/au"i'uet
classic aromatic wine sauce thickened with bread.
9?roni'ue, ? la
garnish of peeled white grapes. ;ert-pr?
a watercress garnish, sometimes including potatoes.
a la Bourgeoise, ? la Bourgeoise
'repared in the family style.
Abricot
apricot.
Agneau chilindron
saut? of lamb with potatoes and garlic, specialty of the %as&ue country.
Agrume(s)
citrus fruit(s).
Aiglefin', aigrefin, ?glefin
small fresh haddock, a type of cod.
Aigre
bitter! sour.
Aigre-doux
sweet and sour.
Aigrelette, sauce
a sort of tart sauce.
Airelle
wild cranberry.
Aisy cendr
thick disc of cow's-milk cheese, washed with eau-de-vie and patted with
wood ashes! also called cendre d'aisy( a specialty of %urgundy.
Albuf?ra
b?chamel sauce with sweet peppers, prepared with chicken stock instead
of milk! classic sauce for poultry.
Alisier, alizier
eau-de-vie with the taste of bitter almonds, made with the wild red
serviceberries that grow in the forests of lsace.
Am?ricaine, Amoricaine
sauce of white wine, "ognac, tomatoes, and butter.
Amande de mer
smooth-shelled shellfish, like a small clam, with a sweet, almost almond
flavor.
Ambroisie
ambrosia.
Amer
bitter! as in unsweetened chocolate.
Ami du hambertin
)friend of "hambertin wine)! moist and buttery short cylinder of cow's milk
cheese with a rust-colored rind, made near the village of -evrey-
"hambertin in %urgundy. Similar to .poisses cheese.
Amourette(s)
spinal bone marrow of calf or o+.
Amuse-bouche or amusegueule
)amuse the mouth)! appeti$er.
Anchois (de ollioure)
anchovy (pri$ed salt-cured anchovy from "ollioure, a port town near the
Spanish border of the ,anguedoc), fished in the tlantic and the
/editerranean.
Anguille (au !ert)
eel! (poached in herb sauce).
A"?ritif
a before-dinner drink that stimulates the appetite, usually somewhat sweet
or mildly bitter.
A""ellation d'origine contr?l?e (A#)
specific definition of a particular cheese, butter, fruit, wine, or poultry--once
passed down from generation to generation now recogni$ed by law--
regulating the animal breed or variety of fruit, the $one of production,
production techni&ues, composition of the product, its physical
characteristics, and its specific attributes.
Ar%te
fish bone.
Ar?mes ? la g?ne
generic name for a variety of tangy, lactic cheeses of the ,yon area that
have been steeped in g?ne, or dry marc, the dried grape skins left after
grapes are pressed for wine. "an be of cow's milk, goat's milk, or a
mi+ture.
Arachide (huile d'$ "?t? d')
peanut (oil! butter).
Araign?e de mer
spider crab.
Arbousier (miel d')
trailing arbutus, small evergreen shrubby tree of the heather family, also
called strawberry tree, ground laurel and madrona tree with strawberry-like
fruit dotted with tiny bumps! (honey of). 1sed for making li&ueurs, 2ellies,
and 2ams.
Arc en ciel (truite)
rainbow (trout).
Ardennaise, ? l'
in the style of the rdennes, a d?partement in northern 3rance! generally a
dish with 2uniper berries.
Ardi gasna
%as&ue name for sheep's-milk cheese.
Ardoise
blackboard! bistros often use a blackboard to list specialties in place of a
printed menu.
Arl?sienne, ? l'
in the style of rles, a town in 'rovence! with tomatoes, onions, eggplant,
potatoes, rice, and sometimes olives.
Armagnac
brandy from the rmagnac area of Southwestern 3rance.
Aromate
aromatic herb, vegetable, or flavoring.
Aros?(e)
sprinkled, basted, moistened with li&uid.
Ar"ajon
a town in the #le-de-3rance! dried bean capital of 3rance! a dish containing
dried beans.
Artichaut
(violet) artichoke (small purple) (camus) snub-nosed..
Artichaut ? la Barigoule
in original form, artichokes cooked with mushrooms and oil! also, artichoke
stuffed with ham, onion, and garlic, browned in oil with onions and bacon,
then cooked in water or white wine! specialty of 'rovence.
As"erge (!iolette)
asparagus (purple-tipped asparagus, a specialty of the "?te-d'$ur).
Assiette de "?cheur
assorted fish platter.
Assorti(e)
assorted.
Aubergine
eggplant.
Aum?ni?re
)beggar's purse)! thin cr?pe, filled and tied like a bundle.
Aurore
tomato and cream sauce.
Au!ergnat(e)
in the style of the uvergne! often with cabbage, sausage, and bacon.
B?arnaise
tarragon-flavored sauce of egg yolks, butter, shallots, white wine, vinegar!
and herbs.
B?tard, "ain
)bastard bread)! traditional long, thin white loaf, larger than a baguette.
Baba au rhum
sponge cake soaked in rum syrup.
Baguette au le!ain or ? l'ancienne
sourdough baguette.
Baie rose
pink peppercorn.
Bar
ocean fish, known as loup on the /editerranean coast, louvine or loubine
in the southwest, and barreau in %rittany! similar to sea bass.
Barbouillade
stuffed eggplant, or an eggplant stew! also, a combination of beans and
artichokes.
Barbue
brill, a flatfish related to turbot, found in the tlantic and the
/editerranean.
Barder
to cover poultry or meat with strips of uncured bacon, to add moisture
while cooking.
Baron
hind&uarters of lamb, including both legs.
Bar'uette
)small boat)! pastry shaped like a small boat.
Baudroie
in 'rovence, the name for monkfish or anglerfish, the large, firm-fleshed
ocean fish also known as lotte and gigot de met, also a specialty of
'rovence, a fish soup that includes potstoes, onions, fresh mushrooms,
garlic, fresh or dried orange $est, artichokes, tomatoes, and herbs.
Ba!aroise
cold dessert! a rich custard made with cream and gelatin.
Beignet de fleur de courgette
batter-fried $ucchini blossom! native to 'rovence and the /editerranean,
now popular all over 3rance.
Belle (?l?ne ("oire)
classic dessert of chilled poached fruit (pear), served on ice cream and
topped with hot chocolate sauce.
Bera)ec&a, biere)ec&e, bire)ec&, bire)ec
dense, moist "hristmas fruit bread stuffed with dried pears, figs, and nuts!
specialty of 5aysersberg, a village in lsace.
Bercy
fish stock-based sauce thickened with flour and butter and flavored with
white wine and shallots.
Bergamot (th? a la bergamote)
name for both a variety of orange and of pear! (earl grey tea.).
Berrichonne
garnish of bruised cabbage, gla$ed baby onions, chestnuts, and lean
bacon named for the old province of %erry.
Bettera!e
beet.
Beurre
butter.
Beurre blanc
classic reduced sauce of vinegar! white wine, shallots, and butter
Beurre cru
raw cream butter.
Beurre de *ont"ellier
classic butter sauce seasoned with olive oil, herbs, garlic, and anchovies.
Beurre demi-sel
butter (lightly salted).
Beurre des harentes
finest 3rench butter, from the region of 'oitou-"harentes along the tlantic
coast.
Beurre du cru
butter given the appellation d'origine contr?l?e pedigree.
Beurre +chir
brand of the finest 3rench butter, preferred by 3rench chefs, with an 6"
pedigree, from the region of 'oitou-"harentes along the tlantic coast.
Beurre noir
sauce of browned butter, lemon 2uice or vinegar, parsley, and sometimes
capers! traditionally served with raie, or skate.
Beurre noisette
lightly browned butter.
Beurre !ierge
whipped butter sauce with salt, pepper, and lemon 2uice.
Bi?re (en bouteille, ? la "ression)
beer (bottled, on tap).
Bigarade
orange sauce.
Biggareau
red firm-fleshed variety of cherry.
Bigorneau
periwinkle, tiny sea snail.
Biscuit ? la cuill?re
ladyfinger.
Bistrotier
bistro owner.
Bl? (noir)
wheat (buckwheat).
Blanc (de "oireau)
white portion (of leek).
Blanc-manger
chilled pudding of almond milk with gelatin.
Bleu d'Au!ergne
a strong, firm and moist, flattened cylinder of blue-veined cheese made
from cow's milk in the uvergne, sold wrapped in foil! still made on some
farms.
Bleu de Bresse
a cylinder of mild blue-veined cow's-milk cheese from the %resse area in
the 7h?ne-lps region! industrially made.
Boeuf gros sel
boiled beef, served with vegetables and coarse salt.
Boisson (non) com"rise
drink (not) included.
Bon-chr?tien
)good "hristian)! a variety of pear, also known as poire 9illiam's.
Bordelaise
%ordeau+ style! also refers to a brown sauce of shallots, red wine, and
bone marrow.
Bouchoteur
mussel fisherman! a dish containing mussels.
Boudin noir
pork blood sausage.
Bouilliture
eel stew with red wine and prunes! specialty of the 'oitou-"harentes on
the tlantic coast.
Boulang?re, ? la
in the style of the )baker's wife)! meat or poultry baked or braised with
onions and potatoes.
Bou'uet garni
typically fresh whole parsley bay leaf and thyme tied together with string
and tucked into stews! the package is removed prior to serving.
Bou'ueti?re
garnished with bou&uets of vegetables.
Bourdaloue
hot poached fruit, sometimes wrapped in pastry often served with vanilla
custard! often pear.
Bourgeoise, ? la
with carrots, onions, braised lettuce, celery and bacon.
Bourguignonne, ? la
%urgundy style! often with red wine, onions, mushrooms, and bacon.
Bouribot
spicy red-wine duck stew.
Bourride
a /editerranean fish soup that generally includes a mi+ture of small white
fish, onions, tomatoes, garlic, herbs, and olive oil, thickened with egg yolks
and a?oli (garlic mayonnaise)! there are many variations.
Bourriole
rye flour pancake, both sweet and savory! specialty of the uvergne.
Boutargue, "outargue
salty paste prepared from dried mullet or tuna roe, mashed with oil!
specialty of 'rovence.
Br?l?(e)
)burned)! usually refers to carameli$ation.
Br?si (Breuzi)
smoked, salted, and dried beef from the 8ura.
Braiser
to braise! to cook meat by browning in fat, then simmering in covered dish
with small amount of li&uid.
Branche, en
refers to whole vegetables or herbs.
Brandade (de morue)
a warm garlicky pur?e (of salt cod) with milk or cream or oil, and
sometimes mashed potatoes! specialty of 'rovence! currently used to
denote a variety of flavored mashed potato dishes.
Brassado
a doughnut that is boiled, then baked, much like a bagel! specialty of
'rovence.
Brayaude, gigot
leg of lamb studded with garlic, cooked in white wine, and served with red
beans, braised cabbage, or chestnuts.
Brebis (fromage de)
sheep (sheep's-milk cheese).
Bretonne, ? la
in the style of %rittany! a dish served with white beans! or may refer to a
white wine sauce with carrots, leeks, and celery.
Bretzel
a pret$el! specialty of lsace.
Brie de *eaux
)king of cheese,) the flat wheel of cheese made only with raw cow's milk
and aged at least four weeks! from /eau+, 2ust east of 'aris! brie made
with pasteuri$ed milk does not have the right to be called brie de /eau+.
Brie de *elun
smaller than brie de /eau+, another raw-cow's-milk cheese, aged at least
one month, with a crackly rust-colored rind.
Brillat-/a!arin
(<=>>-<?@A) famed gastronome, coiner of food aphorisms, and author of
0he 'hysiology of 0aste! the high-fat, supple cow's-milk cheese from
4ormandy is named for him.
Brioche
buttery egg-enriched yeast bread.
Brocciu
soft, young, sheep's milk cheese from "orsica.
Broche, ? la
spit-roasted.
Brochet(on)
freshwater pike (small pike).
Brochette
cubes of meat or fish and vegetables on a skewer.
Brocoli
broccoli.
Brouet
old term for soup.
Brouill?(s)
scrambled, usually eggs.
Brouillade
a mi+ture of ingredients as in a stew or soup! also, scrambled eggs.
Brousse
a very fresh and unsalted (thus bland) sheep's- or goat's-milk cheese, not
unlike #talian ricotta! specialty of 4ice and /arseille.
Broutard
young goat.
Brugnon
nectarine.
Brunoise
tiny diced vegetables.
Brut
very dry or sugarless, particularly in reference to "hampagne.
Buffet froid
variety of dishes served cold, sometimes from a buffet.
Buron
traditional hut where cheese is made in the uvergne mountains.
?drat
a variety of /editerranean lemon.
?leri (en branche)
celery (stalk).
?leri remoulade
popular first-course bistro dish of shredded celery root with tangy
mayonnaise.
?leri-ra!e
celeriac, celery root.
?r?ale
cereal.
abri
young goat.
almar
small s&uid, similar to encornet! with interior transparent cartilage instead
of a bone. lso called chipiron in the southwest.
amembert (de .ormandie)
village in 4ormandy that gives its name to a supple, fragrant cheese made
of cow's milk.
am"agnard(e) (assiette)
country-style, rustic! (an informal buffet of cold meats, terrines, etc.).
anard
duck.
anard ? la "resse
roast duck served with a sauce of 2uices obtained from pressing the
carcass, combined with red wine and "ognac.
anard sau!age
wild duck, usually mallard.
a"re
caper.
ara?bes
"aribbean, usually denotes chocolate from the "aribbean.
arafe (d'eau)
pitcher (of tap water). Couse wine is often offered in a carafe. full carafe
contains one liter! a demi-carafe contains half a liter! a &uart contains one-
fourth of a liter.
aramelis
cooked with high heat to brown the sugar and heighten flavor.
arbonnade
braised beef stew prepared with beer and onions! specialty of the 4orth!
also refers to a cut of beef.
ardamome
cardamon.
arde
white rib, or stalk, portion of Swiss chard.
ardon
cardoon! large celery-like vegetable in the artichoke family, popular in
,yon, 'rovence, and the /editerranean area.
argolade
a copious mi+ed grill of snails, lamb, pork sausage, and sometimes blood
sausage, cooked over vine clippings! specialty of "atalan, an area of
southern ,anguedoc.
arotte
carrot.
ar"e
carp.
ar"e ? la jui!e
braised marinated carp in aspic.
arr? d'agneau
rack (ribs) or loin of lamb! also crown roast.
arr? de "ort
rack (ribs) or loin of pork! also crown roast.
arr? de !eau
rack (ribs) or loin of veal! also crown roast.
arrelet
see 'laice.
arte "romotionelle or conseill
a simple and ine+pensive fi+ed-price meal.
arte, ? la
menu (dishes, which are charged for individually, selected from a
restaurant's full list of offerings).
ar!i (grain de)
caraway (seed).
ary
curry.
asher
kosher.
asse-cro?te
)break bread)! slang for snack.
asseron
cuttlefish.
assis (cr?me de)
black currant (black currant li&ueur).
a!iar d'aubergine
cold seasoned eggplant puree.
a!iar du Puy
green lentils from ,e 'uy, in the uvergne.
endre (sous la)
ash (cooked by being buried in embers)! some cheeses made in wine-
producing regions are aged in the ash of burned rootstocks.
erdon
%ubbly (p?tillant) wine (red or white?) from the %ugey.
erf
stag, or male deer.
erfeuil
chervil.
erise
cherry.
erise noire
black cherry.
erneau
walnut meat.
er!elas
garlicky cured pork sausage! now also refers to fish and seafood sausage.
er!elle de canut
a soft, fresh herbed cheese known as )silkworker's brains)! specialty of
,yon.
er!elle(s)
brain(s), of calf or lamb.
h?!re (fromage de)
goat (goat's-milk cheese).
halutier
trawler! any flat fish caught with a trawl.
ham"?tre
rustic! describes a simple presentation of a variety of ingredients.
hanterelle
pri$ed pale orange wild mushroom! also called girolle.
haource
soft and fruity cylindrical cow's-milk cheese, with a >D percent fat content!
takes its name from a village in "hampagne.
ha"elure
bread crumbs.
ha"on de mer
/editerranean fish, in the rascasse or scorpion-fish family.
harbon de bois, au
charcoal-grilled.
harentais
variety of sweet cantaloupe, or melon, originally from the "harentes, on
the tlantic coast.
harlotte
classic dessert in which a dish is lined with ladyfingers, filled with custard
or other filling, and served cold! in the hot version, the dish is lined with
crustless white bread saut?ed in butter, filled with fruit compote and
baked. lso a potato variety.
harolais
area of %urgundy! light colored cattle producing high-&uality beef! also,
firm white cylinder of cheese made with goat's or cow's milk, or a mi+ture
of the two.
hartreuse
dish of braised partridge and cabbage! also herb and spiced-based li&ueur
made by the "hartreuse monks in the Savoie.
hasseur
hunter! also, sauce with white wine, mushrooms, shallots, tomatoes, and
herbs.
hateaubriand
thick filet steak, traditionally served with saut?ed potatoes and a sauce of
white wine, dark beef stock, butter, shallots, and herbs, or with a b?
arnaise sauce.
haud-froid
)hot-cold)! cooked poultry dish served cold, usually covered with a cooked
sauce, then with aspic.
haudr
tlantic fish stew, often including sole, skate, small eels, potatoes, butter,
white wine, and seasoning.
he!reau
young goat.
he!reuil
young roe buck or roe deer! venison.
he!rier
small, pale green, dried kidney-shaped bean, a type of flageolet.
hicons du .ord
%elgian endive.
hicor?e (fris?e)
a bitter salad green (curly endive)! also chicory, a coffee substitute.
"hicor?e de %ru+elles
%elgian endive.
hinchard
also called saurel, scad or horse mackerel! tlantic and /editerranean fish
similar to mackerel.
hi"iron (? l'encre)
southwestern name for small s&uid, or encornet (in its own ink).
horizo
highly spiced Spanish sausage.
horon, sauce
b?arnaise sauce with tomatoes.
hou de Bruxelles
brussels sprout.
hou de mer
sea kale.
hou fris
kale.
hou rouge
red cabbage.
hou !ert
curly green Savoy cabbage.
hou-fleur
cauliflower.
hou-ra!e
kohlrabi.
houcroute (nou!elle)
sauerkraut (the season's first batch of sauerkraut, still crunchy and slightly
acidic)! also main dish of sauerkraut, various sausages, bacon, and pork,
served with potatoes! specialty of lsace and brasseries all over 3rance.
idre
bottled, mildly alcoholic cider, either apple or pear.
igale de mer
)sea cricket)! tender, crayfish-like, blunt-nosed rock lobster.
itron
lemon.
itron !ert
lime.
itron, orange, or "am"lemousse "ress?(e
lemon, orange, or grapefruit 2uice served with a carafe of tap water and
sugar! for sweetening to taste.
itronnelle
lemon grass, an oriental herb! also lemon balm (m?lisse).
itrouille
pumpkin, gourd. lso called courge, potiron, potimarron.
i!et de li?!re
2ugged hare, or wild rabbit stew.
i!et de tri"es d'oies
a stew of goose innards, saut?ed in fat with onions, shallots, and garlic,
then cooked in wine vinegar and diluted with water, and thickened with
goose blood! from -ascony.
laire
oyster! also a designation given to certain oysters to indicate they have
been put in claires, or oyster beds in salt marshes, where they are
fattened up for several months before going to market.
lamart
'aris suburb once famous for its green peas! today a garnish of peas.
ocherelle
parasol mushroom with a delicate flavor! also called champignon ? la
bague, coulemelle, and grisotte.
oco blanc (rouge)
type of small white (red) shell bean, both fresh and dried, popular in
'rovence, where it is a traditional ingredient of the vegetable soupe au
pistou! also, coconut.
oeur
heart.
oeur de filet
thickest (and best) part of beef filet, usually cut into chateaubriand steaks.
oeur de "almier
delicate shoots of the palm tree, generally served with a vinaigrette as an
hors d'oeuvre.
offre
)chest)! refers to the body of a lobster or other crustacean, or of a
butchered animal.
ol !ert
wild ()green-collared)) mallard duck.
ol?re, en
)anger)! method of presenting fish in which the tail is inserted in the
mouth, so it appears agitated.
olbert
method of preparing fish, coating with egg and bread crumbs and then
frying.
ommander a!ant le re"as,
a selection of desserts that should be ordered when selecting first and
main courses, as they re&uire longer cooking.
om"otier
fruit bowl! also stewed ftuit.
om"ris
see Service (non) compris.
oncombre
cucumber.
onf?rence
a variety of pear.
onfiserie
candy, sweet, or confection! a candy shop.
onfiture
2am.
onfiture de !ieux gar?on
varied fresh fruits macerated in alcohol.
ongeler
to free$e.
ongre
conger eel! a large ocean fish resembling a freshwater eel (anguille
ontre-filet
cut of sirloin taken above the loin on either side of the backbone, tied for
roasting or braising (can also be cut for grilling).
on!ersation
puff pastry tart with sugar gla$ing and an almond or cream filling.
o' de bruy?re
wood grouse.
orail
coral-colored egg sac, found in scallops, spiny lobster, and crayfish.
orb
a /editerranean bluefish.
oriandre
coriander! either the fresh herb or dried seeds.
orne d'abondance
)horn of plenty)! dark brown wild mushroom, also called trompette de la
mort.
ornet
cornet-shaped! usually refers to foods rolled conically! also an ice cream
cone, and a conical pastry filled with cream.
ornichon
gherkin! tiny tart cucumber pickle.
otriade
a fish stew, usually including mackerel, whiting, conger eel, sorrel, butter,
potatoes, and vinegar! specialty of %rittany.
ou d'oie (de canard) farci
neck skin of goose (of duck), stuffed with meat and spices, much like
sausage.
oulommiers
town in the #le-de-3rance that gives its name to a supple, fragrant disc of
cow's-milk cheese, slightly larger than "amembert.
ourge (muscade)
generic term for s&uash or gourd (bright orange pumpkin).
ourgette
$ucchini.
ouronne
)crown)! ring or circle, usually of bread.
ourt-bouillon
broth, or aromatic poaching li&uid.
ou!ert
a place setting, including dishes, silver, glassware, and linen.
ou!erture
bittersweet chocolate high in cocoa butter! used for making the shiniest
chocolates.
r?cy
a dish garnished with carrots.
r?mant
sparkling wine.
r?me
cream.
aigre( sour cream.
anglaise( light egg-custard cream.
brulee( rich custard dessert with a top of carameli$ed sugar.
caramel( vanilla custard with caramel sauce.
catalane( creamy anise flavored custard from the southern
,anguedoc.
chantilly( sweetened whipped cream.
?paisse( thick cream.
fleurette( li&uid heavy cream.
fouett?e( whipped cream.
fra?che( thick sour! heavy cream.
p?tissi?re( custard filling for pastries and cakes.
plombi?res( custard filled with fresh fruits and egg whites.
r?"e
thin pancake.
r?"es /uzette
hot cr?pe dessert flamed with orange li&ueur.
r?"ine
caul fat.
r?"inette
traditionally, a small sausage patty wrapped in caul fat! today boned
poultry wrapped in caul fat.
r?te (de co')
(cocks) comb.
rabe
crab.
rambe
sea kale, or chou de mer.
rami'ue
brioche with raisins or currants! specialty of the 4orth.
ra"audine
preparation of grilled poultry or game bird with backbone removed.
ra'uant
crunchy.
ra'uelot
smoked herring.
resson(ade)
watercress (watercress sauce).
reuse
elongated, crinkle-shelled oyster.
re!ette
shrimp.
re!ette grise
tiny soft-fleshed shrimp that turns gray when cooked.
re!ette rose
small firm-fleshed shrimp that turns red when cooked! when large, called
bou&uet.
ri'ue
potato pancake from the uvergne.
riste marine
edible algae.
ro?te (en)
crust! (in) pastry.
ro?te de sel (en)
(in) a salt crust.
ro?tons
small cubes of toasted or fried bread.
ro'ue au sel, ? la
served raw, with a small bowl of coarse salt for seasoning! tiny purple
artichokes and cherry tomatoes are served this way.
ro'ue-madame
open-face sandwich of ham and cheese with an egg grilled on top.
ro'ue-monsieur
toasted ham and cheese sandwich.
ro'uembouche
chou+ pastry rounds filled with cream and coated with a sugar gla$e, often
served in a conical tower at special events.
ro'uette
ground meat, fish, fowl, or vegetables bound with eggs or sauce, shaped
into various forms, usually coated in bread crumbs, and deep fried.
rosne
small, unusual tuber! with a subtle artichoke-like flavor! known as a
"hinese or 8apanese artichoke.
rottin de ha!ignol
small flattened ball of goat's-milk cheese from the ,oire valley."roustade
usually small pastry-wrapped dish! also regional southwestern pastry filled
with prunes andBor apples.
ru
raw.
rudit
raw vegetable.
rustac?(s)
crustacean(s).
uilli?re (? la)
(to be eaten with a) spoon.
ulti!ateur
)truck farmer)! fresh vegetable soup.
urcuma
turmeric.
ure-dent
toothpick.
1?caf?in? or d?ca
decaffeinated coffee.
1?corti'u?(e)
shelled or peeled.
1?jeuner
lunch.
1?ner
dinner! to dine.
1amier
)checkerboard)! arrangement of vegetables or other ingredients in
alternating colors like a checkerboard! also, a cake with such a pattern of
light and dark pieces.
1ariole
truncated cone or oval-shaped baking mold.
1arne
a rectangular portion of fish filet! also a fish steak, usually of salmon.
1artois
puff pastry rectangles layered with an almond cream filling as a dessert, or
stuffed with meat or fish as an hors-d'oeuvre.
1atte (de mer)
date (date-shaped pri$ed wild /editerranean mussel).
1aurade
sea bream, similar to porgy, the most pri$ed of a group of ocean fish
known as dorade.
1emi-sel (buerre)
lightly salted (butter).
1emoiselle de canard
marinated raw duck tenderloin! also called mignon de canard.
1emoiselles de herbourg
small lobsters from the town of "herbourg in 4ormandy, cooked in a court-
bouillon and served in cooking 2uices. lso, restaurant name for %reton
lobsters weighing EDD to FDD grams (<D to <E ounces).
1iscr?tion,
on menus usually refers to wine, which may be consumed--without limit--
at the customers discretion.
1or
browned until golden.
1orade
generic name for group of ocean fish, the most pri$ed of which is daurade,
similar to porgy.
1ouceur
sweet or dessert.
1ugl?r
white flour-based sauce with shallots, white wine, tomatoes, and parsley.
1ur (oeuf)
hard (hard-cooked egg).
+au de source
spring water.
+au du robinet
tap water.
+au min?rale
mineral water.
+chalote (gris)
shallot (pri$ed purplish shallot) elongated.
+cras
crushed! with fruit, pressed to release 2uice.
+cre!isse
freshwater crayfish.
+glefin, ?grefin, aiglefin
small fresh haddock, a type of cod.
+lze&aria
soup made with green beans, cabbage, and garlic! specialty of the
%as&ue region.
+mbeurr? de chou
buttery cooked cabbage.
+ncornet
small ille+ s&uid, also called calmar! in %as&ue region called chipiron.
+ncre
s&uid ink.
+ntier, enti?re
whole, entire.
+ntr
first course.
+ntrec?te
beef rib steak.
+ntrec?te ma?tre d'h?tel
beef rib steak with sauce of red wine and shallots.
+ntremets
dessert.
+"erlan
smelt or whitebait, usually fried, often imported but still found in the
estuaries of the ,oire.
+"igramme
classic dish of grilled breaded lamb chop and a piece of braised lamb
breast shaped like a chop, breaded, and grilled! crops up on modern
menus as an elegant dish of breaded and fried baby lamb chops paired
with lamb sweetbreads and tongue.
+"inard
spinach.
+scargot
land snail.
+scargot de Bourgogne
land snail prepared with butter! garlic, and parsley.
+scargot "etit-gris
small land snail.
+scarole
bitter salad green of the chicory family with thick broad-lobed leaves,
found in both flat and round heads.
+stouffade ? la "ro!en?ale
beef stew with onions, garlic, carrots, and orange $est.
+stragon
tarragon.
+trille
small swimming crab.
+x"ress
espresso coffee.
2?ra, feret
salmon-like lake fish, found in ,ac ,?man, in the /orvan, in %urgundy,
and in the uvergne.
2ait, "as tro"
refers to a cheese that has been aged for a shorter time and is blander!
also for a cheese that will ripen at home.
2ar
%reton sweet or savory pudding-cakes! the most common, similar to
clafoutis from the :ordogne, is made with prunes.
2arci(e)
stuffed.
2arigoule(tte)
'roven?al name for wild thyme.
2arine
flour. compl?te
whole wheat flour. d'avoine
oat flour. de bl?
wheat flour! white flour. de ma?s
corn flour. de sarrasin
buckwheat flour. de seigle
rye flour. de son
bran flour.
2a!orite d'artichaut
classic vegetable dish of artichoke stuffed with asparagus, covered with a
cheese sauce, and browned.
2er ? che!al
)horseshoe)! a baguette that has that shape.
2erm
closed.
2erme (fermier, fermi?re)
farm (farmer)! in cheese, refers to farm-made cheese, often used to mean
raw-milk cheese! in chickens, refers to free-range chickens.
2ern&ase
young cheese shaped like a flying saucer and sprinkled with coarsely
ground pepper! specialty of lsace.
2icelle "icarde
thin cr?pe wrapped around a slice of ham and topped with a cheesy
cream sauce! specialty of 'icardy, in the 4orth.
2inanci?re
/adiera sauce with truffle 2uice.
2inancier
small rectangular almond cake.
2ine de claire
elongated crinkle-shelled oyster that stays in fattening beds (claires) a
minimum of two months.
2ines herbes
mi+ture of herbs, usually chervil, parsley, chives, tarragon.
2lagnarde, flaugnarde, flognarde
hot, fruit-filled batter cake made with eggs, flour, milk, and butter, and
sprinkled with sugar before serving! specialty of the southwest.
2lamber
to burn off the alcohol by igniting. 1sually the brandies or other li&ueurs to
be flamb?ed are warmed first, then lit as they are poured into the dish.
2lamiche (au *aroilles)
a vegetable tart with rich bread dough crust, commonly filled with leeks,
cream, and cheese! specialty of 'icardy, in the 4orth! (filled with cream,
egg, butter, and /aroilles cheese).
2leur (de sel)
flower (fine, delicate sea salt, from %rittany or the "amargue).
2leur de courgette
$ucchini blossom.
2leuron
puff pastry crescent.
2lorentine
with spinach. lso, a cookie of nougatine and candied fruit brushed with a
layer of chocolate.
2oie gras d'oie (de canard)
liver of fattened goose (duck).
2ond d'artichaut
heart and base of an artichoke.
2oresti?re
garnish of wild mushrooms, bacon, and potatoes.
2ouchtrou
"ow's milk cheese from the uvergne, made when there is not enough
milk to make an entire wheel of "antal.
2our (au)
(baked in an) oven.
2ourme d'Ambert
cylindrical blue-veined cow's-milk cheese, made in dairies around the town
of mbert in the uvergne.
2ourr
stuffed or filled.
2r?mi
)&uivering)! often refers to barely cooked oysters.
2rais, bien ?gout
well-drained freshcheese. maigre
low-fat cheese.
2rais, fra?che
fresh or chilled.
2raise
strawberry.
2raise des bois
wild strawberry.
2ramboise
raspberry.
2ran?aise, ? la
classic garnish of peas with lettuce, small white onions, and parsley.
2rangi"ane
almond custard filling.
2ra""
usually refers to a drink served very cold or with ice, often shaken.
2riandise
sweetmeat, petit four.
2ricadelle
fried minced meat patty.
2ricandeau
thinly sliced veal or a rump roast, braised with vegetables and white wine.
2ricass
classically, ingredients braised in wine sauce or butter with cream added!
currently denotes any mi+ture of ingredients--fish or meat--stewed or
saut?ed.
2ricot (de !eau)
veal shoulder simmered in white wine with vegetables.
2ris?(e)
)curly)! usually curly endive, the bitter salad green of the chicory family
sold in enormous round heads.
2rit(e)
fried.
2rite
3rench fry.
2ritons
coarse pork rillettes or a minced spread which includes organ meats.
2ritot
small organ meat fritter, where meat is partially cooked, then marinated in
oil, lemon 2uice, and herbs, dipped in batter and fried 2ust before serving!
also can refer to any small fried piece of meat or fish.
2riture
fried food! also a preparation of small fried fish, usually white-bait or smelt.
2roid(e)
cold.
2romage
cheese. blanc
a smooth low-fat cheese similar to cottage cheese. d'alpage
cheese made in mountain pastures during the prime summer milking
period. .chourgnac
delicately flavored, ochre-skinned cheese made of cow's milk by the
monks at the .chourgnac monasteryin the :ordogne. fort
pungent cheese. frais
smooth, runny fresh cheese, like cottage cheese.
2romage de t?te
headcheese, usually pork.
2ruit confit
whole fruit preserved in sugar.
2ruits de mer
seafood.
-?sier
gi$$ard.
-alette bressane, galette de P?rouges
cream and sugar tart from the %resse area of the 7h?ne-lpes.
-alette des rois
puff pastry filled with almond pastry cream, traditional 0welfth 4ight
celebration cake.
-arbure
a hearty stew that includes cabbage, beans, and salted or preserved duck,
goose, turkey or pork! specialty of the southwest.
-ardiane
stew of beef or bull (toro) meat, with bacon, onions, garlic, and black
olives! served with rice! specialty of the "amargue, in 'rovence.
-argouillau
pear cake or tart! specialty of northern uvergne.
-arni(e)
garnished.
-arniture
garnish.
-aufre
waffle.
-endarme
salted and smoked herring.
-eni?!ere
2uniper berry.
-erminy
garnish of sorrel. lso, sorrel and cream soup.
-ermon
albacore or long-fin tuna.
-ibassier
round sweet bread from 'rovence, often flavored with lemon or orange
$est, orange-flower water, andBor almonds. lso sometimes called
fougasse or pompe ? lhuile.
-ibier
game, sometimes designated as gibier ? plume (feathered) or gibier ? poil
(furry).
-igot (de "r? sal
usually a leg of lamb (lamb gra$ed on the salt meadows along the tlantic
and 4ormandy coasts).
-igot de mer
a preparation, usually of large pieces of monkfish (lotte) oven-roasted like
a leg of lamb.
-illardeau
pri$ed oyster raised in 4ormandy and finished in claires, or fattening beds
on the tlantic coast.
-ingembre
ginger.
-irofle
clove.
-irolle
pri$ed pale orange wild mushroom! also called chanterelle.
-i!r?$ orange gi!r
frosted! orange sherbet served in its skin.
-o?ter (le)
to taste, to try! (childrens afternoon snack).
-oret
young pig.
-oug?re
cheese-flavored chou+ pastry.
-ourmandise(s)
weakness for sweet things! (sweetmeats or candies).
-raine de moutarde
mustard seed.
-raisse
fat.
-raisserons
crisply fried pieces of duck or goose skin! cracklings.
-rand cr?me
large or double espresso with milk.
-rand cru
top-ranking wine.
-rand !eneur
)chief huntsman)! usually a brown sauce for game, with red currant 2elly.
-ranit
a type of sherbet! a sweetened, flavored ice.
-ra""e (de raisins)
cluster! bunch (of grapes).
-ras (march? au)
fatty! (market of fattened poultry and their livers).
-ras-double
tripe baked with onions and white wine.
-ratin
crust formed on top of a dish when browned in broiler or oven! also the
dish in which such food is cooked.
-ratin dau"hinoise
baked casserole of sliced potatoes, usually with cream, milk, and
sometimes cheese andBor eggs.
-ratin sa!oyarde
baked casserole of sliced potatoes, usually with bouillon, cheese, and
butter.
-ratin?(e)
having a crusty, browned top.
-ratin?e lyonnaise
bouillon flavored with port, garnished with beaten egg, topped with
cheese, and browned under a broiler.
-rattons, grattelons
crisply fried pieces of pork, goose, or duck skin! cracklings.
-ratuit
free.
-rec'ue, ? la
cooked in seasoned mi+ture of oil, lemon 2uice, and water! refers to cold
vegetables, usually mushrooms.
-relette, sauce
cold sauce with a base of whipped cream.
-relot
small white bulb onion.
-renade
pomegranate.
-renadin
small veal scallop.
-renaille
7efers to small, bite-si$e new potato of any variety.
-renouille (cuisse de)
frog (leg).
-ressini
breadsticks, seen along the "?te-d'$ur.
-ribiche, sauce
mayonnaise with capers, cornichons, hard-cooked eggs, and herbs.
-rill?(e)
grilled.
-rillade
grilled meat.
-riotte
shiny slightly acidic, reddish black cherry.
-risotte
parasol mushroom with a delicate flavor! also called champignon ? la
bague. cocherelle. and coulemelle.
-ri!e
thrush.
-roin d'ane
)donkeys snout)! ,yonnais name for a bitter winter salad green similar to
dandelion greens.
-rondin
red gurnard, a bony ocean fish, a member of the mullet family, used in fish
stews such as bouillabaisse.
-ros sel
coarse salt.
-roseille
red currant.
-ruy?re
strictly speaking, cheese from the -ruyere area of Swit$erland! in 3rance,
generic name for a number of hard, mild, cooked cheeses from the 8ura,
including "omt?, %eaufort, and .mmental.
-yromite
group of wild mushrooms, or gyromitra, known as false morels.
(areng
herring, found in the tlantic, the .nglish "hannel (the best between
:unker&ue and 3?camp), and the mouth of the -ironde river.
(areng
herring, found in the tlantic, the .nglish "hannel (the best between
:unker&ue and 3?camp), and the mouth of the -ironde river.
(areng ? lhuile
herring cured in oil, usually served with a salad of warm sliced potatoes.
(areng ? lhuile
herring cured in oil, usually served with a salad of warm sliced potatoes.
(areng balti'ue, bismar&
marinated herring.
(areng balti'ue, bismar&
marinated herring.
(areng bouffi
herring that is salted, then smoked.
(areng bouffi
herring that is salted, then smoked.
(areng "ec
freshly salted young herring.
(areng "ec
freshly salted young herring.
(areng roll-mo"
marinated herring rolled around a small pickle.
(areng roll-mo"
marinated herring rolled around a small pickle.
(areng saur
smoked herring.
(areng saur
smoked herring.
(aricot
bean.
beurre yellow bean
blancs (? la Bretonne white beans, usually dried! (white beans in
a sauce of onions, tomatoes, garlic, and herbs)
de mouton stew of mutton and white beans (also called Calicots)
gris green string bean mottled with purplish black! also called p?
landron a specialty of the "?te-d'$ur.
rouge red kidney bean! also, preparation of red beans in red wine
sec dried bean
vert green bean, usually fresh
(aricot
bean.
beurre yellow bean
blancs (? la Bretonne white beans, usually dried! (white beans in
a sauce of onions, tomatoes, garlic, and herbs)
de mouton stew of mutton and white beans (also called Calicots)
gris green string bean mottled with purplish black! also called p?
landron a specialty of the "?te-d'$ur.
rouge red kidney bean! also, preparation of red beans in red wine
sec dried bean
vert green bean, usually fresh
(erbes de Pro!ence
mi+ture of thyme, rosemary, summer savory, and bay leaf, often dried and
blended.
(erbes de Pro!ence
mi+ture of thyme, rosemary, summer savory, and bay leaf, often dried and
blended.
(irondelle
swallow.
(irondelle
swallow.
(omard (? lAmoricaine, ? lAm?ricaine)
lobster! (a classic dish of many variations, in which lobster is cut into
sections and browned, then simmered with shallots, minced onions,
tomatoes, "ognac, and white wine! served with a sauce of the reduced
cooking li&uid, enriched with butter).
(omard (? lAmoricaine, ? lAm?ricaine)
lobster! (a classic dish of many variations, in which lobster is cut into
sections and browned, then simmered with shallots, minced onions,
tomatoes, "ognac, and white wine! served with a sauce of the reduced
cooking li&uid, enriched with butter).
(ongroise, ? la
Cungarian style! usually with paprika and cream.
(ongroise, ? la
Cungarian style! usually with paprika and cream.
(ors-d'oeu!re
appeti$er! can also refer to a first course.
(ors-d'oeu!re
appeti$er! can also refer to a first course.
(ortillon
pictures&ue market garden plot built between crisscrossed canals on the
outskirts of miens, a city in the north.
(ortillon
pictures&ue market garden plot built between crisscrossed canals on the
outskirts of miens, a city in the north.
(u?tre
oyster.
(u?tre
oyster.
(ure de "orc or de marcassin
head of pig or boar - usually refers to headcheese preparation.
(ure de "orc or de marcassin
head of pig or boar - usually refers to headcheese preparation.
(ure de saumon
a salmon )headcheese,) or p?t?, prepared with salmon meat, not actually
the head.
(ure de saumon
a salmon )headcheese,) or p?t?, prepared with salmon meat, not actually
the head.
3m"?ratrice, ? l
usually a rice pudding dessert with candied fruit.
3m"?riale, ? l
classic haute cuisine garnish of mussels, cockscombs, crayfish, and other
e+travagant ingredients.
3m"eriale
variety of plum. lso, a large bottle for wine, holding about F &uarts (F
liters),
0?sus de *orteau
plump smoked pork sausage that takes its name from the town of /orteau
in the 8ura! distinctive because a wooden peg is tied in the sausage
casing on one end! traditionally, the sausage eaten at "hristmas, hence its
name! also called saucisson de /orteau.
0ardini?re
refers to a garnish of fresh cooked vegetables.
0arret (de !eau, de "orc, de boeuf)
knuckle (of veal or pork), shin (of beef).
0erez
refers to sherry
0uran?on
district in the %?arn, the area around 'au in southwestern 3rance, known
for its sweet and spicy white wine.
4ari
variant spelling of cary.
4ir
an aperitif made with cr?me de cassis (black currant li&ueur) and most
commonly dry white wine, but sometimes red wine.
4ir royal
a 5ir made with "hampagne.
4irsch
eau-de-vie of wild black cherries.
5?ger (l?g?re)
light.
5actaire
the edible lactaire pallidus mushroom, also called sanguine. pricot-
colored, with red, blood colored 2uices when raw.
5aitier
made of or with milk! also denotes a commercially made product as
opposed to fermier, meaning farm made.
5am"roie (? la bordelaise)
lamprey eel, ocean fish that swim into rivers along the tlantic in
springtime (hearty stew of lamprey eel and leeks in red wine).
5angres
supple, tangy cylindrical cow's-milk cheese with a rust-colored rind! named
for village in "hampagne.
5a"ereau
young rabbit.
5a"in de garenne
wild rabbit.
5ard
bacon.
5arder
to thread meat, fish, or liver with strips of fat for added moisture.
5ardon
cube of bacon.
5arme
)teardrop)! a very small portion of li&uid.
5aurier
bay laurel or bay leaf.
5a!aret
lake fish of the Savoie, similar to salmon.
5i?!re (? la royale)
hare (cooked with red wine, shallots, onions, and cinnamon, then rolled
and stuffed with foie gras and truffles).
5ieu noir
pollack, also called black cod! in the cod family a pleasant, ine+pensive
fish found in the .nglish "hannel and the tlantic.
5imaces ? la su?arelle
snails cooked with onions, garlic, tomatoes, and sausage! specialty of
'rovence.
5i!arot
village in 4ormandy that gives its name to an elastic and pungent thick
disc of cow's-milk cheese with reddish golden stripes around the edge.
5otte de ri!i?re (or de lac)
fine-fleshed river (or lake) fish, pri$ed for its large and flavorful liver. 4ot
related to the ocean fish lotte, or monkfish.
5ou magret
breast of fattened duck.
5ou" de mer
wolf fish or ocean catfish! name for sea bass in the /editerranean.
*?nag?re, ? la
)in the style of the housewife)! usually a simple preparation including
onions, potatoes, and carrots.
*?re (de ronces)
blackberry (bush).
*?rou
a large grouper, an e+cellent tropical or near-tropical fish, generally
imported from 4orth frica but sometimes found in the tlantic and
/editerranean.
*?ture
corn bread from the %as&ue region.
*a?tre d'h?tel
headwaiter. lso, sauce of butter, parsley and lemon.
*acaron
macaroon, small cookie of almonds, egg whites, and sugar.
*acaronade
a rich blend of wild and domestic mushrooms and chunks of foie gras,
smothered in fresh pasta! specialty of the southwest. lso, macaroni with
mushrooms, bacon, white wine, and 'armesan cheese! an
accompaniment to a beef stew, or daube! specialty of 'rovence.
*ad?re
/adeira.
*adeleine (de ommercy)
small scalloped-shaped tea cake made famous by /arcel 'roust! (the
town in the ,orraine where the tea cakes are commerciali$ed).
*adril?ne, ? la
in the style of /adrid! with tomatoes. "lassically a garnish of peeled
chopped tomatoes for consomm?.
*agret de canard (or d'oie)
breast of fattened duck (or goose).
*aigre
thin, non-fatty
*al!oisie, !inaigre de
vinegar made from the malvasia grape, used for the sweet, heavy
/almsey wine.
*andarine
tangerine.
*ani?re, de
in the style of.
*a'uereau
mackerel! lisette is a small mackerel.
*ar?e la
literally )the tide)! usually used to indicate seafood that is fresh.
*ara de Bois
small fragrant strawberry, like a cross between a domestic and wild
strawberry.
*ara?ch?r(e) (? la)
market gardener or truck farmer (market-garden style! usually refers to a
dish or salad that includes various greens).
*arbr
striped sea bream, /editerranean fish that is e+cellent grilled.
*arc
eau-de-vie distilled from pressed grape skins and seeds or other fruits.
*arcassin
young boar. t one year, a wild boar will weight FD kg, a domesticated
boar <@D kg.
*archand de !in
wine merchant. lso, sauce made with red wine, meat stock, and chopped
shallots.
*arennes
flat-shelled green-tinged plate oyster. lso the 3rench coastal village
where flat-shelled oysters are raised.
*arin
marinated.
*arinade
seasoned li&uid in which food, usually meat, is soaked for several hours.
0he li&uid seasons and tenderi$es at the same time.
*arion (glac
large (candied) chestnut.
*arjolaine
mar2oram. lso, multilayered chocolate and nut cake.
*armelade
traditionally a thick pur?e of fruit, or sweet stewed fruit! today pur?e of
vegetable, or stewed vegetables.
*armite
small covered pot! also a dish cooked in a small casserole.
*aroilles
village in the north that gives its name to a strong-tasting, thick, s&uare
cow's-milk cheese with a pale brick-red rind.
*ar'uise (au chocolat)
mousse-like (chocolate) cake.
*endiant, fruits du
traditional mi+ture of figs, almonds, ha$elnuts, and raisins, whose colors
suggest the robes of the mendicant friars it is named after.
*erguez
small spicy sausage.
*erlan
whiting.
*erle
blackbird.
*erlu
hake, a member of the codfish family often sold improperly in 'aris
markets as colin! found in the .nglish "hannel, tlantic, and
/editerranean.
*er!eille
hot sugared doughnut.
*euni?re, ? la
)in the style of the millers wife)! refers to a fish that is seasoned, rolled in
flour, fried in butter! and served with lemon, parsley and hot melted butter.
*eurette
in, or with, a red wine sauce. lso, a %urgundian fish stew.
*i-cru
half raw.
*ignardise
see 'etit-four.
*ignon de canard
see :cmsiselle de canard.
*irabeau
garnish of anchovies, pitted olives, tarragon, and anchovy butter.
*irabelle
small sweet yellow plum. lso, colorless fruit brandy or eau-de-vie, made
from yellow plums.
*ire"oix
cubes of carrots and onions or mi+ed vegetables, usually used in braising
to boost the flavor of a meat dish.
*iroir
)mirror)! a dish that has a smooth gla$e! currently a fruit mousse cake with
a layer of fruit gla$e on top.
*iroton (de)
slice (of). lso, stew of meats flavored with onions.
*ontmorency
garnished with cherries! historically a village known for its cherries, now a
suburb of 'aris.
*orbier
supple cow's-milk cheese from the 8ura! a thin sprinkling of ashes in the
center gives it its distinctive black stripe and light smoky flavor.
*orceau
piece or small portion.
*orille
wild morel mushroom, dark brown and conical.
*ornay
classic cream sauce enriched with egg yolks and cheese.
*orue
salt cod! also currently used to mean fresh cod, which is cabillaud.
*or!andelle, jambon ? la
in the style of the /orvan (ham in a pi&uant creamy sauce made with
white wine, vinegar, 2uniper berries, shallots, and cream).
*or!andelle, r?"
grated potato mi+ed with eggs, cream, and cheese, baked until golden.
*oule de "ar'ues
:utch cultivated mussel, usually raised in fattening beds or diverted
ponds.
*oules marini?re
mussels cooked in white wine with onions, shallots, butter, and herbs.
*oulin (? "oi!re)
mill (peppermill)! also used for oil and flour mills.
*ourone
%as&ue name for red bell pepper.
*ourtayrol, mourta?rol
a pot-au-feu of boiled beef, chicken, ham, and vegetables, flavored with
saffron and served over slices of bread! specialty of the uvergne.
*ousseron
tiny, delicate, wild mushroom.
*outarde (? lancienne, en graines)
mustard (old-style, coarse-grained).
*ulard
breed of duck common to the southwest, fattened for its delicate liver, for
foie gras.
*unster
village in lsace that gives its name to a disc of soft, tangy cow's-milk
cheese with a brick red rind and a penetrating aroma! the cheese is also
sometimes cured with cumin seeds.
*uscat de (ambourg
variety of popular purple table grape, grown in 'rovence.
*useau de "orc (or de boeuf)
vinegared pork (or beef).
*yrtille
bilberry (bluish black .uropean blueberry).
*yst?re
truncated cone-shaped ice cream dessert. lso, dessert of cooked
meringue with ice cream and chocolate cake.
.ature
refers to simple, unadorned preparations.
.a!arin
lamb or mutton stew.
.a!arraise, ? la
4avarre-style, with sweet peppers, onions, and garlic.
.e)burg
lobster preparation with /adeira, egg yolks, and cream.
.i!ernaise, ? la
in the style of 4evers! with carrots and onions.
.on com"ris
see Service (non) compris.
.ormande
in the style of 4ormandy! sauce of seafood, cream, and mushrooms. lso
refers to fish or meat cooked with apple cider or "alvados! or dessert with
apples, usually served with cream.
#ffert
offered! free or given.
#li!e noire (!erte)
black olive (green olive).
#mble (ombre) che!alier
lake fish, similar to salmon trout, with firm, flaky flesh varying from white to
deep red. 3ound in lakes in the Savoie.
#melette nor!egienne
3rench version of %aked laska! a concoction of sponge cake covered
with ice cream and a layer of sweetened, stiffly beaten egg whites, then
browned &uickly in the oven.
#reille de "orc
cooked pigs ear! served grilled, with a coating of egg and bread crumb.
#reillette
thin, crisp rectangular dessert fritters, flavored with orange-flower water!
specialty of 'rovence.
#rge ("erl
barley (pearl barley).
#rientale, ? l
general name for vaguely .astern dishes cooked with saffron, tomatoes,
and sweet red peppers.
#rigan
oregano.
#rtie
4ettle.
#str?iculteur
6yster grower.
#ursin
sea urchin.
#ursinade
creamy sea urchin soup.
#u!ert
open.
P?bre d'ail
see 'oivre d'?ne.
P?che Alexandra
cold dessert of poached peaches with ice cream and pur?ed strawberries.
P?cheur
)fisherman)! usually refers to fish preparations.
P?landron
see haricot gris.
P?lardon
small flat, dried, pungent disc of goat's milk cheese! specialty of the
,anguedoc.
P?lerine
another name for scallop or co&uille Saint-8ac&ues.
P?rigourdine, ? la, or P?rigueux
sauce, usually with truffles and foie gras, named for the '?rigord in
southwestern 3rance.
P?tes (fra?ches)
pasta (fresh).
Paillarde (de !eau)
thick slice (of veal)! also, piece of meat pounded flat and saute?ed.
Paleron
shoulder of beef.
Palmier
palm leaf-shaped cookie made of sugared puff pastry.
Palmier, coeur de
heart of palm.
Palourde
pri$ed medium-si$e clam.
Parfait
a dessert mousse! also, mousse-like mi+ture of chicken, duck, or goose
liver.
Parfum
flavor.
Paris-Brest, g?teau
classic, large, crown-shaped chou+ pastry filled with praline butter cream
and topped with chopped almonds.
Parisienne, ? la
varied vegetable garnish which generally includes potato balls that have
been fried and tossed in a meat gla$e.
Parmentier
dish with potatoes.
Passe rassane
flavorful variety of winter pear.
Passe-Pierre
edible seaweed.
Pata .?gra (jambon)
'ri$ed ham from Spain, literally )black feet.)
Patte rouge
large crayfish.
Pa!ot (graine de)
poppy (seed).
Perce-"ierre
samphire, edible seaweed.
Perche
perch.
Perdreau
young partridge.
Perdrix
partridge.
Persil (sim"le)
parsley (flatleaf).
Persill
)parsleyed)! describes certain blue-veined cheeses. See also 8ambon
persill?.
Persillade
blend of chopped parsley and garlic.
Petit d?jeuner
breakfast.
Petit-beurre
popular tea cookie made with butter.
Petit-four (sucr? or sal?e)
tiny cake or pastry (sweet or savory)! in elegant restaurants, served with
cocktails before dinner or with coffee afterward! also called mignardise.
Petit-gris
small land snail.
Petite marmite
earthenware casserole! the broth served from it.
Pierre-7ui-9ire
)stone that moves)! a supple, tangy, flat disc of cow's-milk cheese with a
reddish rind, made by the %enedictine monks at the bbaye de la 'ierre-
Hui ;ire in %urgundy.
Pilchard
name for sardines on the tlantic coast.
Piment (or "oi!re) de 0ama?'ue
allspice.
Pim"ernelle
salad burnet, a salad green with a somewhat bitter taste.
Pineau des harentes
sweet fortified wine from the "ognac region on the tlantic coast, served
as an aperitif.
Pi"?rade
a dish of pepper! onions, tomatoes, and often ham and scrambled eggs!
specialty of the %as&ue region.
Pissaladi?re
a flat open-face tart like a pi$$a, garnished with onions, olives, and
anchovies! specialty of 4ice.
Pistil de safran
thread of saffron.
Pithi!iers
a town in the ,oire valley that gives its name to a classic large puff pastry
found filled with almond cream. lso, lark p?t?.
Plat du jour
todays special.
Plat "rinci"al
main dish.
Plateau de fruits de mer
seafood platter combining raw and cooked shell-fish! usually includes
oysters, clams, mussels, langoustines, periwinkles, whelks, crabs, and tiny
shrimp.
Pleurote
very soft-fleshed, feather-edged wild mushrooms! also now being
cultivated commercially in several regions of 3rance.
Plombi?re
classic dessert of vanilla ice cream, candied fruit, kirsch, and apricot 2am.
Point(e) (d'as"erge)
tip (of asparagus).
Poire
pear.
Poire 6illiams
variety of pear! colorless fruit brandy, or eau-de-vie, often made from this
variety of pear.
Poireau
leek.
Poitrine
breast (of meat or poultry).
Poitrine demi-sel
unsmoked slab bacon.
Poitrine fum
smoked slab bacon.
Poi!rade
a peppery brown sauce made with wine, vinegar, and cooked vegetables
and strained before serving.
Poi!re
pepper.
d!ain 'roven?al name for wild savory. lso, small goat cheese
covered with sprigs of savory. lso known as p?bre d'ail and p?bre
d'ase.
en grain peppercorn.
frais de +adagascar green peppercorn.
gris black peppercorn.
moulu ground pepper.
noir black peppercorn.
rose pink peppercorn.
vert green peppercorn.
Poi!ron (doux)
(sweet bell) pepper.
Pojars&i
finely chopped meat or fish shaped like a cutlet and fried.
Pommade (beurre en)
usually refers to a thick, smooth paste! (creamed butter).
Pommes de terre
potatoes.
? langlaise boiled.
allumettes )match-sticks)! fries cut into very thin 2ulienne.
boulang?re potatoes cooked with the meat they accompany. lso,
a gratin of sliced potatoes, baked with milk or stock and sometimes
flavored with onions, bacon, and tomatoes.
darphin grated potatoes shaped into a cake.
dauphine mashed potatoes mi+ed with cbou+ pastry, shaped into
small balls and fried.
dauphinoise a gratin of sliced potatoes, baked with milk andBor
cream, garlic, cheese, and eggs.
duchesse mashed potatoes with butter, egg yolks, and nutmeg,
used for garnish.
en robe des champs( en robe de chambre potatoes boiled or
baked in their skin! potatoes in their 2ackets.
frites 3rench fries.
gratin?es browned potatoes, often with cheese.
lyonnaise potatoes saut?ed with onions.
macaire classic side dish of pur?ed potatoes shaped into small
balls and fried or baked in a flat cake.
mousseline potato pur?e enriched with butter, egg yolks, and
whipped cream.
paillasson fried pancake of grated potatoes.
pailles potatoes cut into 2ulienne strips, then fried.
Pont-)euf classic fries.
sarladaise sliced potatoes cooked with goose fat and (optionally)
truffles.
souffl?es small, thin slices of potatoes fried twice, causing them to
inflate so they resemble little pillows.
sous la c?ndre baked under cinders in a fireplace.
vapeur steamed or boiled potatoes.
Pommes en lair
carameli$ed apple slices, usually served with boudin noir (blood sausage).
Pom"e aux grattons
bread containing cracklings.
Porc (c?te de)
pork (chop).
Porc (carr? de)
pork (loin).
Porcelet
young suckling pig.
Porchetta
young pig stuffed with offal, herbs, and garlic, and toasted! seen in
charcuteries in 4ice.
Porto (au)
(with) port.
Portugaise
elongated, crinkle-shell oyster.
Pot-de-cr?me
individual classic custard dessert, often chocolate.
Potimarron
see "itrouille.
Potiron
see "itrouille.
Poularde
fatted hen.
Poulet (r?ti)
chicken (roast).
Poulet de Bresse
high-&uality chicken raised on farms to e+acting specifications, from the
7h?ne-lpes.
Poulet de grain
corn-fed chicken.
Poulet fermier
free-range chicken.
Pouligny-/aint-Pierre
village in the ,oire valley that gives its name to a goat's-milk cheese
shaped like a truncated pyramid with a mottled, grayish rind and a
smooth-grained, ivory-white interior.
Pousse-en-claire
6ysters that have been aged and fattened in claire, or oyster beds, for
four to eight months.
Pousse-"ierre
edible seaweed! also called sea beans.
Poutargue, boutargue
salted, pressed, and flattened mullet roe, generally spread on toast as an
appeti$er! specialty of 'rovence and the /editerranean.
Pr?-sal? (agneau de)
delicately salted lamb raised on the salt marshes of 4ormandy and the
tlantic coast.
Praire
small clam.
Pralin
ground carameli$ed almonds.
Praline
carameli$ed almonds.
Press&o"h
pork headcheese, often served with vinaigrette! specialty of lsace.
Primeur(r)
refers to early fresh fruits and vegetables, also to new wine.
Printani?re
garnish of a variety of spring vegetables cut into dice or balls.
Prix fixe
fi+ed-price menu.
Prix net
service included.
Profiterole(s)
classic chou pastry dessert, usually puffs of pastry filled with vanilla ice
cream and topped with hot chocolate sauce.
Pro!en?ale
in the style of 'rovence! usually includes garlic, tomatoes, andBor olive oil.
Prune (d'ente)
fresh plum! (variety of plum grown in the famed gen region of the
southwest).
Pruneau
prune.
Puits d'amour
)wells of love)! classic small pastry crowns filled with pastry cream.
7uatre ?"ices
spice blend of ground ginger, nutmeg, white pepper, and cloves.
7uatre-'uarts
)four &uarters)! pound cake made with e&ual weights of eggs, flour, butter,
and sugar.
7uiche lorraine
savory custard tart made with bacon, eggs, and cream.
8?ble de li?!re (la"in)
saddle of hare (rabbit).
8?glisse
licorice.
8?moulade (c?leri)
sauce of mayonnaise, capers, mustard, herbs, anchovies, and gherkins!
(dish of shredded celery root with mayonnaise).
8?"
grated or shredded.
8?ti
roast! meat roast.
8a?to
red wine sauce that generally includes onions, tomatoes, garlic, herbs,
olives, and capers, usually served warm over grilled fish! specialty of
'rovence.
8aclette
rustic dish, from Swit$erland and the Savoie, of melted cheese served with
boiled potatoes, tiny pickled cucumbers, and onions! also, the cheese
used in the dish.
8adis
small red radish.
8adis noir
large black radish, often served with cream, as a salad.
8afra?chi
cool, chilled, or fresh.
8ago?t
stew! usually of meat.
8aie (boucl?e)
skate or ray, found in the .nglish "hannel, tlantic, and /editerranean.
8aifort
horseradish.
8aisin
grape! raisin.
de *orinthe currant.
de Smyrne sultana.
sec raisin.
8ame'uin
small individual casserole. lso, a small tart. lso, a small goat's-milk
cheese from the %ugey, an area in the northern 7h?ne valley.
8amier
wood or wild pigeon.
8ascasse
gurnard, or scorpion fish in the rockfish family! an essential ingredient of
bouillabaisse, the fish stew of the /editerranean.
8atafia
li&ueur made by infusing nut or fruit in brandy.
8atatouille
a cooked dish of eggplant, $ucchini, onions, tomatoes, peppers, garlic,
and olive oil, served hot or cold! specialty of 'rovence.
8atte
small, bite-si$e potatoes, often used for pur?es.
8a!igote
classic thick vinaigrette sauce with vinegar, white wine, shallots, and
herbs. lso, cold mayonnaise with capers, onions, and herbs.
8a!iole de 8oyans
tiny ravioli pasta filled with goat cheese, from the 7h?ne-lpes.
8a!ioli ? la ni?oise
s&uare or round pasta filled with meat andBor swiss chard and baked with
grated cheese.
8eblochon
smooth, supple, creamy cow's-milk cheese from the Savoie in the lps.
8eine-laude
greengage plum.
8einette, reine de
fall and winter variety of apple, deep yellow with a red blush.
8eligieuse, "etite
)nun)! a small version of a classic pastry consisting of two chou+ puffs
filled with chocolate, coffee, or vanilla pastry cream, placed one on top of
another, and frosted with chocolate or coffee icing to resemble a nun in
her habit.
8e"as
meal.
8huharbe
rhubarb.
8hum
rum.
8igotte
small cow's-milk cheese from the ,yon region.
8illettes (d'oie)
minced spread of pork (goose)! can also be made with duck, fish, or
rabbit.
8illons
usually pork belly, cut up and cooked until crisp, then drained of fat! also
made of duck, goose, or rabbit.
8is d'agneau (de !eau)
lamb (veal) sweetbreads.
8issol
browned by frying, usually potatoes.
8iz
rice.
? la imp?ratrice cold rice pudding with candied fruit.
complet brown rice.
de *amargue nutty, fragrant rice grown in the "amargue, the
swampy area 2ust south of rles in 'rovence.
sauvage wild rice.
8izotto, risotto
creamy rice made by stirring rice constantly in stock as it cooks, then
mi+ing in other ingredients such as cheese or mushrooms.
8obe des cham"s, robe de chambre ("ommes
potatoes boiled or baked in their skin! potatoes in their 2ackets.
8ocamadour
village in southwestern 3rance which gives its name to a tiny disc of
cheese, once made of pure goat's or sheep's milk, now generally either
goat
8ognonnade
veal loin with kidneys attached.
8ognons
kidneys.
8ollot
spicy cow's-milk cheese with a washed ochre-colored rind, in small
cylinder or heart shape! from the 4orth.
8omanoff
fruit, often strawberries, macerated in li&ueur and topped with whipped
cream.
8omarin
rosemary.
8ondelle
round slice--of lemon, for e+ample.
8o'uefort
disc of blue veined cheese of raw sheep's milk from southwestern 3rance,
aged in village of 7o&uefort-sur-Soul$on.
8o'uette
rocket or arugula, a spicy salad green.
8os
rare! used for veal, duck, or liver. lso, rose-colored wine.
8osette (de boeuf)
large dried pork (beef) sausage, from area around ,yon.
8ouelle
slice of meat or vegetable cut at an angle.
8ouennaise (canard ? la)
in the style of 7ouen! (classic dish of duck stuffed with its liver in a blood-
thickened sauce).
8ouget barbet, rouget de roche
red mullet, a pri$ed, e+pensive rock-fish, with sweet flesh and red skin! its
flavorful liver is reserved for sauces.
8ouget grondin
red gurnard, a large, common rockfish, less pri$ed than rouget barbet.
variety of galinette. n ingredient in bouillabaisse.
8ougette
a small red-leafed butterhead lettuce, specialty of 'rovence.
8ouille
mayonnaise of olive oil, garlic, chile peppers, bread, and fish broth! usually
served with fish soups, such as bouillabaisse.
8oul?(e)
rolled.
8oulade
meat or fish roll, or rolled-up vegetahle souffl?! larger than a paupiette,
and often stuffed.
8oussette
dogfish, also called salmonette because of its pinkish skin, found on the
tlantic coast. -ood when very fresh.
8oux
sauce base or thickening of flour and butter.
8o!e
breed of goat! also small round of 'rovencal soft goat's cheese, fragrant
with wild herbs.
8oyale, ? la
)royal-style)! rich classic preparation, usually with truffles and a cream
sauce.
8umstec&
rump steak.
8usse, salade ? la
cold mi+ed salad of peas and diced carrots and turnips in mayonnaise.
/afran
saffron.
/aint--ermain
with peas.
/aint-(ubert
poivrade sauce with chestnuts and bacon added.
/aint-*arcellin
small flat disc of cow's-milk cheese (once made of goat's milk) made in
dairies in the #s?re, outside ,yon. 0he best is well aged and runny. 3ound
in 'aris, the ,yons area, and northern 'rovence.
/aint-.ectaire
village in the uvergne that gives its name to a supple, thick disc of cow's-
milk cheese with a mottled gray rind.
/aint-Pierre
8ohn :ory, a pri$ed mild, flat, white ocean fish. 5nown as soleil and 8ean
:or? in the 4orth, and poule de mer along the tlantic coast.
/ainte-*aure
village in the ,oire valley that gives its name to a soft, elongated cylinder
of goat's-milk cheese with a distinctive straw in the middle and a mottled,
natural blue rind.
/alade russe
mi+ed diced vegetables in mayonnaise.
/alade !erte
green salad.
/aladier (lyonnais)
see Salade lyonnaise.
/alers
"antal-type cheese, made in rustic cheese-making houses only when the
cows are in the uvergnes mountain pastures, from /ay to September.
/alicorne
edible seaweed, sea string bean! often pickled and served as a
condiment.
/andre
pickerel, perch-like river fish, found in the Sa?ne and 7hine.
/anglier
wild boar.
/ar, sargue
blacktail, a tiny flat fish of the sea bream family best grilled or baked.
/arcelle
teal, a species of wild duck.
/ardine
small sardine. ,arge sardines are called pilchards. 3ound year-round in
the /editerranean, from /ay to 6ctober in the tlantic.
/arladaise
as prepared in Sarlat in the :ordogne! with truffles.
/arrasin
buckwheat.
/arriette
summer savory. See poivre d'ain.
/aucisse de 2rancfort
hot dog.
/aucisse de /trasbourg
redskinned hot dog.
/aucisson d'Arles
dried salami-style sausage that blends pork, beef and gentle seasoning! a
specialty of rles, in 'rovence.
/aucisson de *orteau
see 8?sus de /orteau.
/aucisson en cro?te
sausage cooked in a pastry crust.
/aumon nor!?gien
4orwegian salmon.
/a!arin
yeast-leavened cake shaped like a ring, soaked in sweet syrup.
/a!oyarde
in the style of Savoy, usually flavored with -ruy?re cheese.
/carole
escarole.
/el (gros)
coarse salt.
/el gris
salt, unbleached sea salt.
/el marin
sea salt.
/elles-sur-her
village in the ,oire valley identified with a small, flat, truncated cylinder of
goat's-milk cheese with a mottled blueish-gray rind (sometimes patted with
powdered charcoal) and a pure-white interior.
/elon grosseur (/;-;)
according to si$e, usually said of lobster or other seafood.
/elon le march
according to what is in season or available.
/er"olet
wild thyme.
/er!ice
meal, mealtime, the serving of the meal. restaurant has two services if it
serves lunch and dinner! a dish en deu+ services, like canard press?. is
served in two courses.
/er!ice (non) com"ris
service charge (not) included in the listed menu prices (but invariably
included on the bill).
/er!ice en sus
service charge to be made in addition to menu prices. Same as service
non compris.
/ommelier
wine waiter.
/orbet
sherbet.
/oumaintrain
a spicy, supple flat disc of cow's-milk cheese with a red-brown rind! from
%urgundy.
/ou"ir de nonne
)nuns sighs)! fried chou+ pastry dusted with confectioners sugar. "reated
by a nun in an lsatian abbey. lso called pet de nonne.
/ouris
)mouse)! muscle that holds the leg of lamb to the bone! lamb shanks.
/tea&-frites
classic 3rench dish of grilled steak served with 3rench-fried potatoes.
/trasbourgeoise, ? la
ingredients typical of Strasbourg including sauerkraut, foie gras, and salt
pork.
/ucc?s ? la "raline
cake made with praline meringue layers, frosted with meringue and butter
cream.
/ucre
sugar.
/u"r?me
a veal- or chicken-based white sauce thickened with flour and cream.
lso, a boneless breast of poultry or a filet of fish.
:?te de !eau ("orc)
head of veal (pork), usually used in headcheese.
:?tragone
spinach-like green, found in 'rovence.
:ablier de sa"eur
)firemans apron)! tripe that is marinated, breaded, and grilled! specialty of
,yon.
:arama
carp roe, often made into a spread of the same name.
:arbas
variety of large white bean, usually dried.
:artare (de "oisson)
traditionally chopped raw beef, seasoned and garnished with raw egg,
capers, chopped onion, and parsley! (today, a popular highly seasoned
raw fish dish).
:arte
tart! open-face pie or flan, usually sweet.
:arte encalat
name for cheesecake in the uvergne.
:arte flamb
thin-crusted savory tart, much like a rectangular pi$$a, covered with
cream, onions, and bacon! specialty of lsace! also called 3lamekueche.
:arte :atin
carameli$ed upside-down apple pie, made famous by the 0atin sisters in
their hotel in ,amotte-%euvron, in the Sologne! a popular dessert, seen on
menus all over 3rance.
:artine
open-face sandwich! buttered bread.
:endre
tender.
:endron
cartilaginous meat cut from beef or veal ribs.
:errine
earthenware container used for cooking meat, game, fish, or vegetable
mi+tures! also the p?t? cooked and served in such a container. #t differs
from a p?t? proper in that the terrine is actually sliced out of the container,
while a p?t? has been removed from its mold.
:eurgoule
a sweet rice pudding with cinnamon! specialty of 4ormandy.
:hermidor (homard)
classic lobster dish! lobster split lengthwise, grilled, and served in the shell
with a cream sauce.
:hon (blanc) (germon)
tuna (white albacore).
:hon rouge
bluefin tuna.
:omates ? la "ro!en?ale
baked tomato halves sprinkled with garlic, parsley, and bread crumbs.
:omme arl?sienne
rectangular cheese made with a blend of goat's and cow's milk and
sprinkled with summer savory! also called tomme de "amargue! a
specialty of the ,anguedoc and rles, in 'rovence.
:omme fraiche
pressed cake of fresh milk curds, used in the regional dishes of the
uvergne.
:o"inambour
8erusalem artichoke.
:oro (taureau)
bull! meat found in butcher shops in the ,anguedoc and 'ays %as&ue,
and sometimes on restaurant menus.
:orr?fi
roasted, as in coffee beans and chocolate.
:orteau au fromage
goat cheese cheesecake from the 'oitou-"harentes along the tlantic
coast! a blackened, spherical loaf found at cheese shops throughout
3rance! once a homemade delicacy, today prepared industrially.
:ortue
turtle.
:ourain, tourin, tourrin
generally a peasant soup of garlic, onions (and sometimes tomatoes), and
broth or water, thickened with egg yolks and seasoned with vinegar!
specialty of the southwest.
:ournedos
center portion of beef filet, usually grilled or saut?ed.
:ournedos 8ossini
saut?ed tournedos garnished with foie gras and truffles.
:ouron
mar$ipan loaf, or a cake of almond paste, often layered and flavored with
nuts or candied fruits and sold by the slice! specialty of the %as&ue region.
:ourte (aux blettes)
pie (common 4i?oise dessert pie filled with Swiss chard, eggs, cheese,
raisins, and pine nuts). lso, name for giant rounds of country bread found
in the uvergne and the southwest.
:ourteau
large crab.
:ourti?re
shallow three-legged cooking vessel, set over hot coals for baking. lso,
southwestern pastry dish filled with apples andBor prunes and sprinkled
with rmagnac.
:r?!ise
radicchio, a bitter red salad green of the chicory family.
:rain de c?tes
rib of beef.
:raiteur
caterer! delicatessen.
:ranche
slice.
:ra""iste
name given to the mild, lactic cow's-milk cheese made in a 0rappist
monastery in .chourgnac, in the southwest.
:ra!ers de "orc
spareribs.
:ri"es ? la mode de aen
beef tripe, carrots, onions, leeks, and spices, cooked in water, cider, and
"alvados (apple brandy)! specialty of 4ormandy.
:ri"le cr?me
legal name for cheese containing more than => percent butterfat, such as
%rillat-Savarin.
:ri"oux
mutton tripe.
:ri"oxa
%as&ue name for sheep's or calfs blood sausage served with spicy red
.spelette peppers.
:rom"ettes de la mort
dark brown wild mushroom, also known as )horn of plenty.)
:ron?on
cut of meat or fish resulting in a piece that is longer than it is wide!
generally refers to slices from the largest part of a fish.
:rouchia
flat omelet filled with spinach or Swiss chard! specialty of 'rovence.
:ruffade
a large layered and fried potato pancake made with bacon and fresh
"antal cheese! specialty of the uvergne.
:ruffe (truff
truffle (with truffles).
:ruffes sous la cendre
truffles wrapped in pastry or foil, gently warmed as they are buried in
ashes.
:ruite (au bleu)
trout (a preferred method of cooking trout, not live, as often assumed, but
rather in a )live condition.) 0he trout is gutted 2ust moments prior to
cooking, but neither washed nor scaled. #t is then plunged into a hot
mi+ture of vinegar and water, and the slimy lubricant that protects the skin
of the fish appears to turn the trout a bluish color. 0he fish is then removed
to a broth to finish its cooking.)
de lac lake trout.
de mer sea trout or brown trout.
de rivi?re river trout.
saumone? salmon trout.
:toro
fish soup from the %as&ue region. Cistorically, the li&uid that remained
after poaching cod was seasoned with herbs and used to cook vegetables
and potatoes. 0oday, a more elaborate version includes the addition of
lotte, mullet, mussels, conger eel, langoustines, and wine.
:urban
usually a mi+ture or combination of ingredients cooked in a ring mold.
:urbot(in)
turbot (small turbot), 'ri$ed flatfish found in the tlantic and
/editerranean.
unilat?ral
6ne-sided - e.g.( saumon ? lunilat?ral G salmon grilled only on one side.
9?roni'ue, ? la
garnish of peeled white grapes. ;ert-pr?
a watercress garnish, sometimes including potatoes.
9acherin
dessert of baked meringue, with ice cream and whipped cream. lso a
strong, supple winter cheese encircled by a band of spruce, from the 8ura.
9a"eur, ? la
steamed.
9arech
seaweed.
9entr?che
pork belly.
9entre
belly or stomach.
9erdure (en)
garnish of green vegetables.
9erdurette
herb vinaigrette.
9erjus
the 2uice of unripe grapes, used to make a condiments used much like
vinegar in sauces.
9ernis
large fleshy clam with small red tongue and shiny varnish-like shell.
9er!eine
lemon verbena, herb tea.
9ierge (sauce)
)virgin)! term for the best &uality olive oil, from the first pressing of the
olives! (sauce of olive oil, lemon 2uice, garlic, tomatoes, and fresh herbs.)
9inaigre (!ieux)
vinegar (aged).
9inaigre de x?r
sherry vinegar.
9inaigrette
oil and vinegar dressing.
9iognier
increasingly popular white grape of the 7h?ne, used for the famed
"ondrieu .
9iolet de Pro!ence
braid of plump garlic, a specialty of 'rovence and the "?te-d'$ur.
9iolet or figue de mer
unusual iodine-strong, soft-shelled edible sea creature, with a yellowish
interior. delicacy along the /editerranean, particularly in /arseille.
9iroflay
classic garnish of spinach for poached or soft-cooked eggs.
9i!e or !i"?re de mer
weever! a small firm-fleshed ocean fish used in soups, such as
bouillabaisse, or grilled. 0he venomous spine is removed before cooking.
6aterzooi
3lemish chicken stew cooked with aromatic herbs and vegetables in a
sauce of cream and chicken broth.
<?r?s (!inaigre de)
sherry (vinegar).
=aourt
yogurt.
>atar
/iddle .astern seasoning mi+ of ground sesame seeds, sumac berrries,
thyme and salt.
>ingara, ? la
gypsy style! with tomato sauce. lso classically, a garnish of ham, tongue,
mushrooms, and truffles.
a la Bourgeoise, ? la Bourgeoise
'repared in the family style.
A?go saou
)water-salt) in 'roven*al! a fish soup that includes, of course, water and
salt, plus a mi+ture of small white fish, onions, potatoes, tomatoes, garlic,
herbs, and olive oil! specialty of 'rovence.
Abat(s)
organ meat(s).
Abati(s)
giblet(s) of poultry or game fowl.
Agrume(s)
citrus fruit(s).
Aigrelette, sauce
a sort of tart sauce.
Aile et cuisse
used to describe white breast meat (aile) and dark thigh meat (cuisse),
usually of chicken.
Aisy cendr
thick disc of cow's-milk cheese, washed with eau-de-vie and patted with
wood ashes! also called cendre d'aisy( a specialty of %urgundy.
Algue(s)
edible seaweed.
Alisier, alizier
eau-de-vie with the taste of bitter almonds, made with the wild red
serviceberries that grow in the forests of lsace.
Alose
shad, a spring river fish plentiful in the ,oire and -ironde rivers.
Alsacienne, ? l'
in the style of lsace, often including sauerkraut, sausage, or foie gras.
Ambroisie
ambrosia.
Amourette(s)
spinal bone marrow of calf or o+.
Amuse-bouche or amusegueule
)amuse the mouth)! appeti$er.
Ananas
pineapple.
Anchois (de ollioure)
anchovy (pri$ed salt-cured anchovy from "ollioure, a port town near the
Spanish border of the ,anguedoc), fished in the tlantic and the
/editerranean.
Anglaise, ? l'
.nglish style, plainly cooked.
Anis
anise or aniseed.
Anis ?toil
star anise.
Anise ?toil
star anise! also called badiane, anis de la chine. 0he anise plant! its dried
star-shaped fruit.
Ar?mes ? la g?ne
generic name for a variety of tangy, lactic cheeses of the ,yon area that
have been steeped in g?ne, or dry marc, the dried grape skins left after
grapes are pressed for wine. "an be of cow's milk, goat's milk, or a
mi+ture.
Arbousier (miel d')
trailing arbutus, small evergreen shrubby tree of the heather family, also
called strawberry tree, ground laurel and madrona tree with strawberry-like
fruit dotted with tiny bumps! (honey of). 1sed for making li&ueurs, 2ellies,
and 2ams.
Ardennaise, ? l'
in the style of the rdennes, a d?partement in northern 3rance! generally a
dish with 2uniper berries.
Ardi gasna
%as&ue name for sheep's-milk cheese.
Ardoise
blackboard! bistros often use a blackboard to list specialties in place of a
printed menu.
Arl?sienne, ? l'
in the style of rles, a town in 'rovence! with tomatoes, onions, eggplant,
potatoes, rice, and sometimes olives.
Aros?(e)
sprinkled, basted, moistened with li&uid.
As"erge (!iolette)
asparagus (purple-tipped asparagus, a specialty of the "?te-d'$ur).
Assaisonn
seasoned! seasoned with.
Assiette anglaise
assorted cold meats, usually served as a first course.
Assiette de "?cheur
assorted fish platter.
Assoif
parched, thirsty.
Assorti(e)
assorted.
B?arnaise
tarragon-flavored sauce of egg yolks, butter, shallots, white wine, vinegar!
and herbs.
B?casse
small bird, a woodcock.
B?cassine
small bird, a snipe.
Baie rose
pink peppercorn.
Basilic
basil.
Bas'uaise, ? la
%as&ue style! usually with ham or tomatoes or red peppers.
Ba!aroise
cold dessert! a rich custard made with cream and gelatin.
Ba!euse
)drooling)! method of cooking an omelet so that it remains moist and 2uicy.
Belondines
%rittany creuses, or crinkle-shelled oysters that are affin?es or finished off
in the %elon river.
Beurre demi-sel
butter (lightly salted).
Beurre des harentes
finest 3rench butter, from the region of 'oitou-"harentes along the tlantic
coast.
Beurre noisette
lightly browned butter.
Bi?re (en bouteille, ? la "ression)
beer (bottled, on tap).
Bibels&,s, bibbels&,se
fresh cheese seasoned with horseradish, herbs, and spices! specialty of
lsace.
Biscuit ? la cuill?re
ladyfinger.
Bistrotier
bistro owner.
Bleu de Bresse
a cylinder of mild blue-veined cow's-milk cheese from the %resse area in
the 7h?ne-lps region! industrially made.
Bleu des ausses
a firm, pungent, flat cylinder of blue-veined cow's-milk cheese, cured in
cellars similar to those used in making 7o&uefort.
Boeuf gros sel
boiled beef, served with vegetables and coarse salt.
Boisson (non) com"rise
drink (not) included.
Bonne femme (cuisine)
meat garnish of bacon, potatoes, mushrooms, and onions! fish garnish of
shallots, parsley, mushrooms, and potatoes! or white wine sauce with
shallots, mushrooms, and lemon 2uice! (home-style cooking).
Bordelaise
%ordeau+ style! also refers to a brown sauce of shallots, red wine, and
bone marrow.
Boudouses
literally, to pout! tiny oysters from %rittany that refuse to grow to normal
si$e! iodine rich and pri$ed.
Bouillabaisse
popular /editerranean fish soup, most closely identified with /arseille,
ideally prepared with the freshest local fish, preferably rockfish.
0raditionally might include do$ens of different fish, but today generally
includes the specifically local rascasse (scorpion fish), Saint-'ierre (8ohn
:ory), fi?la (conger eel), galinette (gurnard or grondin), vive (weever), and
baudroie (monkfish) cooked in a broth of water, olive oil, onions, garlic,
tomatoes, parsley, and saffron. 0he fish is served separately from the
broth, which is poured over garlic-rubbed toast, and seasoned with rouille
which is stirred into the broth. ;aried additions include boiled potatoes,
orange peel, fennel, and shellfish. .+pensive shellfish are often added in
restaurant versions, but this practice is considered inauthentic.
Boulette d'A!esnes
pepper-and-tarragon-flavored cheese, made from visually defective
/aroilles, formed into a cone, and colored red with paprika! named for
vesnes, a village in the 4orth.
Bourgeoise, ? la
with carrots, onions, braised lettuce, celery and bacon.
Br?si (Breuzi)
smoked, salted, and dried beef from the 8ura.
Braiser
to braise! to cook meat by browning in fat, then simmering in covered dish
with small amount of li&uid.
Brassado
a doughnut that is boiled, then baked, much like a bagel! specialty of
'rovence.
Brebis (fromage de)
sheep (sheep's-milk cheese).
Brillat-/a!arin
(<=>>-<?@A) famed gastronome, coiner of food aphorisms, and author of
0he 'hysiology of 0aste! the high-fat, supple cow's-milk cheese from
4ormandy is named for him.
Brouill?(s)
scrambled, usually eggs.
Brousse
a very fresh and unsalted (thus bland) sheep's- or goat's-milk cheese, not
unlike #talian ricotta! specialty of 4ice and /arseille.
Brunoise
tiny diced vegetables.
Buisson
)bush)! generally a dish including vegetables arranged like a bush!
classically a crayfish presentation.
ab?cou(s)
small, round goat's-milk cheese from the southwest, sometimes made with
a mi+ of goat's and cow's milk.
aisse
cash register! or cash desk.
aissette
literally, )small bo+)! bread, brioche, or chocolate shaped like a small bo+.
ajasse
a sort of clafoutis from the :ordogne, made with black cherries.
alisson d'Aix
:elicate, diamond-shaped 'roven?al sweet prepared with almonds,
candied oranges, melon or abricots, egg white, sugar, and confiture of
oranges or apricots.
al!ados
a d?partement in 4ormandy known for the famed apple brandy.
am"agnard(e) (assiette)
country-style, rustic! (an informal buffet of cold meats, terrines, etc.).
anard ? la "resse
roast duck served with a sauce of 2uices obtained from pressing the
carcass, combined with red wine and "ognac.
anard sau!age
wild duck, usually mallard.
annois, ? la
in the style of "annes.
ara?bes
"aribbean, usually denotes chocolate from the "aribbean.
aramelis
cooked with high heat to brown the sugar and heighten flavor.
arte "romotionelle or conseill
a simple and ine+pensive fi+ed-price meal.
asher
kosher.
asse-cro?te
)break bread)! slang for snack.
asseron
cuttlefish.
assis (cr?me de)
black currant (black currant li&ueur).
assolette
usually a dish presented in a small casserole.
assonade
soft brown sugar! demerara sugar.
assoulet
popular southwestern casserole of white beans, including various
combinations of sausages, duck, pork, lamb, mutton, and goose.
endre (sous la)
ash (cooked by being buried in embers)! some cheeses made in wine-
producing regions are aged in the ash of burned rootstocks.
erise
cherry.
erise noire
black cherry.
er!elas
garlicky cured pork sausage! now also refers to fish and seafood sausage.
er!elle(s)
brain(s), of calf or lamb.
harbon de bois, au
charcoal-grilled.
harentais
variety of sweet cantaloupe, or melon, originally from the "harentes, on
the tlantic coast.
harolais
area of %urgundy! light colored cattle producing high-&uality beef! also,
firm white cylinder of cheese made with goat's or cow's milk, or a mi+ture
of the two.
hartreuse
dish of braised partridge and cabbage! also herb and spiced-based li&ueur
made by the "hartreuse monks in the Savoie.
hasseur
hunter! also, sauce with white wine, mushrooms, shallots, tomatoes, and
herbs.
hausson
a filled pastry turnover, sweet or savory.
hemise, en
wrapped with pastry.
hicons du .ord
%elgian endive.
hicor?e (fris?e)
a bitter salad green (curly endive)! also chicory, a coffee substitute.
"hicor?e de %ru+elles
%elgian endive.
hi"s, "ommes
potato chips.
horon, sauce
b?arnaise sauce with tomatoes.
hou de Bruxelles
brussels sprout.
hou fris
kale.
houcas
2ackdaw! .uropean blackbird, like a crow, but smaller.
itron, orange, or "am"lemousse "ress?(e
lemon, orange, or grapefruit 2uice served with a carafe of tap water and
sugar! for sweetening to taste.
i!et de tri"es d'oies
a stew of goose innards, saut?ed in fat with onions, shallots, and garlic,
then cooked in wine vinegar and diluted with water, and thickened with
goose blood! from -ascony.
lafoutis
traditional custard tart, usually made with black cherries! specialty of the
southwest.
lo!isse
variety of very tiny clam, generally from the /editerranean.
ochonnaille(s)
pork product(s), usually an assortment of sausages andBor p?t?s served
as a first course.
ommander a!ant le re"as,
a selection of desserts that should be ordered when selecting first and
main courses, as they re&uire longer cooking.
om"ris
see Service (non) compris.
oncass
coarsely chopped.
oncombre
cucumber.
onf?rence
a variety of pear.
onfiserie
candy, sweet, or confection! a candy shop.
onfit
a preserve, generally pieces of duck, goose, or pork cooked and
preserved in their own fat! also fruit or vegetables preserved in sugar!
alcohol, or vinegar.
onfiture
2am.
onfiture de !ieux gar?on
varied fresh fruits macerated in alcohol.
ongeler
to free$e.
ongre
conger eel! a large ocean fish resembling a freshwater eel (anguille
onseill
advised, recommended.
onsomm
clear soup.
onsommation(s)
)consumption)! drinks, meals, and snacks available in a cafe or bar.
ontre-filet
cut of sirloin taken above the loin on either side of the backbone, tied for
roasting or braising (can also be cut for grilling).
on!ersation
puff pastry tart with sugar gla$ing and an almond or cream filling.
o"eau(x)
shaving(s), such as from chocolate, cheese, or vegetables.
o' (au !in)
mature male chicken (stewed in wine sauce).
o' au !in jaune
chicken cooked in the sherry-like vin 2aune of the region, with cream,
butter! and tarragon, often garnished with morels! specialty of the 8ura.
o' de bruy?re
wood grouse.
o'ue
cockle, a tiny, mild-flavored, clam-like shellfish.
o'ue, ? la
served in a shell. See 6euf ? la co&ue.
o'uelet
young male chicken.
o'uillage(s)
shellfish.
o'uille
shell.
o'uille /aint-0ac'ues
sea scallop.
orail
coral-colored egg sac, found in scallops, spiny lobster, and crayfish.
orb
a /editerranean bluefish.
oriandre
coriander! either the fresh herb or dried seeds.
orne d'abondance
)horn of plenty)! dark brown wild mushroom, also called trompette de la
mort.
ornet
cornet-shaped! usually refers to foods rolled conically! also an ice cream
cone, and a conical pastry filled with cream.
ornichon
gherkin! tiny tart cucumber pickle.
otriade
a fish stew, usually including mackerel, whiting, conger eel, sorrel, butter,
potatoes, and vinegar! specialty of %rittany.
ou d'oie (de canard) farci
neck skin of goose (of duck), stuffed with meat and spices, much like
sausage.
oulant
refers to runny cheese.
oulemelle
parasol mushroom with a delicate flavor! also called champignon ? la
bague, cocherelle, and grisotte.
oulibiac
classic, elaborate, hot 7ussian p?t?, usually layers of salmon, rice, hard-
cooked eggs, mushrooms, and onions, wrapped in brioche.
oulis
pur?e of raw or cooked vegetables or fruit.
oulommiers
town in the #le-de-3rance that gives its name to a supple, fragrant disc of
cow's-milk cheese, slightly larger than "amembert.
ourge (muscade)
generic term for s&uash or gourd (bright orange pumpkin).
ourgette
$ucchini.
ouronne
)crown)! ring or circle, usually of bread.
ourt-bouillon
broth, or aromatic poaching li&uid.
ouscous
granules of semolina, or hard wheat flour! also refers to a hearty 4orth
frican dish that includes the steamed grain, broth, vegetables, meats, hot
sauce, and sometimes chickpeas and raisins.
outeau
ra$or clam.
ou!ert
a place setting, including dishes, silver, glassware, and linen.
ou!erture
bittersweet chocolate high in cocoa butter! used for making the shiniest
chocolates.
r?cy
a dish garnished with carrots.
r?mant
sparkling wine.
r?me
cream.
aigre( sour cream.
anglaise( light egg-custard cream.
brulee( rich custard dessert with a top of carameli$ed sugar.
caramel( vanilla custard with caramel sauce.
catalane( creamy anise flavored custard from the southern
,anguedoc.
chantilly( sweetened whipped cream.
?paisse( thick cream.
fleurette( li&uid heavy cream.
fouett?e( whipped cream.
fra?che( thick sour! heavy cream.
p?tissi?re( custard filling for pastries and cakes.
plombi?res( custard filled with fresh fruits and egg whites.
r?"e
thin pancake.
r?"es /uzette
hot cr?pe dessert flamed with orange li&ueur.
r?"ine
caul fat.
r?"inette
traditionally, a small sausage patty wrapped in caul fat! today boned
poultry wrapped in caul fat.
r?te (de co')
(cocks) comb.
rabe
crab.
rambe
sea kale, or chou de mer.
rami'ue
brioche with raisins or currants! specialty of the 4orth.
ra"audine
preparation of grilled poultry or game bird with backbone removed.
ra'uant
crunchy.
ra'uelot
smoked herring.
resson(ade)
watercress (watercress sauce).
reuse
elongated, crinkle-shelled oyster.
re!ette
shrimp.
re!ette grise
tiny soft-fleshed shrimp that turns gray when cooked.
re!ette rose
small firm-fleshed shrimp that turns red when cooked! when large, called
bou&uet.
ri'ue
potato pancake from the uvergne.
riste marine
edible algae.
ro?te (en)
crust! (in) pastry.
ro?te de sel (en)
(in) a salt crust.
ro?tons
small cubes of toasted or fried bread.
ro'ue au sel, ? la
served raw, with a small bowl of coarse salt for seasoning! tiny purple
artichokes and cherry tomatoes are served this way.
ro'ue-madame
open-face sandwich of ham and cheese with an egg grilled on top.
ro'ue-monsieur
toasted ham and cheese sandwich.
ro'uembouche
chou+ pastry rounds filled with cream and coated with a sugar gla$e, often
served in a conical tower at special events.
ro'uette
ground meat, fish, fowl, or vegetables bound with eggs or sauce, shaped
into various forms, usually coated in bread crumbs, and deep fried.
rosne
small, unusual tuber! with a subtle artichoke-like flavor! known as a
"hinese or 8apanese artichoke.
rottin de ha!ignol
small flattened ball of goat's-milk cheese from the ,oire valley."roustade
usually small pastry-wrapped dish! also regional southwestern pastry filled
with prunes andBor apples.
ru
raw.
rudit
raw vegetable.
rustac?(s)
crustacean(s).
uilli?re (? la)
(to be eaten with a) spoon.
uisse (de "oulet)
leg or thigh (chicken drumstick).
uissot, cuisseau
haunch of veal, venison, or wild boar.
uit(e)
cooked.
ul
haunch or rear! usually of red meat.
ulotte
rump, usually of beef.
ulti!ateur
)truck farmer)! fresh vegetable soup.
urcuma
turmeric.
ure-dent
toothpick.
1?caf?in? or d?ca
decaffeinated coffee.
1?corti'u?(e)
shelled or peeled.
1emi-glace
concentrated beef-based sauce lightened with consomm?, or a lighter
brown sauce.
1emi-sec
usually refers to goat cheese that is in the intermediate aging stage
between one e+treme of soft and fresh and the other e+treme of hard and
aged.
1emoiselle de canard
marinated raw duck tenderloin! also called mignon de canard.
1emoiselles de herbourg
small lobsters from the town of "herbourg in 4ormandy, cooked in a court-
bouillon and served in cooking 2uices. lso, restaurant name for %reton
lobsters weighing EDD to FDD grams (<D to <E ounces).
1iscr?tion,
on menus usually refers to wine, which may be consumed--without limit--
at the customers discretion.
1oucette
see /?che.
1ouceur
sweet or dessert.
1oux, douce
sweet.
1oyenn? de omice
a variety of pear.
+au de source
spring water.
+chalote (gris)
shallot (pri$ed purplish shallot) elongated.
+chalote banane
banana-shaped onion.
+chine
sparerib.
+clade de moules
mussels roasted beneath a fire of pine needles! specialty of the tlantic
coast.
+cras
crushed! with fruit, pressed to release 2uice.
+cre!isse
freshwater crayfish.
+ffiloch
frayed, shredded.
+mbeurr? de chou
buttery cooked cabbage.
+minc
thin slice, usually of meat.
+nchaud
pork filet with garlic! specialty of :ordogne.
+ncornet
small ille+ s&uid, also called calmar! in %as&ue region called chipiron.
+ncre
s&uid ink.
+ntrec?te
beef rib steak.
+ntrec?te ma?tre d'h?tel
beef rib steak with sauce of red wine and shallots.
+"ice
spice.
+"oisses blanc
fresh white .poisses cheese.
+scab?che
a 'roven?al and southwestern preparation of small fish, usually sardines
or rouget, in which the fish are browned in oil, then marinated in vinegar
and herbs and served very cold. lso, raw fish marinated in lemon or lime
2uice and herbs.
+scali!ada
"atalan roasted vegetables, usually sweet peppers, eggplant and onions.
+scalo"e
thin slice of meat or fish.
+scargot
land snail.
+scargot de Bourgogne
land snail prepared with butter! garlic, and parsley.
+scargot "etit-gris
small land snail.
+scarole
bitter salad green of the chicory family with thick broad-lobed leaves,
found in both flat and round heads.
+stoficado
a pur?e-like blend of dried codfish, olive oil, tomatoes, sweet peppers,
black olives, potatoes, garlic, onions, and herbs! also called stockfish ni?
oise! specialty of 4ice.
2arci(e)
stuffed.
2a!orite d'artichaut
classic vegetable dish of artichoke stuffed with asparagus, covered with a
cheese sauce, and browned.
2er ? che!al
)horseshoe)! a baguette that has that shape.
2euille de ch?ne
oak-leaf lettuce.
2icelle (boeuf ? la)
)string)! (beef suspended on a string and poached in broth). lso, small
thin baguette. lso, a small bottle of wine, as in carafe of %eau2olais.
2icelle "icarde
thin cr?pe wrapped around a slice of ham and topped with a cheesy
cream sauce! specialty of 'icardy, in the 4orth.
2inanci?re
/adiera sauce with truffle 2uice.
2inancier
small rectangular almond cake.
2ine de claire
elongated crinkle-shelled oyster that stays in fattening beds (claires) a
minimum of two months.
2lamiche (au *aroilles)
a vegetable tart with rich bread dough crust, commonly filled with leeks,
cream, and cheese! specialty of 'icardy, in the 4orth! (filled with cream,
egg, butter, and /aroilles cheese).
2lamme&ueche
thin-crusted savory tart, much like a rectangular pi$$a, covered with
cream, onions, and bacon! also called tarte flamb?e! specialty of lsace.
2lanchet
flank of beef or veal, used generally in stews.
2leur de courgette
$ucchini blossom.
2oie gras d'oie (de canard)
liver of fattened goose (duck).
2ond d'artichaut
heart and base of an artichoke.
2ouace
a kind of brioche! specialty of the uvergne.
2ouchtrou
"ow's milk cheese from the uvergne, made when there is not enough
milk to make an entire wheel of "antal.
2rais, fra?che
fresh or chilled.
2ricadelle
fried minced meat patty.
2ricandeau
thinly sliced veal or a rump roast, braised with vegetables and white wine.
2ricass
classically, ingredients braised in wine sauce or butter with cream added!
currently denotes any mi+ture of ingredients--fish or meat--stewed or
saut?ed.
2ricot (de !eau)
veal shoulder simmered in white wine with vegetables.
2ruit confit
whole fruit preserved in sugar.
-anache
classically a rich mi+ture of chocolate and cr?me fra?che used as a filling
for cakes and chocolate truffles! currently may also include such flavorings
as wild strawberries and cinnamon.
-asconnade
roast leg of lamb with garlic and anchovies! specialty of the southwest.
-as"acho
a cold soup, usually containing tomatoes, cucumber, onions, and sweet
peppers! originally of Spanish origin.
-lac
iced, crystalli$ed, or gla$ed.
-lace
ice cream.
-nocchi
dumplings made of chou+ paste, potatoes, or semolina.
-rand cr?me
large or double espresso with milk.
-rand cru
top-ranking wine.
-ras (march? au)
fatty! (market of fattened poultry and their livers).
-rec'ue, ? la
cooked in seasoned mi+ture of oil, lemon 2uice, and water! refers to cold
vegetables, usually mushrooms.
-relette, sauce
cold sauce with a base of whipped cream.
-renouille (cuisse de)
frog (leg).
-ribiche, sauce
mayonnaise with capers, cornichons, hard-cooked eggs, and herbs.
(achis
minced or chopped meat or fish preparation.
(achis
minced or chopped meat or fish preparation.
(addoc&
small fresh cod that have been salted and smoked.
(addoc&
small fresh cod that have been salted and smoked.
(areng "ec
freshly salted young herring.
(areng "ec
freshly salted young herring.
(aricot
bean.
beurre yellow bean
blancs (? la Bretonne white beans, usually dried! (white beans in
a sauce of onions, tomatoes, garlic, and herbs)
de mouton stew of mutton and white beans (also called Calicots)
gris green string bean mottled with purplish black! also called p?
landron a specialty of the "?te-d'$ur.
rouge red kidney bean! also, preparation of red beans in red wine
sec dried bean
vert green bean, usually fresh
(aricot
bean.
beurre yellow bean
blancs (? la Bretonne white beans, usually dried! (white beans in
a sauce of onions, tomatoes, garlic, and herbs)
de mouton stew of mutton and white beans (also called Calicots)
gris green string bean mottled with purplish black! also called p?
landron a specialty of the "?te-d'$ur.
rouge red kidney bean! also, preparation of red beans in red wine
sec dried bean
vert green bean, usually fresh
(erbes de Pro!ence
mi+ture of thyme, rosemary, summer savory, and bay leaf, often dried and
blended.
(erbes de Pro!ence
mi+ture of thyme, rosemary, summer savory, and bay leaf, often dried and
blended.
(oche"ot
a thick stew, usually of o+tail! specialty of 3landers, in the north.
(oche"ot
a thick stew, usually of o+tail! specialty of 3landers, in the north.
(omard (? lAmoricaine, ? lAm?ricaine)
lobster! (a classic dish of many variations, in which lobster is cut into
sections and browned, then simmered with shallots, minced onions,
tomatoes, "ognac, and white wine! served with a sauce of the reduced
cooking li&uid, enriched with butter).
(omard (? lAmoricaine, ? lAm?ricaine)
lobster! (a classic dish of many variations, in which lobster is cut into
sections and browned, then simmered with shallots, minced onions,
tomatoes, "ognac, and white wine! served with a sauce of the reduced
cooking li&uid, enriched with butter).
(ure de "orc or de marcassin
head of pig or boar - usually refers to headcheese preparation.
(ure de "orc or de marcassin
head of pig or boar - usually refers to headcheese preparation.
3m"?ratrice, ? l
usually a rice pudding dessert with candied fruit.
0arret (de !eau, de "orc, de boeuf)
knuckle (of veal or pork), shin (of beef).
0onch
rush basket in which certain fresh sheep's - or goat's-milk cheeses of
'oitou (along the tlantic coast) are contained! thus, by e+tension, the
cheese itself.
4irsch
eau-de-vie of wild black cherries.
5actaire
the edible lactaire pallidus mushroom, also called sanguine. pricot-
colored, with red, blood colored 2uices when raw.
5aitance
soft roe (often of herring), or eggs.
5angue (de chat)
tongue ()cat's tongue)! thin, narrow, delicate cookie often served with
sherbet or ice).
5anguedocienne
garnish, usually of tomatoes, eggplant, and wild c?pe mushrooms.
5imaces ? la su?arelle
snails cooked with onions, garlic, tomatoes, and sausage! specialty of
'rovence.
5otte de ri!i?re (or de lac)
fine-fleshed river (or lake) fish, pri$ed for its large and flavorful liver. 4ot
related to the ocean fish lotte, or monkfish.
5ucullus
a classic, elaborate garnish of truffles cooked in /adeira and stuffed with
chicken forcemeat.
*?che
dark small-leafed salad green known as lambs lettuce or corn salad. lso
called doucette.
*?chon
early morning snack of sausage, wine, cheese, and bread! also, the caf?
that offers the snack! particular to ,yon.
*?re (de ronces)
blackberry (bush).
*ac?doine
diced mi+ed fruit or vegetables.
*acaron
macaroon, small cookie of almonds, egg whites, and sugar.
*acaronade
a rich blend of wild and domestic mushrooms and chunks of foie gras,
smothered in fresh pasta! specialty of the southwest. lso, macaroni with
mushrooms, bacon, white wine, and 'armesan cheese! an
accompaniment to a beef stew, or daube! specialty of 'rovence.
*acis
mace, the spice.
*adeleine (de ommercy)
small scalloped-shaped tea cake made famous by /arcel 'roust! (the
town in the ,orraine where the tea cakes are commerciali$ed).
*agret de canard (or d'oie)
breast of fattened duck (or goose).
*ara?ch?r(e) (? la)
market gardener or truck farmer (market-garden style! usually refers to a
dish or salad that includes various greens).
*arc
eau-de-vie distilled from pressed grape skins and seeds or other fruits.
*arcassin
young boar. t one year, a wild boar will weight FD kg, a domesticated
boar <@D kg.
*archand de !in
wine merchant. lso, sauce made with red wine, meat stock, and chopped
shallots.
*arion (glac
large (candied) chestnut.
*ar'uise (au chocolat)
mousse-like (chocolate) cake.
*elon de a!aillon
small canteloupe-like melon from "availlon, a town in 'rovence known for
its wholesale produce market.
*esclum, mesclun
a mi+ture of at least seven multi-shaded salad greens from 'rovence.
*i-cru
half raw.
*i-cuit
half cooked.
*iche
a large round country-style loaf of bread. lso, %as&ue name for aniseed
cake-like bread.
*ignon de canard
see :cmsiselle de canard.
*ont blanc
rich classic pastry of baked meringue, chestnut pur?e, and whipped
cream.
*ontmorency
garnished with cherries! historically a village known for its cherries, now a
suburb of 'aris.
*orceau
piece or small portion.
*ouclade
creamy mussel stew from the 'oitou-"harentes on the tlantic "oast,
generally flavored with curry or saffron.
*oule de bouchot
small, highly pri$ed cultivated mussel, raised on stakes driven into the
sediment of shallow coastal beds.
*outarde (? lancienne, en graines)
mustard (old-style, coarse-grained).
*uscade
nutmeg.
*uscat de (ambourg
variety of popular purple table grape, grown in 'rovence.
*useau de "orc (or de boeuf)
vinegared pork (or beef).
.eufch?tel
white, creamy, delicate (and often heart-shaped) cow's-milk cheese,
named for village in 4ormandy where it is made.
.on com"ris
see Service (non) compris.
.ougat glac
fro$en dessert of whipped cream and candied fruit.
#li!es cass?es
fresh green olives cured in a rich fennel-infused brine! specialty of
'rovence.
#mble (ombre) che!alier
lake fish, similar to salmon trout, with firm, flaky flesh varying from white to
deep red. 3ound in lakes in the Savoie.
#reille de "orc
cooked pigs ear! served grilled, with a coating of egg and bread crumb.
#sso bucco ? la ni?oise
saut?ed veal braised with tomatoes, garlic, onions, and orange $est!
specialty of the /editerranean.
#str?iculteur
6yster grower.
P?che
peach. lso, fishing.
P?che Alexandra
cold dessert of poached peaches with ice cream and pur?ed strawberries.
P?che *elba
poached peach with vanilla ice cream and raspberry sauce.
P?cheur
)fisherman)! usually refers to fish preparations.
P?"tie (au chocolat)
nugget! (chocolate chip).
P?tes (fra?ches)
pasta (fresh).
P?toncle
tiny scallop, similar to merican bay scallop.
Palmier, coeur de
heart of palm.
Panach
mi+ed! now liberally used menu term to denote any mi+ture.
Passe rassane
flavorful variety of winter pear.
Patte blanche
small crayfish no larger than @ <B@ ounces (=> g).
Pauchouse, "ochouse
stew of river fish that generally includes tanche (tench), perche (perch),
brochet (pike), and anguille (eel)! specialty of %urgundy.
Perce-"ierre
samphire, edible seaweed.
Perche
perch.
Petit-four (sucr? or sal?e)
tiny cake or pastry (sweet or savory)! in elegant restaurants, served with
cocktails before dinner or with coffee afterward! also called mignardise.
Pi?ce
portion, piece.
Picholine, "itchouline
a variety of green olive, generally used to prepare olives casse?s!
specialty of 'rovence.
Picodon (m?thode 1ieulefit)
small disc of goat's-milk cheese, the best of which (&ualified as m?thode
:ieulefit) is hard, pi&uant, and pungent from having soaked in brandy and
aged a month in earthenware 2ars! specialty of northern 'rovence.
Piech
poached veal brisket stuffed with vegetables, herbs, and sometimes rice,
ham, eggs, or cheese! specialty of the /editerranean.
Pied de che!al
)horses foot)! giant tlantic coast oyster.
Pilchard
name for sardines on the tlantic coast.
Pince
claw. lso, tongs used when eating snails or seafood.
Pineau des harentes
sweet fortified wine from the "ognac region on the tlantic coast, served
as an aperitif.
Pi'uenchagne, "icanchagne
a pear tart with walnut or brioche crust! specialty of the %ourbonnais, a
province in uvergne.
Pistache
pistachio nut.
Plaice
a small, orange-spotted flounder or fluke, a flat ocean fish! also known as
plie franch or carrelet. 3ound in the .nglish "hannel.
Plat cuisin
dish containing ingredients that have cooked together, usually in a sauce.
Plat "rinci"al
main dish.
Plates c?tes
part of beef ribs usually used in pot-au feu.
Pluche
small sprig of herbs or plants, generally used for garnish.
Poch
poached.
Pochouse
see 'auchouse.
Pois (chiche)
pea (chickpea).
Porc (c?te de)
pork (chop).
Porc (carr? de)
pork (loin).
Porcelet
young suckling pig.
Porchetta
young pig stuffed with offal, herbs, and garlic, and toasted! seen in
charcuteries in 4ice.
Pot-de-cr?me
individual classic custard dessert, often chocolate.
Potje!leisch
a mi+ed meat terrine, usually of veal, pork, and rabbit! specialty of the
4orth.
Pousse-en-claire
6ysters that have been aged and fattened in claire, or oyster beds, for
four to eight months.
7uatre ?"ices
spice blend of ground ginger, nutmeg, white pepper, and cloves.
7uetsche
small purple :amson plum.
7uiche lorraine
savory custard tart made with bacon, eggs, and cream.
8?moulade (c?leri)
sauce of mayonnaise, capers, mustard, herbs, anchovies, and gherkins!
(dish of shredded celery root with mayonnaise).
8aclette
rustic dish, from Swit$erland and the Savoie, of melted cheese served with
boiled potatoes, tiny pickled cucumbers, and onions! also, the cheese
used in the dish.
8afra?chi
cool, chilled, or fresh.
8aie (boucl?e)
skate or ray, found in the .nglish "hannel, tlantic, and /editerranean.
8ascasse
gurnard, or scorpion fish in the rockfish family! an essential ingredient of
bouillabaisse, the fish stew of the /editerranean.
8eblochon
smooth, supple, creamy cow's-milk cheese from the Savoie in the lps.
8eine-laude
greengage plum.
8obe des cham"s, robe de chambre ("ommes
potatoes boiled or baked in their skin! potatoes in their 2ackets.
8ocamadour
village in southwestern 3rance which gives its name to a tiny disc of
cheese, once made of pure goat's or sheep's milk, now generally either
goat
8ouennaise (canard ? la)
in the style of 7ouen! (classic dish of duck stuffed with its liver in a blood-
thickened sauce).
8ouget barbet, rouget de roche
red mullet, a pri$ed, e+pensive rock-fish, with sweet flesh and red skin! its
flavorful liver is reserved for sauces.
8umstec&
rump steak.
/aint 0ac'ues, co'uille
sea scallop.
/aint-*arcellin
small flat disc of cow's-milk cheese (once made of goat's milk) made in
dairies in the #s?re, outside ,yon. 0he best is well aged and runny. 3ound
in 'aris, the ,yons area, and northern 'rovence.
/aint-.ectaire
village in the uvergne that gives its name to a supple, thick disc of cow's-
milk cheese with a mottled gray rind.
/aint-9incent
moist, buttery, thick cylinder of cow's-milk cheese from %urgundy with a
rust-colored rind! similar to .poisses, but aged a bit longer, therefore
stronger.
/alade "anach
mi+ed salad.
/alicorne
edible seaweed, sea string bean! often pickled and served as a
condiment.
/al"icon
diced vegetables, meat, andBor fish in a sauce, used as a stuffing, garnish,
or spread.
/arcelle
teal, a species of wild duck.
/aucisse
small fresh sausage.
/aucisse chaude
warm sausage.
/aucisse de 2rancfort
hot dog.
/aucisse de /trasbourg
redskinned hot dog.
/aucisse de :oulouse
mild country-style pork sausage.
/aucisson
most often, a large air-dried sausage, such as salami, eaten sliced as a
cold cut! when fresh, usually called saucisson chaud, or hot sausage.
/aucisson ? lail
garlic sausage, usually to be cooked and served warm.
/aucisson d'Arles
dried salami-style sausage that blends pork, beef and gentle seasoning! a
specialty of rles, in 'rovence.
/aucisson de cam"agne
any country-style sausage.
/aucisson de 5yon
air-dried pork sausage, flavored with garlic and pepper and studded with
chunks of pork fat.
/aucisson de *orteau
see 8?sus de /orteau.
/aucisson en cro?te
sausage cooked in a pastry crust.
/aucisson sec
any dried sausage, or salami.
/aumon d'+cosse
Scottish salmon.
/a!oie (biscuit de)
sponge cake.
/carole
escarole.
/chieffele, schieffala, schifela
smoked pork shoulder, served hot and garnished with pickled turnips or a
potato and onion salad.
/ec (s?che)
dry or dried.
/eiche
cuttlefish. Seigle (pain de)
rye (bread).
/elles-sur-her
village in the ,oire valley identified with a small, flat, truncated cylinder of
goat's-milk cheese with a mottled blueish-gray rind (sometimes patted with
powdered charcoal) and a pure-white interior.
/elon le march
according to what is in season or available.
/er!ice
meal, mealtime, the serving of the meal. restaurant has two services if it
serves lunch and dinner! a dish en deu+ services, like canard press?. is
served in two courses.
/er!ice (non) com"ris
service charge (not) included in the listed menu prices (but invariably
included on the bill).
/er!ice en sus
service charge to be made in addition to menu prices. Same as service
non compris.
/occa
a very thin, round cr?pe made with chickpea flour, sold on the streets of
4ice and eaten as a snack.
/oja, sauce de
soy sauce.
/toc&fish, stocaficada, estoficada, esto
flattened, dried cod found in southern 3rance. lso, a pur?e-like blend of
dried codfish, olive oil, tomatoes, sweet peppers, black olives, potatoes,
garlic, onions, and herbs! specialty of 4ice. Sometimes served with pistou.
/ucc?s ? la "raline
cake made with praline meringue layers, frosted with meringue and butter
cream.
/ucre
sugar.
:?te de !eau ("orc)
head of veal (pork), usually used in headcheese.
:ablette (de chocolat)
bar (of chocolate).
:acaud
pour or whiting-pour, a small, ine+pensive fish found in the tlantic and
/editerranean, usually fried.
:anche
tench, a river fish with a mild, delicate flavor! often an ingredient in
matelote and pauchouse, freshwater fish stews.
:arte encalat
name for cheesecake in the uvergne.
:hon (blanc) (germon)
tuna (white albacore).
:omme fraiche
pressed cake of fresh milk curds, used in the regional dishes of the
uvergne.
:oucy
village in %urgundy that gives its name to a local fresh goat cheese.
:rain de c?tes
rib of beef.
:ranche
slice.
:ra!ers de "orc
spareribs.
:ri"es ? la mode de aen
beef tripe, carrots, onions, leeks, and spices, cooked in water, cider, and
"alvados (apple brandy)! specialty of 4ormandy.
:ri"le cr?me
legal name for cheese containing more than => percent butterfat, such as
%rillat-Savarin.
:rouchia
flat omelet filled with spinach or Swiss chard! specialty of 'rovence.
:ruffes sous la cendre
truffles wrapped in pastry or foil, gently warmed as they are buried in
ashes.
9ache
cow.
9acherin
dessert of baked meringue, with ice cream and whipped cream. lso a
strong, supple winter cheese encircled by a band of spruce, from the 8ura.
9arech
seaweed.
9entr?che
pork belly.
9ichy
with gla$ed carrots. lso, a brand of mineral water.
9ichyssoise
cold, creamy leek and potato soup.
9ierge (sauce)
)virgin)! term for the best &uality olive oil, from the first pressing of the
olives! (sauce of olive oil, lemon 2uice, garlic, tomatoes, and fresh herbs.)
9iolet de Pro!ence
braid of plump garlic, a specialty of 'rovence and the "?te-d'$ur.
A?ado
roast lamb shoulder stuffed with parsley, chervil, and garlic.
A?go bouido
garlic soup, served with oil, over slices of bread! a specialty of 'rovence.
Abondance
firm thick wheel of cow's-milk cheese from the Savoie, a d?partement in
the lps.
Addition
bill.
Agneau (de lait)
lamb (young, milk-fed).
Agneau chilindron
saut? of lamb with potatoes and garlic, specialty of the %as&ue country.
Agneau de Paulliac
breed of lamb from the southwest.
Aigre-doux
sweet and sour.
Aillade
garlic sauce! also, dishes based on garlic.
Aisy cendr
thick disc of cow's-milk cheese, washed with eau-de-vie and patted with
wood ashes! also called cendre d'aisy( a specialty of %urgundy.
Amande
almond.
Amande de mer
smooth-shelled shellfish, like a small clam, with a sweet, almost almond
flavor.
Amandine
with almonds.
Ami du hambertin
)friend of "hambertin wine)! moist and buttery short cylinder of cow's milk
cheese with a rust-colored rind, made near the village of -evrey-
"hambertin in %urgundy. Similar to .poisses cheese.
Ancho?ade
sauce that is a blend of olive oil, anchovies, and garlic, usually served with
raw vegetables! specialty of 'rovence! also, paste of anchovies and garlic,
spread on toast.
Anchois (de ollioure)
anchovy (pri$ed salt-cured anchovy from "ollioure, a port town near the
Spanish border of the ,anguedoc), fished in the tlantic and the
/editerranean.
Andouille
large smoked chitterling (tripe) sausage, usually served cold.
Andouillette
small chitterling (tripe) sausage, usually served grilled.
A""ellation d'origine contr?l?e (A#)
specific definition of a particular cheese, butter, fruit, wine, or poultry--once
passed down from generation to generation now recogni$ed by law--
regulating the animal breed or variety of fruit, the $one of production,
production techni&ues, composition of the product, its physical
characteristics, and its specific attributes.
Arachide (huile d'$ "?t? d')
peanut (oil! butter).
Araign?e de mer
spider crab.
Arbousier (miel d')
trailing arbutus, small evergreen shrubby tree of the heather family, also
called strawberry tree, ground laurel and madrona tree with strawberry-like
fruit dotted with tiny bumps! (honey of). 1sed for making li&ueurs, 2ellies,
and 2ams.
Ardennaise, ? l'
in the style of the rdennes, a d?partement in northern 3rance! generally a
dish with 2uniper berries.
Ardi gasna
%as&ue name for sheep's-milk cheese.
Ardoise
blackboard! bistros often use a blackboard to list specialties in place of a
printed menu.
Assiette de "?cheur
assorted fish platter.
B?che de .o
"hristmas cake shaped like a log (b?che), a sponge cake often flavored
with chestnuts and chocolate.
B?tard, "ain
)bastard bread)! traditional long, thin white loaf, larger than a baguette.
Badiane
star anise.
Bagna caud
sauce of anchovies, olive oil, and garlic, for dipping raw vegetables!
specialty of 4ice.
Barbouillade
stuffed eggplant, or an eggplant stew! also, a combination of beans and
artichokes.
Barder
to cover poultry or meat with strips of uncured bacon, to add moisture
while cooking.
Baudroie
in 'rovence, the name for monkfish or anglerfish, the large, firm-fleshed
ocean fish also known as lotte and gigot de met, also a specialty of
'rovence, a fish soup that includes potstoes, onions, fresh mushrooms,
garlic, fresh or dried orange $est, artichokes, tomatoes, and herbs.
Beignet de fleur de courgette
batter-fried $ucchini blossom! native to 'rovence and the /editerranean,
now popular all over 3rance.
Belondines
%rittany creuses, or crinkle-shelled oysters that are affin?es or finished off
in the %elon river.
Beurre de *ont"ellier
classic butter sauce seasoned with olive oil, herbs, garlic, and anchovies.
Beurre demi-sel
butter (lightly salted).
Beurre des harentes
finest 3rench butter, from the region of 'oitou-"harentes along the tlantic
coast.
Beurre du cru
butter given the appellation d'origine contr?l?e pedigree.
Bigarade
orange sauce.
Bigoud?ne, ? la
in the style of %igouden, a province in %rittany! (pommes) baked slices of
unpeeled potato! (rag?ut) sausage stewed with bacon and potato.
Blanc (de "oireau)
white portion (of leek).
Blanc (de !olaille)
usually breast (of chicken).
Bleu d'Au!ergne
a strong, firm and moist, flattened cylinder of blue-veined cheese made
from cow's milk in the uvergne, sold wrapped in foil! still made on some
farms.
Bleu de Bresse
a cylinder of mild blue-veined cow's-milk cheese from the %resse area in
the 7h?ne-lps region! industrially made.
Bleu de -ex
thick, savory blue-veined disc of cow's-milk cheese from the 8ura! made in
only a handful of small dairies in the d?partement of the in.
Bleu des ausses
a firm, pungent, flat cylinder of blue-veined cow's-milk cheese, cured in
cellars similar to those used in making 7o&uefort.
Boeuf ? la mode
beef marinated and braised in red wine, served with carrots, mushrooms,
onions, and turnips.
Bondon
small cylinder of delicately flavored, mushroomy cow's-milk cheese made
in the 4eufch?tel area in 4ormandy.
Bordelaise
%ordeau+ style! also refers to a brown sauce of shallots, red wine, and
bone marrow.
Boudin
technically, a meat sausage, but generically any sausage-shaped mi+ture.
Boudin blanc
white sausage of veal, chicken, or pork.
Boudin noir
pork blood sausage.
Boudouses
literally, to pout! tiny oysters from %rittany that refuse to grow to normal
si$e! iodine rich and pri$ed.
Boule de Picoulat
meatball from ,anguedoc, combining beef, pork, garlic, and eggs,
traditionally served with cooked white beans.
Boulette d'A!esnes
pepper-and-tarragon-flavored cheese, made from visually defective
/aroilles, formed into a cone, and colored red with paprika! named for
vesnes, a village in the 4orth.
Bourdaloue
hot poached fruit, sometimes wrapped in pastry often served with vanilla
custard! often pear.
Bourride
a /editerranean fish soup that generally includes a mi+ture of small white
fish, onions, tomatoes, garlic, herbs, and olive oil, thickened with egg yolks
and a?oli (garlic mayonnaise)! there are many variations.
Bouton de culotte
)trouser button)! tiny buttons of goat cheese from the ,yon area!
traditionally made on farms, aged until rock hard and pungent! today found
in many forms, from soft and young to hard and brittle.
Brandade (de morue)
a warm garlicky pur?e (of salt cod) with milk or cream or oil, and
sometimes mashed potatoes! specialty of 'rovence! currently used to
denote a variety of flavored mashed potato dishes.
Brassado
a doughnut that is boiled, then baked, much like a bagel! specialty of
'rovence.
Brayaude, gigot
leg of lamb studded with garlic, cooked in white wine, and served with red
beans, braised cabbage, or chestnuts.
Brebis (fromage de)
sheep (sheep's-milk cheese).
Brie de *eaux
)king of cheese,) the flat wheel of cheese made only with raw cow's milk
and aged at least four weeks! from /eau+, 2ust east of 'aris! brie made
with pasteuri$ed milk does not have the right to be called brie de /eau+.
Brie de *elun
smaller than brie de /eau+, another raw-cow's-milk cheese, aged at least
one month, with a crackly rust-colored rind.
Brouillade
a mi+ture of ingredients as in a stew or soup! also, scrambled eggs.
Broutard
young goat.
Buffet froid
variety of dishes served cold, sometimes from a buffet.
?drat
a variety of /editerranean lemon.
?leri remoulade
popular first-course bistro dish of shredded celery root with tangy
mayonnaise.
?te d'agneau
lamb chop.
?te de boeuf
beef blade or rib steak.
?te de !eau
veal chop.
abillaud
fresh codfish, also currently called morue, known as doguette in the 4orth,
bakalua in the %as&ue region, eglefin in 'rovence.
aen, ? la mode de
in the style of "aen, a town in 4ormandy! a dish cooked in "alvados and
white wine andBor cider.
alisson d'Aix
:elicate, diamond-shaped 'roven?al sweet prepared with almonds,
candied oranges, melon or abricots, egg white, sugar, and confiture of
oranges or apricots.
al!ados
a d?partement in 4ormandy known for the famed apple brandy.
amembert (de .ormandie)
village in 4ormandy that gives its name to a supple, fragrant cheese made
of cow's milk.
am"agnard(e) (assiette)
country-style, rustic! (an informal buffet of cold meats, terrines, etc.).
anada
cooking apple.
anard
duck.
anard ? la "resse
roast duck served with a sauce of 2uices obtained from pressing the
carcass, combined with red wine and "ognac.
anard sau!age
wild duck, usually mallard.
a"ilotade
basically any leftover meat or poultry cooked to tenderness in a well-
reduced sauce.
arafe (d'eau)
pitcher (of tap water). Couse wine is often offered in a carafe. full carafe
contains one liter! a demi-carafe contains half a liter! a &uart contains one-
fourth of a liter.
arbonnade
braised beef stew prepared with beer and onions! specialty of the 4orth!
also refers to a cut of beef.
ardamome
cardamon.
arde
white rib, or stalk, portion of Swiss chard.
ardon
cardoon! large celery-like vegetable in the artichoke family, popular in
,yon, 'rovence, and the /editerranean area.
argolade
a copious mi+ed grill of snails, lamb, pork sausage, and sometimes blood
sausage, cooked over vine clippings! specialty of "atalan, an area of
southern ,anguedoc.
arr? d'agneau
rack (ribs) or loin of lamb! also crown roast.
arr? de "ort
rack (ribs) or loin of pork! also crown roast.
arr? de !eau
rack (ribs) or loin of veal! also crown roast.
ar!i (grain de)
caraway (seed).
assis (cr?me de)
black currant (black currant li&ueur).
assonade
soft brown sugar! demerara sugar.
a!iar d'aubergine
cold seasoned eggplant puree.
a!iar du Puy
green lentils from ,e 'uy, in the uvergne.
endre (sous la)
ash (cooked by being buried in embers)! some cheeses made in wine-
producing regions are aged in the ash of burned rootstocks.
erdon
%ubbly (p?tillant) wine (red or white?) from the %ugey.
er!elle de canut
a soft, fresh herbed cheese known as )silkworker's brains)! specialty of
,yon.
h?!re (fromage de)
goat (goat's-milk cheese).
ham"!allon, c?telette d'agneau
traditional dish of lamb chops baked in alternating layers of potatoes and
onions! named for a village in northern %urgundy.
ha"on de mer
/editerranean fish, in the rascasse or scorpion-fish family.
harbon de bois, au
charcoal-grilled.
hateaubriand
thick filet steak, traditionally served with saut?ed potatoes and a sauce of
white wine, dark beef stock, butter, shallots, and herbs, or with a b?
arnaise sauce.
haud(e)
hot or warm.
haud-froid
)hot-cold)! cooked poultry dish served cold, usually covered with a cooked
sauce, then with aspic.
haudr
tlantic fish stew, often including sole, skate, small eels, potatoes, butter,
white wine, and seasoning.
he!eux d'ange
)angel's hair)! thin vermicelli pasta.
hicons du .ord
%elgian endive.
hiffonnade
shredded herbs and vegetables, usually green.
hinchard
also called saurel, scad or horse mackerel! tlantic and /editerranean fish
similar to mackerel.
hou de Bruxelles
brussels sprout.
hou de mer
sea kale.
hou de *ilan
Savoy cabbage.
idre
bottled, mildly alcoholic cider, either apple or pear.
igale de mer
)sea cricket)! tender, crayfish-like, blunt-nosed rock lobster.
i!et de li?!re
2ugged hare, or wild rabbit stew.
i!et de tri"es d'oies
a stew of goose innards, saut?ed in fat with onions, shallots, and garlic,
then cooked in wine vinegar and diluted with water, and thickened with
goose blood! from -ascony.
ochon (de lait)
pig (suckling).
oco de Paim"ol
"ream-colored shell bean striated with purple, from %rittany, in season
from 8uly to 4ovember! the first bean in 3rance to receive 6".
oeur de filet
thickest (and best) part of beef filet, usually cut into chateaubriand steaks.
oeur de "almier
delicate shoots of the palm tree, generally served with a vinaigrette as an
hors d'oeuvre.
ommander a!ant le re"as,
a selection of desserts that should be ordered when selecting first and
main courses, as they re&uire longer cooking.
onfiture de !ieux gar?on
varied fresh fruits macerated in alcohol.
o' de bruy?re
wood grouse.
oriandre
coriander! either the fresh herb or dried seeds.
orne d'abondance
)horn of plenty)! dark brown wild mushroom, also called trompette de la
mort.
otriade
a fish stew, usually including mackerel, whiting, conger eel, sorrel, butter,
potatoes, and vinegar! specialty of %rittany.
ou d'oie (de canard) farci
neck skin of goose (of duck), stuffed with meat and spices, much like
sausage.
ourge (muscade)
generic term for s&uash or gourd (bright orange pumpkin).
r?te (de co')
(cocks) comb.
ra"audine
preparation of grilled poultry or game bird with backbone removed.
resson(ade)
watercress (watercress sauce).
ro?te de sel (en)
(in) a salt crust.
ro'ue-madame
open-face sandwich of ham and cheese with an egg grilled on top.
rottin de ha!ignol
small flattened ball of goat's-milk cheese from the ,oire valley."roustade
usually small pastry-wrapped dish! also regional southwestern pastry filled
with prunes andBor apples.
rudit
raw vegetable.
uisse (de "oulet)
leg or thigh (chicken drumstick).
ure-dent
toothpick.
1
diced pieces.
1?caf?in? or d?ca
decaffeinated coffee.
1?corti'u?(e)
shelled or peeled.
1?gustation
tasting or sampling.
1?jeuner
lunch.
1?ner
dinner! to dine.
1?soss
boned.
1amier
)checkerboard)! arrangement of vegetables or other ingredients in
alternating colors like a checkerboard! also, a cake with such a pattern of
light and dark pieces.
1ariole
truncated cone or oval-shaped baking mold.
1arne
a rectangular portion of fish filet! also a fish steak, usually of salmon.
1artois
puff pastry rectangles layered with an almond cream filling as a dessert, or
stuffed with meat or fish as an hors-d'oeuvre.
1atte (de mer)
date (date-shaped pri$ed wild /editerranean mussel).
1aube
a stew, usually of beef lamb, or mutton, with red wine, onions, andBor
tomatoes! specialty of many regions, particularly 'roven?e and the
tlantic coast.
1au"hin
cow's-milk cheese shaped like a dauphin, or dolphin! from the 4orth.
1aurade
sea bream, similar to porgy, the most pri$ed of a group of ocean fish
known as dorade.
1emi
half! also, an ?-ounce (@>D ml) glass of beer! also, a half-bottle of wine.
1emi-deuil
)in half mourning)! poached (usually chicken) with sliced truffles inserted
under the skin! also, sweetbreads with a truffled white sauce.
1emi-glace
concentrated beef-based sauce lightened with consomm?, or a lighter
brown sauce.
1emi-sec
usually refers to goat cheese that is in the intermediate aging stage
between one e+treme of soft and fresh and the other e+treme of hard and
aged.
1emi-sel (buerre)
lightly salted (butter).
1emi-tasse
small cup! after-dinner coffee cup.
1emoiselle de canard
marinated raw duck tenderloin! also called mignon de canard.
1emoiselles de herbourg
small lobsters from the town of "herbourg in 4ormandy, cooked in a court-
bouillon and served in cooking 2uices. lso, restaurant name for %reton
lobsters weighing EDD to FDD grams (<D to <E ounces).
1ent, dent
one of a generic group of /editerranean fish known as dorade, similar to
porgy.
1entelle
)lace)! a portion of meat or fish so thinly sliced as to suggest a
resemblance. lso, large lace-thin sweet cr?pe.
1ents-de-lion
dandelion salad green! also called pissenlit.
1iable
)devil)! method of preparing poultry with a peppery sauce, often mustard-
based. lso, a round pottery casserole.
1ie""oise
:ieppe style! usually white wine, mussels, shrimp, mushrooms, and
cream.
1igestif
general term for spirits served after dinner! such as rmagnac, "ognac,
marc, eau-de-vie.
1ijonnaise
:i2on style! usually with mustard.
1inde
turkey hen.
1indon(neau)
turkey (young turkey).
1iot
pork sausage cooked in wine, often served with a potato gratin! specialty
of the Savoie.
1iscr?tion,
on menus usually refers to wine, which may be consumed--without limit--
at the customers discretion.
1odine
cold stuffed boned poultry.
1or
browned until golden.
1orade
generic name for group of ocean fish, the most pri$ed of which is daurade,
similar to porgy.
1os
back! also the meatiest portion of fish.
1oucette
see /?che.
1ouceur
sweet or dessert.
1ouillon, duillon
a whole pear wrapped and cooked in pastry! specialty of 4ormandy.
1oux, douce
sweet.
1oyenn? de omice
a variety of pear.
1ugl?r
white flour-based sauce with shallots, white wine, tomatoes, and parsley.
1ur (oeuf)
hard (hard-cooked egg).
1uxelles
minced mushrooms and shallots saut?ed in butter, then mi+ed with cream.
+au de source
spring water.
+au du robinet
tap water.
+au-de-!ie
literally, )water of life)! brandy, usually fruit-based.
+clade de moules
mussels roasted beneath a fire of pine needles! specialty of the tlantic
coast.
+mbeurr? de chou
buttery cooked cabbage.
+mond
skinned by blanching, such as almonds, tomatoes.
+nchaud
pork filet with garlic! specialty of :ordogne.
+ndi!e
%elgian endive! also chicory salad green.
+ntrec?te ma?tre d'h?tel
beef rib steak with sauce of red wine and shallots.
+"i de ma
ear of sweet corn.
+"inard
spinach.
+scali!ada
"atalan roasted vegetables, usually sweet peppers, eggplant and onions.
+scargot de Bourgogne
land snail prepared with butter! garlic, and parsley.
+s"adon
swordfish found in the gulf of -ascony, tlantic, and /editerranean.
+s'ueixada
in "atalan literally means )shredded!) a shredded salt cod salad.
+stoficado
a pur?e-like blend of dried codfish, olive oil, tomatoes, sweet peppers,
black olives, potatoes, garlic, onions, and herbs! also called stockfish ni?
oise! specialty of 4ice.
+stofinado
a pur?e-like blend of dried codfish, potatoes, garlic, parsley, eggs, walnut
oil, and milk, served with triangles of toast! specialty of the uvergne.
+stouffade ? la "ro!en?ale
beef stew with onions, garlic, carrots, and orange $est.
2aisand
game that has been hung to age.
2a!orite d'artichaut
classic vegetable dish of artichoke stuffed with asparagus, covered with a
cheese sauce, and browned.
2eu de bois, au
cooked over a wood fires.
2euille de ch?ne
oak-leaf lettuce.
2euille de !igne
vine leaf.
2iadone
"orsican flan made from cheese and oranges.
2icelle "icarde
thin cr?pe wrapped around a slice of ham and topped with a cheesy
cream sauce! specialty of 'icardy, in the 4orth.
2ine de claire
elongated crinkle-shelled oyster that stays in fattening beds (claires) a
minimum of two months.
2lagnarde, flaugnarde, flognarde
hot, fruit-filled batter cake made with eggs, flour, milk, and butter, and
sprinkled with sugar before serving! specialty of the southwest.
2leur (de sel)
flower (fine, delicate sea salt, from %rittany or the "amargue).
2leur de courgette
$ucchini blossom.
2oie blond de !olaille
chicken liver! also sometimes a chicken-liver mousse.
2oie de !eau
calfs liver.
2oie gras d'oie (de canard)
liver of fattened goose (duck).
2oin (dan le)
(cooked in) hay.
2ond
cooking 2uices from meat, used to make sauces. lso, bottom.
2ond d'artichaut
heart and base of an artichoke.
2ondant
)melting)! refers to cooked, worked sugar that is flavored, then used for
icing cakes. lso, the bittersweet chocolate high in cocoa butter used for
making the shiniest chocolates. lso, pur?ed meat, fish, or vegetables
shaped in cro&uettes.
2ondu(e)
melted.
2oudjou
a pungent goat-cheese spread, a blend of fresh and aged grated cheese
mi+ed with salt, pepper, brandy, and garlic and cured in a crock! specialty
of northern 'rovence.
2ourme d'Ambert
cylindrical blue-veined cow's-milk cheese, made in dairies around the town
of mbert in the uvergne.
2raise des bois
wild strawberry.
2riandise
sweetmeat, petit four.
2ricadelle
fried minced meat patty.
2ricandeau
thinly sliced veal or a rump roast, braised with vegetables and white wine.
2ricot (de !eau)
veal shoulder simmered in white wine with vegetables.
2roid(e)
cold.
2romage de t?te
headcheese, usually pork.
2ruits de mer
seafood.
-alette bressane, galette de P?rouges
cream and sugar tart from the %resse area of the 7h?ne-lpes.
-alette des rois
puff pastry filled with almond pastry cream, traditional 0welfth 4ight
celebration cake.
-ardiane
stew of beef or bull (toro) meat, with bacon, onions, garlic, and black
olives! served with rice! specialty of the "amargue, in 'rovence.
-asconnade
roast leg of lamb with garlic and anchovies! specialty of the southwest.
-aude
thick corn-flour porridge served hot, or cold and sliced, with cream.
-endarme
salted and smoked herring.
-igot (de "r? sal
usually a leg of lamb (lamb gra$ed on the salt meadows along the tlantic
and 4ormandy coasts).
-igot de mer
a preparation, usually of large pieces of monkfish (lotte) oven-roasted like
a leg of lamb.
-igue (de)
haunch (of) certain game meats.
-illardeau
pri$ed oyster raised in 4ormandy and finished in claires, or fattening beds
on the tlantic coast.
-ourmandise(s)
weakness for sweet things! (sweetmeats or candies).
-ousse d'ail
clove of garlic.
-ousse de !anille
vanilla bean.
-raine de moutarde
mustard seed.
-rand cr?me
large or double espresso with milk.
-rand cru
top-ranking wine.
-rand !eneur
)chief huntsman)! usually a brown sauce for game, with red currant 2elly.
-ra""e (de raisins)
cluster! bunch (of grapes).
-ras-double
tripe baked with onions and white wine.
-ratin dau"hinoise
baked casserole of sliced potatoes, usually with cream, milk, and
sometimes cheese andBor eggs.
-ratin sa!oyarde
baked casserole of sliced potatoes, usually with bouillon, cheese, and
butter.
-renade
pomegranate.
-renadin
small veal scallop.
-renouille (cuisse de)
frog (leg).
-rillade
grilled meat.
-roin d'ane
)donkeys snout)! ,yonnais name for a bitter winter salad green similar to
dandelion greens.
-rondin
red gurnard, a bony ocean fish, a member of the mullet family, used in fish
stews such as bouillabaisse.
(addoc&
small fresh cod that have been salted and smoked.
(addoc&
small fresh cod that have been salted and smoked.
(erbes de Pro!ence
mi+ture of thyme, rosemary, summer savory, and bay leaf, often dried and
blended.
(erbes de Pro!ence
mi+ture of thyme, rosemary, summer savory, and bay leaf, often dried and
blended.
(irondelle
swallow.
(irondelle
swallow.
(ollandaise
sauce of butter, egg yolks, and lemon 2uice.
(ollandaise
sauce of butter, egg yolks, and lemon 2uice.
(omard (? lAmoricaine, ? lAm?ricaine)
lobster! (a classic dish of many variations, in which lobster is cut into
sections and browned, then simmered with shallots, minced onions,
tomatoes, "ognac, and white wine! served with a sauce of the reduced
cooking li&uid, enriched with butter).
(omard (? lAmoricaine, ? lAm?ricaine)
lobster! (a classic dish of many variations, in which lobster is cut into
sections and browned, then simmered with shallots, minced onions,
tomatoes, "ognac, and white wine! served with a sauce of the reduced
cooking li&uid, enriched with butter).
(ors-d'oeu!re
appeti$er! can also refer to a first course.
(ors-d'oeu!re
appeti$er! can also refer to a first course.
(ure de "orc or de marcassin
head of pig or boar - usually refers to headcheese preparation.
(ure de "orc or de marcassin
head of pig or boar - usually refers to headcheese preparation.
(ure de saumon
a salmon )headcheese,) or p?t?, prepared with salmon meat, not actually
the head.
(ure de saumon
a salmon )headcheese,) or p?t?, prepared with salmon meat, not actually
the head.
3ndienne, ? l
.ast #ndian style, usually with curry powder.
3sman bayaldi, imam bayaldi
)the priest fainted) - in 0urkish! a dish of eggplant stuffed with saut?ed
onions, tomatoes, and spices! served cold.
0?sus de *orteau
plump smoked pork sausage that takes its name from the town of /orteau
in the 8ura! distinctive because a wooden peg is tied in the sausage
casing on one end! traditionally, the sausage eaten at "hristmas, hence its
name! also called saucisson de /orteau.
0ardini?re
refers to a garnish of fresh cooked vegetables.
0arret (de !eau, de "orc, de boeuf)
knuckle (of veal or pork), shin (of beef).
5am"roie (? la bordelaise)
lamprey eel, ocean fish that swim into rivers along the tlantic in
springtime (hearty stew of lamprey eel and leeks in red wine).
5andaise, ? la
from the ,andes in southwestern 3rance! classically a garnish of garlic,
pine nuts, and goose fat.
5angue (de chat)
tongue ()cat's tongue)! thin, narrow, delicate cookie often served with
sherbet or ice).
5anguedocienne
garnish, usually of tomatoes, eggplant, and wild c?pe mushrooms.
5a"in de garenne
wild rabbit.
5ard
bacon.
5arder
to thread meat, fish, or liver with strips of fat for added moisture.
5ardon
cube of bacon.
5entilles (de Puy)
lentils (pri$ed green lentils from the village of 'uy in the uvergne).
5imande
lemon sole, also called dab or sand dab, not as firm or pri$ed as sole,
found in the .nglish "hannel, the tlantic, and, rarely, in the
/editerranean.
5otte de ri!i?re (or de lac)
fine-fleshed river (or lake) fish, pri$ed for its large and flavorful liver. 4ot
related to the ocean fish lotte, or monkfish.
5ou" de mer
wolf fish or ocean catfish! name for sea bass in the /editerranean.
*?daillon
round piece or slice, usually of fish or meat.
*?re (de ronces)
blackberry (bush).
*a?tre d'h?tel
headwaiter. lso, sauce of butter, parsley and lemon.
*ac?doine
diced mi+ed fruit or vegetables.
*acaronade
a rich blend of wild and domestic mushrooms and chunks of foie gras,
smothered in fresh pasta! specialty of the southwest. lso, macaroni with
mushrooms, bacon, white wine, and 'armesan cheese! an
accompaniment to a beef stew, or daube! specialty of 'rovence.
*ad?re
/adeira.
*adeleine (de ommercy)
small scalloped-shaped tea cake made famous by /arcel 'roust! (the
town in the ,orraine where the tea cakes are commerciali$ed).
*adril?ne, ? la
in the style of /adrid! with tomatoes. "lassically a garnish of peeled
chopped tomatoes for consomm?.
*agret de canard (or d'oie)
breast of fattened duck (or goose).
*aison, de la
of the house, or restaurant.
*al!oisie, !inaigre de
vinegar made from the malvasia grape, used for the sweet, heavy
/almsey wine.
*andarine
tangerine.
*ani?re, de
in the style of.
*ara de Bois
small fragrant strawberry, like a cross between a domestic and wild
strawberry.
*archand de !in
wine merchant. lso, sauce made with red wine, meat stock, and chopped
shallots.
*arinade
seasoned li&uid in which food, usually meat, is soaked for several hours.
0he li&uid seasons and tenderi$es at the same time.
*armelade
traditionally a thick pur?e of fruit, or sweet stewed fruit! today pur?e of
vegetable, or stewed vegetables.
*atelote (d'anguilles)
freshwater fish (or eel) stew.
*elon de a!aillon
small canteloupe-like melon from "availlon, a town in 'rovence known for
its wholesale produce market.
*endiant, fruits du
traditional mi+ture of figs, almonds, ha$elnuts, and raisins, whose colors
suggest the robes of the mendicant friars it is named after.
*ignardise
see 'etit-four.
*ignon de canard
see :cmsiselle de canard.
*iroton (de)
slice (of). lso, stew of meats flavored with onions.
*ode de, ? la
in the style of.
*ontagne, de la
from the mountains.
*or!andelle, jambon ? la
in the style of the /orvan (ham in a pi&uant creamy sauce made with
white wine, vinegar, 2uniper berries, shallots, and cream).
*or!andelle, r?"
grated potato mi+ed with eggs, cream, and cheese, baked until golden.
*ouclade
creamy mussel stew from the 'oitou-"harentes on the tlantic "oast,
generally flavored with curry or saffron.
*oule d'+s"agne
large, sharp-shelled mussel, often served raw as part of a seafood platter.
*oule de bouchot
small, highly pri$ed cultivated mussel, raised on stakes driven into the
sediment of shallow coastal beds.
*oule de Bouzigues
iodine-strong mussel from the village of %ou$igues, on the /editerranean
coast.
*oule de "ar'ues
:utch cultivated mussel, usually raised in fattening beds or diverted
ponds.
*outarde (? lancienne, en graines)
mustard (old-style, coarse-grained).
*ulard
breed of duck common to the southwest, fattened for its delicate liver, for
foie gras.
*uscade
nutmeg.
*uscat de (ambourg
variety of popular purple table grape, grown in 'rovence.
*useau de "orc (or de boeuf)
vinegared pork (or beef).
.ormande
in the style of 4ormandy! sauce of seafood, cream, and mushrooms. lso
refers to fish or meat cooked with apple cider or "alvados! or dessert with
apples, usually served with cream.
#li!e de .yons
wrinkled black olive, first olive in 3rance to receive 6". lso used for oil.
#reille de "orc
cooked pigs ear! served grilled, with a coating of egg and bread crumb.
#ursinade
creamy sea urchin soup.
P?bre d'ail
see 'oivre d'?ne.
P?che Alexandra
cold dessert of poached peaches with ice cream and pur?ed strawberries.
P?landron
see haricot gris.
P?lardon
small flat, dried, pungent disc of goat's milk cheese! specialty of the
,anguedoc.
P?rigourdine, ? la, or P?rigueux
sauce, usually with truffles and foie gras, named for the '?rigord in
southwestern 3rance.
Paillarde (de !eau)
thick slice (of veal)! also, piece of meat pounded flat and saute?ed.
Palmier, coeur de
heart of palm.
Palourde
pri$ed medium-si$e clam.
Panade
panada, a thick mi+ture used to bind forcemeats and &uenelles, usually
flour and butter based, but can also contain fresh or toasted bread
crumbs, rice, or potatoes. lso refers to soup of bread, milk, and
sometimes cheese.
Pa!? d'Auge
thick, ochre colored s&uare of cow's-milk cheese that comes from the
uge area of 4ormandy.
Pa!ot (graine de)
poppy (seed).
Perdreau
young partridge.
Perdrix
partridge.
Persillade
blend of chopped parsley and garlic.
Pet de nonne
)nuns fart)! small, dainty beignets, or fried pastry.
Petit d?jeuner
breakfast.
Picodon (m?thode 1ieulefit)
small disc of goat's-milk cheese, the best of which (&ualified as m?thode
:ieulefit) is hard, pi&uant, and pungent from having soaked in brandy and
aged a month in earthenware 2ars! specialty of northern 'rovence.
Pied de che!al
)horses foot)! giant tlantic coast oyster.
Pied de mouton
meaty cream-colored wild mushroom. lso, sheep's foot.
Pieds et "a'uets
)feet and packages)! mutton tripe rolled and cooked with sheep's feet,
white wine, and tomatoes! specialty of 'rovence and the /editerranean.
Pilchard
name for sardines on the tlantic coast.
Piment (or "oi!re) de 0ama?'ue
allspice.
Piment d'+s"elette
slender, mildly hot chile pepper from .spelette, a village in the %as&ue
region.
Piment doux
sweet pepper.
Pineau des harentes
sweet fortified wine from the "ognac region on the tlantic coast, served
as an aperitif.
Pintade(au)
(young) guinea fowl.
Pi"?rade
a dish of pepper! onions, tomatoes, and often ham and scrambled eggs!
specialty of the %as&ue region.
Pissaladi?re
a flat open-face tart like a pi$$a, garnished with onions, olives, and
anchovies! specialty of 4ice.
Pistil de safran
thread of saffron.
Plat du jour
todays special.
Plateau de fruits de mer
seafood platter combining raw and cooked shell-fish! usually includes
oysters, clams, mussels, langoustines, periwinkles, whelks, crabs, and tiny
shrimp.
Point(e) (d'as"erge)
tip (of asparagus).
Poitrine demi-sel
unsmoked slab bacon.
Poi!rade
a peppery brown sauce made with wine, vinegar, and cooked vegetables
and strained before serving.
Poi!ron (doux)
(sweet bell) pepper.
Pommade (beurre en)
usually refers to a thick, smooth paste! (creamed butter).
Pommes de terre
potatoes.
? langlaise boiled.
allumettes )match-sticks)! fries cut into very thin 2ulienne.
boulang?re potatoes cooked with the meat they accompany. lso,
a gratin of sliced potatoes, baked with milk or stock and sometimes
flavored with onions, bacon, and tomatoes.
darphin grated potatoes shaped into a cake.
dauphine mashed potatoes mi+ed with cbou+ pastry, shaped into
small balls and fried.
dauphinoise a gratin of sliced potatoes, baked with milk andBor
cream, garlic, cheese, and eggs.
duchesse mashed potatoes with butter, egg yolks, and nutmeg,
used for garnish.
en robe des champs( en robe de chambre potatoes boiled or
baked in their skin! potatoes in their 2ackets.
frites 3rench fries.
gratin?es browned potatoes, often with cheese.
lyonnaise potatoes saut?ed with onions.
macaire classic side dish of pur?ed potatoes shaped into small
balls and fried or baked in a flat cake.
mousseline potato pur?e enriched with butter, egg yolks, and
whipped cream.
paillasson fried pancake of grated potatoes.
pailles potatoes cut into 2ulienne strips, then fried.
Pont-)euf classic fries.
sarladaise sliced potatoes cooked with goose fat and (optionally)
truffles.
souffl?es small, thin slices of potatoes fried twice, causing them to
inflate so they resemble little pillows.
sous la c?ndre baked under cinders in a fireplace.
vapeur steamed or boiled potatoes.
Pom"e ? lhuile, "om"e de .o
see -ibassier.
Porc (c?te de)
pork (chop).
Porc (carr? de)
pork (loin).
Pot-de-cr?me
individual classic custard dessert, often chocolate.
Poularde
fatted hen.
Poule d'3nde
turkey hen.
Poulet de Bresse
high-&uality chicken raised on farms to e+acting specifications, from the
7h?ne-lpes.
Poulet de grain
corn-fed chicken.
Pr?-sal? (agneau de)
delicately salted lamb raised on the salt marshes of 4ormandy and the
tlantic coast.
Prune (d'ente)
fresh plum! (variety of plum grown in the famed gen region of the
southwest).
Puits d'amour
)wells of love)! classic small pastry crowns filled with pastry cream.
7uasi (de !eau)
standing rump (of veal).
7ueue (de boeuf)
tail (of beef!o+tail).
8?ble de li?!re (la"in)
saddle of hare (rabbit).
8?moulade (c?leri)
sauce of mayonnaise, capers, mustard, herbs, anchovies, and gherkins!
(dish of shredded celery root with mayonnaise).
8adis
small red radish.
8adis noir
large black radish, often served with cream, as a salad.
8a!iole de 8oyans
tiny ravioli pasta filled with goat cheese, from the 7h?ne-lpes.
8eine-laude
greengage plum.
8einette, reine de
fall and winter variety of apple, deep yellow with a red blush.
8illettes (d'oie)
minced spread of pork (goose)! can also be made with duck, fish, or
rabbit.
8is d'agneau (de !eau)
lamb (veal) sweetbreads.
8obe des cham"s, robe de chambre ("ommes
potatoes boiled or baked in their skin! potatoes in their 2ackets.
8ocamadour
village in southwestern 3rance which gives its name to a tiny disc of
cheese, once made of pure goat's or sheep's milk, now generally either
goat
8ognonnade
veal loin with kidneys attached.
8ondelle
round slice--of lemon, for e+ample.
8osette (de boeuf)
large dried pork (beef) sausage, from area around ,yon.
8ouennaise (canard ? la)
in the style of 7ouen! (classic dish of duck stuffed with its liver in a blood-
thickened sauce).
8ouget barbet, rouget de roche
red mullet, a pri$ed, e+pensive rock-fish, with sweet flesh and red skin! its
flavorful liver is reserved for sauces.
8ouget grondin
red gurnard, a large, common rockfish, less pri$ed than rouget barbet.
variety of galinette. n ingredient in bouillabaisse.
8oulade
meat or fish roll, or rolled-up vegetahle souffl?! larger than a paupiette,
and often stuffed.
8usse, salade ? la
cold mi+ed salad of peas and diced carrots and turnips in mayonnaise.
/abodet
strong, earthy pork sausage of pigs head and skin, served hot! specialty of
,yon.
/aindoux
lard or pork fat.
/alade
salad! also, a head of lettuce.
/alade folle
mi+ed salad, usually including green beans and foie gras.
/alade lyonnaise
green salad with cubed bacon and soft-cooked eggs, often served with
herring and anchovies, andBor sheep's feet and chicken livers! specialty of
,yon! also called saladier lyonnais.
/alade ni?oise
salad with many variations, but usually with tomatoes, green beans,
anchovies, tuna, potatoes, black olives, capers, and artichokes.
/alade "anach
mi+ed salad.
/alade russe
mi+ed diced vegetables in mayonnaise.
/alade !erte
green salad.
/aladier (lyonnais)
see Salade lyonnaise.
/andre
pickerel, perch-like river fish, found in the Sa?ne and 7hine.
/ardine
small sardine. ,arge sardines are called pilchards. 3ound year-round in
the /editerranean, from /ay to 6ctober in the tlantic.
/arladaise
as prepared in Sarlat in the :ordogne! with truffles.
/aucisse chaude
warm sausage.
/aucisse de 2rancfort
hot dog.
/aucisse de /trasbourg
redskinned hot dog.
/aucisse de :oulouse
mild country-style pork sausage.
/aucisson d'Arles
dried salami-style sausage that blends pork, beef and gentle seasoning! a
specialty of rles, in 'rovence.
/aucisson de cam"agne
any country-style sausage.
/aucisson de 5yon
air-dried pork sausage, flavored with garlic and pepper and studded with
chunks of pork fat.
/aucisson de *orteau
see 8?sus de /orteau.
/aumon d'+cosse
Scottish salmon.
/aumon de fontaine
small, commercially raised salmon.
/a!oie (biscuit de)
sponge cake.
/a!oyarde
in the style of Savoy, usually flavored with -ruy?re cheese.
/elon "oid (/;P;)
according to weight, usually said of seafood. Semolina or crushed wheat.
lso used in 3rance as a savory garnish, particularly in 4orth frican
dishes such as couscous.
/oja ("ousse de)
soy bean (soy bean sprout).
/oja, sauce de
soy sauce.
/ou"ir de nonne
)nuns sighs)! fried chou+ pastry dusted with confectioners sugar. "reated
by a nun in an lsatian abbey. lso called pet de nonne.
/toc&fish, stocaficada, estoficada, esto
flattened, dried cod found in southern 3rance. lso, a pur?e-like blend of
dried codfish, olive oil, tomatoes, sweet peppers, black olives, potatoes,
garlic, onions, and herbs! specialty of 4ice. Sometimes served with pistou.
:?te de !eau ("orc)
head of veal (pork), usually used in headcheese.
:able d'h?te
open table or board. 6ften found in the countryside, these are private
homes that serve fi+ed meals and often have one or two guest rooms as
well.
:ablette (de chocolat)
bar (of chocolate).
:ablier de sa"eur
)firemans apron)! tripe that is marinated, breaded, and grilled! specialty of
,yon.
:acaud
pour or whiting-pour, a small, ine+pensive fish found in the tlantic and
/editerranean, usually fried.
:a"enade
a blend of black olives, anchovies, capers, olive oil, and lemon 2uice,
sometimes with rum or canned tuna added! specialty of 'rovence.
:artare (de "oisson)
traditionally chopped raw beef, seasoned and garnished with raw egg,
capers, chopped onion, and parsley! (today, a popular highly seasoned
raw fish dish).
:endre
tender.
:endron
cartilaginous meat cut from beef or veal ribs.
:hermidor (homard)
classic lobster dish! lobster split lengthwise, grilled, and served in the shell
with a cream sauce.
:i?de
lukewarm.
:ournedos
center portion of beef filet, usually grilled or saut?ed.
:ournedos 8ossini
saut?ed tournedos garnished with foie gras and truffles.
:rain de c?tes
rib of beef.
:ra!ers de "orc
spareribs.
:ri"es ? la mode de aen
beef tripe, carrots, onions, leeks, and spices, cooked in water, cider, and
"alvados (apple brandy)! specialty of 4ormandy.
:rom"ettes de la mort
dark brown wild mushroom, also known as )horn of plenty.)
:ruffade
a large layered and fried potato pancake made with bacon and fresh
"antal cheese! specialty of the uvergne.
:ruffes sous la cendre
truffles wrapped in pastry or foil, gently warmed as they are buried in
ashes.
9all?e d'Auge
area of 4ormandy. lso, garnish of cooked apples and cream or "alvados
and cream.
9erdure (en)
garnish of green vegetables.
9erdurette
herb vinaigrette.
9iande
meat.
9inaigre de x?r
sherry vinegar.
9iolet de Pro!ence
braid of plump garlic, a specialty of 'rovence and the "?te-d'$ur.
9iolet or figue de mer
unusual iodine-strong, soft-shelled edible sea creature, with a yellowish
interior. delicacy along the /editerranean, particularly in /arseille.
9i!e or !i"?re de mer
weever! a small firm-fleshed ocean fish used in soups, such as
bouillabaisse, or grilled. 0he venomous spine is removed before cooking.
<?r?s (!inaigre de)
sherry (vinegar).
?"eautre
poor mans wheat from 'rovence! spelt.
a la Bourgeoise, ? la Bourgeoise
'repared in the family style.
Abondance
firm thick wheel of cow's-milk cheese from the Savoie, a d?partement in
the lps.
Achatine
land snail, or escargot, imported from "hina and #ndonesia! less pri$ed
than other varieties.
Affinage
process of aging cheese.
Agneau (de lait)
lamb (young, milk-fed).
Agneau chilindron
saut? of lamb with potatoes and garlic, specialty of the %as&ue country.
Agneau de Paulliac
breed of lamb from the southwest.
Agnelet
baby milk-fed lamb.
Agnelle
ewe lamb.
Agrume(s)
citrus fruit(s).
Aiglefin', aigrefin, ?glefin
small fresh haddock, a type of cod.
Aigre
bitter! sour.
Aigre-doux
sweet and sour.
Aigrelette, sauce
a sort of tart sauce.
Aiguillette
a long, thin slice of poultry, meat, or fish. lso, top part of beef rump.
Aile
wing of poultry or game bird.
Aile et cuisse
used to describe white breast meat (aile) and dark thigh meat (cuisse),
usually of chicken.
Aillade
garlic sauce! also, dishes based on garlic.
Aillet
shoot of mild winter baby garlic, a specialty of the 'oitou-"harentes region
along the tlantic coast.
Airelle
wild cranberry.
Aisy cendr
thick disc of cow's-milk cheese, washed with eau-de-vie and patted with
wood ashes! also called cendre d'aisy( a specialty of %urgundy.
Algue(s)
edible seaweed.
Alisier, alizier
eau-de-vie with the taste of bitter almonds, made with the wild red
serviceberries that grow in the forests of lsace.
Allumette
)match)! puff pastry strips! also fried matchstick potatoes.
Alose
shad, a spring river fish plentiful in the ,oire and -ironde rivers.
Alouette
lark.
Alsacienne, ? l'
in the style of lsace, often including sauerkraut, sausage, or foie gras.
Am?ricaine, Amoricaine
sauce of white wine, "ognac, tomatoes, and butter.
Amande
almond.
Amande de mer
smooth-shelled shellfish, like a small clam, with a sweet, almost almond
flavor.
Amandine
with almonds.
Ambroisie
ambrosia.
Amer
bitter! as in unsweetened chocolate.
Ami du hambertin
)friend of "hambertin wine)! moist and buttery short cylinder of cow's milk
cheese with a rust-colored rind, made near the village of -evrey-
"hambertin in %urgundy. Similar to .poisses cheese.
Amourette(s)
spinal bone marrow of calf or o+.
Amuse-bouche or amusegueule
)amuse the mouth)! appeti$er.
Ancho?ade
sauce that is a blend of olive oil, anchovies, and garlic, usually served with
raw vegetables! specialty of 'rovence! also, paste of anchovies and garlic,
spread on toast.
Anchois (de ollioure)
anchovy (pri$ed salt-cured anchovy from "ollioure, a port town near the
Spanish border of the ,anguedoc), fished in the tlantic and the
/editerranean.
Ancienne, ? l'
in the old style.
Andouille
large smoked chitterling (tripe) sausage, usually served cold.
Andouillette
small chitterling (tripe) sausage, usually served grilled.
Aneth
dill.
Ange ? che!al
)angel on horseback)! grilled bacon-wrapped oyster.
Anglaise, ? l'
.nglish style, plainly cooked.
Anguille (au !ert)
eel! (poached in herb sauce).
Anise ?toil
star anise! also called badiane, anis de la chine. 0he anise plant! its dried
star-shaped fruit.
A""ellation d'origine contr?l?e (A#)
specific definition of a particular cheese, butter, fruit, wine, or poultry--once
passed down from generation to generation now recogni$ed by law--
regulating the animal breed or variety of fruit, the $one of production,
production techni&ues, composition of the product, its physical
characteristics, and its specific attributes.
Ar%te
fish bone.
Ar?mes ? la g?ne
generic name for a variety of tangy, lactic cheeses of the ,yon area that
have been steeped in g?ne, or dry marc, the dried grape skins left after
grapes are pressed for wine. "an be of cow's milk, goat's milk, or a
mi+ture.
Arachide (huile d'$ "?t? d')
peanut (oil! butter).
Araign?e de mer
spider crab.
Arbousier (miel d')
trailing arbutus, small evergreen shrubby tree of the heather family, also
called strawberry tree, ground laurel and madrona tree with strawberry-like
fruit dotted with tiny bumps! (honey of). 1sed for making li&ueurs, 2ellies,
and 2ams.
Arc en ciel (truite)
rainbow (trout).
Ardennaise, ? l'
in the style of the rdennes, a d?partement in northern 3rance! generally a
dish with 2uniper berries.
Ardoise
blackboard! bistros often use a blackboard to list specialties in place of a
printed menu.
Arl?sienne, ? l'
in the style of rles, a town in 'rovence! with tomatoes, onions, eggplant,
potatoes, rice, and sometimes olives.
Aromate
aromatic herb, vegetable, or flavoring.
Aros?(e)
sprinkled, basted, moistened with li&uid.
Artichaut ? la Barigoule
in original form, artichokes cooked with mushrooms and oil! also, artichoke
stuffed with ham, onion, and garlic, browned in oil with onions and bacon,
then cooked in water or white wine! specialty of 'rovence.
As"erge (!iolette)
asparagus (purple-tipped asparagus, a specialty of the "?te-d'$ur).
Assiette anglaise
assorted cold meats, usually served as a first course.
Assiette de "?cheur
assorted fish platter.
Assorti(e)
assorted.
Aubergine
eggplant.
Aum?ni?re
)beggar's purse)! thin cr?pe, filled and tied like a bundle.
Aurore
tomato and cream sauce.
Au!ergnat(e)
in the style of the uvergne! often with cabbage, sausage, and bacon.
A!eline
ha$elnut or filbert, better known as noisette.
A!oine
oat.
Azyme, "ain
unleavened bread! mat$o.
B?arnaise
tarragon-flavored sauce of egg yolks, butter, shallots, white wine, vinegar!
and herbs.
B?atille
)tidbit)! dish combining various organ meats.
B?casse
small bird, a woodcock.
B?cassine
small bird, a snipe.
B?chamel
white sauce, made with butter, flour, and milk, usually flavored with onion,
bay leaf, pepper, and nutmeg.
B?che de .o
"hristmas cake shaped like a log (b?che), a sponge cake often flavored
with chestnuts and chocolate.
B?tonnet
garnish of vegetables cut into small sticks.
Badiane
star anise.
Baec&eoffe, bae&aoffa, bac&aofa, bac&eno
)baker's oven)! stew of wine, beef, lamb, pork, potatoes, and onions!
specialty of lsace.
Baguette
)wand)! classic long, thin loaf of bread.
Baguette au le!ain or ? l'ancienne
sourdough baguette.
Baie
berry.
Baie rose
pink peppercorn.
Ballotine
usually poultry boned, stuffed, and rolled.
Banane
banana.
Barbouillade
stuffed eggplant, or an eggplant stew! also, a combination of beans and
artichokes.
Barbue
brill, a flatfish related to turbot, found in the tlantic and the
/editerranean.
Barder
to cover poultry or meat with strips of uncured bacon, to add moisture
while cooking.
Bar'uette
)small boat)! pastry shaped like a small boat.
Bas'uaise, ? la
%as&ue style! usually with ham or tomatoes or red peppers.
Baudroie
in 'rovence, the name for monkfish or anglerfish, the large, firm-fleshed
ocean fish also known as lotte and gigot de met, also a specialty of
'rovence, a fish soup that includes potstoes, onions, fresh mushrooms,
garlic, fresh or dried orange $est, artichokes, tomatoes, and herbs.
Ba!aroise
cold dessert! a rich custard made with cream and gelatin.
Ba!ette
skirt steak.
Ba!euse
)drooling)! method of cooking an omelet so that it remains moist and 2uicy.
Beignet
fritter or doughnut.
Beignet de fleur de courgette
batter-fried $ucchini blossom! native to 'rovence and the /editerranean,
now popular all over 3rance.
Belle (?l?ne ("oire)
classic dessert of chilled poached fruit (pear), served on ice cream and
topped with hot chocolate sauce.
Belle!ue, en
classic presentation of whole fish, usually in aspic on a platter.
Belon
river in %rittany identified with a pri$ed flat-shelled (plate) oyster.
Belondines
%rittany creuses, or crinkle-shelled oysters that are affin?es or finished off
in the %elon river.
Bera)ec&a, biere)ec&e, bire)ec&, bire)ec
dense, moist "hristmas fruit bread stuffed with dried pears, figs, and nuts!
specialty of 5aysersberg, a village in lsace.
Bercy
fish stock-based sauce thickened with flour and butter and flavored with
white wine and shallots.
Bergamot (th? a la bergamote)
name for both a variety of orange and of pear! (earl grey tea.).
Berrichonne
garnish of bruised cabbage, gla$ed baby onions, chestnuts, and lean
bacon named for the old province of %erry.
Bettera!e
beet.
Beurre
butter.
Beurre blanc
classic reduced sauce of vinegar! white wine, shallots, and butter
Beurre cru
raw cream butter.
Beurre de *ont"ellier
classic butter sauce seasoned with olive oil, herbs, garlic, and anchovies.
Beurre demi-sel
butter (lightly salted).
Beurre des harentes
finest 3rench butter, from the region of 'oitou-"harentes along the tlantic
coast.
Beurre du cru
butter given the appellation d'origine contr?l?e pedigree.
Beurre +chir
brand of the finest 3rench butter, preferred by 3rench chefs, with an 6"
pedigree, from the region of 'oitou-"harentes along the tlantic coast.
Beurre noir
sauce of browned butter, lemon 2uice or vinegar, parsley, and sometimes
capers! traditionally served with raie, or skate.
Beurre noisette
lightly browned butter.
Beurre !ierge
whipped butter sauce with salt, pepper, and lemon 2uice.
Bi?re (en bouteille, ? la "ression)
beer (bottled, on tap).
Bibels&,s, bibbels&,se
fresh cheese seasoned with horseradish, herbs, and spices! specialty of
lsace.
Biche
female deer.
Bien cuit(e)
cooked well done.
Biftec&
steak.
Bigarade
orange sauce.
Biggareau
red firm-fleshed variety of cherry.
Bigorneau
periwinkle, tiny sea snail.
Bigoud?ne, ? la
in the style of %igouden, a province in %rittany! (pommes) baked slices of
unpeeled potato! (rag?ut) sausage stewed with bacon and potato.
Biologi'ue
organic.
Biscuit ? la cuill?re
ladyfinger.
Bistrotier
bistro owner.
Blanc (de "oireau)
white portion (of leek).
Blanc (de !olaille)
usually breast (of chicken).
Blanc-manger
chilled pudding of almond milk with gelatin.
Blan'uette
classic mild stew of poached veal, lamb, chicken, or seafood, enriched
with an egg and cream white sauce! supposedly a dish for convalescents.
Blette, bette
Swiss chard.
Bleu
)blue)! cooked rare, usually for steak. See also Truite (au bleu).
Bleu d'Au!ergne
a strong, firm and moist, flattened cylinder of blue-veined cheese made
from cow's milk in the uvergne, sold wrapped in foil! still made on some
farms.
Bleu de Bresse
a cylinder of mild blue-veined cow's-milk cheese from the %resse area in
the 7h?ne-lps region! industrially made.
Bleu de -ex
thick, savory blue-veined disc of cow's-milk cheese from the 8ura! made in
only a handful of small dairies in the d?partement of the in.
Bleu des ausses
a firm, pungent, flat cylinder of blue-veined cow's-milk cheese, cured in
cellars similar to those used in making 7o&uefort.
Boeuf ? la ficelle
beef tied with string and poached in broth.
Boeuf ? la mode
beef marinated and braised in red wine, served with carrots, mushrooms,
onions, and turnips.
Boeuf gros sel
boiled beef, served with vegetables and coarse salt.
Boh?mienne, ? la
gypsy style! with rice, tomatoes, onions, sweet peppers, and paprika, in
various combinations.
Boisson (non) com"rise
drink (not) included.
Bolet
type of wild boletus mushroom. See C?pe.
Bombe
molded, layered ice cream dessert.
Bon-chr?tien
)good "hristian)! a variety of pear, also known as poire 9illiam's.
Bonite
a tuna, or oceanic bonito.
Bonne femme (cuisine)
meat garnish of bacon, potatoes, mushrooms, and onions! fish garnish of
shallots, parsley, mushrooms, and potatoes! or white wine sauce with
shallots, mushrooms, and lemon 2uice! (home-style cooking).
Bordelaise
%ordeau+ style! also refers to a brown sauce of shallots, red wine, and
bone marrow.
Bouchoteur
mussel fisherman! a dish containing mussels.
Boudouses
literally, to pout! tiny oysters from %rittany that refuse to grow to normal
si$e! iodine rich and pri$ed.
Bouillabaisse
popular /editerranean fish soup, most closely identified with /arseille,
ideally prepared with the freshest local fish, preferably rockfish.
0raditionally might include do$ens of different fish, but today generally
includes the specifically local rascasse (scorpion fish), Saint-'ierre (8ohn
:ory), fi?la (conger eel), galinette (gurnard or grondin), vive (weever), and
baudroie (monkfish) cooked in a broth of water, olive oil, onions, garlic,
tomatoes, parsley, and saffron. 0he fish is served separately from the
broth, which is poured over garlic-rubbed toast, and seasoned with rouille
which is stirred into the broth. ;aried additions include boiled potatoes,
orange peel, fennel, and shellfish. .+pensive shellfish are often added in
restaurant versions, but this practice is considered inauthentic.
Bouilliture
eel stew with red wine and prunes! specialty of the 'oitou-"harentes on
the tlantic coast.
Boulang?re, ? la
in the style of the )baker's wife)! meat or poultry baked or braised with
onions and potatoes.
Boule
)ball)! a large round loaf of white bread, also known as a miche.
Boule de Picoulat
meatball from ,anguedoc, combining beef, pork, garlic, and eggs,
traditionally served with cooked white beans.
Boulette d'A!esnes
pepper-and-tarragon-flavored cheese, made from visually defective
/aroilles, formed into a cone, and colored red with paprika! named for
vesnes, a village in the 4orth.
Bou'uet
large reddish shrimp. See also Crevette rose.
Bou'uet garni
typically fresh whole parsley bay leaf and thyme tied together with string
and tucked into stews! the package is removed prior to serving.
Bou'ueti?re
garnished with bou&uets of vegetables.
Bourdaloue
hot poached fruit, sometimes wrapped in pastry often served with vanilla
custard! often pear.
Bourgeoise, ? la
with carrots, onions, braised lettuce, celery and bacon.
Bourguignonne, ? la
%urgundy style! often with red wine, onions, mushrooms, and bacon.
Bourride
a /editerranean fish soup that generally includes a mi+ture of small white
fish, onions, tomatoes, garlic, herbs, and olive oil, thickened with egg yolks
and a?oli (garlic mayonnaise)! there are many variations.
Bourriole
rye flour pancake, both sweet and savory! specialty of the uvergne.
Boutargue, "outargue
salty paste prepared from dried mullet or tuna roe, mashed with oil!
specialty of 'rovence.
Bouton de culotte
)trouser button)! tiny buttons of goat cheese from the ,yon area!
traditionally made on farms, aged until rock hard and pungent! today found
in many forms, from soft and young to hard and brittle.
Br?l?(e)
)burned)! usually refers to carameli$ation.
Br?si (Breuzi)
smoked, salted, and dried beef from the 8ura.
Braiser
to braise! to cook meat by browning in fat, then simmering in covered dish
with small amount of li&uid.
Branche, en
refers to whole vegetables or herbs.
Brandade (de morue)
a warm garlicky pur?e (of salt cod) with milk or cream or oil, and
sometimes mashed potatoes! specialty of 'rovence! currently used to
denote a variety of flavored mashed potato dishes.
Brayaude, gigot
leg of lamb studded with garlic, cooked in white wine, and served with red
beans, braised cabbage, or chestnuts.
Brebis (fromage de)
sheep (sheep's-milk cheese).
Bretonne, ? la
in the style of %rittany! a dish served with white beans! or may refer to a
white wine sauce with carrots, leeks, and celery.
Bretzel
a pret$el! specialty of lsace.
Brie de *eaux
)king of cheese,) the flat wheel of cheese made only with raw cow's milk
and aged at least four weeks! from /eau+, 2ust east of 'aris! brie made
with pasteuri$ed milk does not have the right to be called brie de /eau+.
Brie de *elun
smaller than brie de /eau+, another raw-cow's-milk cheese, aged at least
one month, with a crackly rust-colored rind.
Brioche
buttery egg-enriched yeast bread.
Broche, ? la
spit-roasted.
Brochet(on)
freshwater pike (small pike).
Brochette
cubes of meat or fish and vegetables on a skewer.
Brouet
old term for soup.
Brouillade
a mi+ture of ingredients as in a stew or soup! also, scrambled eggs.
Brousse
a very fresh and unsalted (thus bland) sheep's- or goat's-milk cheese, not
unlike #talian ricotta! specialty of 4ice and /arseille.
Brunoise
tiny diced vegetables.
Buffet froid
variety of dishes served cold, sometimes from a buffet.
Bugne
deep-fried yeast-dough fritter or doughnut dusted with confectioner's
sugar! popular in and around ,yon before .aster.
?bette
a mild, leek-like vegetable, sliced and eaten raw, in salads! native to
'rovence, but seen occasionally outside the region.
?leri (en branche)
celery (stalk).
?leri remoulade
popular first-course bistro dish of shredded celery root with tangy
mayonnaise.
?leri-ra!e
celeriac, celery root.
?"e
large, meaty wild boletus mushroom.
?r?ale
cereal.
?te d'agneau
lamb chop.
?te de boeuf
beef blade or rib steak.
?te de !eau
veal chop.
?teau(x)
small ocean fish, solette or baby sole, found in the gulf of -ascony and
along the tlantic coast.
?teaux
creamy, ample disc of cow's-milk cheese with a rust-colored rind made by
the "istercian monks at the bbaye de "?teau+ in %urgundy.
?telette
thin chop or cutlet.
?!enole, ? la
"evennes style! garnished with chestnuts or mushrooms.
acahou?te, cacahouette, cacachu?te
prepared peanut-roasted, dry roasted, or salted. raw peanut is arachide.
aen, ? la mode de
in the style of "aen, a town in 4ormandy! a dish cooked in "alvados and
white wine andBor cider.
af?ine
caffeine.
agouille
on the tlantic coast, name for small petit gris land snail, or escargot.
aille
&uail.
aillette
round pork sausage including chopped spinach or Swiss chard, garlic,
onions, parsley, bread, and egg and wrapped in cr?pine (caul fat)! served
hot or cold! specialty of northern 'rovence.
aisse
cash register! or cash desk.
aissette
literally, )small bo+)! bread, brioche, or chocolate shaped like a small bo+.
ajasse
a sort of clafoutis from the :ordogne, made with black cherries.
amembert (de .ormandie)
village in 4ormandy that gives its name to a supple, fragrant cheese made
of cow's milk.
amomille
camomile, herb tea.
am"agnard(e) (assiette)
country-style, rustic! (an informal buffet of cold meats, terrines, etc.).
am"agne, ? la
country-style.
anard ? la "resse
roast duck served with a sauce of 2uices obtained from pressing the
carcass, combined with red wine and "ognac.
anard sau!age
wild duck, usually mallard.
ancoillotte
spreadable cheese from the 8ura! usually blended with milk, spices, or
white wine when served.
aneton
young male duck.
anette
young female duck.
annelle
cinnamon.
a"ilotade
basically any leftover meat or poultry cooked to tenderness in a well-
reduced sauce.
a"re
caper.
a"ucine
nasturtium! the leaves and flowers are used in salads.
ara?bes
"aribbean, usually denotes chocolate from the "aribbean.
arafe (d'eau)
pitcher (of tap water). Couse wine is often offered in a carafe. full carafe
contains one liter! a demi-carafe contains half a liter! a &uart contains one-
fourth of a liter.
aramelis
cooked with high heat to brown the sugar and heighten flavor.
arbonnade
braised beef stew prepared with beer and onions! specialty of the 4orth!
also refers to a cut of beef.
ardamome
cardamon.
arde
white rib, or stalk, portion of Swiss chard.
argolade
a copious mi+ed grill of snails, lamb, pork sausage, and sometimes blood
sausage, cooked over vine clippings! specialty of "atalan, an area of
southern ,anguedoc.
arotte
carrot.
ar"e
carp.
ar"e ? la jui!e
braised marinated carp in aspic.
arr? d'agneau
rack (ribs) or loin of lamb! also crown roast.
arr? de "ort
rack (ribs) or loin of pork! also crown roast.
arr? de !eau
rack (ribs) or loin of veal! also crown roast.
arrelet
see 'laice.
arte "romotionelle or conseill
a simple and ine+pensive fi+ed-price meal.
arte, ? la
menu (dishes, which are charged for individually, selected from a
restaurant's full list of offerings).
ar!i (grain de)
caraway (seed).
asher
kosher.
asse-cro?te
)break bread)! slang for snack.
asseron
cuttlefish.
assis (cr?me de)
black currant (black currant li&ueur).
assolette
usually a dish presented in a small casserole.
assonade
soft brown sugar! demerara sugar.
assoulet
popular southwestern casserole of white beans, including various
combinations of sausages, duck, pork, lamb, mutton, and goose.
a!iar d'aubergine
cold seasoned eggplant puree.
ebiche
seviche! generally raw fish marinated in lime 2uice and other seasonings.
endre (sous la)
ash (cooked by being buried in embers)! some cheeses made in wine-
producing regions are aged in the ash of burned rootstocks.
erdon
%ubbly (p?tillant) wine (red or white?) from the %ugey.
erf
stag, or male deer.
erfeuil
chervil.
erise
cherry.
erise noire
black cherry.
erneau
walnut meat.
er!elas
garlicky cured pork sausage! now also refers to fish and seafood sausage.
er!elle de canut
a soft, fresh herbed cheese known as )silkworker's brains)! specialty of
,yon.
er!elle(s)
brain(s), of calf or lamb.
h?taigne
chestnut, smaller than marron, with multiple nut meats.
h?telaine, ? la
elaborate garnish of artichoke hearts and chestnut pur?e, braised lettuce,
and saut?ed potatoes.
h?!re (fromage de)
goat (goat's-milk cheese).
halutier
trawler! any flat fish caught with a trawl.
ham"?tre
rustic! describes a simple presentation of a variety of ingredients.
ham"!allon, c?telette d'agneau
traditional dish of lamb chops baked in alternating layers of potatoes and
onions! named for a village in northern %urgundy.
hanterelle
pri$ed pale orange wild mushroom! also called girolle.
haource
soft and fruity cylindrical cow's-milk cheese, with a >D percent fat content!
takes its name from a village in "hampagne.
ha"eau
)hat)! small round loaf, topped with a little dough hat.
ha"elure
bread crumbs.
ha"on de mer
/editerranean fish, in the rascasse or scorpion-fish family.
harbon de bois, au
charcoal-grilled.
harentais
variety of sweet cantaloupe, or melon, originally from the "harentes, on
the tlantic coast.
harlotte
classic dessert in which a dish is lined with ladyfingers, filled with custard
or other filling, and served cold! in the hot version, the dish is lined with
crustless white bread saut?ed in butter, filled with fruit compote and
baked. lso a potato variety.
hartreuse
dish of braised partridge and cabbage! also herb and spiced-based li&ueur
made by the "hartreuse monks in the Savoie.
hasseur
hunter! also, sauce with white wine, mushrooms, shallots, tomatoes, and
herbs.
hateaubriand
thick filet steak, traditionally served with saut?ed potatoes and a sauce of
white wine, dark beef stock, butter, shallots, and herbs, or with a b?
arnaise sauce.
haud(e)
hot or warm.
hemise, en
wrapped with pastry.
he!al
horse, horse meat.
he!eux d'ange
)angel's hair)! thin vermicelli pasta.
he!reau
young goat.
he!reuil
young roe buck or roe deer! venison.
he!rier
small, pale green, dried kidney-shaped bean, a type of flageolet.
hicor?e (fris?e)
a bitter salad green (curly endive)! also chicory, a coffee substitute.
"hicor?e de %ru+elles
%elgian endive.
hiffonnade
shredded herbs and vegetables, usually green.
hi"iron (? l'encre)
southwestern name for small s&uid, or encornet (in its own ink).
hi"s, "ommes
potato chips.
horon, sauce
b?arnaise sauce with tomatoes.
hou de Bruxelles
brussels sprout.
hou de mer
sea kale.
hou de *ilan
Savoy cabbage.
hou rouge
red cabbage.
hou !ert
curly green Savoy cabbage.
hou-fleur
cauliflower.
hou-na!et
rutabaga.
hou-ra!e
kohlrabi.
houcroute (nou!elle)
sauerkraut (the season's first batch of sauerkraut, still crunchy and slightly
acidic)! also main dish of sauerkraut, various sausages, bacon, and pork,
served with potatoes! specialty of lsace and brasseries all over 3rance.
houx, "?te
cream pastry dough.
iboule
spring onion, or scallion.
iboulette
chives.
idre
bottled, mildly alcoholic cider, either apple or pear.
igale de mer
)sea cricket)! tender, crayfish-like, blunt-nosed rock lobster.
itron !ert
lime.
itron, orange, or "am"lemousse "ress?(e
lemon, orange, or grapefruit 2uice served with a carafe of tap water and
sugar! for sweetening to taste.
itronnelle
lemon grass, an oriental herb! also lemon balm (m?lisse).
itrouille
pumpkin, gourd. lso called courge, potiron, potimarron.
i!e
spring onion.
i!elle
spaghetti-like baby eel, also called pibale.
i!et
stew, usually of game traditionally thickened with blood.
i!et de li?!re
2ugged hare, or wild rabbit stew.
i!et de tri"es d'oies
a stew of goose innards, saut?ed in fat with onions, shallots, and garlic,
then cooked in wine vinegar and diluted with water, and thickened with
goose blood! from -ascony.
l?mentine
small tangerine, from /orocco or Spain.
laire
oyster! also a designation given to certain oysters to indicate they have
been put in claires, or oyster beds in salt marshes, where they are
fattened up for several months before going to market.
lo!isse
variety of very tiny clam, generally from the /editerranean.
ocherelle
parasol mushroom with a delicate flavor! also called champignon ? la
bague, coulemelle, and grisotte.
ochon (de lait)
pig (suckling).
ochonnaille(s)
pork product(s), usually an assortment of sausages andBor p?t?s served
as a first course.
oco blanc (rouge)
type of small white (red) shell bean, both fresh and dried, popular in
'rovence, where it is a traditional ingredient of the vegetable soupe au
pistou! also, coconut.
oco de Paim"ol
"ream-colored shell bean striated with purple, from %rittany, in season
from 8uly to 4ovember! the first bean in 3rance to receive 6".
ocotte
a high-sided cooking pot (casserole) with a lid! a small ramekin dish for
baking and serving eggs and other preparations.
oeur
heart.
oeur de filet
thickest (and best) part of beef filet, usually cut into chateaubriand steaks.
oeur de "almier
delicate shoots of the palm tree, generally served with a vinaigrette as an
hors d'oeuvre.
offre
)chest)! refers to the body of a lobster or other crustacean, or of a
butchered animal.
oiffe
traditional lacy hat! sausage patty wrapped in caul fat.
ol !ert
wild ()green-collared)) mallard duck.
ol?re, en
)anger)! method of presenting fish in which the tail is inserted in the
mouth, so it appears agitated.
olbert
method of preparing fish, coating with egg and bread crumbs and then
frying.
olombe
dove.
ommander a!ant le re"as,
a selection of desserts that should be ordered when selecting first and
main courses, as they re&uire longer cooking.
om"let
filled up, with no more room for customers.
om"ote
stewed fresh or dried fruit.
om"otier
fruit bowl! also stewed ftuit.
oncombre
cucumber.
onf?rence
a variety of pear.
onfiserie
candy, sweet, or confection! a candy shop.
onfiture
2am.
onfiture de !ieux gar?on
varied fresh fruits macerated in alcohol.
ongeler
to free$e.
ongre
conger eel! a large ocean fish resembling a freshwater eel (anguille
onseill
advised, recommended.
ontre-filet
cut of sirloin taken above the loin on either side of the backbone, tied for
roasting or braising (can also be cut for grilling).
on!ersation
puff pastry tart with sugar gla$ing and an almond or cream filling.
o"eau(x)
shaving(s), such as from chocolate, cheese, or vegetables.
o' au !in jaune
chicken cooked in the sherry-like vin 2aune of the region, with cream,
butter! and tarragon, often garnished with morels! specialty of the 8ura.
o' de bruy?re
wood grouse.
o'ue
cockle, a tiny, mild-flavored, clam-like shellfish.
o'ue, ? la
served in a shell. See 6euf ? la co&ue.
o'uelet
young male chicken.
o'uillage(s)
shellfish.
o'uille
shell.
o'uille /aint-0ac'ues
sea scallop.
oriandre
coriander! either the fresh herb or dried seeds.
orne d'abondance
)horn of plenty)! dark brown wild mushroom, also called trompette de la
mort.
ornet
cornet-shaped! usually refers to foods rolled conically! also an ice cream
cone, and a conical pastry filled with cream.
otriade
a fish stew, usually including mackerel, whiting, conger eel, sorrel, butter,
potatoes, and vinegar! specialty of %rittany.
ou d'oie (de canard) farci
neck skin of goose (of duck), stuffed with meat and spices, much like
sausage.
oulemelle
parasol mushroom with a delicate flavor! also called champignon ? la
bague, cocherelle, and grisotte.
oulommiers
town in the #le-de-3rance that gives its name to a supple, fragrant disc of
cow's-milk cheese, slightly larger than "amembert.
ourge (muscade)
generic term for s&uash or gourd (bright orange pumpkin).
ourgette
$ucchini.
ouronne
)crown)! ring or circle, usually of bread.
outeau
ra$or clam.
ou!ert
a place setting, including dishes, silver, glassware, and linen.
ou!erture
bittersweet chocolate high in cocoa butter! used for making the shiniest
chocolates.
r?me
cream.
aigre( sour cream.
anglaise( light egg-custard cream.
brulee( rich custard dessert with a top of carameli$ed sugar.
caramel( vanilla custard with caramel sauce.
catalane( creamy anise flavored custard from the southern
,anguedoc.
chantilly( sweetened whipped cream.
?paisse( thick cream.
fleurette( li&uid heavy cream.
fouett?e( whipped cream.
fra?che( thick sour! heavy cream.
p?tissi?re( custard filling for pastries and cakes.
plombi?res( custard filled with fresh fruits and egg whites.
r?"e
thin pancake.
r?"es /uzette
hot cr?pe dessert flamed with orange li&ueur.
r?"ine
caul fat.
r?"inette
traditionally, a small sausage patty wrapped in caul fat! today boned
poultry wrapped in caul fat.
r?te (de co')
(cocks) comb.
rabe
crab.
rambe
sea kale, or chou de mer.
rami'ue
brioche with raisins or currants! specialty of the 4orth.
ra"audine
preparation of grilled poultry or game bird with backbone removed.
ra'uelot
smoked herring.
resson(ade)
watercress (watercress sauce).
reuse
elongated, crinkle-shelled oyster.
re!ette
shrimp.
re!ette grise
tiny soft-fleshed shrimp that turns gray when cooked.
re!ette rose
small firm-fleshed shrimp that turns red when cooked! when large, called
bou&uet.
ri'ue
potato pancake from the uvergne.
riste marine
edible algae.
ro?te (en)
crust! (in) pastry.
ro?te de sel (en)
(in) a salt crust.
ro'ue au sel, ? la
served raw, with a small bowl of coarse salt for seasoning! tiny purple
artichokes and cherry tomatoes are served this way.
ro'ue-madame
open-face sandwich of ham and cheese with an egg grilled on top.
ro'ue-monsieur
toasted ham and cheese sandwich.
ro'uembouche
chou+ pastry rounds filled with cream and coated with a sugar gla$e, often
served in a conical tower at special events.
ro'uette
ground meat, fish, fowl, or vegetables bound with eggs or sauce, shaped
into various forms, usually coated in bread crumbs, and deep fried.
rosne
small, unusual tuber! with a subtle artichoke-like flavor! known as a
"hinese or 8apanese artichoke.
rottin de ha!ignol
small flattened ball of goat's-milk cheese from the ,oire valley."roustade
usually small pastry-wrapped dish! also regional southwestern pastry filled
with prunes andBor apples.
uilli?re (? la)
(to be eaten with a) spoon.
uisse (de "oulet)
leg or thigh (chicken drumstick).
uissot, cuisseau
haunch of veal, venison, or wild boar.
uit(e)
cooked.
ulotte
rump, usually of beef.
ulti!ateur
)truck farmer)! fresh vegetable soup.
ure-dent
toothpick.
1?corti'u?(e)
shelled or peeled.
1?jeuner
lunch.
1?ner
dinner! to dine.
1amier
)checkerboard)! arrangement of vegetables or other ingredients in
alternating colors like a checkerboard! also, a cake with such a pattern of
light and dark pieces.
1ariole
truncated cone or oval-shaped baking mold.
1arne
a rectangular portion of fish filet! also a fish steak, usually of salmon.
1atte (de mer)
date (date-shaped pri$ed wild /editerranean mussel).
1aube
a stew, usually of beef lamb, or mutton, with red wine, onions, andBor
tomatoes! specialty of many regions, particularly 'roven?e and the
tlantic coast.
1aurade
sea bream, similar to porgy, the most pri$ed of a group of ocean fish
known as dorade.
1emi
half! also, an ?-ounce (@>D ml) glass of beer! also, a half-bottle of wine.
1emi-deuil
)in half mourning)! poached (usually chicken) with sliced truffles inserted
under the skin! also, sweetbreads with a truffled white sauce.
1emi-glace
concentrated beef-based sauce lightened with consomm?, or a lighter
brown sauce.
1emi-sec
usually refers to goat cheese that is in the intermediate aging stage
between one e+treme of soft and fresh and the other e+treme of hard and
aged.
1emi-sel (buerre)
lightly salted (butter).
1emi-tasse
small cup! after-dinner coffee cup.
1emoiselle de canard
marinated raw duck tenderloin! also called mignon de canard.
1emoiselles de herbourg
small lobsters from the town of "herbourg in 4ormandy, cooked in a court-
bouillon and served in cooking 2uices. lso, restaurant name for %reton
lobsters weighing EDD to FDD grams (<D to <E ounces).
1ent, dent
one of a generic group of /editerranean fish known as dorade, similar to
porgy.
1entelle
)lace)! a portion of meat or fish so thinly sliced as to suggest a
resemblance. lso, large lace-thin sweet cr?pe.
1ents-de-lion
dandelion salad green! also called pissenlit.
1iable
)devil)! method of preparing poultry with a peppery sauce, often mustard-
based. lso, a round pottery casserole.
1ie""oise
:ieppe style! usually white wine, mussels, shrimp, mushrooms, and
cream.
1igestif
general term for spirits served after dinner! such as rmagnac, "ognac,
marc, eau-de-vie.
1ijonnaise
:i2on style! usually with mustard.
1inde
turkey hen.
1indon(neau)
turkey (young turkey).
1odine
cold stuffed boned poultry.
1orade
generic name for group of ocean fish, the most pri$ed of which is daurade,
similar to porgy.
1oucette
see /?che.
1ouceur
sweet or dessert.
1oux, douce
sweet.
1oyenn? de omice
a variety of pear.
1ur (oeuf)
hard (hard-cooked egg).
1uxelles
minced mushrooms and shallots saut?ed in butter, then mi+ed with cream.
+au
water.
+au de source
spring water.
+au du robinet
tap water.
+au gazeuse
carbonated water.
+au min?rale
mineral water.
+au-de-!ie
literally, )water of life)! brandy, usually fruit-based.
+chalote (gris)
shallot (pri$ed purplish shallot) elongated.
+chalote banane
banana-shaped onion.
+chine
sparerib.
+clade de moules
mussels roasted beneath a fire of pine needles! specialty of the tlantic
coast.
+cras
crushed! with fruit, pressed to release 2uice.
+cre!isse
freshwater crayfish.
+ffiloch
frayed, shredded.
+glantine
wild rose 2am! specialty of lsace.
+glefin, ?grefin, aiglefin
small fresh haddock, a type of cod.
+lze&aria
soup made with green beans, cabbage, and garlic! specialty of the
%as&ue region.
+mbeurr? de chou
buttery cooked cabbage.
+minc
thin slice, usually of meat.
+mmental
large wheel of cooked and pressed cow's-milk cheese, very mild in flavor,
with large interior holes! made in large commercial dairies in the 8ura.
+mond
skinned by blanching, such as almonds, tomatoes.
+n sus
see Service en sus.
+nchaud
pork filet with garlic! specialty of :ordogne.
+ncornet
small ille+ s&uid, also called calmar! in %as&ue region called chipiron.
+ncre
s&uid ink.
+ndi!e
%elgian endive! also chicory salad green.
+ntier, enti?re
whole, entire.
+ntr
first course.
+ntrec?te
beef rib steak.
+ntrec?te ma?tre d'h?tel
beef rib steak with sauce of red wine and shallots.
+ntremets
dessert.
+"ais(se)
thick.
+"aule
shoulder (of veal, lamb, mutton, or pork).
+"erlan
smelt or whitebait, usually fried, often imported but still found in the
estuaries of the ,oire.
+"i de ma
ear of sweet corn.
+"ice
spice.
+"igramme
classic dish of grilled breaded lamb chop and a piece of braised lamb
breast shaped like a chop, breaded, and grilled! crops up on modern
menus as an elegant dish of breaded and fried baby lamb chops paired
with lamb sweetbreads and tongue.
+"inard
spinach.
+"ine !inette
highbush cranberry.
+"oisses
village in %urgundy that gives its name to a buttery disc of cow's milk
cheese with a strong, smooth taste and rust-colored rind.
+"oisses blanc
fresh white .poisses cheese.
+'uille
sand eel, a long silvery fish that buries itself in the sand! eaten fried on the
tlantic coast.
+scab?che
a 'roven?al and southwestern preparation of small fish, usually sardines
or rouget, in which the fish are browned in oil, then marinated in vinegar
and herbs and served very cold. lso, raw fish marinated in lemon or lime
2uice and herbs.
+scali!ada
"atalan roasted vegetables, usually sweet peppers, eggplant and onions.
+scalo"e
thin slice of meat or fish.
+scargot
land snail.
+scargot de Bourgogne
land snail prepared with butter! garlic, and parsley.
+scargot "etit-gris
small land snail.
+scarole
bitter salad green of the chicory family with thick broad-lobed leaves,
found in both flat and round heads.
+s"adon
swordfish found in the gulf of -ascony, tlantic, and /editerranean.
+s"agnole, ? l
Spanish style! with tomatoes, peppers, onions, and garlic.
+s'ueixada
in "atalan literally means )shredded!) a shredded salt cod salad.
+sti!al
summer, used to denote seasonality of ingredients.
+stoficado
a pur?e-like blend of dried codfish, olive oil, tomatoes, sweet peppers,
black olives, potatoes, garlic, onions, and herbs! also called stockfish ni?
oise! specialty of 4ice.
+stofinado
a pur?e-like blend of dried codfish, potatoes, garlic, parsley, eggs, walnut oil, and
milk, served with triangles of toast! specialty of the uvergne.
+stouffade ? la "ro!en?ale
beef stew with onions, garlic, carrots, and orange $est.
+stragon
tarragon.
+toff
stuffed.
+toile
star! star-shaped.
+touff?$ ?tu!
literally )smothered)! method of cooking very slowly in a tightly covered
pan with almost no li&uid.
+trille
small swimming crab.
+x"ress
espresso coffee.
2?ra, feret
salmon-like lake fish, found in ,ac ,?man, in the /orvan, in %urgundy,
and in the uvergne.
2aisan(e)
pheasant.
2alette
veal breast stuffed with bacon and vegetables, browned, and poached in
broth! specialty of the uvergne.
2anes
green tops of root vegetables such as carrots, radishes, turnips.
2arci(e)
stuffed.
2arigoule(tte)
'roven?al name for wild thyme.
2arine
flour. compl?te
whole wheat flour. d'avoine
oat flour. de bl?
wheat flour! white flour. de ma?s
corn flour. de sarrasin
buckwheat flour. de seigle
rye flour. de son
bran flour.
2aux-filet
sirloin steak.
2a!orite d'artichaut
classic vegetable dish of artichoke stuffed with asparagus, covered with a
cheese sauce, and browned.
2a!ou(ille)
in 'rovence, tiny male (female) crab often used in soups.
2enouil
fennel.
2er ? che!al
)horseshoe)! a baguette that has that shape.
2erm
closed.
2erme (fermier, fermi?re)
farm (farmer)! in cheese, refers to farm-made cheese, often used to mean
raw-milk cheese! in chickens, refers to free-range chickens.
2ern&ase
young cheese shaped like a flying saucer and sprinkled with coarsely
ground pepper! specialty of lsace.
2eu de bois, au
cooked over a wood fires.
2euille de ch?ne
oak-leaf lettuce.
2euille de !igne
vine leaf.
2euillet
puff pastry.
2euilletage (en)
(in) puff pastry.
2iadone
"orsican flan made from cheese and oranges.
2icelle (boeuf ? la)
)string)! (beef suspended on a string and poached in broth). lso, small
thin baguette. lso, a small bottle of wine, as in carafe of %eau2olais.
2icelle "icarde
thin cr?pe wrapped around a slice of ham and topped with a cheesy
cream sauce! specialty of 'icardy, in the 4orth.
2igue
fig.
2inanci?re
/adiera sauce with truffle 2uice.
2inancier
small rectangular almond cake.
2ine de claire
elongated crinkle-shelled oyster that stays in fattening beds (claires) a
minimum of two months.
2ines herbes
mi+ture of herbs, usually chervil, parsley, chives, tarragon.
2l?te
)flute)! usually a very thin baguette! also, form of champagne glass.
2lageolet
small white or pale green kidney-shaped dried bean.
2lagnarde, flaugnarde, flognarde
hot, fruit-filled batter cake made with eggs, flour, milk, and butter, and
sprinkled with sugar before serving! specialty of the southwest.
2lamber
to burn off the alcohol by igniting. 1sually the brandies or other li&ueurs to
be flamb?ed are warmed first, then lit as they are poured into the dish.
2lamiche (au *aroilles)
a vegetable tart with rich bread dough crust, commonly filled with leeks,
cream, and cheese! specialty of 'icardy, in the 4orth! (filled with cream,
egg, butter, and /aroilles cheese).
2lamme&ueche
thin-crusted savory tart, much like a rectangular pi$$a, covered with
cream, onions, and bacon! also called tarte flamb?e! specialty of lsace.
2lanchet
flank of beef or veal, used generally in stews.
2leur (de sel)
flower (fine, delicate sea salt, from %rittany or the "amargue).
2leur de courgette
$ucchini blossom.
2leuron
puff pastry crescent.
2lorentine
with spinach. lso, a cookie of nougatine and candied fruit brushed with a
layer of chocolate.
2oie
liver.
2oie blond de !olaille
chicken liver! also sometimes a chicken-liver mousse.
2oie de !eau
calfs liver.
2oie gras d'oie (de canard)
liver of fattened goose (duck).
2oin (dan le)
(cooked in) hay.
2ondu(e)
melted.
2ontainebleau
creamy white fresh dessert cheese from the #le-de-3rance.
2oresti?re
garnish of wild mushrooms, bacon, and potatoes.
2ouace
a kind of brioche! specialty of the uvergne.
2ougasse
a crusty lattice-like bread made of baguette dough or puff pastry often
flavored with anchovies, black olives, herbs, spices, or onions! specialty of
'rovence and the /editerranean. lso, a sweet bread of 'rovence
flavored with orange-flower water, oil, and sometimes almonds.
2ourme d'Ambert
cylindrical blue-veined cow's-milk cheese, made in dairies around the town
of mbert in the uvergne.
2rais, bien ?gout
well-drained freshcheese. maigre
low-fat cheese.
2rais, fra?che
fresh or chilled.
2raise
strawberry.
2raise des bois
wild strawberry.
2ramboise
raspberry.
2ran?aise, ? la
classic garnish of peas with lettuce, small white onions, and parsley.
2rangi"ane
almond custard filling.
2riandise
sweetmeat, petit four.
2ricadelle
fried minced meat patty.
2ricandeau
thinly sliced veal or a rump roast, braised with vegetables and white wine.
2ricot (de !eau)
veal shoulder simmered in white wine with vegetables.
2ris?(e)
)curly)! usually curly endive, the bitter salad green of the chicory family
sold in enormous round heads.
2rit(e)
fried.
2rite
3rench fry.
2riture
fried food! also a preparation of small fried fish, usually white-bait or smelt.
2roid(e)
cold.
2romage
cheese. blanc
a smooth low-fat cheese similar to cottage cheese. d'alpage
cheese made in mountain pastures during the prime summer milking
period. .chourgnac
delicately flavored, ochre-skinned cheese made of cow's milk by the
monks at the .chourgnac monasteryin the :ordogne. fort
pungent cheese. frais
smooth, runny fresh cheese, like cottage cheese.
2romage de t?te
headcheese, usually pork.
2ruits de mer
seafood.
2umet
fish stock.
-?noise
sponge cake.
-?sier
gi$$ard.
-?teau
cake.
basque a chewy sweet cake filled with pastry cream or, historically,
with black cherry 2am! also called
pastiza! specialty of the %as&ue region
breton a rich round pound cake! specialty of %rittany
op?ra classic almond sponge cake layered with coffee and
chocolate butter cream and covered with a sheet of chocolate! seen
in every pastry shop window
Saint-Honor? classic cake of chou+ puffs dipped in caramel and
set atop a cream-filled chou+ crown on a pastry base.
-alantine
classical preparation of boned meat or whole poultry that is stuffed or
rolled, cooked, then gla$ed with gelatin and served cold.
-alette
round flat pastry, pancake, or cake! can also refer to pancake-like savory
preparations! in %rittany usually a savory buckwheat cr?pe, known as bl?
noir.
-alette bressane, galette de P?rouges
cream and sugar tart from the %resse area of the 7h?ne-lpes.
-alette des rois
puff pastry filled with almond pastry cream, traditional 0welfth 4ight
celebration cake.
-alinette
tub gurnard, /editerranean fish of the mullet family.
-anache
classically a rich mi+ture of chocolate and cr?me fra?che used as a filling
for cakes and chocolate truffles! currently may also include such flavorings
as wild strawberries and cinnamon.
-arbure
a hearty stew that includes cabbage, beans, and salted or preserved duck,
goose, turkey or pork! specialty of the southwest.
-ardiane
stew of beef or bull (toro) meat, with bacon, onions, garlic, and black
olives! served with rice! specialty of the "amargue, in 'rovence.
-arni(e)
garnished.
-arniture
garnish.
-asconnade
roast leg of lamb with garlic and anchovies! specialty of the southwest.
-aude
thick corn-flour porridge served hot, or cold and sliced, with cream.
-aufre
waffle.
-a!e
southwestern term for mountain stream! indicates fish from the streams of
the area.
-ayette
small sausage patty made with pork liver and bacon, wrapped in caul fat
and bacon.
-el
aspic.
-endarme
salted and smoked herring.
-eni?!ere
2uniper berry.
-entiane
gentian! a li&ueur made from this mountain flower.
-erminy
garnish of sorrel. lso, sorrel and cream soup.
-ermon
albacore or long-fin tuna.
-ibassier
round sweet bread from 'rovence, often flavored with lemon or orange
$est, orange-flower water, andBor almonds. lso sometimes called
fougasse or pompe ? lhuile.
-ibelotte
fricassee of rabbit in red or white wine.
-ibier
game, sometimes designated as gibier ? plume (feathered) or gibier ? poil
(furry).
-igot (de "r? sal
usually a leg of lamb (lamb gra$ed on the salt meadows along the tlantic
and 4ormandy coasts).
-igot de mer
a preparation, usually of large pieces of monkfish (lotte) oven-roasted like
a leg of lamb.
-igue (de)
haunch (of) certain game meats.
-illardeau
pri$ed oyster raised in 4ormandy and finished in claires, or fattening beds
on the tlantic coast.
-ingembre
ginger.
-irofle
clove.
-irolle
pri$ed pale orange wild mushroom! also called chanterelle.
-i!r?$ orange gi!r
frosted! orange sherbet served in its skin.
-lace
ice cream.
-o?ter (le)
to taste, to try! (childrens afternoon snack).
-oret
young pig.
-oug?re
cheese-flavored chou+ pastry.
-oujonnette
generally used to describe a small piece of fish, such as sole, usually
fried.
-ourmandise(s)
weakness for sweet things! (sweetmeats or candies).
-ousse d'ail
clove of garlic.
-ousse de !anille
vanilla bean.
-raine de moutarde
mustard seed.
-raisse
fat.
-raisserons
crisply fried pieces of duck or goose skin! cracklings.
-rand cr?me
large or double espresso with milk.
-rand !eneur
)chief huntsman)! usually a brown sauce for game, with red currant 2elly.
-ra""e (de raisins)
cluster! bunch (of grapes).
-ras-double
tripe baked with onions and white wine.
-ratin dau"hinoise
baked casserole of sliced potatoes, usually with cream, milk, and
sometimes cheese andBor eggs.
-ratin sa!oyarde
baked casserole of sliced potatoes, usually with bouillon, cheese, and
butter.
-ratin?(e)
having a crusty, browned top.
-ratin?e lyonnaise
bouillon flavored with port, garnished with beaten egg, topped with
cheese, and browned under a broiler.
-rattons, grattelons
crisply fried pieces of pork, goose, or duck skin! cracklings.
-rec'ue, ? la
cooked in seasoned mi+ture of oil, lemon 2uice, and water! refers to cold
vegetables, usually mushrooms.
-relette, sauce
cold sauce with a base of whipped cream.
-relot
small white bulb onion.
-renade
pomegranate.
-renadin
small veal scallop.
-renaille
7efers to small, bite-si$e new potato of any variety.
-renouille (cuisse de)
frog (leg).
-ressini
breadsticks, seen along the "?te-d'$ur.
-ribiche, sauce
mayonnaise with capers, cornichons, hard-cooked eggs, and herbs.
-rill?(e)
grilled.
-rillade
grilled meat.
-riotte
shiny slightly acidic, reddish black cherry.
-risotte
parasol mushroom with a delicate flavor! also called champignon ? la
bague. cocherelle. and coulemelle.
-ri!e
thrush.
-roin d'ane
)donkeys snout)! ,yonnais name for a bitter winter salad green similar to
dandelion greens.
-ros sel
coarse salt.
-roseille
red currant.
-ruy?re
strictly speaking, cheese from the -ruyere area of Swit$erland! in 3rance,
generic name for a number of hard, mild, cooked cheeses from the 8ura,
including "omt?, %eaufort, and .mmental.
-yromite
group of wild mushrooms, or gyromitra, known as false morels.
(?telet, attelet
decorative skewer! currently used to mean meat or fish cooked on a
skewer.
(?telet, attelet
decorative skewer! currently used to mean meat or fish cooked on a
skewer.
(areng
herring, found in the tlantic, the .nglish "hannel (the best between
:unker&ue and 3?camp), and the mouth of the -ironde river.
(areng
herring, found in the tlantic, the .nglish "hannel (the best between
:unker&ue and 3?camp), and the mouth of the -ironde river.
(areng ? lhuile
herring cured in oil, usually served with a salad of warm sliced potatoes.
(areng ? lhuile
herring cured in oil, usually served with a salad of warm sliced potatoes.
(areng balti'ue, bismar&
marinated herring.
(areng balti'ue, bismar&
marinated herring.
(areng bouffi
herring that is salted, then smoked.
(areng bouffi
herring that is salted, then smoked.
(areng "ec
freshly salted young herring.
(areng "ec
freshly salted young herring.
(areng roll-mo"
marinated herring rolled around a small pickle.
(areng roll-mo"
marinated herring rolled around a small pickle.
(areng saur
smoked herring.
(areng saur
smoked herring.
(erbes de Pro!ence
mi+ture of thyme, rosemary, summer savory, and bay leaf, often dried and
blended.
(erbes de Pro!ence
mi+ture of thyme, rosemary, summer savory, and bay leaf, often dried and
blended.
(irondelle
swallow.
(irondelle
swallow.
(oche"ot
a thick stew, usually of o+tail! specialty of 3landers, in the north.
(oche"ot
a thick stew, usually of o+tail! specialty of 3landers, in the north.
(ollandaise
sauce of butter, egg yolks, and lemon 2uice.
(ollandaise
sauce of butter, egg yolks, and lemon 2uice.
(omard (? lAmoricaine, ? lAm?ricaine)
lobster! (a classic dish of many variations, in which lobster is cut into
sections and browned, then simmered with shallots, minced onions,
tomatoes, "ognac, and white wine! served with a sauce of the reduced
cooking li&uid, enriched with butter).
(omard (? lAmoricaine, ? lAm?ricaine)
lobster! (a classic dish of many variations, in which lobster is cut into
sections and browned, then simmered with shallots, minced onions,
tomatoes, "ognac, and white wine! served with a sauce of the reduced
cooking li&uid, enriched with butter).
(ongroise, ? la
Cungarian style! usually with paprika and cream.
(ongroise, ? la
Cungarian style! usually with paprika and cream.
(ors-d'oeu!re
appeti$er! can also refer to a first course.
(ors-d'oeu!re
appeti$er! can also refer to a first course.
(u?tre
oyster.
(u?tre
oyster.
(uile
oil.
d!arachide peanut oil
de colza rapeseed oil
de ma?s corn oil
de noisette ha$lenut oil
de noix walnut oil
de p?pins de raisins grapeseed oil
de s?same sesame oil
de tournesol sunflower oil
d!olive (extra vierge olive oil (e+tra virgin, or the first cold
pressing)
(uile
oil.
d!arachide peanut oil
de colza rapeseed oil
de ma?s corn oil
de noisette ha$lenut oil
de noix walnut oil
de p?pins de raisins grapeseed oil
de s?same sesame oil
de tournesol sunflower oil
d!olive (extra vierge olive oil (e+tra virgin, or the first cold
pressing)
(ure de "orc or de marcassin
head of pig or boar - usually refers to headcheese preparation.
(ure de "orc or de marcassin
head of pig or boar - usually refers to headcheese preparation.
(ure de saumon
a salmon )headcheese,) or p?t?, prepared with salmon meat, not actually
the head.
(ure de saumon
a salmon )headcheese,) or p?t?, prepared with salmon meat, not actually
the head.
(yso"e
hyssop! fragrant, mint-like thistle found in 'rovence, used in salads and in
cooking.
(yso"e
hyssop! fragrant, mint-like thistle found in 'rovence, used in salads and in
cooking.
3le flottante
)floating island)! most commonly used interchangeably with oeufs ? la
neige, poached meringue floating in cr?me anglaise! classically, a layered
cake covered with whipped cream and served with custard sauce.
3m"?ratrice, ? l
usually a rice pudding dessert with candied fruit.
3m"?riale, ? l
classic haute cuisine garnish of mussels, cockscombs, crayfish, and other
e+travagant ingredients.
3m"eriale
variety of plum. lso, a large bottle for wine, holding about F &uarts (F
liters),
3ndienne, ? l
.ast #ndian style, usually with curry powder.
0?sus de *orteau
plump smoked pork sausage that takes its name from the town of /orteau
in the 8ura! distinctive because a wooden peg is tied in the sausage
casing on one end! traditionally, the sausage eaten at "hristmas, hence its
name! also called saucisson de /orteau.
0alousie
)venetian blind)! classic small, latticed, flaky pastry filled with almond
paste and spread with 2am.
0ambonneau
cured ham shank or pork knuckle.
0ambonnette
boned and stuffed knuckle of ham or poultry.
0ardini?re
refers to a garnish of fresh cooked vegetables.
0arret (de !eau, de "orc, de boeuf)
knuckle (of veal or pork), shin (of beef).
0erez
refers to sherry
0eune
young.
0oue
cheek.
0ulienne
cut into slivers, usually vegetables or meat.
4ie!
deep-fried breast of chicken stuffed with herb and garlic butter.
4ne"fla
lsatian dumpling, sometimes fried.
4ougelho"h, hougelhof, &ouglof, &ugelho"
sweet crown-shaped yeast cake, with almonds and raisins! specialty of
lsace.
4ummel
caraway seed li&ueur.
5?ger (l?g?re)
light.
5?gume
vegetable.
5actaire
the edible lactaire pallidus mushroom, also called sanguine. pricot-
colored, with red, blood colored 2uices when raw.
5aguiole
"antal cheese from the area around the village of ,aguiole, in southern
uvergne, still made in rustic huts.
5aitance
soft roe (often of herring), or eggs.
5aitier
made of or with milk! also denotes a commercially made product as
opposed to fermier, meaning farm made.
5aitue
lettuce.
5amelle
very thin strip.
5am"roie (? la bordelaise)
lamprey eel, ocean fish that swim into rivers along the tlantic in
springtime (hearty stew of lamprey eel and leeks in red wine).
5andaise, ? la
from the ,andes in southwestern 3rance! classically a garnish of garlic,
pine nuts, and goose fat.
5angouste
clawless spiny lobster or rock lobster! sometimes called crawfish, and
mistakenly crayfish.
5angoustine
clawed crustacean, smaller than either homard or langouste, with very
delicate meat. 5nown in %ritish waters as :ublin %ay prawn.
5angres
supple, tangy cylindrical cow's-milk cheese with a rust-colored rind! named
for village in "hampagne.
5angue (de chat)
tongue ()cat's tongue)! thin, narrow, delicate cookie often served with
sherbet or ice).
5anguedocienne
garnish, usually of tomatoes, eggplant, and wild c?pe mushrooms.
5a"ereau
young rabbit.
5a"in de garenne
wild rabbit.
5arder
to thread meat, fish, or liver with strips of fat for added moisture.
5arme
)teardrop)! a very small portion of li&uid.
5aurier
bay laurel or bay leaf.
5a!aret
lake fish of the Savoie, similar to salmon.
5entilles (de Puy)
lentils (pri$ed green lentils from the village of 'uy in the uvergne).
5i?!re (? la royale)
hare (cooked with red wine, shallots, onions, and cinnamon, then rolled
and stuffed with foie gras and truffles).
5ieu jaune
green pollack, in the cod family a pleasant, ine+pensive small yellow fish!
often sold under name colin! found in the tlantic.
5ieu noir
pollack, also called black cod! in the cod family a pleasant, ine+pensive
fish found in the .nglish "hannel and the tlantic.
5imaces ? la su?arelle
snails cooked with onions, garlic, tomatoes, and sausage! specialty of
'rovence.
5imande
lemon sole, also called dab or sand dab, not as firm or pri$ed as sole,
found in the .nglish "hannel, the tlantic, and, rarely, in the
/editerranean.
5isette
small ma&uereau, or mackerel.
5otte
monkfish or angler fish, a large firm-fleshed ocean fish.
5otte de ri!i?re (or de lac)
fine-fleshed river (or lake) fish, pri$ed for its large and flavorful liver. 4ot
related to the ocean fish lotte, or monkfish.
5ou magret
breast of fattened duck.
5ou" de mer
wolf fish or ocean catfish! name for sea bass in the /editerranean.
5ou!ine
%as&ue name for striped bass, fished in the %ay of -ascony.
5uzienne, ? la
prepared in the manner popular in Saint-8ean-de-,u$, a %as&ue fishing
port.
5yonnaise, ? la
in the style of ,yon! often garnished with onions.
*?che
dark small-leafed salad green known as lambs lettuce or corn salad. lso
called doucette.
*?lange
mi+ture or blend.
*?nag?re, ? la
)in the style of the housewife)! usually a simple preparation including
onions, potatoes, and carrots.
*?re (de ronces)
blackberry (bush).
*?ture
corn bread from the %as&ue region.
*a?tre d'h?tel
headwaiter. lso, sauce of butter, parsley and lemon.
*ac?doine
diced mi+ed fruit or vegetables.
*acaronade
a rich blend of wild and domestic mushrooms and chunks of foie gras,
smothered in fresh pasta! specialty of the southwest. lso, macaroni with
mushrooms, bacon, white wine, and 'armesan cheese! an
accompaniment to a beef stew, or daube! specialty of 'rovence.
*ad?re
/adeira.
*adeleine (de ommercy)
small scalloped-shaped tea cake made famous by /arcel 'roust! (the
town in the ,orraine where the tea cakes are commerciali$ed).
*adril?ne, ? la
in the style of /adrid! with tomatoes. "lassically a garnish of peeled
chopped tomatoes for consomm?.
*agret de canard (or d'oie)
breast of fattened duck (or goose).
*aigre
thin, non-fatty
*aison, de la
of the house, or restaurant.
*altaise
orange-flavored hollandaise sauce.
*al!oisie, !inaigre de
vinegar made from the malvasia grape, used for the sweet, heavy
/almsey wine.
*andarine
tangerine.
*ange-tout
)eat it all)! a podless green runner bean! a sweet pea! a snow pea. lso, a
variety of apple.
*angue
mango.
*ani?re, de
in the style of.
*a'uereau
mackerel! lisette is a small mackerel.
*ar?e la
literally )the tide)! usually used to indicate seafood that is fresh.
*ara de Bois
small fragrant strawberry, like a cross between a domestic and wild
strawberry.
*ara?ch?r(e) (? la)
market gardener or truck farmer (market-garden style! usually refers to a
dish or salad that includes various greens).
*archand de !in
wine merchant. lso, sauce made with red wine, meat stock, and chopped
shallots.
*arennes
flat-shelled green-tinged plate oyster. lso the 3rench coastal village
where flat-shelled oysters are raised.
*arinade
seasoned li&uid in which food, usually meat, is soaked for several hours.
0he li&uid seasons and tenderi$es at the same time.
*arjolaine
mar2oram. lso, multilayered chocolate and nut cake.
*armelade
traditionally a thick pur?e of fruit, or sweet stewed fruit! today pur?e of
vegetable, or stewed vegetables.
*armite
small covered pot! also a dish cooked in a small casserole.
*aroilles
village in the north that gives its name to a strong-tasting, thick, s&uare
cow's-milk cheese with a pale brick-red rind.
*ar'uise (au chocolat)
mousse-like (chocolate) cake.
*atelote (d'anguilles)
freshwater fish (or eel) stew.
*au!iette
wild meadow lark or skylark.
*elon de a!aillon
small canteloupe-like melon from "availlon, a town in 'rovence known for
its wholesale produce market.
*endiant, fruits du
traditional mi+ture of figs, almonds, ha$elnuts, and raisins, whose colors
suggest the robes of the mendicant friars it is named after.
*enthe
mint.
*erguez
small spicy sausage.
*erlan
whiting.
*erle
blackbird.
*erlu
hake, a member of the codfish family often sold improperly in 'aris
markets as colin! found in the .nglish "hannel, tlantic, and
/editerranean.
*er!eille
hot sugared doughnut.
*esclum, mesclun
a mi+ture of at least seven multi-shaded salad greens from 'rovence.
*ets
dish or preparation.
*ets selon la saison
seasonal preparation! according to the season.
*eule
)millstone)! name for wheel of cheese in the 8ura.
*euni?re, ? la
)in the style of the millers wife)! refers to a fish that is seasoned, rolled in
flour, fried in butter! and served with lemon, parsley and hot melted butter.
*eurette
in, or with, a red wine sauce. lso, a %urgundian fish stew.
*iche
a large round country-style loaf of bread. lso, %as&ue name for aniseed
cake-like bread.
*ie
interior or crumb of the bread (see 'ain de mie).
*iel
honey
*ignardise
see 'etit-four.
*ignon de canard
see :cmsiselle de canard.
*ignonette
small cubes, usually of beef. lso refers to coarsely ground black ot white
pepper.
*ijot?(e) ("lat)
simmered (dish or preparation).
*ille-feuille
refers to puff pastry with many thin layers! usually a cream-filled rectangle
of puff pastry, or a 4apoleon.
*inute (? la)
)minute)! something &uickly grilled or fried in butter with lemon 2uice and
parsley (prepared at the last minute).
*i'ue
generally a large breaded dumpling, poached and served with stews and
meats! specialty of the Southwest.
*irabeau
garnish of anchovies, pitted olives, tarragon, and anchovy butter.
*irabelle
small sweet yellow plum. lso, colorless fruit brandy or eau-de-vie, made
from yellow plums.
*ire"oix
cubes of carrots and onions or mi+ed vegetables, usually used in braising
to boost the flavor of a meat dish.
*iroton (de)
slice (of). lso, stew of meats flavored with onions.
*o?lle
beef bone marrow.
*ode de, ? la
in the style of.
*ogette, mojette mougette
a kind of dried white bean from the tlantic coast.
*ollus'ue
mollusk.
*ontagne, de la
from the mountains.
*ontmorency
garnished with cherries! historically a village known for its cherries, now a
suburb of 'aris.
*orbier
supple cow's-milk cheese from the 8ura! a thin sprinkling of ashes in the
center gives it its distinctive black stripe and light smoky flavor.
*orceau
piece or small portion.
*orille
wild morel mushroom, dark brown and conical.
*orue
salt cod! also currently used to mean fresh cod, which is cabillaud.
*or!andelle, jambon ? la
in the style of the /orvan (ham in a pi&uant creamy sauce made with
white wine, vinegar, 2uniper berries, shallots, and cream).
*or!andelle, r?"
grated potato mi+ed with eggs, cream, and cheese, baked until golden.
*osa?'ue
)mosaic!) a presentation of /i+ed ingredients.
*ost?le
forkbeard mostelle! small /editerranean fish of the cod family.
*ouclade
creamy mussel stew from the 'oitou-"harentes on the tlantic "oast,
generally flavored with curry or saffron.
*oule
mussel. lso a mold.
*oule d'+s"agne
large, sharp-shelled mussel, often served raw as part of a seafood platter.
*oule de bouchot
small, highly pri$ed cultivated mussel, raised on stakes driven into the
sediment of shallow coastal beds.
*oule de Bouzigues
iodine-strong mussel from the village of %ou$igues, on the /editerranean
coast.
*oule de "ar'ues
:utch cultivated mussel, usually raised in fattening beds or diverted
ponds.
*oules marini?re
mussels cooked in white wine with onions, shallots, butter, and herbs.
*oulin (? "oi!re)
mill (peppermill)! also used for oil and flour mills.
*ourone
%as&ue name for red bell pepper.
*ousse
light, airy mi+ture usually containing eggs and cream, either sweet or
savory.
*ousseline
refers to ingredients that are usually lightened with whipped cream or egg
whites, as in sauces, or with butter, as in brioche mousseline.
*ousseron
tiny, delicate, wild mushroom.
*outarde (? lancienne, en graines)
mustard (old-style, coarse-grained).
*uge
grey mullet.
*ulet
the generic group of mullet, found in the .nglish "hannel, tlantic, and
/editerranean.
*unster
village in lsace that gives its name to a disc of soft, tangy cow's-milk
cheese with a brick red rind and a penetrating aroma! the cheese is also
sometimes cured with cumin seeds.
*uscade
nutmeg.
*uscat de (ambourg
variety of popular purple table grape, grown in 'rovence.
*useau de "orc (or de boeuf)
vinegared pork (or beef).
*yrtille
bilberry (bluish black .uropean blueberry).
*yst?re
truncated cone-shaped ice cream dessert. lso, dessert of cooked
meringue with ice cream and chocolate cake.
.?fle
medlar! also called 8apanese lo&uat! tart fruit that resembles an apricot
and taste like a mango.
.age (? la)
)swimming)! aromatic poaching li&uid (served in).
.atte
woven loaf of bread.
.ature
refers to simple, unadorned preparations.
.a!arraise, ? la
4avarre-style, with sweet peppers, onions, and garlic.
.a!et
turnip.
.a!ette
)little boat)! small pastry boats.
.eufch?tel
white, creamy, delicate (and often heart-shaped) cow's-milk cheese,
named for village in 4ormandy where it is made.
.e)burg
lobster preparation with /adeira, egg yolks, and cream.
.i!ernaise, ? la
in the style of 4evers! with carrots and onions.
.oisette
ha$elnut! also refers to small round piece (such as from a potato),
generally the si$e of a ha$elnut, lightly browned in butter. lso, center cut
of lamb chop. lso, dessert flavored with ha$elnuts.
.ormande
in the style of 4ormandy! sauce of seafood, cream, and mushrooms. lso
refers to fish or meat cooked with apple cider or "alvados! or dessert with
apples, usually served with cream.
.ote
another word for addition, bill or tab.
.ouilles
noodles.
.ou!eau, nou!elle
new or young.
.ou!eaut
a new offering.
#euf
egg.
? la coque soft-cooked egg.
brouill? scrambled egg.
dur hard-cooked egg.
en meurette poached egg in red wine sauce.
mollet egg simmered in water for A minutes.
poch? poached egg.
saut? ? la po?le or oeuf sur le plat fried egg.
#eufs ? la neige
)eggs in the snow)! sweetened whipped egg whites poached in milk and
served with vanilla custard sauce.
#ffert
offered! free or given.
#ie
goose.
#iselle
sorrel.
#li!e de .yons
wrinkled black olive, first olive in 3rance to receive 6". lso used for oil.
#li!e noire (!erte)
black olive (green olive).
#li!es cass?es
fresh green olives cured in a rich fennel-infused brine! specialty of
'rovence.
#mble (ombre) che!alier
lake fish, similar to salmon trout, with firm, flaky flesh varying from white to
deep red. 3ound in lakes in the Savoie.
#melette nor!egienne
3rench version of %aked laska! a concoction of sponge cake covered
with ice cream and a layer of sweetened, stiffly beaten egg whites, then
browned &uickly in the oven.
#nglet
cut similar to beef flank steak! also cut of beef sold as biftek and entrec?
te, usually a tough cut, but better than flank steak.
#reille de "orc
cooked pigs ear! served grilled, with a coating of egg and bread crumb.
#reillette
thin, crisp rectangular dessert fritters, flavored with orange-flower water!
specialty of 'rovence.
#rge ("erl
barley (pearl barley).
#rientale, ? l
general name for vaguely .astern dishes cooked with saffron, tomatoes,
and sweet red peppers.
#rtie
4ettle.
#seille
sorrel.
#sso bucco ? la ni?oise
saut?ed veal braised with tomatoes, garlic, onions, and orange $est!
specialty of the /editerranean.
#str?iculteur
6yster grower.
#ursinade
creamy sea urchin soup.
#u!ert
open.
P?bre d'ail
see 'oivre d'?ne.
P?che
peach. lso, fishing.
P?che Alexandra
cold dessert of poached peaches with ice cream and pur?ed strawberries.
P?che *elba
poached peach with vanilla ice cream and raspberry sauce.
P?cheur
)fisherman)! usually refers to fish preparations.
P?lerine
another name for scallop or co&uille Saint-8ac&ues.
P?"tie (au chocolat)
nugget! (chocolate chip).
P?rigourdine, ? la, or P?rigueux
sauce, usually with truffles and foie gras, named for the '?rigord in
southwestern 3rance.
P?tale
)petal)! very thin slice.
P?te
pastry or dough.
bris?e pie pastry
d!amande almond paste.
sabl?e sweeter, richer, and more crumbly pie dough than p?te
sucr?e, sometimes leavened.
sucr?e sweet pie pastry.
P?tes (fra?ches)
pasta (fresh).
P?toncle
tiny scallop, similar to merican bay scallop.
Pageot
a type of sea bream or porgy. 0he finest is pageot rouge, wonderful grilled.
'ageot blanc is drier and needs to be marinated in oil before cooking.
Paillarde (de !eau)
thick slice (of veal)! also, piece of meat pounded flat and saute?ed.
Pailles ("ommes)
fried potato sticks.
Paillette
cheese straw, usually made with puff pastry and 'armesan cheese.
Paleron
shoulder of beef.
Palestine
classically a garnish of 8erusalem artichokes.
Palette
upper shoulder of pork.
Palmier
palm leaf-shaped cookie made of sugared puff pastry.
Palmier, coeur de
heart of palm.
Palombe
wood or wild pigeon, or dove.
Palourde
pri$ed medium-si$e clam.
Pam"lemousse
grapefruit.
Pan?(e)
breaded.
Panade
panada, a thick mi+ture used to bind forcemeats and &uenelles, usually
flour and butter based, but can also contain fresh or toasted bread
crumbs, rice, or potatoes. lso refers to soup of bread, milk, and
sometimes cheese.
Panisse
a thick fried pancake of chickpea flour, served as accompaniment to meat!
specialty of 'rovence.
Panne'uet
rolled cr?pe, filled andBor covered with sweet or savory mi+ture.
Panoufle
-enerally discarded belly flap from saddle of lamb, veal, and beef!
sometimes grilled.
Pa"eton
eggplant, fried, pur?ed, and cooked in a ring mold! specialty of 'rovence.
Pa"illote, en
cooked in parchment paper or foil wrapping.
Pa'uet (en)
(in) a package or parcel.
Paris-Brest, g?teau
classic, large, crown-shaped chou+ pastry filled with praline butter cream
and topped with chopped almonds.
Parisienne, ? la
varied vegetable garnish which generally includes potato balls that have
been fried and tossed in a meat gla$e.
Parmentier
dish with potatoes.
Passe rassane
flavorful variety of winter pear.
Passe-Pierre
edible seaweed.
Past?'ue
watermelon.
Patte blanche
small crayfish no larger than @ <B@ ounces (=> g).
Patte rouge
large crayfish.
Pauchouse, "ochouse
stew of river fish that generally includes tanche (tench), perche (perch),
brochet (pike), and anguille (eel)! specialty of %urgundy.
Pau"iette
slice of meat or fish, filled, rolled, then wrapped! served warm.
Pa!? d'Auge
thick, ochre colored s&uare of cow's-milk cheese that comes from the
uge area of 4ormandy.
Pa!ot (graine de)
poppy (seed).
Paysan(ne) (? la)
country style! (garnish of carrots, turnips, onions, celery and bacon).
Peau
skin.
Pe'uillo
small red Spanish pepper, usually stuffed with salt cod pur?e.
Perce-"ierre
samphire, edible seaweed.
Perche
perch.
Perdreau
young partridge.
Perdrix
partridge.
Persil (sim"le)
parsley (flatleaf).
Persill
)parsleyed)! describes certain blue-veined cheeses. See also 8ambon
persill?.
Persillade
blend of chopped parsley and garlic.
Pet de nonne
)nuns fart)! small, dainty beignets, or fried pastry.
Petit d?jeuner
breakfast.
Petit sal
salt-cured portions of lean pork belly, often served with lentils.
Petit-beurre
popular tea cookie made with butter.
Petit-four (sucr? or sal?e)
tiny cake or pastry (sweet or savory)! in elegant restaurants, served with
cocktails before dinner or with coffee afterward! also called mignardise.
Petit-gris
small land snail.
Petit-"ois
small green pea.
Petite marmite
earthenware casserole! the broth served from it.
Pi?ce
portion, piece.
Pibale
tiny eel, also called civelle.
Picholine, "itchouline
a variety of green olive, generally used to prepare olives casse?s!
specialty of 'rovence.
Picodon (m?thode 1ieulefit)
small disc of goat's-milk cheese, the best of which (&ualified as m?thode
:ieulefit) is hard, pi&uant, and pungent from having soaked in brandy and
aged a month in earthenware 2ars! specialty of northern 'rovence.
Piech
poached veal brisket stuffed with vegetables, herbs, and sometimes rice,
ham, eggs, or cheese! specialty of the /editerranean.
Pied de che!al
)horses foot)! giant tlantic coast oyster.
Pied de mouton
meaty cream-colored wild mushroom. lso, sheep's foot.
Pieds et "a'uets
)feet and packages)! mutton tripe rolled and cooked with sheep's feet,
white wine, and tomatoes! specialty of 'rovence and the /editerranean.
Pierre-7ui-9ire
)stone that moves)! a supple, tangy, flat disc of cow's-milk cheese with a
reddish rind, made by the %enedictine monks at the bbaye de la 'ierre-
Hui ;ire in %urgundy.
Pigeon (neau)
pigeon or s&uab (young pigeon or s&uab).
Piment
red pepper or pimento.
Piment
hot, peppery, spicy.
Piment (or "oi!re) de 0ama?'ue
allspice.
Piment d'+s"elette
slender, mildly hot chile pepper from .spelette, a village in the %as&ue
region.
Piment doux
sweet pepper.
Pim"ernelle
salad burnet, a salad green with a somewhat bitter taste.
Pince
claw. lso, tongs used when eating snails or seafood.
Pineau des harentes
sweet fortified wine from the "ognac region on the tlantic coast, served
as an aperitif.
Pintade(au)
(young) guinea fowl.
Pi"?rade
a dish of pepper! onions, tomatoes, and often ham and scrambled eggs!
specialty of the %as&ue region.
Pi'uant(e)
sharp or spicy tasting.
Pi'uenchagne, "icanchagne
a pear tart with walnut or brioche crust! specialty of the %ourbonnais, a
province in uvergne.
Pissaladi?re
a flat open-face tart like a pi$$a, garnished with onions, olives, and
anchovies! specialty of 4ice.
Pissenlit
dandelion green.
Pistache
pistachio nut.
Pistil de safran
thread of saffron.
Pithi!iers
a town in the ,oire valley that gives its name to a classic large puff pastry
found filled with almond cream. lso, lark p?t?.
Plaice
a small, orange-spotted flounder or fluke, a flat ocean fish! also known as
plie franch or carrelet. 3ound in the .nglish "hannel.
Plate
flat-shelled oyster.
Plateau
platter.
Plateau de fruits de mer
seafood platter combining raw and cooked shell-fish! usually includes
oysters, clams, mussels, langoustines, periwinkles, whelks, crabs, and tiny
shrimp.
Plates c?tes
part of beef ribs usually used in pot-au feu.
Pleurote
very soft-fleshed, feather-edged wild mushrooms! also now being
cultivated commercially in several regions of 3rance.
Plie
see 'laice.
Plombi?re
classic dessert of vanilla ice cream, candied fruit, kirsch, and apricot 2am.
Pluche
small sprig of herbs or plants, generally used for garnish.
Pochouse
see 'auchouse.
Pogne
brioche flavored with orange-flower water and filled with fruits! specialty of
7omans-sur-#s?re, in the 7h?ne-lpes.
Point(e) (d'as"erge)
tip (of asparagus).
Poire
pear.
Poire 6illiams
variety of pear! colorless fruit brandy, or eau-de-vie, often made from this
variety of pear.
Poireau
leek.
Pois (chiche)
pea (chickpea).
Poitrine
breast (of meat or poultry).
Poitrine demi-sel
unsmoked slab bacon.
Poitrine fum
smoked slab bacon.
Poi!rade
a peppery brown sauce made with wine, vinegar, and cooked vegetables
and strained before serving.
Poi!re
pepper.
d!ain 'roven?al name for wild savory. lso, small goat cheese
covered with sprigs of savory. lso known as p?bre d'ail and p?bre
d'ase.
en grain peppercorn.
frais de +adagascar green peppercorn.
gris black peppercorn.
moulu ground pepper.
noir black peppercorn.
rose pink peppercorn.
vert green peppercorn.
Polenta
cooked dish of cornmeal and water, usually with added butter and cheese!
also, cornmeal.
Pommade (beurre en)
usually refers to a thick, smooth paste! (creamed butter).
Pomme
apple.
Pommes de terre
potatoes.
? langlaise boiled.
allumettes )match-sticks)! fries cut into very thin 2ulienne.
boulang?re potatoes cooked with the meat they accompany. lso,
a gratin of sliced potatoes, baked with milk or stock and sometimes
flavored with onions, bacon, and tomatoes.
darphin grated potatoes shaped into a cake.
dauphine