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Aristotle

Aristotle was the unimpeachable authority on every science and art known to his day. (Maxey)
Aristotle was born in 384 BC. His father was Physician. He studied in Platos Academy for about 17 years. He was
attached to Platos Academy for two reasons
1.!t was the cradle of education in "reece for ad#anced studies.
2.He was so much influenced by Plato teachin$.
He ser#ed as tutor of Ale%ander the "reat in 343 BC and &e't his school in the (yceum for 1) years. After the death
of Ale%ander the "reat* the Athenians re#olted and 'rosecuted the accused 'ersons of whom Aristotle was one of
the many. He was char$ed for im'iety but he fled to a#oid 'unishment.
+urin$ the middle A$es* he was sim'ly considered ,the Philoso'her-. .he reco#ery of his manuscri'ts in the
thirteenth century mar&s a turnin$ 'oint in the history of 'hiloso'hy. Accordin$ to unnin!* the capital
si!ni"icance o" Aristotle in the history o" political theories lies in the "act that he !ave to politics the character
o" an independent science.
He is founder of science of lo$ic. His monumental treatise ,Politics- is the most #aluable wor&s on Political
/cience. .he #olitics is a chief wor& on the science and art of "o#ernment $i#in$ full 0ustification for e%istin$ of
the institution li&e the state* sla#ery and family is calculated to su$$est the remedies for the ill of the body1'olitic of
the city1state. .hou$h it is $enerally said that ,Politics- is an unfinished treatise and often obscure but the half
understood words of Aristotle ha#e become laws of thou$hts to other a$es.
$eller says% #olitics o" Aristotle is the richest treasure that has come down to us "rom anti&uity% it is the
!reatest contribution to the "ield o" political science that we possess.
Aristotle as 'ather o" #olitical (cience
.he title of fatherhood of Political /cience bestowed u'on Aristotle is not without 0ustification. He was brou$ht u'
in the order of medicine as his father was a 'hysician of the &in$ of 2acedonia. /ince his childhood he $ot e#ery
o''ortunity and encoura$ement to de#elo' a scientific bent of mind. !nstead of turnin$ towards literature li&e his
$reat master Plato* he built the terminolo$y of science and 'hiloso'hy.
!n the words of )enan% (ocrates !ave philosophy to mankind and Aristotle !ave science to it.
Aristotle $i#es us definite and clear1cut do$mas* instead of $ro'in$ in illusions and ima$inations. He does not
belie#e in abstract notions of 0ustice and #irtue* but has a concrete a''roach. He discarded uto'ian 'hiloso'hy of
Plato and ad#ocated lo$ical and scientific theories based u'on realism. Aristotle su''orted the 'rinci'le of unity
throu$h di#ersity. He was of the #iew that reality lay in the concrete manifestation of thin$s. He se'arated ethics
from 'olitics.
3e can say that Aristotle laid the foundation of a real 'olitical science by his &een and 'ractical 'olitical a''roach
and systematic treatment of the sub0ect. He may be called the ,/cientist of Politics- because of his em'irical study.
He collected his data with care and minuteness* clarifies and defines it and draws lo$ical conclusions which deser#e
nothin$ but admiration and 'raise.
Aristotle*s +iews on ,ri!in o" (tate
Man is a political animal% destined by nature "or state li"e.
(tate exists "or the sake o" !ood li"e and not "or the sake o" li"e only. (Aristotle)
Aristotle was of the #iew that the ori$in of the state is 'resent in the inherent desire of man to satisfy his economic
needs and racial instincts. .he family is formed by male and female on the one hand and master and sla#e on the
other hand. .hen they wor& for achie#ement of their desires. .hey li#e to$ether and form a such family in
household which has its moral and social unity and #alue.
Aristotle said* 'amily is the association established by nature "or the supply o" man*s everyday wants. -ut
when several "amilies are united and the association aims at somethin! more than the supply o" daily need%
then come into existence the villa!e. .hen several villa!es are united in a sin!le community% per"ect and
lar!e enou!h to be &uite sel"/su""icin!% the state comes into existence% ori!inatin! in the bare needs o" li"e and
continuin! in existence "or the sake o" !ood li"e.
.hree elements are essential to build the state on 'erfect lines i.e.* fellowshi'* 'ractical or$ani4ation and 0ustice. A
man without state is either a beast or a "od. Accordin$ to Aristotle* he who by nature and not be mere accident
is without a state is either above humanity or below it% he is tribe/less% lawless and heartless one.
.he family is natural and inborn instinct* similarly the state is also natural for indi#iduals. -aker said* 0he state is
the natural home o" the "ully !rown and natural man. 1t is an institution "or the moral per"ection o" man to
which his whole nature moves.
Aristotle was of the #iew that state is a #olitical 2oimonia* an association which re'resents a functional unity of
#aried and reci'rocal 'arts made by the 'ursuit of a common aim in which their nature* their habits and their
trainin$ lead them all to 0oin. Maclwain said* 0he state is a kind o" 2oimonia which is a supreme over all
others% and embraces them all. /tate is an association of human bein$ and the hi$hest form of association
e%istin$ for the sa&e of 'erfect and healthier life.
'unctions o" the (tate
1..he state is not merely an association of associations but it is a hi$hest natural association for 'ursuits of s'iritual
class of common life of #irtue.
2..he state is based on the element of 0ustice
3.!t also aims at the hi$hest $ood of the community for its 'ro'er reali4ation of demands and needs in it.
4..he state functions to ensure a 'erfect and self1sufficin$ life of all its com'onents members.
5..he state also ensures to fulfill all the natural needs of its members and to 'ro#ide o''ortunities to the indi#iduals
for the attainment of moral* intellectual and 'hysical e%cellence.
6.Accordin$ to Aristotle* ,2an is essentially $ood and the function of the state is to de#elo' his $ood faculties into
a habit of $ood actions.-
)ule o" 7aw
Aristotle belie#ed in natural laws but not the natural ri$hts. .he absence of law is the ne$ation of $ood laws and this
meant lac& of constitutional laws. (aw was su'erior to the "o#ernment because it chec&ed the latter5s irre$ularities.
6ule by law was better than 'ersonal rule because law had as im'ersonal 7uality which the rules lac&ed.
(abine 'aid tribute to Aristotle in these words* the supremacy o" law is accepted by Aristotle as a mark o" a
!ood state and not merely as an un"ortunate necessity.
8ustice means that e#ery citi4en in the state should abide by the dictates of law and fulfill its moral obli$ation
towards community members. Accordin$ to Aristotle there should be two &ind of 0ustice
1.istributive 8ustice
!t is mainly concerned with #oluntary commercial transaction li&e sale* hire* furnishin$ of security* ac7uisition of
'ro'erty etc.
2.9orrective 8ustice
!t deals with 'ro'er allocation to each 'erson accordin$ to his ca'acity and worth.
Aristotle em'hasis that reward and honors should not be offered to the #irtuous few but to others as who
collecti#ely contribute in the welfare of the state and should be 'ro'ortionately rewarded.
0heory o" )evolution
+ecay and disturbance in 'olitical life brou$ht crucial chan$es in the "o#ernments of the city1state in "reece* made
Aristotle to contem'late dee'ly and to stress the causes of the 6e#olution and its remedies. Aristotles theory is
di#ided into two 'arts
1.9irst 'art is a 'ractical manual of conduct ad#isin$ democrats* aristocrats* monarchs and oli$archs and e#en
tyrants as how to &ee' themsel#es in 'ower.
2./econd 'art is a treatise on the 'hiloso'hical basis of the $ood and stable $o#ernments.
.hat is )evolution:
.o Aristotle* if any chan$e occurs in the e%istin$ system or constitution of the state* it means re#olution. 9or
e%am'le* if in the state the constitution has chan$ed from monarchy to democracy* it is a re#olution. Aristotle was
of the #iew that if the constitution remains the same* but the rulin$ 'arty has been transferred from one man to
another* it is also a re#olution.
;eneral 9auses o" )evolution<
1..he main feature of re#olution is to be the cra#in$ of men for e7uality. :7uality has two characters1absolute and
'ro'ortional. .he 'roletariat are 'assionate to secure absolute e7uality for the a#ailability of the same ri$hts that are
'ossessed by few. .he few stru$$le for 'ro'ortional e7uality for 'er'etual u'$radin$ su'eriority in 'ower and
'ri#ile$e.
2./tron$ desire for 0ustice becomes another feature of re#olution. Aristotle was of the #iew that men turn to
re#olution when they thin& they ha#e not $ot their dues.
#articular 9auses o" )evolution<
1. +esire for $ain and 'rofit.
2. ;ni#ersal desire for honor and 'resti$e
3. .he 'ossession of so#erei$n 'ower by an indi#idual or $rou' so as to create fear and a''rehension in the minds
of the sub0ect
4. ;ndue 'riority and 'rominence of indi#iduals caused $reat stir in the heart of the subdued 'eo'le
5. +is'ro'ortionate increase of 'ower and wealth in any 'art of the state
6. :lections intri$ues and moral de$radation &e't u' in the selection of some 'eo'le
=. Carelessness shown in $rantin$ 'ublic offices to disloyal citi4ens and undue fa#oritism shown to the indi#iduals
>. .oo much 'ower concentrated in one man or class of men for 'olitical $ains
?. +issimilarity of different elements in the state
1@. .he ri#alries of 'eo'le of different races in the state
11. +ynastic 7uarrels and conflicts
12. 9ree immi$ration of outside races with different notions of 0ustice and law
)evolutions in #articular kind o" (tate<
1.emocracy
!n democracies* re#olutions are led by the do$matic 'olicies of dema$o$ues in attac&in$ the rich.
2.0yranny or ,li!archy
!n oli$archies* re#olutions ta&e 'lace due to two reasons
a)<''ressi#e or .otalitarian rule
b)6i#alry amon$ the rulin$ dictators
3.Aristocracy
!n aristocracies* re#olution held to the 'olicy of narrowin$ down the circle of the "o#ernment. Aristocracy tends to
become olio$archy* throu$h the undue encroachment of the richer classes 'olity to become democracy* throu$h the
undue as'iration of the 'oorer class. Accordin$ to unnin! (tability can be maintained only by proportionate
e&uality and by !ivin! to each his own. Aristotle was of the #iew that democracy is more secure and stable than
oli$archy.
)emedies "or )evolution<
1.Abundant 'olitical 'ower should not be concentrated in the hands of one man or one class of men.
2..he #arious classes in the state without any discrimination of color and creed should be treated ali&e and with
'ro'er consideration
3.Honors and rewards should be distributed as fairly as 'ossible only to deser#in$ ones because ine7ualities of
offices and honors dri#e men to re#olt.
4.Political offices should be within reach of e#ery indi#idual who is able of 'erformin$ his functions best.
5..he "o#ernment should be so #i$ilantly or$ani4ed that the 'olitical office1holders cannot ma&e money out of
their offices. Bribes and other &inds of ille$al $ratification should be made 7uite im'ossible to acce't.
6.A "o#ernment would $ain 'o'ularity and 'olitical stability if it so arran$es thin$s that the internal details of the
administration* 'articularly the administration of 'ublic finances is o'en to 'ublic scrutiny.
=.Pro'er education should be im'arted to the citi4ens in the s'irit of constitution.
>.Political stability and internal solidarity can be $ained by maintainin$ 'ro'ortionate e7uality.
?..he habit of obedience and submission to law should be instilled. (awlessness and anarchy should not be allowed
to cree' in e#en in small and triflin$ matter.
1@.!n oli$archy and aristocracy* the inferior class must be well treated and the 'rinci'les of democratic e7uality
must be followed amon$ the 'ri#ile$ed classes. !n democracy* the 'oor and the rich should be encoura$ed to ta&e
'art in the state administration which does not affect the so#erei$n 'ower.
Aristotle also su$$ested #arious methods in ma&in$ oli$archies and tyrannies1stable which are to be followed by a
tyrant.
a)A tyrant must em'loy s'ies 'articularly females to trace out disloyal 'ersons to $allows the concerned.
b)He should follow an a$$ressi#e 'olicy abroad
c)He should always warn 'eo'le about constant fear of in#asion from outside
d)He should &ee' the 'eo'le busy and ne#er allow them to remain in #erti$o and lethar$y.
e)He must e%tend enthusiasm in reli$ion
")He should 'unish the $uilty so that crimes must be ended for the 'eaceful order in the state.
!)He should increase the material well1bein$ of the citi4ens.
h)He should 'erish the intellectual life of the citi4ens to 'erish re#olutionary tendencies.
i) He should adorn his city and must wor& for its $lory
A)He must ha#e res'ect for the $ood.
Aristotle 'ut the security of the state abo#e e#erythin$ else. He e#en 'ermitted interference in the 'ri#acy of
indi#iduals life when necessary in the interests of the state. Accordin$ to Aristotle A revolution constitutes more
a political than a le!al chan!e. 1t had the e""ect o" reversin! ethical% social and economic standard.B
#lato
1ntroduction
Plato was born in Athens in 4)7 BC when the ci#ili4ation of ancient "reece was at the 4enith of $lory and
eminence. He belon$ed to royal blood of aristocracy* from his mothers side he was related to /olan* the law $i#er.
He made efforts to disco#er the eternal 'rinci'les of human conduct i1e 0ustice* tem'erance and coura$e which
alone imbibed the ha''iness to the indi#idual and stability to the states. !n 3== BC* the turnin$ 'oint came in the
life of Plato* the defeat of Athens by /'arta made him to des'ise democracy.
He wandered abroad for twel#e years in Persia* :$y't* Africa* !taly and /icily in the hours of disillusionment*
absorbin$ wisdom from e#ery source and tastin$ e#ery creedal do$ma. .hen he returned to Athens and o'ened an
academy. He wrote about 3> treaties all in the form of dialo$ues. His academy became the best school in Athens.
.ork o" #lato
,.he 6e'ublic- is the most im'ortant and authentic wor& of Plato. !t was about 'olitical 'hiloso'hy* ethics*
education and meta'hysics.
<ther wor&s of Plato include ,.he Politicus-* ,.he A'olo$y-* ,.he 2eno-* ,.he Prota$oras-* ,.he "or$ias-* and
,.he Critias-.
0he )epublic and #lato
0he true romance o" the )epublic is the romance o" "ree intelli!ence% unbound by custom% untrained indeed
by human stupidity and sel" will% able to direct the "orces% even o" customs and stupidity themselves alon! the
road to a national li"e. (#ro". (abine)
.he 6e'ublic is an e%cellent 'roduct of Platos maturity. !t is a ma0or contribution to 'olitical 'hiloso'hy*
education* economics* moral as'ects of life and meta'hysics.
Platos 6e'ublic &nown as ,6es'ublica- in (atin is translated from "ree& word ,Politeia or Polity- which means a
'olitical constitution in $eneral. !t is an achie#ement of com'rehension* 'erfection and uni#ersality of thou$ht. !t
'resents a 'icture not of any e%istin$ state in "ree& but of an ideal state in which wea&ness of the e%istin$ states
were to be a#oided.
)ousseau said* 0he )epublic is not a mere work upon politics but the "inest treatise on education that ever
was written.
2ain feature of the 6e'ublic is the #irtue of &nowled$e. Plato was of the #iew that different classes and indi#iduals
had different ca'acities for the attainment of #irtues. .he labor class showed the least ca'acity. Philoso'hers were
the best entitled to rule the state because of their su'eriority in #irtue. Plato considered 0ustice to be the su'reme
#irtue and his ideal state be dwelt with it. 3e can say that the 6e'ublic is his master 'iece. Platos 6e'ublic is the
crownin$ achie#ement of art* science and 'hiloso'hy.
Accordin$ to -aker* 0he mainsprin! o" the )epublic is #lato*s aversion to contemporary 9apitalism and his
!reat desire to substitute a new scheme o" (ocialism.
9riticism
.he 6e'ublic contains a $ood deal of criticism on contem'orary institutions* o'inions and 'ractices. .he 6e'ublic
re'resents a stron$ 'rotest a$ainst the teachin$s of /o'hists and the e%istin$ social and 'olitical corru'tion.
Plato stresses that state should not be an assembly of corru't and selfish indi#iduals but be a communion of souls
united for the 'ursuit of 0ustice and truth and also for the welfare of the 'eo'le.
#lato*s 1deal (tate
Cntil philosophers are kin!s or the kin!s and princes o" this world have the spirit and the power o"
philosophy and political !reatness and wisdom meet in one% cities will never rest "rom their evils. (#lato)
.he 6e'ublic of Plato is inter'reted as ;to'ia to end all ;to'ias* not because it is a romance* but because he
constructed an ideal state in it. He com'ares the construction of an ideal state with an act of an artist who s&etches
an ideal 'icture without concernin$ himself with the fact whether indi#idual characteristic features of ima$inati#e
'icture are to be found anywhere or not? !n the same way* Plato ne#er thou$ht of the 'ossibility of the institutions
of his ideal state* bein$ ca'able of e#er becomin$ a reality. He ne#er thou$ht of the im'racticability of this idea
concernin$ his ideal state.
Plato built his state on the analo$y of an indi#idual or$anism. He belie#ed that the #irtues of an indi#idual and of
the state were identical. He was of the #iew that an indi#idual 'resented almost the same features and 7ualities on a
smaller scale as society on a bi$$er scale.
'eatures o" an 1deal (tate
1.)ule o" #hilosophy
Plato was of the #iew that in an ideal state the 'hiloso'her1ruler should be 'rominent. He should has a broaden
#ision of unity of &nowled$e. Philoso'her1&in$s are immune from the 'ro#isions of law and 'ublic o'inion.
2.Do un&uali"ied absolutism
.hou$h* neither* there is any restraint of law nor of 'ublic o'inion o#er 'hiloso'her1rulers but that is not an
un7ualified absolutism. !t is not all des'otism* because rule of 'hiloso'hy is not free from the basic articles of the
constitution.
3.9ontrol over the education system
Philoso'her ruler should control the education system in an ideal state.
4.8ustice in ideal state
8ustice is the main feature of Platos 6e'ublic and it is also 'resent in his ideal state. 8ustice is the bond which binds
e#ery member of society to$ether. !t forms a harmonious union of indi#iduals.
5.9ensorship o" art and literature
!n ideal state* there should be a com'lete censorshi' of art and literature. !t is necessary so that nothin$ immoral
thin$s mi$ht falls into the hands of the youn$ indi#iduals.
6.(ystem o" 9ommunism
Plato was of the #iew that $uardian class should li#e under the system of communism of 'ro'erty and family. .he
rulers and soldiers do not 'ossess any 'ro'erty of their own.
=.E&uality amon! men and women
Accordin$ to Plato* e7ual o''ortunities should be $i#en to both men and women for their economic* social*
intellectual and 'olitical u'lift. 3e can say that Plato was the first feminist of his time.
>.#rinciple o" 'unctional (pecialiFation
Plato was of the #iew that due to multi'le wants* an indi#idual could not fulfill all his desires by himself alone due
to lac& of ca'acity. .hus co1o'eration amon$ indi#iduals should be necessary to satisfy their mutual desires. /ome
'eo'le are s'eciali4ed in 'erformin$ some certain tas&s.
9riticism
1.Plato built his ideal state on the analo$y of indi#idual and this identification leads to confusion. He failed to
distin$uish ethics from 'olitics. His ideal state is based not merely on analo$y but almost identification between the
indi#idual and the state* which is 7uite wron$.
2.Plato fails to condemn the institution of sla#ery and re$ard it as fundamental e#il.
3.Platos system of communism of women and tem'orary marria$e is detestable and unethical.
4.Plato is a moralist rather than a 'olitical idealist. His assum'tion that the state should control the entire li#es of its
citi4ens is false and contrary to human liberty.
5.By the system of functional s'eciali4ation* Plato tends to dwarf the 'ersonality of the indi#idual. .here is no
'ossibility of any full de#elo'ment of human 'ersonality in his ideal state.
6.Plato com'letely i$nores the lower class in his ideal state which forms the $reat bul& of 'o'ulation. /uch
ne$li$ence may di#ide the society into two hostile $rou's.
9omparison between #lato and Aristotle
Aristotle* the fa#orite and most brilliant 'u'il of Plato* is more conscious of his differences than of the 'oints of
a$reement with him. .he differences which these $iants of 'hiloso'hy were not the outcome of any $rud$e or ill1
will* but reflected their own way of sol#in$ the e%istin$ 'roblems of their state.
(imilarities
1.Both u'held sla#ery and 0ustified its continuation in true s'irit of "ree& ideals. :ach re$arded sla#es as an
indis'ensable 'art of the community for the manual 'erformance and o#erall de#elo'ment 'ro$ress of the state.
2.Both des'ised forei$ners and re$arded races other than "ree&s fit for sub0ection and bonda$e and as mentally
inferior to the "ree&s.
3.Both condemned democracy and wanted to re'lace it with some sort of constitutional or ideal 'olity while #lato
echoed in condemnin$ democracy* as .hat could have been more ridiculous than this mob/led% passion/
ridden democracy% this !overnment by a debatin! society% a mobocracy. <n the other hand Aristotle was of
the #iew that the people are not capable o" sel"/!overnment.
4.Both wanted to im'ose limitations on citi4enshi'. Both tau$ht that all manual labor should be done by sla#es or
non1citi4ens.
5.Both o''osed the #iews of /o'hists that the state came into birth for the sa&e of life and continues for the sa&e of
$ood life. !t is this con#iction which ma&es Aristotle a true Platonist.
6.Aristotles ,Political- is no less a manual for statesman than the ,6e'ublic- of Plato.
i""erences
1.3hile Plato draws conclusion throu$h the use of allusion and analo$y* Aristotle stri&es at the #ery 'oint with
definite and clear1cut do$mas and doctrine.
2.3hile Plato belie#es in the abstract notions of 0ustice* #irtue and idea. Aristotle 0ud$es the s'eculati#e
fundamentals on the basis of e%act com'arison and deduces a thou$ht 'resentable and acce'table e#en in modern
ci#ili4ation.
3.3here Plato is #isionary* ima$inati#e and uto'ian* Aristotle is lo$ical* realist and scientific in his a''roach of
'ro'oundin$ theories.
4.!f Plato belie#es in the doctrine that the reality of a material thin$ lies in its idea not in its form. Aristotle belie#es
that reality in the concrete manifestation of a thin$* and not in its su''osed inherent idea.
5. Plato belie#ed in the 'henomenon of unity throu$h uniformity. <n the other hand Aristotle was of the #iew that
unity could be achie#ed throu$h di#ersity in uni#erse and men.
6. Plato inse'arably mi%ed ethics and 'olitics. He subordinated 'olitical theories to ethical considerations. !n
Aristotle it was 7uite the re#erse. :thics and 'olitics were not only se'arated* but the former was made to sub ser#e
the later.
=. Plato was the 'ro'ounder of new 'hiloso'hy@ Aristotle was a systemiser of already e%istin$ &nowled$e* and
made freshly streamlinin$ and fascinatin$ by his 'owerful influential and charmin$ style for 'ractical ado'tion for
state functions.
#lato seeks a superman who will create a state as !ood as ou!ht to be. Aristotle seeks a super science will
create a state as !ood as can be. 0hus% all who believe in new worlds "or old are disciples o" #lato% all who
believe in old worlds made new by the toilsome use o" science are disciples o" Aristotle. (Maxey)
Machiavelli
Machiavelli had been represented as an utter cynic% an impassioned patriot% an ardent nationalist% a
political 8esuit% a convinced democrat and an unscrupulous seeker a"ter the "avor o" depots. ((abine)
1n Machiavelli we "ind the "rankest and the most brutal analysis o" the sel"ishness% audacity% cunnin!%
deception% treachery% malevolence% cynicism% hatred and lust that were necessary "or a prince. (G. 0homas)
2achia#elli* the hated belo#ed 'ro'het of secularism* had one of the eni$mas of modern history* whom Allama
!7bal has characteri4ed as the (harp A!ent o" evil was born in 9lorence in 14>=. (ittle is &nown about his
early education. Howe#er he was &nown as a well1read fellow in !talian and (atin classics. .he 9lorence was ruled
by the 2edici family in 14=4* the 2edicis were e%'elled from the city and 9lorence became a re'ublic. !n the same
year* 2achia#elli first 0oined 'ublic life as a chancery cler&. !n 14=8* 2achia#elli became second chancellor and
secretary of the Council of .en* a body which had res'onsibility for war and interior affairs. He held that 'ost for
fourteen years.
He was stron$* #i$orous and intelli$ent man. <n many occasions* his ser#ices were re7uired as di'lomatic obser#er
in royal courts abroad. He was #ery much im'ressed by Cesare Bor$ia in 6oma$na. Cesare Bor$ia became the
model for ,.he Prince-* 2achia#ellis best &nown wor&. !n 1AB>* 2achia#elli 'ersuaded the counsel to ado't his
'lan for formation of a citi4en army. But he failed in his 'lans because 2edicis re1established their control o#er
9lorence. .he 2edici e%iled him and forbid his 'resence in 9lorence. /oon afterward 2achia#elli ha#in$ been
wron$ly accused of im'lication in the Boscoli cons'iracy a$ainst the 2edici was im'risoned and tortured. He
e#entually freed and 'ermitted to return to his family.
2achia#elli* as a true 9lorentine was naturally shoc&ed to see the 'olitical u'hea#al and social decay in his belo#ed
country and he determined to sa#e her from all intri$ues* disorders and 'etty wars. He denounced all the church
doctrines and held the Po'es res'onsible for the 'li$ht state of affairs. He tirelessly stru$$led for the attainment of
$lory and ma$nificence of 6ome by consolidatin$ all scattered forces. He enunciated the 'hiloso'hy of art of
"o#ernments for effecti#e disci'line and stability in the state. He ad#ocated stron$ly for usin$ the harsher methods
and o''ressi#e means for the stability of the state. He firmly belie#ed that ,fear is the domineerin$ wea'on for a
Prince for com'lete obedience and is mi$htier than lo#e.-
Moral 1ndi""erence o" Machiavelli
.he reasons of 2achia#ellis moral indifferences are followin$
1.2achia#elli does not belie#e in any ethical do$mas or in any di#ine law because of intentional se$re$ation of
'olitics from reli$ion.
2.!n 2achia#ellis 'hiloso'hy* moral 0ud$ments are wholly subordinate to the e%istence of 'olitical and tem'oral
e%istence and welfare.
3. 2achia#elli calculated that the institution of Pa'acy brou$ht decline and destruction to the $lory of 6ome. He
wanted to 'ractice 'a$an #irtues of cunnin$ness* du'licity and &na#ery for achie#in$ successful $oals.
4.He did not at all deny the e%cellence of moral #irtues* but he refused to acce't them essential to the 'olitical
stability. He 'leads that the reli$ion must be s&illfully e%'loited as a useful wea'on for achie#in$ the anne%in$
desi$ns by the so#erei$n.
5.2achia#elli stands coura$eously for the 'reser#ation of his state. He says that there must be no consideration of
what is 0ust or un0ust* merciful or cruel* $lorious or shameful@ on the contrary* e#erythin$ must be disre$arded.
6.He im'arts 'riority to the state and 'uts it abo#e morality and reli$ion* because it is the hi$hest form of social
or$ani4ation and the most essential of all institutions for the 'rotection and 'romotion of human welfare.
=.2achia#ellis ad#ocacy of unreli$ious and his indifference to morality ha#e become so much disru'ted that e#en
his name has become a by1word for fraud* force and dishonesty. He wrote 'rimarily for the e%altation of the state.
!n modern world* some of the /tates Heads acted as ,Prince of 2achia#elli- by free4in$ all channels of human
'ro$ress and liberty and also by reducin$ the citi4ens to that of animals and sla#es. .he Prince and the +iscourses
are still modern theories and are bein$ 'racticed in many secular countries of modern a$e.
Machiavelli and (tate iplomacy
2achia#elli wrote his most im'ortant wor& ,Prince- and dedicated it to de 2edici* the 'rince of 9lorence. ,Prince-
of 2achia#elli is neither an academic treatise nor a boo& on 'olitical science. !t is a memorandum on the art of
"o#ernment and of /tate di'lomacy. !t $i#es an awe1ins'irin$ techni7ue for successful ruler1shi' and as such is a
$uide to the rulers and &in$s of his time and of succeedin$ times* about the best means of maintainin$ their 'ower.
.he whole ar$ument of Prince is based u'on the 'remise directly deri#ed from Aristotelian 'hiloso'hy* that the
state is the hi$hest form of human association and that consideration for the state welfare must be $i#en 'riority and
'reference than the well1bein$ of the indi#iduals. .hese 'remises led to the conclusion that it was Caesar and not
"od to be worshi''ed. Here 2achia#elli 'ersonified Caesar with a state and almost identifies the state with the
ruler. Caesar must ma&e himself worthy of this worshi' by a cruel* ruthless and successful sei4ure of 'ower. A
'rince must 'ossess the 7ualities of wisdom* e$oism* selfishness and brutalities for the attainment of his moti#es. A
'rince must consider his friend and nei$hbors his ardent foes and does not re'ose any confidence in them.
2achia#elli was of the #iews that
+irtue brin!s ruin% while vice brin!s security and prosperity.
9ruelty is better than mercy.
A wise ruler ou!ht not to keep "aith when such observance may be turned a!ainst him.
.he main 'oint of 2achia#ellis state di'lomacy are followin$
1.!m'art 'riority to your own interests. .he stron$ must im'ose intimidatory laws u'on the wea& to arrest their
rebelliousness.
2.Honor to nobody but to yourself. He who as'ires to ac7uire mastery can afford to ha#e no ri#als.
3.+o e#il but 'retend to do well. 2achia#elli was of the #iew that to be $ood is harmful but to 'ose to be $ood is
useful diabolic attitude. (et mercy be on your ton$ue and e#il in your heart.
4..he Prince should ha#e no re$ard for the ri$hts of others* es'ecially forei$ners. He should im'ose hea#y ta% u'on
them to the 'oint of robbin$ them.
5.A Prince should not be 'rodi$al with the money of his own 'eo'le* but he should be #ery liberal and $enerous
with the money 'lundered from other countries throu$h a$$ression and other mean resources.
6.A Prince must discard all the canons of leniency and decency.
=.A Prince* in order to crush his com'etitors* must turn into a murderer and a looter.
>..he Prince must &ill his enemies and if necessary* his friends. He must remain #i$ilant and alert from his relations
so that he may not be de'osed* e%iled and murdered.
?.;se force and du'licity rather than beni$n ness in dealin$ with other 'eo'le. !t is better to be creator of horrors
than to be maintainer of lo#e and affection. 3hen you o#er1'ower your enemy* root out the entire roots of his
family* otherwise some of his relati#es will become #indicti#e to ta&e re#en$e for the wron$ you ha#e inflicted.
1@.Concentrate all your efforts on war. !n the 2achia#ellian state* all re$ular channels of human acti#ities are
barred and all roads lead to war
.estern #olitical 0hou!ht///0homas Gobbes
Gobbes was in "act the "irst o" the !reat modern philosophers who attempted to brin! political theory into
intimate relations with a thorou!hly modern system o" thou!ht% and he stroke to make this system broad
enou!h to account on scienti"ic principles% "or all the "acts o" nature% includin! human behavior both in its
individual and social aspects. ((abine)
.homas Hobbes was born near 2almesbury in 1A88. He was the #ictim of bro&en home. His father* the Cicar of
3est'ort* deserted his wife and children when Hobbes was still a boy. Hobbes recei#ed his early education in
3iltshire* a 'lace in 2almesbury. At the a$e of fifteen years* he 0oined <%ford. He $ot the de$ree of $raduation at
the a$e of nineteen. His soul remained insatiate with the ;ni#ersity education and found it worthless.
<n lea#in$ <%ford* he became tutor to the heir of 3illiam Ca#endish who later on became :arl of +e#onshire. His
contact with royal family brou$ht him into contact with most im'ortant 'ersonalities of the 'eriod. He left :n$land
durin$ the horrors of ci#il war and was forced to ta&e refu$e in 9rance* where he 0oined the su''orters of royal
absolutism. He li#ed for about twenty years in 9rance whose autocratic "o#ernment a''ealed him considerably.
!t was this 'eriod in which he wrote his master 'iece of wor& 0he 7eviathan* 'ublished in 1>A1. He attac&ed the
ancient institution of Pa'acy and also won disfa#or from royalists. !t was an im'ortant wor& of Hobbes which
brou$ht him immortal fame in the history of 3estern 'olitical thou$ht.
Hobbes built u' a systematic 'hiloso'hy of state* ta&in$ his stand neither on tradition nor on theolo$y but on his
study of human nature. !t was the crucial 'eriod when u'holders of constitutional rule were fiercely fi$htin$ for the
annihilation of the su''orters of +i#ine 6i$ht of Din$s. Hobbes saw the miserable condition of his belo#ed country
and ardently ad#ocated for the maintenance of authority and order* and he constructed a system of stron$ and
res'onsible so#erei$n "o#ernment on the basis of the then #ery 'o'ular doctrine of social contract. Hobbes was*
thus* as much a creature of his times as 2achia#elli was. Howe#er he found a lin& between 6enaissance and the
6estoration.
Gobbes*s 9onception o" (tate o" Dature
Hobbes was of the #iew* 0he only basis o" human action is a perpetual and restless desire o" power a"ter
power that ends only in death. -y nature man is sel"ish and e!oistical. Every one is strivin! "or the
!rati"ication o" his appetites and these appetites are di""erent "rom individual to individual because o"
physical constitution% education and experience.B
Hobbess man li#ed ori$inally in state of nature without the benefits of "o#ernment. All human actions were
re$ulated by two thin$s
1..he instinct of self1'reser#ation
2.!ndi#idual e$oism
Accordin$ to Hobbes* the state of nature was a state o" war o" all a!ainst all in which the chie" virtue o"
mankind were "orce and "raud. .here was no "o#ernment of ci#il laws to maintain 'eace and order* but a
"o#ernment of fear* dan$er and coercion.
Hobbes said* urin! the time men live without a common power to keep them all in awe% they are in that
condition which is called war% and such a war% as is o" every man a!ainst every man. 1n such condition there
is no place "or industry because the "ruit thereo" is uncertain% and conse&uently no culture o" the earth% no
navi!ation% no use o" commodities that may be imported by seas% no knowled!e o" the "ace o" the earthH no
account o" time% no arts% no letters% no society% and which is worst o" all% continual "ear and dan!er o" violent
death.
7o!ical 9onclusions<
1.Hobbes was of the #iew that there was no distinction between ri$ht and wron$ in the state of nature. <nly force*
deceitfulness and intimidation were the order of the day. .he only slo$an echoed 2ill when you can% usurp what
you can.
2..here can be no 'ri#ate 'ro'erty in the state of nature for 'ossession of a thin$ de'ends u'on the 'ower of
u'holdin$ it.
Accordin$ to Hobbes* man undoubtedly wanted 'eace and tran7uility@ but his fear of others* his an%iety to retain
what is already had and his ne#er endin$ desire for self a$$randi4ement on the basis of Emine and mine led him to
'erennial conflict and anarchy in the state. 2an is the state of nature becomes the sla#e and tool of im'ulses and
'assions. (ater on man reali4ed that 'eace had definitely more utility than constant was and fear of #iolent death
brou$ht mans 'assions into line with his reasons.
2an could li#e in harmony and 'eace with one another either throu$h fear of 'unishment or desire for 'rofit. And
this 'ur'ose could only be achie#ed by establishin$ a stron$ and stable "o#ernment ca'able of ins'irin$ awe and
fear by usin$ harsh and arbitrary methods who disobey its laws and of $i#in$ attracti#e rewards to those who do
conform.
Gobbes and 0heory o" (overei!nty
Hobbess so#erei$n was 'resented as a 2ortal "od #ested with absolute and unchallen$ed 'ower to rule o#er his
sub0ects arbitrarily. He was the smasher of the re$ular channels of democracy* a way of life. Hobbess so#erei$n
suffocated all the social and cultural communication between the 'eo'le brin$in$ about a rei$n of o''ression and
harshness.
Hobbes said* -y this authority% !iven him every particularly man in the wealth% he has the use o" so much
power and stren!th con"erred upon him% that the terror thereo"% he is enable to "orm the wills o" them all to
peace at home and mutual aid a!ainst their enemies abroad. And in him consists the essence o" the
9ommonwealth which is one person% o" which acts a multitude% by mutual covenants one with another have
made themselves% every one the author% to the end he may use the stren!th and means o" them all% as he shall
thinker expedient% "or their peace and common de"ense.
'eatures o" (overei!nty
1..he so#erei$n is absolute and all 'owerful. His 'owers to frame laws of the land are not restricted by any human
a$ency.
2.He is the sin$ular law1ma&in$ authority.
3.Fo condition* e%'licit or im'licit* can be im'osed on the so#erei$n* for his 'ower is unlimited.
4./ub0ects ha#e no authority to call any e%'lanation from the so#erei$n for his misdeeds. .hey ha#e no ri$ht to
threaten* to 'unish him* to banish or de'ose him.
5..he so#erei$n is the fountain of 0ustice and honor.
6..he so#erei$n has full 'ower to declare war a$ainst any country or nation whene#er he li&es.
=./o#erei$nty is indi#isible@ inalienable and un'unishable.
>..he so#erei$n formulates laws re$ardin$ 'ro'erty and ta%ation etc* and he has full ri$hts to allow or disallow
freedom of s'eech to his sub0ect.
?..he so#erei$n has to 'rotect his 'eo'le from internal disru'tion and e%ternal a$$ression for the 'reser#ation of
'eace and $lory of the state.
1@.!f the so#erei$n i$nores the 'act* he can do so* because he is no 'arty to the contract.
0ypes o" (overei!nty
Accordin$ to Hobbes the difference of commonwealths consist in the difference of the so#erei$n or the 'erson
re'resentati#e of all and e#ery one of the multitude and it is manifest* there can be 'ut three &inds of
commonwealth
1.!f the re'resentati#e is one man* the commonwealth will be &nown as 2onarchy.
2.!f the re'resentati#e is com'osed of an assembly* the state will be called a democracy.
3.3hen the re'resentati#e is an assembly* but only a 'art of it* then it is called aristocracy.
Hobbes ardently fa#ors monarchical form of "o#ernment. .here must be an im'ortant monarch to ser#e the end for
which the state is established. But a monarch without absolute 'ower will utterly be failed for the attainment of his
ideals. .hat is why@ Hobbes is ran&ed as one of the $reat cham'ions of absolute so#erei$nty.
Hobbes $i#es a 'erfect and most satisfactory theory of so#erei$nty which is all 'owerful authority within the state.
!t is absolute* unlimited* non1transferable and irre#ocable. Hobbes e%celled 2achia#ellis Prince* an e#il $enius in
e%altin$ 'olitical authority. 2achia#elli had made 'olitics inde'endent of reli$ion but Hobbes set 'olitics abo#e
reli$ion and ethics. .he 'owers #ested in so#erei$nty must be absolute* unlimited and all 'owerful.
9riticism
.he 'olitical theory of .homas Hobbes has been bitterly critici4ed on different $rounds e#er since this day.
1..he whole conce'tion of social contract and an or$ani4ed society resultin$ from it is unhistorical. .here are no
e%am'les in history when Hobbess men $athered to$ether and si$ned a contract for the formation of a ci#il society.
2.Hobbes 'ortrays a dismal 'icture of the state of nature* which is far from satisfactory. He 'aints a dar&er side and
com'letely i$nores a bri$hter side of human nature. His 'icture reflects the e#ils of his man. He declares man
selfish* solitary and brutish. But human nature has two essential as'ects* $ood and bad. He always s'ea&s of the
badness of human nature.
3.Hobbes was of the #iew that the state of nature is a state of war* the war of all a$ainst all* in which the cardinal
#irtues are force and fraud. How could such a man $o a$ainst his own nature and suddenly enter a ,state not of war*
but of 'eace* not of force and fraud but of ri$ht and 0ustice.-
4.Hobbes says that there were no laws in the state of nature. .his is baseless.
5.Hobbess so#erei$n a''ears to be the re'resentati#e of the 'eo'le* who follows 'ublic o'inion and loo&s after
'ublic welfare. .his is the only one as'ect in which Hobbes has reco$ni4ed the limitations of his (e#iathan.
6.Hobbes did not foresee the distinction between the "o#ernment and the state. 3hile the "o#ernment of a state
mi$ht be re'laced with another because of its corru'tion or inefficiency* the state as a reality remains intact and
does not sin& into lawless condition.
=.Hobbes a''ears to be a mi%ture of anarchy and absolutism. .he only remedy to control of $ood beha#ior of men
was the coerci#e 'ower of the so#erei$n.
>..he Hobbesian system condemns the state for 'urely ne$ati#e functions. !t is sole function in the 'reser#ation of
life and maintenance of order.
?..he ci#il society created by Hobbes is not much of a society. !t is li&e a floc& of cattle dri#en by the omni'otent
(e#iathan who sums u' in himself the life of all and who is a uni#ersal re$ulator of thou$hts and actions of all.
Hobbes was a materialist and rationalist to the core of his heart. His 'olitical 'hiloso'hy indicated the absolute
so#erei$nty of whate#er "o#ernment ha''ened to be in 'ower. He bade 'eo'le render unto Caesar and unto "od
whate#er Caesar commanded. His state absorbed the will of all its members in matters secular and s'iritual and it
was wron$ to will or act a$ainst it.
8ohn 7ocke
(uccess"ul revolutions are stimulatin! to those who believe in them. 7ocke is the most "ortunate o" all
philosophers "or% he completed his work in theoretical philosophy Aust at the moment when the ;overnment
o" his country "ell into the hands o" men who shared his political opinions. Gis political doctrine is embedded
in the American 9onstitution. (-ertrand )ussel)
8ohn (oc&e was born at 3rin$ton in north /omersetshire in 1>3). His father was an attorney and land1owner of
modest means. He $ot his early education at home and later on he was admitted to 3estminster /chool. !n 1>A)* he
was sent to <%ford for hi$her education. At that time he was only twenty1two and entered Christ Church Colle$e
G<%fordH. His uni#ersity career was not #ery shinin$ because the narrow disci'line of the 'lace dulled his
enthusiasm for formal studies. !n 1>>B* he $ot the de$ree of 2aster of Arts. After ta&in$ the 2.A. de$ree* (oc&e
was a''ointed as a tutor in "ree&.
(oc&e did not li&e teachin$ 'rofession and he started medicine. He was $reatly influenced by +escartes and became
'hysician. (ater on he became the confidential /ecretary of (ord /haftsbury* the founder of the 3hi$ +ynasty. He
went o#er to the Parliamentary side and was later on made a field marshal in the rebel forces. 3hen Charles !!
became &in$* he was made :arl of /haftsbury in 1>7).
!n 1>8)* /haftsbury was char$ed with the crime of cons'iracy. He was arrested and tried for treason. He was*
howe#er* ac7uitted but was com'elled to lea#e :n$land. (oc&e also facin$ his 'ersecution fled with him to Holland
and remained there until the bloodless 6e#olution. After the $lorious re#olution of 1>88* he came under the
liberali4in$ influences that were be$innin$ to be felt in :n$land and he de#oted his entire intellectual faculties
towards literary wor& and to numerous contro#ersies arisin$ out of his wor&s.
(abine attributes 8ohn (oc&e in these words* his sincerity% his pro"ound moral convictions% his !enuine belie"
in liberty in human ri!hts% and in the di!nity o" human nature united with his moderation and !ood sense%
made him the ideal spokesman o" the middle/class revolution.
(oc&es father* a renowned attorney of his time e%erted a considerable influence in ma&in$ him 4ealous ad#ocate of
liberty* e7uality and democracy. (oc&e com'letely discarded the Hobbess conce'tion of man who de'icted as
utterly selfish* irrational* solitary and brutish. He 'ortrayed his men in the state of nature fully 'ossessed a sense of
sociability brin$in$ all men in to$etherness of mutual benefit and for the 'ro$ress of ci#il society. He ad#ocated for
the elimination of the coerci#eness and intimidation o#er the sub0ect for 'eaceful 'ro$ress of the state.
-ases o" his #hilosophy
(ensationalism<
(oc&e was of the #iew that all &nowled$e and beliefs come throu$h our senses and e%'eriences. .here is nothin$ in
mind e%ce't what was first in the sense.
Ctilitarianism<
He is one of the $reat 'leader of utilitarianism. His conce'tion is 7uite a''arent from his contention that ,ha''iness
and misery are the two $reat s'rin$s of human action.- He was of the #iew that morality is 'leasure and 'leasure is
only conformity to uni#ersal law.
,ptimistic 9onception o" Guman Dature<
(oc&e belie#es in the inherent $oodness of human bein$s. He says that man is a rational* sensible and social
creature. He feels lo#e* sym'athy and tenderness towards his fellow1bein$s and is ca'able of bein$ actuated by
altruistic moti#es. He wants to li#e in 'eace and harmony with others.
)eAection o" Absolute Monarchy based on ivinity and Geredity<
(oc&e refuted em'hatically the hereditary 'rinci'le in &in$shi' ad#ocated most fer#ently by 9ilmer in his
Patriarcha and u'held by the An$lican Church. 9ilmer contended that 'olitical 'ower is deri#ed from the authority
of father o#er his children and that re$al authority is sub0ection of children to 'arents* and since the actual monarchs
are the heirs of Adam* therefore they can demand from the citi4ens unflinchin$ loyalty. (oc&e 'oints out the
in0ustice of 'rimo$eniture Gthe 'rinci'le by which 'ro'erty descends to the eldest sonH which is una#oidable if
inheritance is to be the basis of monarchy. 9urther* Adam can ha#e only one heir* but no one &nows who he is. And
if the true heir could be disco#ered* would all e%istin$ monarchs 'ut their crowns at his feet. 2oreo#er* in case of
this disco#ery all &in$s e%ce't* at most one* would be usur'ers and would ha#e no ri$ht to demand the obedience of
their de facto sub0ects.
7ocke*s +iew on Datural )i!hts o" Man
(oc&e a''ears to be a true democrat when he says that the establishment of a commonwealth stands for the
com'lete security of natural ri$hts of men. Fatural ri$hts of citi4ens are
1.6i$ht to life
2.6i$ht to 'ro'erty
3.6i$ht to liberty
Most distinctive contribution o" 7ocke to political theory is the doctrine o" natural ri!hts. (unnin!)
(oc&e was of the #iew that the ri$ht of 'ro'erty is a most im'ortant because all other natural ri$hts are analo$ous to
the ri$ht of 'ri#ate 'ro'erty. He further maintained that the ri$ht to 'ri#ate 'ro'erty e%isted in the state of nature
under the o'eration of natural law. (oc&e thou$ht of natural ri$hts as thin$s which man brin$s with him from birth.
/ociety e%ists to 'rotect them@ they can be re$ulated only to the e%tent that is necessary to $i#e them effecti#e
'rotection.
0he li"e% liberty and estate o" one person can be limited only to make e""ective the e&uality valid claims o"
another person to the same ri!hts. ((abine)
Accordin$ to 7ocke* ;od% who has !iven the world to men in common% has also !iven reason to make use o"
it to the best advanta!e o" li"e and convenience. 0he earth and all that is therein% is !iven to men "or support
and com"ort o" their bein! and all the "ruits it naturally produces and beasts it "eeds% belon!s to mankind in
common% as they are produced by the spontaneous hand o" nature% and nobody has ori!inally a private
dominion% exclusive o" the rest o" mankind% in any o" them% as they are thus in their natural state.
.hatsoever he removes out o" the state that nature has provided and le"t it in% he ahs mixed his labor with
and Aoined to it somethin! that is his own and thereby makes it his own property.
7ocke*s 9onception o" #opular (overei!nty
(oc&e is re$arded as the cham'ion of 'eo'les ri$hts and a harbin$er of their sacred and fundamental liberties. His
social contract did not create the irres'onsible* cruel and absolutist ,(e#iathan- of Hobbes* but reser#ed the
so#erei$n ri$hts to the final 0ud$e of all actions* the community. .he ultimate su'reme 'ower is not #ested in the
sce'ter of &in$@ but it remains in the hands of the 'eo'le.
(oc&e did not ad#ance the idea of le$al* absolute and indi#isible so#erei$nty. .he #ery idea of it was discarded by
him because 2achia#ellian and Hobbesian conce'tion of so#erei$nty brin$s about a rei$n of terror for the 'eo'le
who would loudly whis'er for freedom and e7uality. He initiated the conce'tion of 'o'ular so#erei$nty* which has
been firmly acce'ted* a best way of rule by the succeedin$ thin&ers and the whole world own him too much*
because real and 'ractical democracy was stron$ly enunciated.
(oc&e stood for a "o#ernment which should be sub0ect to a number of limitations. !t cannot rule with coercion and
intimidation and ta% them without their will. A $o#ernment which #iolated its limitations is not worthy of
obedience. .he state is created for certain con#eniences and it must 0ustify itself by creatin$ those con#eniences.
.he basic ri$hts of the indi#idual life* liberty and 'ro'erty are to be 'rotected rather than restricted by the state. .he
&in$ has neither the di#ine authority nor any moral 0ustification to o#er load the sub0ect. All men are e7ual in the
eye of Almi$hty "od and their basic ri$hts must not be #iolated under the ci#il laws of the state.
(oc&es "o#ernment created by the unanimous consent of the ma0ority should ha#e freedom of s'eech* of election
and of reli$ious worshi' and in order that it may be 're#ented from becomin$ too autocratic and arbitrary. .his
democratic $o#ernment should be run by a system of chec&s and balances. !n other words* the $o#ernment should
be di#ided into three main or$ans i1e* le$islature* e%ecuti#e and 0udiciary. And of these three* the le$islature should
be su'reme* as is e#idently a#ailable in the modern constitutions.
Montes&uieu
," all 'rench political philosophers in the ei!hteenth century (other than )ousseau) the most important was
Montes&uieu. ," them all he had perhaps the clearest conception o" the complexities o" a social philosophy%
and yet he too was !uilty o" extreme over simpli"ication. ((abine)
2ontes7uieu was born in 1>8= at Chateau de la Bordeau% in a noble aristocratic family. His father was an eminent
9rench lawyer. At the a$e of twenty se#en he became 'resident of Parliament of Bordeau%* the most im'ortant of
'arliaments in 9rance e%ce't that of Paris. 9or a lon$ 'eriod of twel#e years he continued as chief ma$istrate at
Bordeau%* but he was not satisfied with the 0ob because he was an e%tensi#e reader of literature and history and had
dee' sym'athetic ties with the intellectual mo#ements of his days. At last he left 'residency and mo#ed to Paris. !n
17)8 he #isited Austria* Hun$ary* Cenice* 6ome* /wit4erland* Holland and lastly :n$land where he remained for
abo#e two years. +urin$ his tour* he came across the leadin$ 'oliticians and 'olitical thin&ers in :n$land and he
was dee'ly im'ressed by the :n$lish conce'tion of liberty and by the :n$lish system of "o#ernment.
After his return he settled at (a Brede and &e't himself busy with the tas& of writin$ of 'olitical 'hiloso'hy. At that
time 9rance althou$h under absolute control of Din$ (ouis I!C* yet was more fertile for $rowth of 'olitical theory
but 9renchmen were not satisfied with the 'olitical situation* as were their fellows across the channel.
!m'ortant wor&s of 2ontes7uieu are
1.0he #ersian 7etter< He 'ublished these letters in 17)1. it embodied a brilliant satire on the e%istin$ 'olitical*
reli$ious and social institutions in 9rance.
2.)e"lections and the causes o" the ;reatness and ecline o" the )omans. .his boo& was 'ublished in 1734.
3.0he (pirit o" 7aw 'ublished in 1748. .his boo& won a $reat fame and immortality for 2ontes7uieu because it
came out after fourteen year unremittin$ labor and he made it a master'iece for all a$es.
Montes&uieu*s doctrine o" (eparation o" #owers
2ontes7uieu e%'ounds his theory of se'aration of 'owers to set forth the $o#ernmental or$ani4ation in order to
safe$uard the 'olitical liberty. He belie#ed that the se'aration of 'owers amon$ the different or$ans of the
$o#ernment is the best safe$uard a$ainst tyranny. He 'leads that each 'ower must be e%ercised by a se'arate or$an
and a system of chec&s and balances should thus be established for solidarity and harmony of the state.
.he theory of se'aration of 'owers amon$ (e$islati#e* :%ecuti#e and 8udicial branches of $o#ernment was best
reali4ed in the British Constitution. He came to reali4e that for maintainin$ liberty* the se'aration of 'owers was
absolutely essential. 2ontes7uieu did not rely u'on obser#ation. (oc&e and Harrin$ton had tau$ht him what to
e%'ect and for the rest he ado'ted the myth which was current amon$ the :n$lish themsel#es. -olin!broke said*
1t is by this mixture o" monarchial% aristocratically and democratically power blended to!ether in one
system and by these three estates balancin! one another% that our "ree constitution o" ;overnment has been
preserved so lon! inviolate.
Accordin$ to 2ontes7uieu there are three &inds of 'ower
1.By #irtue of the le$islati#e 'ower* the 'rince or ma$istrate e%erts tem'orary or 'ermanent laws and amends or
abro$ates those laws* which are contrary to the will of the sub0ect.
2.By #irtue of the e%ecuti#e 'owers* he ma&es 'eace or war* sends or recei#es Ambassadors* establish the 'ublic
security and 'ro#ide 'rotection a$ainst in#asions.
3.By #irtue of the 0udiciary 'owers* he is #ested with the 'owers to 'unish criminals and also to safe$uard the life
and 'ro'erty of the indi#iduals.
3hen the e%ecuti#e and le$islati#e are united in the same 'erson* there can be no liberty because a''rehensions
may arise. !f the 0udiciary 'ower be not se'arated from the le$islati#e and the e%ecuti#e then a$ain there will be no
liberty. 3hen it is combined with the le$islati#e* the e%istence and liberty of 'eo'le would be e%'osed to arbitrary
rule. 3hen it is combined with e%ecuti#e or$an* then there will be #iolence and o''ression in the ca'acity of a
mortal "od.
!t is 7uite ob#ious from all abo#e cited discussion* that the se'aration of 'owers amon$ the three or$ans of
$o#ernments fully ensures liberty and freedom* by im'osin$ healthy chec&s on the des'otism of the $o#ernment
bureaucrats. 2ontes7uieu was of the #iew that liberty is an indis'ensable fundamental for human 'ro$ress and
$lory. :#eryone is born to en0oy it without any distinction of color* creed and reli$ion.
9riticism<
1.2ontes7uieus study of :n$lish constitution is not #ery correct until this day@ there is no full se'aration of 'owers
between different $o#ernmental a$encies. .here the House of (ords is a le$islati#e as well as a 0udicial body. .he
(ord Chancellor 'arta&es of all the three functions of $o#ernment.
2.!f all the branches are made se'arate and inde'endent of each other* each branch will endea#or to safe$uard its
interests and 'ossibly may 0eo'ardi4e others interest.
3.Perfect se'arate 'ower in the functions of the $o#ernment is im'ossible.
4.Mill was of the #iew the separation o" powers will result in a clash between the three di""erent or!ans o"
the !overnment because each one will take interest only in its own powers.
!n s'ite of all inconsistencies in the theory of se'aration of 'owers* it too wielded a considerable influence in
Pa&istan* 9rance and America. 2ontes7uieu is 'laced in the first ran& of those distin$uished thin&ers who in the
ei$hteenth century* held hi$h standard of idealism in all that 'ertains to liberty.
Montes&uieu*s views on 'orms o" ;overnment
.he classification of $o#ernment of 2ontes7uieu is base 'artly on the number of those who hold 'olitical 'ower
and 'artly on the manner in which that 'ower is e%ercised. He $i#es more im'ortance to the 'rinci'le on which
$o#ernment is based than to its nature. He assi$ned a 'articular basic 'rinci'le to e#ery form of $o#ernment. .he
'rinci'le of democracy was #irtue* of an aristocracy #irtue1cum1moderation* of monarchy honor while that of
des'otism was fear. He enunciated the dan$ers attendin$ each form of $o#ernment if it lost its basic 'rinci'le.
2ontes7uieu forms the $o#ernment into three ty'es
1))epublic<
2ontes7uieu was of the #iew ,A re'ublican $o#ernment is that in which the body or only a 'art of the 'eo'le* is
'ossessed of the su'reme 'ower.- .o him* when in a re'ublic* the body of the 'eo'le is 'ossessed of the su'reme
'ower it is called democracy. /o#erei$nty rests with the 'eo'le in democracy. !n 6e'ublics* there can be no
e%ercise of so#erei$nty but by the #otes of the 'eo'le and these #otes e%'ress their own will.
2)Monarchies<
2ontes7uieu remar&s that monarchial $o#ernment is that in which a sin$le 'erson $o#erns the state by fi%ed and
established laws. He was of the #iew that the most intermediate 'ower is that of nobility. .his in some measure
seems to be essential to a monarchy* whose fundamental ma%im is no nobility no monarch* but there may be
des'otic 'rocess.
3)espotism<
A des'otic $o#ernment is that in which a sin$le 'erson directs all functions of the $o#ernment with his own
ca'ricious will* without any law and without fi%ed rules. His own words become laws of the land and com'lete
subordination to these laws a e%'edient.
:ach of the form is associated with its 'eculiar 'rinci'le
a) +emocracy is based u'on 'olitical #irtue
b) Aristocracy is based u'on moderation
c) 2onarchy is based u'on honor
d) +es'otism is based u'on fear and o''ression
)elation between 'orms o" ;overnment and reli!ion I (iFe o" (tate<
2ontes7uieu was of the #iew that certain reli$ions had a definite affinity for certain ty'es of $o#ernments. !slam
$oes well with +emocratic 6e'ublican form of $o#ernment* wherein fundamentals of reli$ion i1e.* e7uality*
fraternity and freedom are dee'ly inculcated and 'racticed for the security of man&ind and $lory of the state.
6oman Catholicism is closely affiliated with monarchial form of $o#ernment with arbitrary rule and Protestantism
e#en in this modern a$e is dee'ly attached with des'otism and cruel e%'ansionism.
6e'ublican form of $o#ernment is 'ossible only in a state of small si4e@ monarchy suited the moderate1si4ed state
while a bi$ country or an em'ire must ha#e des'otic $o#ernment. 6eal democracy is 'ossible only ion small city1
state. 9rance of 2ontes7uieus time was too lar$e for a re'ublic form of $o#ernment* 2onarchy would suit her best.
2ontes7uieu declared monarchy* a worst form of $o#ernment and he unli&e 2achia#elli discarded the doctrine of
a$$randi4ement and e%'ansion.
9riticism<
1.!t is 7uite wron$ to assume* as 2ontes7uieu does* that democracy and aristocracy are sub1ty'es of re'ublican
form.
2.!t is a 7uite unfair to 'lace des'otic $o#ernment at 'ar with monarchial and re'ublican forms. +es'otic state is not
at all state because it is established by the absence of established law* and hence it is a lawless state* which should
not be included in the 'lan at all.
3.2ontes7uieus scheme creates distinction between the re'ublican and monarchic form based u'on the number of
'ersons who 'ossess the su'reme 'ower* the distinction between the monarchic and des'otic ty'es de'ends u'on
the way in which the 'ower of $o#ernments are to be e%ercised.
Montes&uieu as the Aristotle o" 1>th 9entury
1.2ontes7uieu follows the inducti#e and historical methods of Aristotle and li&e him* ta&es &een interest in the
'ractical 'olitical acti#ities.
2.(i&e Aristotle* 2ontes7uieu too 'ays his attention on the influence of 'hysical en#ironment on the life of man and
social institutions.
3.2ontes7uieu ste's into the shoes of Aristotle* when he reco$ni4es basic ty'es of $o#ernment i1e* re'ublican*
monarchial and des'otic.
4.2ontes7uieu closely follows Aristotle when he says that the fundamental ty'es of 'olitical constitutions are fi%ed
once and for all but they are different to some e%tent under the im'act of the local conditions.
5.2ontes7uieus obser#ation that the law of a society $i#es to its uni7ue and 'articular character* has its 'arallel in
Aristotles statement that the constitution of a state determines the #ery life and character of its 'eo'le* if there
occurs a chan$e in the constitution* the state itself becomes alto$ether a different state.
8ean 8ac&ues )ousseau
)ousseau was the "ather o" the romantic movement% the imitator o" system o" thou!ht which in"er non/
human "act "rom human emotions and the inventor o" the political philosophy o" pseudo/democratic
dictatorship as opposed to traditional absolute monarchs. Gitler was the outcome o" )ousseau. (-ertrand
)ussel)
6ousseau was born on 8une )8* 171) at "ene#a of 'arents of 9rench Protestant ancestry* in a middle class family.
His father* !saac* was a s&illed watchma&er* but abandoned this 'rofession to become a dancin$ master. 6ousseau
left school at the a$e of 1)* learnt #arious crafts but ado'ted none. He also wor&ed as an a''rentice under a cruel
en$ra#er. He filled with a wonder lust that was ne#er to be satisfied. 6estless* im'ulsi#e* unstable he embraced the
career of a #a$abond as others mi$ht enter u'on a 'rofession and thereafter for twenty years he led the life of a
#a$abond wanderin$ in different 'laces. !n 174)* he $ra#ely mediated to lead a re$ulated life* went to Paris and
tried his luc& at different schemes* the o'era* the theatre but his efforts ended in fiasco. .hen he o'ened a small
hotel.
.he year of 174= was a turnin$ 'oint in his life* chance brou$ht 6ousseau fame and immortality. .he Academy of
+i0on announced a 'ri4e for the best essay on the sub0ect ,Has the 'ro$ress of sciences and arts contributed to
corru't and 'urify morals-. He thou$ht a stron$ 'lea that 'ro$resses of sciences and arts had tended to de$rade
human morality. 6ousseau de'icted in the essay* an early state of society in which all men li#ed under conditions of
sim'licity and innocence* and traced the 'ur$in$ e#ils of society emanated from the artificialities introduced by
ci#ili4ation. He won the 'ri4e. Gearn (haw remar&ed* it created a !reat sensation in the arti"icial society o" the
A!e o" )eason. 1t was the "irst ramble o" the )evolution.
.he 'ublication of his boo& ,/ocial Contract- aroused the indi$nation of the 9rench "o#ernment* which ordered
his arrest. He esca'ed to "ene#a* where the +emocratic Council burned his boo& and threatened his life. He too&
refu$e in "ermany* where an an$ry mob almost stran$ulated him. He fled to :n$land where only one man* Hume*
too& him into his affection. By this time* howe#er* 6ousseaus sufferin$ had $reatly 'erturbed his brain and he was
tormented by a 'rosecution mania. He sus'ected that Hume was 'lottin$ to 'oison him. He thou$ht that Everyone
hurts me because o" my love "or mankind. 9inally his fear of bein$ murdered dro#e him to commit suicide.
Gearn (haw said* ,)ousseau led a li"e o" "u!itive "or sixteen years and he drove throu!h a period o"
deepenin! !loom% "ailin! health% broken spirit% hauntin! terrors% paralyFin! illusions and accumulatin!
despair.
)ousseau*s (tate o" Dature
Man is born "ree and everywhere he is in chains. Many a one believes himsel" the master o" others% and yet
he is !reater slave than they. Gow has this chan!e come about: 1 do not know. .hat can render it le!itimate:
1 believe that 1 can settle this &uestion. ()ousseau)
2an is born free only in the sense that freedom is his inborn ri$ht@ it is the necessary condition for the de#elo'ment
of the #arious 'otentialities of human nature. 3e can say that he is born for freedom that he ou$ht to be free. .he
second 'art of the first sentence that he is e#erywhere in chains im'ly that customs and con#entions of society and
state re$ulations im'oser u'on him certain artificial and unnecessary restraints which arrest the de#elo'ment of his
'ersonality.
6ousseau* a 'hiloso'her of the heart rather than of the head* 'resented his /tate of Fature to be an earthly 'aradise
thou$h he himself confessed that the conce'tion of the /tate of Fature was 7uite hy'othetical. As )ousseau says*
A state which exists no lon!er% perhaps never existed% probably never will exist and o" which none the less it
is necessary to have Aust idea in order to Aud!e well our present state. He always maintained that the natural
state was also better than the social state. 9or* in it* the natural man* or the noble sa#a$e* li#ed a solitary* ha''y and
carefree life of the brute was inde'endent* contented and self1sufficin$.
!n short* 6ousseaus man was a non1social bein$ un&nown to $ood or e#il or the comin$ death. .hus the noble
sa#a$e was in the state of 'aradise* e#eryone bein$ e7ual to the other. 2ans life in the state of nature was re$ulated
not by reason but by the feelin$s of self1'reser#ation and hatred towards incalculable massacre and incredible
#iolence. Accordin$ to )ousseau* primitive man was near animal than manH he lived an isolated and solitary
li"e havin! no ties and obli!ations. Ge was !uided by two sentiments sel"/interest and pity% and havin! no oral
obli!ation with other men he could not be !ood or bad% virtuous or vicious. Ge led a solitary li"e completely
devoid o" lan!ua!e and wandered about the primeval "orests be!ettin! his o""sprin! by the way% huntin! "or
his "ood% and concerned only with the satis"action o" physical needs. 1n a word% the natural man was neither
happy nor unhappy.
But with the a''earance of fi%ed homes* family and 'ro'erty* the &nell of human e7uality was sounded. But e#en
this 'rimiti#e society was tolerable. .he least sub0ects to re#olutions* the best for man. <nly when the ser'ent
entered into the society in the form of 'ri#ate 'ro'erty* was the life of man chan$ed from 'ros'erity to ad#ersity.
)ousseau was of the #iew the "irst man havin! enclosed a piece o" land he thou!ht himsel" o" sayin! this is
mine and "ound people simple enou!h to believe him the real "ounder o" social ine&uality and inAustice. .he
institution of 'ri#ate 'ro'erty created a sense of 0ealousy and stru$$le* con#erted usur'ation into an ac&nowled$ed
ri$ht and led to the 'romotion of society. He became sub0ect to #iolence* bloodshed* crimes a$ainst 'ro'erty and
'erson and all the e#ils of society and ci#ili4ation includin$ sla#ery. .hus the life of man became 'itiable* miserable
and intolerable. As )ousseau says* the problem is to "ind a "orm o" association which will de"end and protect
with the whole common "orce the person and !oods o" each associate and in which each while unitin! himsel"
with all% may still obey himsel" alone and remain as "ree as be"ore.
)ousseau*s ;eneral .ill
0he development o" the theory o" the !eneral will in the (ocial 9ontract was involved in paradoxes% partly
because o" cloudiness o" )ousseau*s ideas but partlyH it seems% because he had a rhetorician*s likin! "or
paradox. Mani"estly% in view o" his criticism o" the natural man% he ou!ht to have avoided the notion o"
contract alto!ether as both meanin!less and misleadin!. ((abine)
.he will of each indi#idual mer$ed into a "eneral 3ill* which is the cardinal 'illar in the 6ousseaus 'hiloso'hy*
has aroused &een contro#ersy and has been sub0ected to se#ere criticism. !t has been remar&ed by -ertrand )ussell
that the doctrines enshrined in his /ocial Contract* thou!h they pay lip service to democracy% tend to the
Austi"ication o" the totalitarian state.
r. Mcou!hall defines "eneral 3ill as 0he ;eneral .ill is conceived as comin! to be when every individual
in a !roup or society has a conception or idea o" the !roup as a whole and identi"ies his !ood with the !ood o"
that whole.
6ousseau e%'lains that by the free act of those who enter into an a$reement* all their 'owers and ri$hts #ested in the
community and their res'ecti#e wills are su'erseded by the "eneral 3ill. He was of the #iew that man 'ossesses
two &inds of wills
1. Actual .ill<
!t is related to the will of the indi#iduals. !t is irrational will of man. .his 3ill ma&es self1confined and self
centered.
2. )eal .ill<
!t is rational will of the indi#idual. !t always aims at $eneral welfare of the society. !t leads to eternal decision
im'artin$ self1satisfaction to the indi#idual. !t is based u'on reason and rationality.
6ousseaus whole ar$uments de'ended u'on the fact that a community of citi4ens is uni7ue with its members* they
neither ma&e it nor ha#e ri$hts a$ainst it.
)ousseau said* 0he social order is a sacred ri!ht which is the basis o" all other ri!hts. 0he problem is to "ind
a "orm o" association which will de"end and protect with the whole common "orce the person and !oods o"
each associate% and in which each% while unitin! himsel" with all% may still obey himsel" alone% and remain as
"ree as be"ore. Each o" us puts his person and all his power in common under the supreme direction o" the
;eneral .ill% and in our corporate capacity% we receive each member as an indivisible part o" the whole.
6ousseau clearly distin$uishes the "eneral 3ill from will of the ma0ority and the minority. .he "eneral 3ill may
or may not coincide with any of these 3ills@ it may sometimes be coincident with the 3ill of an indi#idual.
9haracteristics o" the ;eneral .ill<
1. Cnity<
!t is not self1contradictory. !t is indi#isible* because if it were di#ided it would not remain "eneral 3ill but would
become /ectional 3ill.
2. Cnlimited<
!t is unlimited. 6ousseau assi$ns absolute 'owers to his so#erei$n by followin$ the Hobbess line of action.
3. 1nalienable<
.he "eneral 3ill and so#erei$nty are inalienable and undetectable.
4. Cn/representable<
.he "eneral 3ill cannot be re'resented. .hat is why 6ousseau laid the foundation of direct democracy. .he
"eneral 3ill can con#eniently be reali4ed in a small city state where the 'o'ulation can assemble and 'ass laws for
their interest. !t does not admit of re'resentati#e democracy.
.. 0. 8ones a''reciated 6ousseaus theory in these words* 0he notion o" the ;eneral .ill is not only the most
central concept o" )ousseau*s theory% it is also the most ori!inal% the most interestin!% and historically the
most important contribution which he made to political theory.
9riticism<
1. 6ousseaus theory of "eneral 3ill is incom'lete and #a$ue.
2. !t is in actual 'ractice difficult to distin$uish the "eneral 3ill from the 3ill of all. .he "eneral 3ill is not the
unanimous 3ill of the whole 'eo'le because that mi$ht be the 3ill of all. "eneral 3ill has its own merits and
demerits.
3. 6ousseaus belief that an indi#idual has his actual and real 3ills at the same time is 7uite wron$. An indi#iduals
3ill is a cor'orate thin$* one com'lete whole* inca'able of any di#ision.
4. He was of the #iew that the "eneral 3ill ne$lects the force of moral law which dictates to anyone as to what is
0ust and un0ust.
5. .here arises a sort of conflict between the common interest and the interest of the indi#idual. .he "eneral 3ill
assi$ns a #ery hi$h 'lace to the state and the indi#idual will ha#e to sacrifices his interest o#er the interest of the
state.
6. 6ousseaus conce't of "eneral 3ill is rather abstract and narrow. !n actual 'ractice* it is nothin$ if it does not
mean the 3ill of the ma0ority.
=. !t 're1su''oses common interests* which is difficult to define or determine. .hese interests $row out of or$anic
relations between members of a community and are hardly 'ossible in the multinational states of today with their
conflictin$ ideals and interests.
>. .his theory is not a''licable to the bi$$er state in 'o'ulation and territory* and does not admit of re'resentati#e
$o#ernment.
?. !t is rarely and for a short time that $eneral will is actually reali4ed. /elf1consciousness can e%ist only at 'eriods
of $reat crisis in the life of a nation* when the whole society is in dan$er.
1@. 3here we are determined to decide what are the #isible manifestation of this 3ill* 6ousseau lea#es us in the
realm of dar&ness. He stresses that "eneral 3ill always tends to the 'ublic ad#anta$e and that is infallible. But it
does not follow that the deliberations of the 'eo'le are e7ually correct.
8eremy -entham
-entham was the "irst amon! modern philosophers to place women upon a political e&uality with men. 1n
#lato*s )epublic this e&uality was to be "ully reco!niFed. -ut a"ter #lato it was completely "or!otten "or over
two thousand years. (G. 0homas)
1ntroduction<
8eremy Bentham was the intellectual leader and the real founder of :n$lish utilitarianism@ whose dee' interest in
'ublic affairs co#ered the 'eriod from the American 6e#olution to the 6eform Bill of 183). He was born in a rich
lawyers family in 1748 in (ondon. 9rom the #ery childhood* Bentham was scholarly and 'edantic. He learnt (atin
when he was only three years old. He also learnt "ree& and 9rench and later on he de#oted to the study of
8uris'rudence and le$al 'hiloso'hy. He recei#ed the de$ree of $raduation at the a$e of fifteen from Jueens Colle$e
<%ford. He had an instincti#e interest in science and a distincti#e talent for intros'ecti#e 'sycholo$y. 9rom his
youth he showed a 'assionate de#otion to social welfare* identifyin$ himself in ima$ination and determinin$ to
a''ly to the social sciences the methods that were bein$ wor&ed out in the natural science.
!n 17>3 Bentham entered (incolns !nn to be$in the study which was to be his life1lon$ 'ursuit. !n 177) after
ha#in$ studied law* he entered the bar for 'ractice. As he $rew older* his interests widened and his o'inions became
more sub#ersi#e. His su'reme mission was to reconstruct the entire le$al system on healthier lines.
At the time of his death* he was at the 4enith of fame and $lory because of his un'aralleled contribution in the
sub0ect of 0uris'rudence and le$al 'hiloso'hy. After his death* oyle says* Ge was venerated by a !roup o"
disciples% as a #atriarch% a spiritual 7eader% almost a ;od with 8ames Mill as his (t. #aul.
8eremy Bentham was a 'rolific writer and he collected wor&s com'rised of twenty1two #olumes. His writin$s co#er
a wide ran$e of interest includin$ ethics* theolo$y* 'sycholo$y* lo$ic* economics* 'enolo$y etc. he wrote followin$
most im'ortant boo&s
1. 'ra!ments o" ;overnment
2. A e"ence o" Csury
3. iscourse on 9ivil and #enal 7e!islation
4. 1ntroduction to the #rinciples o" Morals and 7e!islation
5. A 0reatise on 8udicial Evidence
6. A 0heory o" #unishments and )ewards
=. Essay on #olitical 0actics
1mportance o" -entham in
Gistory o" #olitical 0hou!ht
Bentham holds a distincti#e 'lace in the history of 'olitical thou$ht. He was more a le$al reformer and 0urist rather
than a 'olitical 'hiloso'her. He had nothin$ ori$inal in his 'olitical doctrine and also he did not create new ideas.
Bentham was the first to establish the utilitarian school of thou$ht. Maxey said* Gere was a doctrine to rock the
"oundations o" all accredited political theory. .ith ruthless lo!ic he brushed aside the ancient varieties o"
both radical and conservative thou!htH had erased all distinction in principle between "ree and despotic
politics< had put it down that divine% "eudal ri!ht% historical ri!ht% natural ri!ht and constitutional ri!ht
e&ually and like were rubbish and nonsense. 0here was no ri!ht to rule and no ri!ht to be "ree% there was
only the "act o" power and the circumstances which made that power a "act.
1n"luence o" Ctilitarianism<
;tilitarianism* a British $ift to 'olitical 'hiloso'hy* re'resented a British reaction a$ainst the #alue $eneralities
about mutual ri$hts and social contract and the mystic idealism of the "erman 'olitical thin&ers. !t brou$ht 'olitical
theory bac& from the abstractions of the A$e of 6eform to the le#el of concrete realities. .he utilitarian
'hiloso'hers 'articularly Bentham and Austin rendered #aluable ser#ice to 'olitical thou$ht. .hey were the thin&ers
who #iewed society not from the i#ory tower of isolation but from close 'artici'ation. .hey were not idealistic* they
were not uto'ian* they were not #isionary and their 'hiloso'hy was not transcendental. .hey built a new theory of
$o#ernment accordin$ to which $o#ernment was based not on contract but on the habit of obedience of utility.
Achievements o" -entham<
Bentham was a true 'ractical reformer and a $reat smasher of 'olitical e#ils in his a$e. He too& &een interest in the
'olitical life of his country. Bentham and his followers are mainly res'onsible for the 'arliamentary reforms in
:n$land durin$ the nineteenth century li&e the 2unici'al 6eform Act of 183A. .he followin$ reforms are also due
to Benthams su$$estion
1. 6eform of law and le$al 'rocedure
2. ;ni#ersity education became uni#ersal
3. :stablishment of trade union
His theory of law established the 'oint of #iew of analytic 0uris'rudence* which was almost the only system of the
sub0ect $enerally &nown to :n$lish and American lawyers throu$hout the nineteenth century.
Bentham contributed* sometimes on the re7uest* sometimes as #olunteer to the re#ision of the le$al codes of many
countries. !n 1811 he made a formal 'ro'osal to President 2adison to draw u' a scientific code of law for the ;/A.
(ater he made a similar offer to the C4ar of 6ussia and to the "o#ernor of Pennsyl#ania* and in 18)) he a''ealed to
,all nations 'rofessin$ o'inions.- His confidence in his ability to create a system of laws $uaranteed to 'romote the
$reatest $ood of $reatest number was unbounded.
Benthams writin$s became 'o'ular in many countries. His doctrines were #ery 'o'ular in /'ain* 6ussia* and
!berian Peninsula and in se#eral 'arts of /outh America. His ideas were used by the leaders of the national
mo#ements that defeated the Holy Alliance and created new nations on the ruins of the /'anish and .ur&ish
:m'ires. /uch was the tremendous influence which Bentham e%ercised in the History of Political .hou$ht.
-entham*s +iews on )i!hts and uties
Bentham discarded natural ri$hts to the indi#iduals. But he did not &ill the conce't of natural ri$hts. Bentham
totally denied the e%istence of natural law* holdin$ that law is the e%'ression of the so#erei$n will in the sha'e of a
command. .his so#erei$n was absolute and omni'otent a$ainst which indi#iduals 'ossessed no natural ri$hts nor
did they ha#e any le$al ri$ht to show resistance a$ainst it.
Bentham was a 'assionate cham'ion for the e%istence of freedom and e7uality but he would not base them natural
law. He su''orted for the e%istence of an authority for the 'ur'ose to enforce ri$hts by im'osin$ 'enalties in case of
#iolation. Feither law of nature or natural ri$hts could im'ose limitations on the unlimited absolute 'owers of
so#erei$n authority. .he only concei#able im'osition to the authority could 'ossibly be made by effecti#e resistance
by the determined sub0ects.
!t is 7ueer to note that* thou$h Bentham denied natural ri$hts* yet he could not disre$ard the ri$ht of 'ri#ate
'ro'erty. He ad#ocated it for its 'reser#ation on the basis of $eneral utility. .he ha''iness of the indi#idual
de'ended u'on security* subsistence* abundance and e7uality. /ecurity includes liberty* safety and 'ro'erty of the
indi#idual. .hus the le$al reformer reco$ni4es the ri$ht of 'ro'erty. He 'refers security to liberty.
2inds o" )i!hts<
1. 7e!al )i!hts<
A #i#id and intelli$ible e%'ression means a faculty of action sanctioned by the will of a su'reme law1ma&er in a
'olitical society.
2. Moral )i!hts<
!t means #i#id and intelli$ible e%'ression than the other. !ts sanction is the o'inion or feelin$ of a $rou' of 'ersons
who cannot be 'recisely identified* but who ne#ertheless are able to ma&e their collecti#e or o#er a$e will
unmista&ably manifest.
3. Datural )i!hts<
!t is a term commonly used without any definite meanin$ or any form of usefulness. Fature is a #a$ue and
indefinite entity. !t may indeed be used as synonymous with "od. !n any other sense it denotes somethin$ that
cannot be thou$ht as endowed with will* and is inca'able of ma&in$ law. ,Fatural 6i$hts- is a 'hrase that can
contribute only confusion in a national system of 'olitical science.
2inds o" uties<
Accordin$ to Bentham* duties of followin$ &inds
1. #olitical uty<
!t is determined by the 'enalty which a definitely &nown 'erson i.e.* a 'olitical su'erior will inflict for the #iolation
of certain ri$hts.
2. )eli!ious uty<
!t is determined by the 'unishment to be inflicted by a definitely &nown bein$ i1e the Creator.
3. Moral uty<
!t de'ends u'on circumstances hardly certain and definite enou$h to be called 'unishment* yet such as to create an
un'leasant state of mind in the 'erson concerned* by 'uttin$ in disa$reeable relations with that infinite body of
indi#iduals &nown as the community in $eneral.
Bentham denied natural ri$hts and natural law* yet he carried both these thin$s in his 'olitical 'hiloso'hy. (abine
said* 0he liberal elements in -entham*s #hilosophy resided lar!ely in its tacit premises. .hen he observed
that one man is worth Aust the same as another man or that in calculatin! the !reatest happiness% each person
is Jto count "or one and no one more than one%* he was obviously borrowin! the principle o" e&uality "rom
natural law.
-entham*s +iews on (overei!nty and ;overnment
Bentham em'owered the so#erei$n with unlimited 'owers to le$islate all and e#erythin$. .he su'reme $o#ernment
authority* thou$h not infinite must una#oidably* be allowed to infinite unless limited by e%'ress con#ention. .he
only 'ossible restraint on the so#erei$n authority is his own antici'ation of 'o'ular resistance* based u'on 'o'ular
interests. Bentham firmly belie#ed in the written constitutions as $uarantees of rational $o#ernments* but he was
a$ainst any bill of ri$hts* limitations u'on the 'owers to amend the constitution and all other de#ices for restrainin$
the su'reme authority and re$arded them unsound in theory and worthless in 'ractice. He said that ri$hts emanated
from the su'reme authority of the state* i1e* the so#erei$n. .he so#erei$n was not bound to res'ect any indi#idual
ri$hts. A $o#ernment was liberal and des'otic accordin$ to the arran$ement of distribution and a''lication of
su'reme 'ower.
)i!hts o" )esistance<
Bentham thou$ht that a sub0ect had no le$al ri$ht to show resistance or re#olt a$ainst so#erei$n. .heir le$al duty is
unconditioned obedience to the so#erei$n. But a sub0ect has a moral ri$ht and a moral duty to resist his so#erei$n if
the utility of resistance were $reater than the e#il of resistance. .he e%ercise of his unlimited 'owers by the
so#erei$n would de'end on considerations of utility.
;overnment<
Bentham belie#ed that in the lon$ run a re'resentati#e democracy was a more suitable form of $o#ernment than any
other to secure the $reatest ha''iness of the $reatest number. .he main thin$ is that the $o#ernment should be an
a$ency of $ood* i1e* of ha''iness and not of e#il. .he e%tension* duration and intensity of $o#ernment 'ower should
be 'ro'erly restricted and de1limited with a #iew to secure the ma%imum of ha''iness and 'leasures.
Bentham seems reluctant to a$ree with Blac&stones characteri4ation of the British constitution as 'erfect* and
su$$ested some amendments to it. He was for the 'romul$ation of uni#ersal manhood suffra$e* annual 'arliaments
and #otin$ by ballot. He disli&ed oth the monarchy and the House of (ords in Britain. A re'ublican $o#ernment was
best because it ensured efficiency* economy and su'remacy of the 'eo'le and brou$ht about the $reatest $ood of the
$reatest number on the basis of the identity of interests between the ruler and the ruled. +emocratic constitution is
'resented by him.
0heory o" #unishment<
Bentham held that 'unishment should be 're#enti#e and correcti#e rather than coerci#e and retaliatory. !t should be
calculated to 're#ent the s'read of e#il and to secure the e%tension of $ood. Punishment must not be inflicted where
it was ineffecti#e* $roundless* needless or un'rofitable. !t should be ob#iously 0ustifiable and 'ro'ortionate to the
offence committed but it must be sufficient to secure its ends. !t ou$ht to be able to 're#ent the offender from
re'eatin$ the offence. !t should be indi#iduali4ed* 7ualitati#ely and 7uantitati#ely* to suit the indi#idual offender.
.he basic 'rinci'les of 'unishment are
1. :7uable
2. :%em'lary
3. 9ru$al of Pain
4. 6emissible
5. Com'ensatory
6. 6eformatory
=. Po'ular
>. Certain and not se#ere
Accordin$ to Bentham* the only #alid test of the ade7uacy of a 'unishment was its ability to secure 'ublic welfare.
He belie#ed that the :n$lish criminal law was inhuman. He was in fa#or of the reform of the criminal and the
'risons and su$$ested the buildin$ of his moral Pano'ticon* a wheel1sha'ed buildin$ for the housin$ and 'ro'er
obser#ation of the criminals. He had a $reat faith in education as he wanted to brin$ about adult franchise* a
res'onsible e%ecuti#e* uni#ersal education and a re'resentati#e 'arliament.
8ohn (tuart Mill
1" the caliber o" writers is to be Aud!ed by their e""ect on policy% Mill must rank hi!h. As lo!ician% economist
and political philosopher he was re!arded as a prophet in his own a!e. (8ohn -owle)
1ntroduction<
8ohn /tuart 2ill was born on 2ay )B* 18B> in (ondon. He was the eldest son of his father 8ames 2ill who was the
disci'le of Bentham. 8. /. 2ill started the learnin$ of "ree& lan$ua$e at the a$e of three and then (atin at the a$e of
ei$ht. As a youn$ boy of twel#e* he had studied the 'hiloso'hy of some of the $reat 'hiloso'hers* such as Plato*
Herodotus* Homer* Aristotle and .hucydides. He also learned 9rench lan$ua$e and ac7uired a $reat fluency.
2ill was trained by his father and by 8ohn Austin. He was $reatly influenced by Benthams utilitarian 'hiloso'hy
and his 'ro$rammes for reformation. But with the 'assa$e 'f time* many of the e#ils a$ainst which the early
utilitarian had been wor&in$ hard* had ceased to e%ist and Benthamism be$an yieldin$ before other 'hiloso'hic
systems. .he biolo$ical s'eculations of +arwin and /'encer and the sociolo$ical researches of Au$uste Comte
stirred the 'assionate see&ers of learnin$ and &nowled$e with the initiation of new currents of thou$ht and 2ill was
also influenced by them. He modified Bentham from ethical* sociolo$ical* 'sycholo$ical* economic and 'olitical
'oints of #iews.
.he year of 18A> was a year of tribulations and chaos on account of !ndian freedom fi$hters and formidable
a$$ressions of forei$n masters. History of !ndia was written with !ndian blood and in this crucial 'eriod of life and
death* 2ill ser#ed the :ast !ndia Com'any as an :%aminer of !ndian Corres'ondence. !n 18A8 he retired. .hen he
became the radical member of the Parliament and remained almost in the limbo of obli#ion. 2ill died on 8th 2ay*
1873 at A#i$non.
He wrote followin$ boo&s
1. A system of (o$ic
2. /ome unsettled 7uestions in Political :conomy
3. :ssay on (iberty
4. Consideration on 6e1tentati#e "o#ernment
5. ;tilitarianism
6. .hou$hts on Parliamentary reforms
=. /ub0ection of 3omen
>. Princi'les of Political :conomy
?. <n the im'ro#ement of Administration of !ndia durin$ the last 3B Kears G18A8H
1mportance o" 8. (. Mill in the Gistory o" #olitical 0hou!ht
8. /. 2ill sou$ht after #i#id ideas with the ardency of a mystic* the 'atience and arduous industry of a man of
science. He encountered o''onents with ma$nanimity and $enerosity. !n 'raise of his immortal ideas which will
e#er echo in the corridors of time* it has been said* Do calculus can inte!rate the innumerable pulses o"
knowled!e and o" thou!ht that he had made to vibrate in the minds o" !eneration.
2ill was the $reat 'ro'het of sane !ndi#idualism or (iberalism. He insisted u'on the im'ortance of human 'ro$ress
in its richest #ariety. He was one of the stoutest cham'ions of indi#idual liberty. 3hen we turn the 'a$es of
anti7uity* Plato distincti#ely a''ears to be the first feminist* 'assionately ad#ocatin$ the cause of women to ta&e
'art in the functions of the $o#ernment. 8. /. 2ill too was a $reat feminist and he 'ractically 'leaded their causes in
the 'arliament. He firmly belie#ed for e7uality of women for the benefit and u'lift of the state. 2ills im'act of
9eminism ob#iously a''eared in the early )Bth century when the 9eminist 2o#ement fou$ht for women freedom
for 'artici'atin$ in the functions of the state.
2ill was one of the foremost indi#idualists of all times. He ran&ed with 6ousseau* 8efferson and 2ilton as an
ardent crusader of indi#idual liberty. He humani4ed utilitarian 'hiloso'hy. He was a staunch enemy of des'otism
and monocracy and a $reat su''orter of democracy. He combined 'olitical liberalism with economic socialism and
a''ro#al of a common ownershi' in the raw materials of the $lobe and an e7ual 'artici'ation of all in the benefits
of the combined labor. 2ills 'olitical 'hiloso'hy contains followin$ im'ortant facts
1. His theory of liberty was his most im'ortant contribution to the history of 'olitical 'hiloso'hy.
2. He fa#ored democracy as the best form of $o#ernment as a result of adult franchise.
3. He su''orted uni#ersal suffra$e $rantin$ the ri$ht of #otin$ to women also* with a system of 'ro'ortional system.
4. He o''osed the secret ballot because it led to fa#oritism and corru'tion and #i$orously 'ro'osed for o'en ballot
system.
5. He recommended a second chamber. He belie#ed that the final le$islati#e authority should rest with the House of
Commons* but at the same time he assi$ned the tas& of draftin$ bills* before they come to the 'arliament for
consideration to the House of (ords.
6. 2ills method was analytic. He belie#ed that study of history combined with a &nowled$e of human nature and a
careful analysis of 'olitical 'henomenon would result in a $au$in$ of tendencies of $reat #alue to le$islators and
statesmen.
=. Bentham thou$ht of 7uantitati#e 'leasures. 2ill belie#ed in 7ualitati#e 'leasures. He drew a distinction between
se#eral &inds of 'leasures* considerin$ some as hi$her while others as lower.
#ro". (abine said* Mill*s ethics was important "or liberalism because in e""ect it abandoned e!oism% assumed
that social wel"are is a matter o" concern to all men o" !oodwill% and re!arded "reedom% inte!rity% sel"/respect
and personal distinction as intrinsic !oods apart "rom their contribution to happiness.
Mill*s +iews on 1ndividual 7iberty
8. /. 2ill is uni#ersally re$arded as a 'assionate ad#ocate of liberty. He #i$orously whis'ered for im'artin$ $reat
im'ortance to indi#idual liberty and em'hasi4ed that $o#ernmental interference in indi#idual acti#ity should e
reduced to the minimum. !n the middle of the 1=th century* due to the utilitarian reforms* the sco'e of
administrati#e acti#ities increased. Parliament became the su'reme and unchallen$ed law1ma&in$ authority* who
enacted such laws which #i#idly obstructed indi#idual liberty. 3ith the im'osition of increasin$ state re$ulations*
human acti#ities were suffocated and he firmly belie#ed that liberty was a 'rime factor for the de#elo'ment of the
society. At that time* 'olicy of (aisse4 fair was bein$ abandoned in fa#or of $reater re$ulations by the state. .he
'eo'le became 'olitically conscious and demanded uni#ersal suffra$e.
3hen 2ill wrote* utilitarian liberalism was $enerally acce'ted in :n$land. .he democratic efforts made by the
earlier utilitarian had been lar$ely successful and 'olitical 'ower had been e%tended to a considerable 'ro'ortion of
the 'o'ulation. A lar$e number of old e#ils and ine7ualities had been remo#ed. !n this 'rocess some of the dan$ers
of democracy became #isible* and the tendency toward state centrali4ation led 'olitical theory to the sco'e of state
acti#ities and to the liberty of the indi#idual. .he leader in the intellectual life of the 'eriod was 8. /. 2ill.
2ills essay on liberty which e7uals in eminence to 2iltons Aero'a$itica was a stron$ ad#ocacy for the freedom of
thou$ht and e%'ression with 2iltonian fa#or a$ainst le$islati#e interference as well as a$ainst the 'ressure of the
'ublic o'inion. He reco$ni4ed the necessity to the mental well1bein$ of man&ind of freedom of o'inion and
freedom of e%'ression of o'inion. .he limitations of the 'ower of $o#ernment o#er indi#iduals lose none of its
im'ortance when the holders of 'ower are re$ularly accountable to the community. !n 'olitical s'eculations the
tyranny of the ma0ority is now $enerally included amon$ the e#ils a$ainst which society re7uires to be on its $uard.
2ill a''rehended that the $rowth of democracy and the increasin$ le$islati#e 'owers of the state tended to reduce
indi#iduals to a common ty'e and to swam' them in the tyranny of collecti#ism. He belie#ed that social 'ro$ress
could not be achie#ed if each and e#ery indi#idual is im'arted with fuller o''ortunity for free de#elo'ment of his
'ersonality. 2ill fa#ored freedom of thou$ht* s'eech and action. He belie#ed in toleration of o'inions and
unham'ered freedom of discussion. He had confidence that truth would definitely sur#i#e in the stru$$le of ideas.
'reedom o" the 1ndividual<
<ri$inality in conduct and thou$ht and indi#iduality are essentially basic features effortin$ towards social welfare.
3hen indi#iduality is 7uelled by the law of a monarch or an aristocrat* the e#il of it may be counteracted by the
custom of the masses* but when the masses ma&e the law of re'ression* custom unites with le$islation to confirm
the e#il. !ndi#idual de#elo'ment enriches the world by a #ariety of characters. But he im'oses two limitations on
this liberty
1. .he indi#idual was not at liberty to do any harm to his fellow bein$s.
2. He must share labors and sacrifices to secure the society or indi#iduals a$ainst harm.
2ill 'leads for certain freedoms for the indi#idual without which he cannot de#elo' his 'ersonality 'ro'erly. .hese
are
a. 9reedom of conscience
b. (iberty of thou$ht and of its e%'ression in s'eech and writin$
c. (iberty of 'ursuits and tastes
d. (iberty of association
e. (iberty to ado't his own 'rofession in life
". (iberty of reli$ion and morals
2ill laid $reat stress on liberty of thou$ht and e%'ression. 2ills theory of liberty of the indi#idual is based u'on
three essential elements
1. A stron$ 'lea for the im'ortance of im'ulse and desire in the indi#idual and lettin$ the indi#idual follow his own
im'ulses in actions which concern him alone.
2. !nsistence on the #iew that s'ontaneity and indi#iduality are essential elements in indi#idual and social welfare.
3. 6e#olt a$ainst the tyranny of custom* tradition or 'ublic o'inion which mi$ht hinder the e%'ression and
de#elo'ment of indi#iduality.
1mportant points o" Mill*s 1ndividual 7iberty<
1. 2ill ad#ocated that indi#idual is so#erei$n o#er his body and mind. He must be left free in all actions that
concern himself alone. And society has no ri$ht to im'ose any restraint o#er the indi#idual because restraints as
such in an e#il and retards the 'ro$ress of the indi#iduals.
2. 2ill assumed that the acti#ities of e#ery indi#idual are either self1re$ardin$ or other1re$ardin$. !n the s'here of
self1re$ardin$ acti#ities may be included matters which affect the a$ent only* ha#in$ no concern with others e.$.
$amblin$* drin&in$ etc.
3. 2ill belie#ed in the indi#idualistic or atomistic conce'tion of society. He says that indi#idual is not res'onsible
to society for his actions in so far as they concern the interest of himself and do no affect others.
4. 2ill #i$orously ad#ocated for absolute and unfettered freedom of thou$ht and e%'ression.
5. .he freedom of action and association was to be limited by the condition that none should 0eo'ardi4e others
ri$hts and freedom.
9riticism<
2ill was bitterly critici4ed because of his certain inconsistencies on the doctrine of liberty at the hands of Earnest
-arker who said* Mill was the prophet o" an empty liberty and an abstract individual.
2ills theory was critici4ed on the followin$ $round
1. 2ill assumed that the indi#idual is so#erei$n o#er his body and mind. He should be left free to act as he wished
and society cannot im'ose any limitation on his freedom. .he soundness of this statement may be doubted. .he
so#erei$nty of indi#idual o#er himself is not a self1e#ident 'ro'osition. As Mill himself admits* there can be
circumstances under which it may become le!itimate "or others to intervene in a purely personal matter% e.!%
when one is about to commit suicide% surely no one will call it an attack upon one*s liberty.
2. .he bifurcation of human actions into two1self re$ardin$ and other re$ardin$ as made by 2ill is 7uite
im'racticable. Fo indi#idual is an island in himself. .here is #ery little that one can do which does not affect other
'erson. !t is but natural and each action of indi#idual will definitely affect the others. .herefore it is difficult to set
a'art a s'here of conduct which should be re$arded e%clusi#ely the affair of the indi#idual concerned.
2arl Marx
.ith Marx% socialism became international or cosmopolitan n scope in contrast to the association or
national industrialism o" his predecessors. (). ;. ;ettell)
1ntroduction<
Darl 2ar% born in a 'ros'erous family became a #ictim of misfortunes* a 'rey of 'er'etual crushin$ 'o#erty and a
'ainfully sensiti#e to see the incredible sufferin$s of humanity because of economic ine7uality* social dis'arity*
incalculable #iolence and mal1treatment towards laborers at the hands of feudal lords and industrialists. He was
born at .re#es in Prussia on Ath 2ay* 1818. His aristocratic 8ewish 'arents embraced Christianity when Darl 2ar%
was only a child. At the a$e of 17* he became a law student at Bonn ;ni#ersity. !n 18)>* he left for the ;ni#ersity
of Berlin. !n 1843* he married 8enny* a member of 'etty nobility who remained a faithful counter'art throu$hout his
life.
!n 1841* Darl 2ar% $ot his de$ree of +octor of Philoso'hy at the ;ni#ersity of 8ena on the tro'ic of ,.he
+ifference between the Fatural Philoso'hy of +emocratus and :'icurus.- He mi%ed with the re#olutionaries and
his radical thin&in$ made him sus'icious which created obstacle in the security of em'loyment as a uni#ersity
teacher. .hen he entered into the field of 0ournalism. Darl 2ar% studied He$el #ery thorou$hly and noted basic
fallacies in his idealistic 'hiloso'hy.
!n early 184A* Darl 2ar% left Paris for Brussels. But before he left 9rance* he $ot an e#er1lastin$ friendshi' with
9riedrich :n$el which brou$ht many chan$es in his life. 2ar%1:n$el collaboration was one of the historys most
uni7ue 'rominent and endurin$ collaboration. 9riedrich :n$el became the friend* disci'le and 'assionate see&er of
&nowled$e and a warm 'artner. !n the summer of 184A* 9riedrich too& Darl 2ar% to :n$land and there he was
introduced to the founders of the ,"erman 3or&ers :ducational ;nion- that had recently started in (ondon. After
remainin$ for sometime in (ondon* he a$ain came bac& to Brussels. 2ar% had to flee from one country to another
on account of his cons'iratorial acti#ities. .hen he steeled down in (ondon till his death.
,:n$land has often been called the mother of :%iles-* but for Darl 2ar%* it became the dwellin$ 'lace of miseries
and misfortunes. He e%'erienced $reat distress and 'o#erty alon$ with his bi$ family. !n s'ite of lot of misfortunes
and hardshi's* Darl 2ar% made endea#ors relentlessly to unchain the wor&in$ classes from the bonda$e of
ca'italism. Darl 2ar% wor&ed round the cloc& in the British 2useum for de#elo'in$ the economic theories of
ca'ital. Darl 2ar% wrote many 'am'hlets defendin$ himself and se#erely critici4in$ his o''onents. He died as a
wounded soul on 2arch 14* 1883. He led a life of full of 'an$s and des'ondency and faced the hardshi's of
worldly a$ency with determination* coura$e and 'erse#erance. !n a s'eech o#er his $ra#e in Hi$h ate Cemetery*
9riedrich :n$el declared that ,his name and wor&s will li#e on throu$h the centuries.-
Darl 2ar% was a $reat writer and will e#er li#e on the 'a$es of e%istence. He wrote the followin$ master wor&s
1. 9ommunist Mani"esto immortali4ed Darl 2ar%. He wrote this with the assistance and hel' of his faithful friend
9riedrich :n$el. .his is considered the Bible of the Communism all o#er the world.
2. as 2apital is considered as the foundation stone of communism.
3. #overty o" #hilosophy
4. A 9ontribution to the criti&ue o" #olitical Economy
5. 0he Goly 'amily
6. )evolution and 9ounter )evolution
#olitical #hilosophy o" 2arl Marx
Darl 2ar% is ri$htly called the 9ather of 2odern Communism. .he theory of communism owes its birth to Darl
2ar% and 9riedrich :n$el. Accordin$ to the theory of communism* the only 'ractical thin$ was to ac7uire mastery
o#er the $o#ernin$ laws of society. A'art from this* Darl 2ar% and :n$el wanted to &now the causes of economic
chan$es in human society. .hey also wanted to e%'lore what further chan$es are re7uired. .hey concluded that the
chan$es in human society were not the least accidental li&e chan$es in e%ternal nature. .hey wor&ed out a scientific
theory of society based on the actual e%'erience of men. Darl 2ar% a''lied this theory to the society in which he
li#ed mainly Ca'italist Britain. He was of the o'inion that it was 7uite im'ossible to se'arate his economic theories
from historical and social theories. 2ar% attac&ed the e%istin$ ca'italist institutions. He did not belie#e in the
essential $oodness of man. He concei#ed of a man more as an economic as a 'olitical animal.
Darl 2ar% borrowed from He$el the a''aratus of +ialectics but substituted matter of He$elian idea. He built his
conce't of dialectic materialism by inter'retin$ He$els 3orld /'irit as an economic force. Darl 2ar% held the #iew
that the meanin$ of history lay in the inter'retation of material world. Darl 2ar% is correctly di#isible into three
'ortions
1. A 'urely 'hiloso'hical section on dialectics
2. Pure economics
3. Historical materialism
Ge!el*s in"luence over 2arl Marx<
Darl 2ar% remains incom'lete without the study of He$el. !t is true that Darl 2ar% re0ected the substance of
He$els 'olitical 'hiloso'hy and it is a star& reality in history that Darl 2ar% ado'ted the dialectical method
de#elo'ed by He$el* as the basis for his historical materialism. He$el was of the #iew that history $ained its
meanin$ from the interaction of ideas. .here was a 'erennial stru$$le of ideas for dominance o#er one another. <ut
of this stru$$le of ideas* new ideas emer$ed and these new ideas corres'onded more closely to the ultimate
'erfection of "od himself.
:#ery idea accordin$ to He$el* is incom'lete with inherent contradiction. .he incom'leteness or inherent
contradictions is e#ery idea led naturally to its o''osite* which may be called anti1thesis. 9rom the stru$$le between
the two* i.e. Ethesis and Eanti1thesis there emer$ed the truth embraced by both which may be called ,synthesis-.
.his Esynthesis becomes a new thesis and a$ain there came an Eanti1thesis and a$ain emer$ed a Esynthesis* and the
'rocess re'eated itself in an unendin$ chain. Darl 2ar% o'ined that history unfolded accordin$ to a dialectical 'lan.
Here he fully a$rees with He$el. But he was of the #iew that ideas were not the controllin$ factors. !deas do not
control the reality. .hese are the outcome of material conditions.
Darl 2ar% and 9riedrich :n$el de#elo'ed communism as an ardent o''osin$ force to ca'italism. A''allin$
de$radation of man in society and crushin$ 'oetry were the real basis for the communist 'rotest. .he de$radation
was accom'anied by uncontrolled industriali4ation in the middle of the nineteenth century. .he whole :uro'e was
en$ulfed in moral tur'itude* de$eneration and o''ression which fully 0ustified the ad#ent of communists bitterness
and scorn a$ainst the ca'italistic structure of society. .his caused $reat frustration amon$ the masses and
conse7uently they became in7uisiti#e to brin$ about social 0ustice.
Darl 2ar% was a social scientist. As a social scientist* he made efforts to loo& at this in0ustice 7uite im'ersonally.
But these conse7uences accordin$ to Darl 2ar% were essentially in#ol#ed for the accumulation of ca'ital. Darl
2ar% #iewed that in each and e#ery society industry* the wa!es paid to the workers are not the e&uivalent o"
the "ull value they produce% but only e&ual to about hal" o" this value or even less. 0he rest o" the value
produced by the worker durin! his workin! day is taken outri!ht by his employer.
0he truce and the "alse to!ether in 2arl Marx constitute one o" the most tremendously compellin! "orces
that modern history has seen. 'or the power o" his messa!e and "or his in"luence upon the "uture movement
o" the communism% 2arl Marx can be sure o" his place amon!st !reat masters o" political thou!ht. (.ayper)
#roletarian ictatorship
.he Proletariat class com'rises of the wor&ers* laborers or wa$e1earners would naturally be in the #ast ma0ority in
e#ery society. Darl 2ar% was of the #iew that it is then 7uite natural that the dictatorshi' of the 'roletariat would be
a democracy of the ma0ority. .he 9ommunist Mani"esto also says 0he "irst step in the workin! class
revolution is the raisin! o" the proletariat to the position o" the rulin! class% the victory o" democracy. 0he
proletarian movement is the conscious movement o" the immense maAority in the interest o" the immense
maAority. Darl 2ar% belie#ed in the ine#itability of this class stru$$le and the ultimate #ictory of the 'roletariat
after a successful bloody re#olution* he did not li&e to lea#e this de#elo'ment to the forces of economic e#olution.
He wanted that this re#olution should be 'reci'itated throu$h or$ani4ation and ener$etic so'histicated action on the
'art of wor&ers. All the confronted titanic forces should be crushed by the laborers.
.he 2ar%ian ideal was to brin$ about 'roletarian dictatorshi' throu$h #iolent means and not throu$h 'eaceful
e#olution* resultin$ in the 'olitical and economic domination by the 'roletarians. .he 'roletarian re#olution a$ainst
the bour$eoisie class in the state is directed towards the achie#ement of two ends
1. 9irstly* this 'roletarian re#olution has to destroy the ca'italist structure of society. !n destroyin$ the ca'italist stat
it is #ery essential for the 'roletarian re#olution to destroy all the social* 'olitical* le$al and other such institutions
of the ca'italist state.
2. /econdly* the 'roletarian re#olution has to re'lace all the social* 'olitical* le$al and other institutions with new
institutions. .hese new institutions should be such as it suits the needs of the 'roletarian class.
2arl Marx said* -etween capitalist and communist society lies the period o" the revolutionary
trans"ormation o" the one into the other. 0here corresponds to this also a political transition period in which
the state can be nothin! but the revolutionary dictatorship o" proletariat. 7enin was the true follower of Darl
2ar%. He was of the #iew that 9ommunism is to be achieved in two sta!es. 0he "irst sta!e o" 9ommunism
"ollows immediately a"ter the seiFure o" power by the proletarian. 1n this sta!e o" communism% society would
not be a "ree society. 0his sta!e o" communism contains the blend o" vesti!es o" old and bour!eoisie order. 1n
the old capitalist state% the capitalist employer and exploiter used to suppress the minority and in the new
sta!e o" 9ommunism or in the proletariat dictatorship it would be proletariat class which would suppress the
minority or the capitalist. .he Communist state differs from the ca'italist state in two ways
a) !n it the ma0ority i.e. the wor&ers will e%'ro'riate the ma0ority.
b) .he re#olutionary 'roletariat will abolish all classes and then disa''ear as a class.
.he 'roletarian dictatorshi' in the transitional 'eriod is not a fluctuatin$ 'eriod of ,/u'er 6e#olutionary- deeds and
decrease. <n the contrary* the dictatorshi' of the 'roletariat must be re$arded as an entire historical e'och full of
e%ternal conflicts and ci#il wars. !n the dictatorshi' of 'roletariat there is a constant or$ani4ational wor& alon$ with
economic 'ro$ress. !n the dictatorshi' of the 'roletariat* the 'roletariat will be $i#en full o''ortunity to educate
itself.
7enin said* Cnder the dictatorship o" the proletariat we will have to re/educate million o" peasants and petty
proprietors% hundreds o" thousands o" o""ice workers and bour!eoisie intellectuals to subordinate all these to
proletarian state and to proletarian leadership% to overcome their bour!eoisie habits and traditions% to re/
educate in a protracted stru!!le under the controllin! auspices o" the dictatorship o" the proletariat% the
proletarians themselves% "or they will not be able themselves o" own petty bour!eoisie preAudices at the "irst
stroke as i" by ma!ic% or at the behest o" the +ir!in Mary% or by a slo!an% resolution or decree it can be done
only in the course o" a lon! and di""icult mass stru!!le a!ainst the mass o" petty bour!eoisie in"luence.
.he Communist holds that the 'roletarian dictatorshi' means the des'otic rule of the Communist minority. !t will
be a #ictory of democracy and not a des'otism of a minority. .he 'roletariat class in 'ower will not maintain the
affairs of the state with re'ression and #iolence. 7aski was of the #iew that the dictatorship o" the proletariat
means% not the anti/thesis o" democracy% but the anti/thesis o" the dictatorship o" the bour!eoisie. !t will be
e%ercised throu$h elected bodies and sub0ect to 'ublic o'inion. 7enin also remar&s in this re$ard* )evolutionary
dictatorship o" the proletariat is power won and maintained by the violence o" the proletariat a!ainst the
bour!eoisie power that is unrestrained by any law.
.he dictatorshi' of the 'roletariat is not an end* but a means to an end the creation of society in which the basic
'rinci'le of life and social or$ani4ation would be* "rom each accordin! to his capacity% to each accordin! to his
needs. .he dictatorshi' of the 'roletariat is transitory in nature. After the establishment of the society* dictatorshi'
of the 'roletariat will not remain. .he state will wither away. All functions of the state will administer themsel#es
and administration will be a matter of technical and scientific &nowled$e instead of e%ercise of 'olitical will and
authority. .here will be an ideal society of the free and the e7ual without any internal disru'tion and mutual
dissension.
2arl Marx and 9apitalism
Darl 2ar% de#oted a $reat 'art of his life to the study of ca'italism ! order to describe the ca'italist method of
'roduction of his own a$e and for all a$es to come. By studyin$ ca'italism* Darl 2ar% wanted to &now the $uidin$
'rinci'le of its chan$e. Darl 2ar% studied the ca'italism with missionary s'irit to ma&e a scientific forecast on its
de#elo'ment. .he salient feature of the feudal 'roduction was 'roduction for local consum'tion. !n the a$e of
feudalism* 'ersons used to 'roduce for themsel#es and for their feudal lords. !n those days* 'roduction was meant
for consum'tion. "radually feudal units of 'roduction be$an to brea& u'. Profit became the only aim of 'roduction
in the modern world. Production for 'rofit re7uired two thin$s* ca'italists means of 'roduction* and the laborers
whose only chance of $ettin$ a li#elihood was to sell his labor.
!n this new system of 'roduction* there was a com'lete chan$e. Fow the laborers 'roduced thin$s not for their
'ersonal use. <n the contrary the 'roduction was meant for the ca'italist to sell for money. !n this new system of
'roduction* thin$s were 'roduced not for consum'tion but for sale in the mar&et. (aborer recei#ed his wa$es for his
ca'italist em'loyer for his wor& and the ca'italist em'loyer recei#ed 'rofit. Darl 2ar% is of the #iew that 'rofit
arises in the course of 'roduction. /ale of 'roducts does not 'roduce 'rofit.
Accordin$ to 2arl Marx% the exchan!e value o" product depends upon the 7abor 0ime spent in its
production. A product has a !reat exchan!e value i" more human labor has been put into its production.
(abor time s'ent in 'roducin$ labor 'ower means the time s'ent in 'roducin$ the food* shelter* clothes and other
such thin$s which are essential for the laborer maintenance. Fowadays a laborer is able to 'roduce in a day more
than is necessary to his sur#i#al but he is 'aid by his em'loyer a wa$e commensurate with a subsistence le#el of
e%istence. .he difference is called sur'lus #alue. !n the modern ca'italist society this sur'lus #alue is a''reciated by
the ca'italist em'loyer.
2arl Marx is of the #iew that capitalists are permanent pro"it makers because they appropriate surplus value.
!t is #ery true that there is always a difference between the e%chan$e #alue of a 'roduct 'roduced by laborer and the
#alue of labor 'ower. !n sim'le terms this difference may be called sur'lus #alue. Darl 2ar% o'ined that under
ca'italist structure of 'roduction in each and e#ery factory and industry* the wa!es paid to the workers are not
the e&uivalent o" the "ull value they produce% but only e&ual about hal" this value or even less. 0he rest o" the
value produced by the worker durin! his workin! days is taken outri!ht by his employer.
!n the ca'italist system of 'roduction* the ca'italist always become $reedy and ambitious to increase the amount of
sur'lus #alue which means more 'rofit for him. (ust for 'rofit is the 'rime factor in the ca'italist system of
'roduction. .he ca'italist ma&e more 'rofit only by e%'loitin$ the laborer. Accordin$ to Darl 2ar% e%'loitation of
the laborer is another salient feature of ca'italism. .his e%'loitation results in class stru$$le. Class stru$$le is
'erennial and 'er'etual in the ca'italism. .he wor&er is fi$htin$ for the e%istence of his life and he wanted to a#oid
intimidation and ultimately class stru$$le starts. .he laborer demands hi$her wa$es and shorter hours of wor& for
im'ro#in$ his 'osition. <n the other hand* the ca'italist wants to ma&e more 'rofits and hence there is a constant
clash and stru$$le between the ca'italist and the laborer* which can ne#er come to an end so lon$ as the ca'italist
system of 'roduction lasts.
Darl 2ar% is of the #iew that property in any "orm is not capital% unless it is used to produce surplus value. .he
early accumulation of ca'ital was #ery lar$ely o'en robbery. But there was another way also throu$h which ca'ital
came into e%istence. Accordin$ to Darl 2ar% the 'rimiti#e accumulation is the real ori$in of ca'ital. He ridicules
the le$end of men* moderate in food and drin& who ser#ed from their mea$er li#in$. 2arl Marx said* 0his
primitive accumulation plays in political economy about the same part as ori!inal sin played in theolo!y.
Adam bit the apple% and thereupon sin "ell upon the human race. 1n times lon! !one by there were town sorts
o" peopleH one% the dili!ent% intelli!ent and above all "ru!al elite< the other laFy rascals% spendin! their
substance% and more in riotous livin!. 0hus it came to pass that the "ormer sort accumulated wealth and the
latter sort had a t last nothin! to sell except their own skin. And "rom this ori!inal sin dates the poverty o" the
!reat maAority that% despite all its labor% has up to now nothin! to sell but itsel" and the wealth o" the "ew that
increases constantly althou!h they have lon! ceased to work.
3ith the #ictory of the 'roletariat* the class stru$$le 'uts an end to this 'rocess by endin$ ca'italist system of
'roduction. A'art from class1stru$$le* there are other obstructions to the smooth de#elo'ment of ca'italism. !n
other words we may say that these obstacles as a matter of fact are inherent in the ca'italism. .he most im'ortant
amon$ these obstacles* is the economic crisis. .his crisis creates a $reat obstacle to the smooth course of ca'italist
de#elo'ment. 3hene#er economic crisis occur* it chec&s the e%'ansion of ca'ital. :conomic crisis do not chec& the
e%'ansion of ca'ital* but often led to the destruction of the ca'ital accumulated in 'ast years. 2arl Marx said* 1n
these crisis there broke out an epidemic that% is all earlier epochs% would have become an absolutely the
epidemic o" over/production.
0heory o" (tate
0he executive o" the modern state is but a committee "or mana!in! the common a""airs o" the bour!eoisie as
a whole. (2arl Marx)
/tate is thou$ht of as 'arliament or some re'resentati#e institution. Darl 2ar% concluded that the de#elo'ment of
the state had nothin$ to do with any form of re'resentati#e institutions. But he was of the #iew that state is a
machine throu$h which the rulin$ class im'oses its will on the ma0ority. Accordin$ to Darl 2ar%* state is not meant
for the 'romotion of the welfare of its 'eo'le nor bestows any ri$ht of 'olitical obli$ation and obedience but its
coercion and that a class coercion. .he state acts as an a$ency of class coercion in the hands of dominant economic
class rather than an association of citi4ens is the 'ursuits of a common 'ur'ose.
Accordin$ to the Communist theory* the state is nothin! but a tool o" the dominant class in society. :conomic is
the domineerin$ factor which becomes the base of all structures of the society. Accordin$ to Aristotle the state came
into birth for the sa&e of life and state continues to e%ist for the sa&e of $ood life. Accordin$ to classical #iew* state
is an institution meant for the 'ro'er de#elo'ment of the 'ersonality of its each and e#ery citi4en. 7aski said*
(tate strives to hold a Aust balance between the di""erent elements in society. 1t strives by its policy to e""ect
such an adAustment o" the relationship between citiFens and will enable each o" them to realiFe% i" he so
desires% the "ullest implications o" human personality.
Darl 2ar% #i#idly differs from the classical #iews re$ardin$ state. He says the state has ne#er and can ne#er aim at
the common $ood of the community as a whole. Accordin$ to Communist 2anifesto* the state is the e%ecuti#e
committee of the bour$eoisie. 2arl Marx said* (tate is nothin! more than the "orm o" or!aniFation which the
bour!eoisie necessarily adopt both "or internal and external purpose "or the mutual !uarantee o" their
property and interest.
Accordin$ to Darl 2ar%* there was no state in 'rimiti#e society and as soon as human society was formed it
bifurcated into two classes. !t became #ery essential for the 'ri#ile$ed class to ha#e an armed force for the 'ur'ose
to maintain the 'ri#ile$es of the 'ri#ile$ed class and secondly to 'rotect the interests of the 'ri#ile$ed class.
'riedrich En!el said* 0his public "orce exists in every state% it consists not merely o" armed men% but o"
material appenda!es% prisons and repressive institutions o" all kind. Faturally* the rulin$ class ha#in$ the
a''aratus of force and absolute rod of authority will always coerce u'on the other classes of society. 9ear and
intimidation of the rulin$ class constrained the 'eo'le to subdue for com'lete obedience and hence the 2ar%ian
state aims at crushin$ the inde'endent will of its sub0ects. Communists hold the #iews from the record of history
that the state e%ists only to hel' the ca'italist in e%'loitin$ and su''ressin$ the laborers.
Darl 2ar% #iewed state as a 'roduct of class anta$onism. 7enin said* .here% when and to what extent% the state
arises depends directly on which where and to what extent% the class anta!onism o" a !iven society cannot be
obAectively reconciled. And% conversely the existence o" the state proves that class anta!onisms are
irreconcilable. 2arl Marx was of the #iew that the state will be able to wither away com'letely when society has
reali4ed the #alue* 'rom each accordin! to his ability< to each accordin! to his needs. .hen there would be no
'roblem of 'roduction and its distribution. .here would be no 7uestion of mine and thine. :#ery one will wor&
#oluntarily accordin$ to his ability and ca'acity and will $et share accordin$ to his needs and re7uirements.
9lassless (ociety<
Darl 2ar% was of the o'inion that class stru$$le is 'er'etual and constant between man and man and conse7uently
man always fou$ht for his own e%istence. !t ends only if the final and ultimate #ictory of the labor is achie#ed. .his
is a &nown factor that in the ca'italist structure of society* but not o#er the means of 'roduction and its direction
was #ested in the hands of the ca'italist. Proletariats in that society are ne$lected 'eo'le always li#in$ at the sweet
mercy of ca'italist. 3hen #iolent bloody re#olution in the name of communism brin$ about com'lete and ultimate
#ictory to the 'roletarian re#olutionaries* and the com'lete annihilation of the aristocratic and ca'italist class in the
society ushers a new e'och of social e7uality and economic 'arity. 3ith the ad#ent of 'roletarianism* a new system
of le$al* economic* 'olitical and 'roduction world emer$es out. !n this new system* all the functions of the
$o#ernment and the means as well as techni7ue of 'roduction were to be controlled by the society.
'riedrich En!el said* .hilst the capitalist mode o" production more and more completely trans"orms the
!reat maAority o" the population into proletarians it creates the power which under penalty o" its own
destruction is "orced to accomplish this revolution. .hilst it "orces on more and more the trans"ormation o"
the vast means o" production already socialiFed into state property. 1t shows itsel" the way to accomplishin!
this revolution. 0he proletariat seiFes political power and turns the means o" production into state property.
All the class distinction in society would disa''ear* and with the disa''earance of the class distinctions in society*
the class stru$$le would also come to an end. .he 'roletariat would use their 'ower to eliminate 'ri#ate ownershi'
of means of 'roduction. As soon as 'ri#ate ownershi' of means of 'roduction is eliminated* all class distinction
would automatically #anish and society would become a stateless and classless society.
9riticism<
1. Darl 2ar%s theory of state stands a$ainst the classical theory of state. Accordin$ to classical #iew* the main
reason for the e%istence of the state is the 'romotion of the $ood of the community. <n the contrary* Darl 2ar%s
state is a machine by which one class e%'loits and su''resses the other.
2. Darl 2ar%s #iews do no e%'lain the e%act nature of the state. !t $i#es a wron$ conce'tion. He says that the rulin$
class is the re'resentati#e of an economic class and the rulin$ class is always interested in 'ursuin$ its own
interests. .his is incorrect #iew of Darl 2ar%. .he e%am'le of medie#al &in$s and em'erors stand a$ainst the
theory of Darl 2ar% as they were not the re'resentati#e of an economic class and consciously 'ursuin$ the interests
of their own class. <n the contrary* the ancient and medie#al &in$s were the re'resentati#es of the whole society.
3. Darl 2ar%s theory of stat is 7uite a''licable to the first half of the nineteenth century* but for twentieth century it
is 7uite ina''licable. !n the first half of the nineteenth century* (aisse41faire 'olicy was 'redominant but today its
forces are no lon$er reliable. Fow we li#e in an era of democratic socialist 'lannin$. Fowadays state is meant for
the 'romotion of the common $ood. .hus it can be said that Darl 2ar%s theory of state is not at all a''licable to
the states of modern times.
4. .he conce'tion of Darl 2ar% that #ictory of 'roletariats o#er the ca'italists would result in the disa''earance of
class distinction is absolutely incorrect and untrue for $larin$ reasons that he had created class distinction i.e.
bour$eoisie and 'roletariat* two $reat hostile cam's and two 'rominent classes constantly indul$in$ in class
stru$$le and warfare which culminated into o''ression and chaos.