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Integrating Genetics and Ecology Integrating Genetics and Ecology
tto Inform o InformSeagrass Seagrass Restoration Practice Restoration Practice
Maile C. Neel Maile C. Neel
Brittany W. Marsden Brittany W. Marsden
Katia A. M. Katia A. M. Engelhardt Engelhardt
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Sexual reproduction:
Separate male and female plants
Asexual reproduction:
Turions
Rafting vegetation
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Hayley Tumas
Alum: Biology
Robert Burnett
Alum: ENSP
Mike Lloyd
Ph.D. Alum: PLSC
Brittany Marsden
Ph.D. Student: MEES
Paul Widmeyer
Alum: ENSP
Lessley Peterson
Alum: ENSP
Katia Engelhardt, UMCES, Appalachian Lab Maile Neel, UMCP
Shanie Gal-Edd
M.S. Student: PLSC
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Whats the Goal? Whats the Goal?
The ultimate goal of ecological restoration is
reestablishing self-sustaining ecosystems that will
be resilient to future perturbation without
ongoing human input.
Procaccini Procaccini and Piazzi 2001; Rice and Emery 2003; Ramp et al. 2006; and Piazzi 2001; Rice and Emery 2003; Ramp et al. 2006; Broadhurst Broadhurst et al.2008; Liu et et al.2008; Liu et al.2008 al.2008
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Whats the Goal? Whats the Goal?
The ultimate goal of ecological restoration is
reestablishing self-sustaining ecosystems that will
be resilient to future perturbation without
ongoing human input.
Procaccini Procaccini and Piazzi 2001; Rice and Emery 2003; Ramp et al. 2006; and Piazzi 2001; Rice and Emery 2003; Ramp et al. 2006; Broadhurst Broadhurst et al.2008; Liu et et al.2008; Liu et al.2008 al.2008
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Relocate Relocate
Extant populations will either Extant populations will either
Acclimate Acclimate
Adapt Adapt
Become Extirpated Become Extirpated
The potential for resiliency The potential for resiliency
Phenotypic Phenotypic plasticity plasticity
Phenotypic variation Phenotypic variation
Genetic variation Genetic variation
Natural dispersal Natural dispersal
Assisted migration Assisted migration
Local Restoration Local Restoration
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Niche Axis/Environmental Gradient
Acclimation: High
Adaptation: High
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Genetic Considerations for
Resilience and Restoration
Number of alleles or genotypes in populations
Low numbers yield decreased growth and survival (Williams 2001,
Hughes et al. 2009), resistance to disturbance (Hughes and Stachowiz
2004), growth and potential for reproduction (Engelhardt et al. 2014)
Diversity effects
Effects of particular individuals
Levels of heterozygosity within individuals
Low heterozygosity = decreased fitness (Dudash 1990; Broadhurst et al.
2008; Frankham et al. 2011)
Adaptation of individuals to local environments
Homesite advantage (Montalvo and Ellstrand 2000, 2001)
Outbreeding depression from mixing populations (Frankham et al.
2011)
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Alternative Approaches for Active Restoration
Represent amounts and
patterns of genetic diversity
Reduce Reduce the risk of genetic the risk of genetic
dilution, maladaptation, and dilution, maladaptation, and
outbreeding outbreeding depression depression
Augment
genetic diversity
Increase diversity and Increase diversity and
genetic rescue genetic rescue
Managed Managed relocation relocation
across across regions regions
Move Move
within local within local
areas areas
Select from Select from
local sites local sites
Move within Move within
regions regions
PPersistence ersistence is not is not
possible due to possible due to effects effects
of climate change and of climate change and
dispersal ability dispersal ability
precludes precludes
recolonization recolonization
FFrom non rom non--local local
repositories repositories
Stock Stock
Selection Selection
Perceived Perceived
Benefit Benefit
Use Use
When When
High diversity High diversity
Low inbreeding Low inbreeding
High differentiation High differentiation
and local adaptation and local adaptation
Low diversity Low diversity
High inbreeding High inbreeding
? ?
Attempt to match Attempt to match
adaptation to adaptation to
conditions conditions
Diversity too low for Diversity too low for
acclimation and adaptation; acclimation and adaptation;
llow fitness if inbreeding ow fitness if inbreeding
depression is present depression is present
Risks Risks Genetic dilution; Genetic dilution;
outbreeding outbreeding
depression depression
Even more genetic Even more genetic
dilution; outbreeding dilution; outbreeding
depression depression
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Genotype Genotype
collections at 11 collections at 11
microsatellite microsatellite
loci loci
Conduct experiments Conduct experiments
on genotyped on genotyped
individuals to link individuals to link
genetic diversity with genetic diversity with
ecological traits that ecological traits that
affect resilience affect resilience
Collect leaf tissue and Collect leaf tissue and
ramets ramets from natural and from natural and
restored sites restored sites
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Genetic Analysis of 1019 samples from 36 sites Genetic Analysis of 1019 samples from 36 sites
Lloyd, Burnett, Engelhardt, and Neel 2011
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Not Used
One genotype/site
Multiple genotypes
Genetic Effects on Ecological Performance Genetic Effects on Ecological Performance
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Collection Sites:
2007-2011
2011
2011
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Potomac River
(n=150)
Hudson River
(n=135)
Kennebec River
(n=136)
Sampling Sites
Newburg-Beacon
Croton
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Genotypic
Diversity
Kennebec River Potomac River Hudson River
Genotypic Diversity
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Genotypic
Diversity
Kennebec River Potomac River Hudson River
Genotypic Diversity
Mean
Genotypic
Diversity = 0.53
------------------
73 genotypes/
135 shoots
Mean
Genotypic
Diversity = 0.86
------------------
129 genotypes/
150 shoots
Mean
Genotypic
Diversity = 0.80
-----------------
106 genotypes/
136 shoots
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Kennebec River
Identical Clones
0.3% of
pairwise comparisons
1.2% of
pairwise comparisons
3.7% of
pairwise comparisons
2 genotypes
occur across
sites
Potomac River Hudson River
2 genotypes
occur across
sites
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Allelic Diversity
Allelic
Diversity
Potomac River Hudson River Kennebec River
58 alleles 44 alleles 62 alleles
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Observed Heterozygosity
Observed
Heterozygosity
Potomac River Hudson River Kennebec River
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Observed Heterozygosity
Observed
Heterozygosity
Potomac River Hudson River Kennebec River
Heterozygosity
significantly less
than expected
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Bottlenecks
Observed
Heterozygosity
Potomac River Hudson River Kennebec River
Evidence of
bottlenecks
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Differentiation Among Sites Within Regions
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GWP SWP GM LSP AL NBB BNR GAR PEK CRO WAT SID GDR RCH BTC
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Relatively low genotypic and allelic diversity Relatively low genotypic and allelic diversity
No significant inbreeding detected, but hints of past bottlenecks No significant inbreeding detected, but hints of past bottlenecks
High levels of differentiation among sites within the river compared High levels of differentiation among sites within the river compared
to Potomac to Potomac
Highly differentiated from other sampled rivers Highly differentiated from other sampled rivers
Hudson River Hudson River Vallisneria Vallisneria Summary Summary
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Substantial variation in genetic diversity within
sites
Substantial genetic structuring among
Chesapeake Bay regions and tributaries
Individual genotypes and population source affect
ramet growth, leaf length, turion production
more than does individual heterozygosity
Evidence for local adaptation that needs to be
confirmed
What we know from the Chesapeake Bay What we know from the Chesapeake Bay
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In crossing experiments
sites differ in seed production and germination success
and pollen success.
few consistent signs of either genetic rescue or
outbreeding depression
effects of among-population crosses varied by maternal
and paternal sources
What we know from the Chesapeake Bay What we know from the Chesapeake Bay
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Restoration plantings from local stock reflected natural beds -
similar numbers of alleles to natural beds
Composition of repository stock differed
Small fraction of total variation represented
Repository plants differed from natural plants
Lack of data on what was planted precludes understanding if
genetic issues played a role in restoration failure.
What we know from the Chesapeake Bay What we know from the Chesapeake Bay
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Data on genetic composition of plants that persisted or are Data on genetic composition of plants that persisted or are
recolonizing on their own recolonizing on their own
Data on genetic composition of restoration stock and plantings Data on genetic composition of restoration stock and plantings
Experimentation to link genetic diversity and ecological Experimentation to link genetic diversity and ecological
performance performance
Genetic Priorities Genetic Priorities for Hudson for Hudson River River Vallisneria Vallisneria
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Acknowledgments Acknowledgments
NOAA NOAA
MD DNR MD DNR
USDA Plant Materials Center USDA Plant Materials Center
SERC SERC
North Bay North Bay
Stan Stan Kollar Kollar
Steve Steve Ailstock Ailstock
Todd Todd Beser Beser
Ken Moore Ken Moore
Jason Jason Jullian Jullian
Peter Bergstrom Peter Bergstrom
Nancy Nancy Rybicki Rybicki
Funding: Funding:
NOAA Sea Grant Maryland NOAA Sea Grant Maryland
MD Agricultural Experiment Station MD Agricultural Experiment Station
EPA STAR EPA STAR