Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 14


The omission of required components of speech

2.1. Ellipsis
Ellipsis [i'lipsis] is absence of one or both principal parts of the sentence (the subject, the predicate).
The missing parts are either present in the context or implied by the situation.
e.g. You Chester Scott?
Thats right.
Glad to know you. (hase)
e.g. I love that girl.
You what?
I love her, you deaf? (!c "ain)
e.g. Where they interesting ooks?
!ont know. "avent read the#. $ooked %retty ho%eless. (hristie)
#llipsis is typical of collo$uial speech and can not be %ie&ed as stylistic de%ice. 't is simply the norm of
the spo(en language. 'ts function in direct intercourse is to ma(e the speech dynamic, informati%e and
unofficial. 't may also re%eal such spea(er)s emotions as excitement, impatience, delight, etc.
'n &or(s of fiction elliptical sentences are used as expressi%e means either to reproduce the direct speech
of the characters, or to impart bre%ity, $uic( tempo and emotional tension to the author)s narrati%e.
e.g. "e eca#e one of the %ro#inent #en of the "ouse. S%oke clearly, sensily, and #odestly, and was
never too long. "eld the "ouse where #en of higher ailities &ored it. (ollins)
e.g. 'erha%s, %erha%s not. (lifford)
"eside oral speech and fiction (&hich aim at economy and expressi%eness, respecti%ely), ellipsis is
common to some special types of texts. *or the sa(e of business+li(e bre%ity, elliptical sentences are %ery
fre$uent in papers or handboo(s on technology, natural sciences, in telegraphic messages.
e.g. The grindstone ( a cylinder %ole, dia#eter ).* d#, thickness +.* d#, a frustu# hole in the centre,
sides of the asis ,* c# and +.* c# res%ectively.
,ome fiction &riters imitate the abo%e described special types of texts thus ma(ing of them a stylistic
de%ice an effecti%e means of protagonists) portrayal. #llipses together &ith the absence of articles can be seen,
for instance, in the speech of an exemplary pupil, "it-er by name ("ard Ti#es by h. .ic(ens). The boy, on
being as(ed to define a horse, tal(s as if he &ere as(ed to reproduce &ord for &ord the text of some textboo( on
-uadru%ed. Gra#inivorous. .orty teeth, na#ely twenty/four grinders, four eye/teeth and twelve incisive.
Sheds coat in the s%ring0 in #arshy countries sheds hoofs too. "oofs hard ut re1uiring to e shod with iron.
2ge known y #arks in #outh.
'n !ar( T&ain)s story of the stolen &hite elephant, sensation+hunting reporters) telegrams run as follo&s/
3ust arrived. 4le%hant %assed through half an our ago, creating wildest fright and e5cite#ent. 4le%hant
ranged around streets0 two %lu#ers going y killed one ( other esca%ed. 6egret general. 7.laherty,
2.2. Absence of auxiliary elements
Absence of auxiliary elements ['0bs1ns 1% o/g'-ilj1ri 'elim1nts] the omission of auxiliary %erbs, articles,
prepositions in careless collo$uial speech2 and conjunctions, both in collo$uial speech and fiction.
e.g. I een waiting here all #orning8 (3obbins)
e.g. You feel like telling #e? (,alinger)
e.g. She still writing %oetry? (!iller)
e.g. That e enough? (!ar(us)
The forms have, do, is, will are missing. The sentences of this (ind are considered to be morphologically
incomplete, but not elliptical, as it has its both principal parts.
,ometimes the omission of a lin(+%erb adds emotional colouring and ma(es the sentence sound more
emphatic, as in these lines from "yron/
9Thrice ha%%y he who, after survey
of the good co#%any, can win a corner.:
9;othing so difficult as a eginning.:
9!enotes how soft the chin which ears his touch.:
"oth the definite and the indefinite articles may be dropped, &hen the noun or the nominal group occupies
the initial position in the sentence.
e.g. 'ost here yet? (4mis)
e.g. Chair co#fortale? (5inter)
e.g. .ine class of friends you %ick. (3obbins)
e.g. Great #an, "ol#es. (6anin)
5repositions are absent mostly in ad%erbial modifiers of place and time.
e.g. Where was he orn?
( $ondon. (6anin)
e.g. ( What ti#e did you get in?
( .our. (4mis)
e.g. ( I told you well go .riday. (7ellmann)
The absence of conjunctions is called asyndeton. 4syndetic connections bet&een clauses and sentences
&ill be described in details in one of the follo&ing paragraphs.

2.3. Nominative sentence
Nominative sentence is a %ariant of one+member structures/ it has neither subject nor predicate. 't is
called nominati%e or nominal because its basic component is a noun or a noun+li(e element (gerund, numeral).
e.g. $ondon. .og everywhere. I#%lacale ;ove#er weather.
8ominati%e sentences are syntactically different from t&o+member elliptical sentences, though they
resemble in their bre%ity. They arouse in the mind of the reader9 hearer a more or less isolated image of the
object, lea%ing in the bac(ground its interrelations &ith other objects.
e.g. ;othing<nothing= 3ust the scent of ca#%hor, and dust/#otes in a sunea# through the fanlight over
the door. The little old house= 2 #ausoleu#= (:als&orthy)
8ominati%e sentences are especially suitable for preliminary descriptions introducing the reader to the
situation of the narrati%e (the e5%osition). ;ith the same purpose they are &idely used in stage directions of the
e.g. !usk ( of a su##er night. 2nd the tall walls of the co##ercial heart of an 2#erican city of %erha%s
>**,*** inhaitants ( such walls as in ti#e #ay linger as a #ere fale. (.reiser)
e.g. $ady Sneerwells dressing roo#. $ady Sneerwell discovered at her toilet0 Snake drinking chocolate.
4 se$uence of short nominati%e sentences ma(es the narration dynamic.
e.g. The horror= The flight= The e5%osure= The %olice= The first to desert hi# ( these ( all save Sondra
%erha%s. 2nd even she, too. Yes, she, of course. The horror in her eyes. (.reiser)
2.. Aposiopesis
Aposiopesis [0p1-ai1'pi/sis] is intentional abstention from continuing the utterance to the end. 't appears
&hen the spea(er is un&illing to proceed and brea(s off his narration abruptly, that is &hy the de%ice is also
called break-in-the-narrative.
e.g. If you go on like this <
'n the spo(en %ariety of the language, a brea( in the narrati%e is usually caused by un&illingness to
proceed2 or by the supposition that &hat remains to be said can be understood by the implication embodied in
&hat has been said2 or by uncertainty as to &hat should be said. ,uch brea( off is of no stylistic significance,
though it may ser%e as an indirect e%idence of the spea(er)s confusion, his being at a loss.
'n the &ritten %ariety, a brea(+in+the+narrati%e is al&ays as stylistic de%ice, the idea of &hich is that the
spea(er cannot proceed, his feelings depri%ing him of the ability to express himself in terms of language. Thus
.on <uan)s addresses to <ulia, &ho is left behind/
2nd oh= if eer I should forget, I swear (
?ut thats i#%ossile, and cannot e. ("yron)
4 sudden brea(+in+the+narrati%e &ill ine%itably focus the attention on &hat is left unsaid. The information
implied by aposiopesis is usually clear in communicati%e situation. The de%ice expresses such modal meanings
as threat, &arning, doubt, indecision, excitement, and promise.
e.g. If you continue your inte#%erate way of living, in si5 #onths ti#e8 (the implication is a &arning)
You @ust co#e ho#e or Ill8 (the implication is a threat)
Good intentions ut ( (the implication is that nothing has come of &hat it &as planned to accomplish)
e.g. 7f all the da#ned nonsense Ive run into8 (hase)
e.g. You heard what the guy saidA get out or else8 (:ardner)
e.g. This story really doesnt get anywhere at all. The rest of it co#es later ( so#eti#es when 'iggy asks
!ulcie again to dine with hi#, and she is feeling lonelier than usual, and General Bitchener ha%%ens to e
looking the other way0 and then ( (=. 7enry)
2.!. Apo"oinu
Apokoinu is a fusion of t&o sentences into one, a certain &ord of &hich performs t&o syntactical
functions simultaneously/ that of the object or predicati%e in the first sentence and the subject in the second one.
e.g. Theres so#eody wants to s%eak to you.
There was no reeCe ca#e through the o%en window.
e.g. Theres #any a #an in this ?orough would e glad to have the lood that runs in #y veins.
e.g. I ring hi# news will raise his droo%ing s%irits. (<espersen)
"eing &idely spread in the !iddle #nglish period constructions of this (ind are $uite rare no&adays.
They are met usually in careless collo$uial speech. 'n &riting apo(oinu gains some stylistic functions, such as/
producing archaic atmosphere, ele%ated poetic tone and representation of li%ing collo$uial speech.
e.g. 8nor will I tell which one of us it was first roke the arriers down. (;ells)
e.g. We had a #issionary ca#e over the first Sunday, and wanted to %reach. (=ppenheim)
e.g. It is your unfairness disgusts #e. (!aartens)
2.#. $arcelin%
Parceling ['pa/sli>] is intentional splitting of sentences into smaller parts separated by full stops.
e.g. 7swald hates 6olf. Dery #uch.
Then the %ain egan. Slow. !elierate. Eethodical. 2nd %rofessional.
Sally found !ick. Yesterday. In the %u.
5arceling is typical of spontaneous speech, &here the function of dots is performed by pauses. 'n speech
parceling may be non+stylistic, &hen it is just the result of the specific psychological process of forming and
%erbali-ing human thoughts.
'n &riting it is used in the follo&ing stylistic functions/ it reflects the atmosphere of unofficial
communication and spontaneous character of speech2 it sho&s the spea(er)s inner state of mind, his emotions
(ner%ousness, irritation, excitement, confusion, perplexity, etc.)2 it ser%es as a means of ma(ing information
more concrete and detailed.
Practical assignments:
Tas" 1. 2nswer the following 1uestionsA
?. an ellipsis be considered as a stylistic de%ice &hen used in real con%ersation@
A. 4re the sentences &ith some auxiliary elements omitted elliptical or morphologically incomplete@
B. ;hat is the basic component of a nominati%e sentence@
C. ;hat modal meanings can aposiopesis express in the text of fiction@
D. ;hat stylistic functions do apo(oinu constructions perform in modern literature@
E. 7o& do &e call the de%ice of intentional splitting of sentences into smaller parts separated by full stops@

Tas" 2. 'ick out the cases of ,F elli%tical sentences, )F no#inative sentences, GF a%okoinu constructionsA
?. !alay amp. 4 ro& of streets crossing another ro& of streets. (5. 4brahams) A. F;hat did you di%orce
your husband for@G FT&o hundred dollars a month.G B. F.on)t you thin( he)s rather good+loo(ing@G F'n a
&ay.G F;hat (ind of a &ay@G F4&ay off.G C. There &as no door led into the (itchen. (,. 4nderson) D. The
day passed on. 8oon, afternoon, e%ening. ,unset. (<. :als&orthy) E. 7e &as the man (illed the deer. (3. 5.
Tas" 3. 6ead the following dialogue0 oserve the elli%tical sentences that #ake it u%. !efine the %arts of
the sentences o#itted H%rinci%al %arts, au5iliary ele#entsF. S%eak of the functions of these o#issions, e the
dialogue ( aF a %iece of real conversation0 F a frag#ent fro# the te5t of fictionA
+ <ohn.
+ 5eter.
+ Tired@
+ Tired. Thirsty.
+ .rin(@
+ "eer.
+ !usic@
+ Hes.
+ :ood day@
+ Terrible.
+ 5roblems@
+ Hou (no& <a(e@
+ <a(e@I
+ <a(e Je&is, friend of <anet)s.
+ ;ell@
+ 7is &ife.
+ !ary@
+ !ary.
+ Hes@
+ !ore beer.
+ Hes@
+ ,he)s mad.
+ !ad@I
+ !adI JistenK
III. The abundance of the components of speech
3.1. &exico'syntactical repetitions
Lexico-syntactical repetition is recurrence of the same element (&ord or phrase) &ithin a sentence or a
unit of sentences. 3epetitions of this (ind are %arious/
a) 6e%etition within %hrasesIsentences Hsi#%le re%etitionFA
e.g. ' am weary, weary, weary of the &hole thingI
8e%er ta(e the rifle again. 'ut it ack= 'ut it ack= 'ut it ack=
e.g. ,croodge &ent to bed again, and thought, and thought, and thought it over and over and over.
e.g. =h, the dreary, dreary moorlandI
=h, the arren, arren shoreI (Tennyson)
b) 2na%hora. The repeated &ord or phrase is at the beginning of each consecuti%e syntactical structure/
e.g. Dictory is &hat &e need. Dictory is &hat &e expect.
c) 4%i%hora. The repeated unit is placed at the end of each consecuti%e syntactical structure/
e.g. 't is natural to be scared in a case like that. Hou are sure to be petrified in a case like that.
e.g. ' &a(e up and I# alone, and ' &al( round the to&n and I# alone, and ' tal( &ith people and I#
d) .ra#ing. The language unit is repeated at the beginning and at the end of the syntactical structure/
e.g. 'oor Eary. 7o& much <ac( lo%ed herI ;hat &ill he do no&@ ' &ish it hadn)t happen. 'oor Eary.
e.g. Those kids were getting it all right, &ith busted heads and bleeding faces those kids were getting it.
e) 2nadi%losis. The final element of the syntactical unit is repeated at the beginning of the follo&ing one. 't
is also called Lchain repetition)/
e.g. 2 s#ile &ould come into !r. 5ic(&ic()s face/ the s#ile extended into a laugh/ the laugh into a roar,
and the roar became general. (.ic(ens)
e.g. ;ith "e&ic( on my (nee, ' &as ha%%y/ ha%%y at least in my &ay.
(h. "ronte)
3epetitions perform different functions in speech. *irst of all, they intensify a certain component of the
utterance2 they may express the monotony or continuity of action2 produce some special rhythm2 sho& %arious
human emotions. Thus, for instance, in the follo&ing passage from :als&orthy, repetition sho&s the state of
mind of the spea(er, his being under the stress of strong emotion/
FSto%=: ( she cried, 9!ont tell #e= I dont want to hear0 I dont want to hear what youve co#e for. I dont
want to hear.:
3.2. (ynonymic repetition
Synonymic repetition is the repetition of the same idea by using synonymous &ords and phrases &hich
by adding a slightly different nuance of meaning intensify the meaning of the utterance.
e.g. <oe &as a #ild, good/natured, sweet/te#%ered, easy/going, foolish dear fello&. (.ic(ens)
e.g. "e is the %arent of #y children= "e is the farther of #y twins= "e is the husand of #y affections,
and I ne/ver/will/desert Er. Eicawer=
,ometimes it is not synonyms that are repeated, but &ords or phrases &ith different meanings, &hich,
ho&e%er, can be regarded as Lsituational) synonyms/
e.g. ,he told his name to the trees. ,he whis%ered it to the flo&ers. ,he reathed it to the birds. Muite a lot
of them (ne& it. 4t times she &ould ride her palfrey along the sands of the sea and call F:uidoG to the &a%es.
4t another time she &ould tell it to the grass or e%en to the stic( of cord&ood or a ton of coal. (Jeacoc()
3.3. $leonasm and tautolo%y
,ynonymic repetition, mentioned abo%e, sometimes may be %ie&ed negati%ely. 7ere &e face t&o similar
language phenomena/ pleonasm and tautology.
Pleonasm ['pli/1n0-(1)m] is the use of more &ords in a sentence than are necessary to express the
meaning. The unintentional repetition becomes stylistically significant &hen used in &riting as a
characteri-ation de%ice, sho&ing the characters) excitement, fright, scare, some other deep emotions.
e.g. !arling, darling ?undle. 7h, darling ?undle. Shes dead0 I know shes dead. 7h, #y darling. ?undle
darling, darling ?undle. I do love you so. ?undle (darling ( darling8
Tautology [to/'tol1Xi] is the repetition of the same statement, of the same &ord or phrase, or of the same
idea in other &ords2 usually as a fault of style.
e.g. It was a clear starry night, and not a cloud was to e seen.
"e was the only survivor0 no one else was saved.
"eads, I win, tails, you lose.
e.g. .or 4ast is 4ast, and West is West8 (6ipling)
e.g. F;ell,) he said %aguely, Lthats that,) and relapsed into a thoughtful silence.G (hristie)
The contro%ersial character of pleonasm and tautology lies in the fact that grammatically such repetition
of &ords or ideas seems unnecessary, &hile stylistically it may be justified by the aim of communication. *or
example, the tautological sentence 9The daylight is fading, the sun is setting, and night is co#ing on: may ser%e
as an artistic de%ice depicting the approach of night.
3.. (yntactic tautolo%y
Syntactic tautology Prolepsis [prou'lepsis]! is repetition of the noun+subject in the form of the
corresponding personal pronoun. The stylistic function of it is communicati%e emphasis of the Ltheme).
e.g. Eiss Tillie Wester, she slept forty days and nights &ithout &a(ing up. (=. 7enry)
The use of the redundant pronominal subject is a typical feature of the speech of uneducated people. 'n
&riting it becomes a means of portrayal.
e.g. ;ell, 3udge Thatcher, he too( the money and put it out at interest, and it fetched us a dollar a day
apiece all the year round more than a body could tell &hat to do &ith. The Widow !ouglass, she too( me for
her son, and allo&ed she &ould ci%ili-e meK (T&ain)
5rolepsis is often met &ithin nursery rhymes and in fol( ballads (or their imitations)/
e.g. 3ack S%rats %ig,
"e was not very little,
"e was not very ig8
e.g. 4llen 2dair she loved #e well,
2gainst her fathers and #others will8 (Tennyson)
e.g. The ski%%er he lew a whiff fro# his %i%e
2nd a scornful laugh laughed he. (Jongfello&)
3.!. Tautolo%y in appended statements
4n appended statement consists of the pronominal subject and an auxiliary or modal %erb representing the
predicate of the main sentence. 4ppended statements are al&ays intensifiers, just as any other (ind of repetition.
,uch sentences are typical of affected collo$uial speech.
e.g. ' &ashed my hands and face afore ' come, I did. K
' (no& &hat the li(e of you are, I do. (,ha&)
Hou)%e made a nice mess, you have8.
Hou)d get a scaffolding pole entangled, you would. (<erome)
3.#. Emphatic underlinin%
Emphatic un"erlining is transforming of a simple sentence into a complex one in order to emphasi-e a
part of the utterance.
e.g. It was on .riday that we #et hi#. (;e met him on *riday).
e.g. 9It was the 4nglish:, Bas%ar cried,
9That %ut the .rench to rout.: (,outhey)
e.g. It was a country cousin that "arry took in.
It was while %assing through Eousley lock that "arris told #e aout his #aCe e5%erience.
Polysyn"eton excessi%e use of conjunctions. (5olysyndeton &ill be described in one of the follo&ing
Practical assignments:
Tas" 1. 2nswer the following 1uestionsA
?. ;hat (inds of lexico+syntactical repetition can be distinguished@
A. ;hat is simple repetition@
B. 7o& do &e call the stylistic de%ices of Lunnecessary) repetition of the same idea@
C. 7o& can you define the function of prolepsis in real speech 9 in the text of fiction@
D. ;hat is the aim of emphatic underlining@
Tas" 2. !efine the re%etition ty%es in the following sentencesA
?. ' ha%e seen old *lint in the corner there, behind you2 as plain as print, ')%e seen him. (3. ,te%enson) A. '
can say no more, but blessings, blessings on all in the dear house ' li%e, prays. (;. Thac(eray) B. 4nd no& my
4r%ie)s gone. ;hate%er &ill ' and my children do@ ;hate%er &ill ' do@ ;hate%er &ill ' do@... (7. Ja&son) C.
5ain, e%en slight pain, tends to isolate. 5ain, such as he had to suffer, cuts the last lin(s &ith society. (,.
haplin) D. 't &as a ghost of a train, a *lying .utchman of a train, a nightmare of a train. (3. .a%is) E. 't)s $ueer
that you should be so different from Niolet. Niolet is as hard as nails. (". ,ha&) O. 'n a country there &as a shire,
and in that shire there &as a to&n, and in that to&n there &as a house, and in that house there &as a room, and
in that room there &as a bed, and in that bed there lay a little girl2 &ide a&a(e and longing to get up, but not
daring to do so for fear of the unseen po&er in the next roomK (:as(ell). P. Then they must &ant me for
something else, for something that is outside of me, for something that is not 'I (<. Jondon).
Tas" 3. !efine the syntactic stylistic devices of the studied grou% in the following sentencesA
?. 4nd it)s to this man)s son this scoundrel, gambler, s&indler, murderer of 3a&don ra&ley, that
!atilda lea%es the bul( of her money. (;. Thac(eray). A. 5oor little tender heartI and so it goes on hoping and
beating, and longing and trusting. (;. Thac(eray). B. 7e &al(ed noisily a&ay, and it &as a (itchen+maid, in
search of parsley, &ho e%entually rescued the aunt from the rain+&ater tan(. (7. !unro). C. 't &as !iss
!urdstone &ho &as arri%ed, and a gloomy+loo(ing lady she &asK (h. .ic(ens). D. 'f left to himself, he &ould
ha%e &histled life a&ay in perfect contentment2 but his &ife (ept continually dinning in his ears about his
idleness, his carelessness, and the ruin he &as bringing on his family. (;. 'r%ing). E. "ut &hen you thin( that no
one (ne& him so &ell as 'I ' had all his noble confidence. ' (ne& him best. (<. onrad).
I). The peculiar syntactical arran%ement of speech components
.1. (tylistic inversion
Stylistic inversion is such a change of &ord+order &hich gi%es logical stress or emphasis to the language
units placed in an unusual syntactic position.
e.g. 8eatly upon his left ear on the callous pa%ement t&o &aiters pitched ,oapy. (=) 7enry)
Qnli(e the grammatical in%ersion used mainly to build up interrogati%e sentences stylistic in%ersion must
be regarded as an expressi%e means of the language ha%ing typical structural models. 't can employ the
predicate, predicati%e and all the secondary parts of the sentence.
e.g. In ca#e <ac(. (predicate)
Insolent onnor)s conduct &as. (predicati%e)
$ittle chances "enny had. (direct object)
To her fa#ily !artha gi%es all her time. (indirect object)
2 horrile death .ouglas died. (cognate object)
This is a letter congratulatory. (attribute)
To the disco 7ilda &ent. (ad%erbial modifier)
The first and the last positions being prominent, the &ords standing at them get a fuller %olume of stress
than they &ould in ordinary &ord+order.
e.g. 2 good generous %rayer it &as. (T&ain)
e.g. ;ith fingers weary and wornK (7ood)
e.g. !y dearest daughter, at your feet ' fall. (.ryden)
e.g. 2nd to the waiter he betrayed the fact that the minutest coin and himself &ere strangers. (=) 7enry)
e.g. !own dro%%ed the bree-eK (oleridge)
e.g. 2 tone of #ost e5traordinary co#%arison !iss Tox said it in. (.ic(ens)
e.g. Ca#e frightful days of sno& and rain. (Jondon)
e.g. Trough it all gleamed a faint protest of cheated youth unconscious of its loss. (=) 7enry)
e.g. 2gain the big gong beat, and a second ti#e there &as the rushing of na(ed feet on earth and ringing
iron... (3. 6ipling)
.2. *etachment
#etachment is placing a sentence component in such a syntactic position that it seems formally
independent of the &ord it refers to.
e.g. ,mither should choose the fur+coat for her at the stores nice and dappled.
e.g. 7er soul peeped out once through her impassi%e face, hallo&ing it. (=) 7enry)
This stylistic de%ice is a(in to in%ersion, but detached construction produces a much stronger effect,
inasmuch as it presents parts of the utterance in a more or less independent manner.
't is also a specific phonetical treatment of the &ord9&ord+group/ instead of the usual articulation &hen
the &ord9phrase is fused &ith its en%ironment, the spea(er ma(es a short pause before, and often after, the
detached segment and lays special emphasis on it. 4s a result, the detached part is underlined as something
especially important.
'n &riting detached parts are separated from the rest of the sentence by commas or dashes.
4ny secondary part of the sentence may be detached/
e.g. Dery s#all and child/like, he ne%er loo(ed more than fourteen. (attribute)
,he &as lo%ely/ all of her delightful. (.reiser)
e.g. They put him under laughing+gas one year, %oor lad. (apposition) (<erome)
e.g. Talent, !r. !ica&ber has, ca%ital, !r. !ica&ber has not. (direct object) (.ic(ens)
e.g. 't &as indeed, to .orsyte eyes, an odd house. (prepositional object) (:als&orthy)
e.g. :ordon &as stubbornly cra&ling to the place of his destination inch by inchRli(e a caterpillar.
(ad%erbial modifier)
.3. $arenthesis
Parenthesis [p1'renSisis] &ords, phrases or sentences expressing modality of &hat is predicated or
implying additional information.
5arentheses &ith modal meaning may be di%ided into t&o classes/ those expressing certainty (e.g. for
sure, I# sure, of course, certainly, no dout, etc.) and those implying different degrees of probability (e.g.
#aye, %erha%s, %roaly, %resu#aly, I su%%ose, I guess, etc.).
5arenthetic segments comprising additional information perform a number of stylistic functions, the most
important of &hich is the creation of the second plane or bac(ground to the narrati%e.
e.g. 7olding this (ind of con%ersation, and building numberless castles in the air (&hich 4melia adorned
&ith all sorts of flo&er+gardens, rustic &al(s, country churches, ,unday schools, and the li(e2 &hile :eorge had
his mind)s eye directed to the stables, the (ennel, and the cellar), this young pair passed a&ay a couple of hours
%ery pleasantly. (;. Thac(eray)
The parenthetic form of a statement ma(es it more important than it &ould be if it had the form of a
subordinate clause.
e.g. The main entrance Hhe had never ventured to look eyond thatF &as a splendiferous combination of a
glass and iron a&ning, coupled &ith a marble corridor lined &ith palms. (.reiser)
,ometimes parenthetic insertions help to simplify the syntactic structure, thus ma(ing the author)s speech
sound more collo$uial.
e.g. !rs. "aynes, "osinney)s aunt H$ouisa was her na#eF, &as in the (itchen &hen <une &as announced,
organi-ing coo(, for she &as an excellent house&ife. (:als&orthy)
5arentheses are independent enough to function as exclamatory or interrogati%e segments of declarati%e
e.g. 7ere is a long passageRwhat an enor#ous %ros%ective I #ake of it=<leading from 5eggoty)s (itchen
to the front door. (.ic(ens)
e.g. That bit of gold meant food, life, and light in his body and brain, po&er to go on &riting, and ( who
was to say? ( maybe to &rite something that it &ould bring in many pieces of gold. (Jondon)
.. $arallel constructions
Parallel construction is identical or similar syntactical structure in t&o or more sentences or parts of a
sentence in close succession.
e.g. There &ere,K, real silver s%oons to stir the tea with, and real china cu%s to drink it out of, and %lates
of the sa#e to hold the cakes and toast in. (.ic(ens)
5ure parallel construction is the repetition of the syntactical design of the sentence only2 it does not
depend on any other (ind of repetition.
e.g. 3ohn ke%t silent. Eary was thinking.
,till, much more often it happens that parallel sentences contain the same lexical elements.
e.g. The cock is crowing,
The strea# is flowing
The s#all irds twitter
The lake doth glitter. (;ords&orth)
e.g. <oe &as painting in the class of the great !agister you (no& his fame. K.elia &as studying under
3osenstoc( you (no& his repute as a disturber of the piano (eys. (=) 7enry)
5urely syntactical repetitions (or parallelism) should be distinguished from lexico+syntactical repetitions,
described in one of the points abo%e. 'n the latter, the lexical identity of certain parts of neighbouring sentences
is not an optional occurrence (as in the case &ith parallelism), but $uite obligatory.
5arallel construction is used in different styles of &riting. 'n matter+of+fact styles it carries the idea of
semantic e$uality of the parts, as in scientific prose, &here the logical principle of arranging ideas predominates.
'n the belles+lettres style parallel construction carries an emoti%e function and is mainly used as a technical
means in building up other stylistic de%ices (enumeration, antithesis, climax). 'n the example belo&, parallel
construction bac(s up the rhetorical address and rhetorical $uestions/
"ear #e, #y #other 4arth= ?ehold it, "eaven= (
"ave I not had to wrestle with #y lot?
"ave I not suffered things to e forgiven?
"ave I not had #y rain seared, #y heart riven,
"o%es sa%%ed, na#e lighted, $ifes life lied away? ("yron)
.!. +hiasmus
$hiasmus [(ai'0-m1s] is a Lre%ersed) parallel construction, the &ord+order of one of the sentences being
in%erted as compared &ith that of the other.
e.g. The night winds sigh, the reakers roar,
2nd shrieks the wild sea/#ew. ("yron)
e.g. 2s high as we have #ounted in delight
In our de@ection do we sink as low. (;ords&orth)
There are different %ariants of the structural design of chiasmus. *or example, sometimes it is based on a
sudden change from acti%e %oice to passi%e or %ice %ersa.
e.g. The register of his burial was signed by the clergyman, the cler(, the underta(er and the chief
mourner. ,crooge signed it.
4longside syntactical chiasmus described abo%e there can be distinguished one more interesting class of
the de%ice lexical chiasmus.
e.g. I love #y $ove and #y $ove loves #e= (oleridge)
e.g. The @ail #ight have een the infir#ary, the infir#ary #ight have een the @ail8 (.ic(ens)
e.g. !ont troule troules, until troule troules you. (pro%erb)
e.g. 2 handso#e #an kisses #isses, an ugly one #isses kisses. (pun)
hiasmus may also be achie%ed by letter re%ersal. Thus &e face phonetic chiasmus.
e.g. Qnli(e my predecessors, ' ha%e de%oted more of my life to shunting and hooting than to hunting and
shooting. ("urro&s)
e.g. ;hat)s the difference bet&een a fisherman and a la-y student@
=ne aits hoo(s2 the other hates oo(s.
Ji(e parallel construction, chiasmus contributes to the rhythmical $uality of the utterance. This de%ice is
sometimes used to brea( the monotony of parallel constructions. hiasmus is effecti%e in that it helps to lay the
stress on the second part of the utterance, &hich is opposite in structure.
e.g. 'ainting is %oetry that is seen rather than felt, and
%oetry is %ainting that is felt rather than seen. (J. da Ninci)

.#. (uspense
Suspense [s1s'pens] is a compositional de%ice &hich consists in arranging the utterances in such a &ay
that the less important, descripti%e, subordinate parts are placed at the beginning, the main idea being &ithheld
till the end of the sentence. Thus the reader)s attention is held and his interest held up.
e.g. Eankind, says a hinese manuscript, &hich my friend !. &as obliging enough to read and explain to
me, for the first se%enty thousand ages ate their #eat raw. (h. Jamb)
,entences of this type are called Lperiodic sentences), or Lperiods). Their function is to create a state of
suspense (uncertainty and expectation) in the listener and to prepare him for the only logical conclusion of the
.ue to its partly psychological nature (arousing a feeling of expectation) suspense is framed in one
sentence, for there must not be any brea( in the intonation pattern.
e.g. "ut suppose it passed2 su%%ose one of these #en, as ' ha%e seen them, meager &ith famine, sullen
&ith despair, careless of a life &hich your Jordships are perhaps about to %alue at something less than the price
of a stoc(ing+frame/ suppose this man surrounded by the children for &hom he is unable to procure bread at
the ha-ard of his existence, about to be torn for e%er from a family &hich he lately supported in peaceful
industry, and &hich it is not his fault that he can no longer so support2 su%%ose this #an, and there are t&o
thousand such from &hom you may select your %ictims, dragged into court, to be tried for this ne& offence, by
this ne& la&2 still there are two things waiting to con%ict and condemn him2 and these are, in my opinion,
twelve utchers for a @ury, and a 3effreys for a @udgeI ("yron)
4s &e ha%e mentioned suspense al&ays re$uires long stretches of speech or &riting. ,ometimes the &hole
of a poem is built on this stylistic de%ice, as in the case &ith 6ipling)s poem F'fG &here all the eight stan-as
consist of if+clauses and only the last t&o lines constitute the principal clause.
e.g. If you can (eep your head &hen all about you
4re losing theirs and blaming it on you,
If you can trust yourself &hen all men doubt you
4nd ma(e allo&ance for their doubting too,
If you can dream and not ma(e dreams your master,
If you can thin( and not ma(e thoughts your aim,
Yours is the earth and everything thats in it,
2nd which is #ore, youll e a Ean, #y son. (6ipling)
.,. +limax
$limax is an arrangement of sentences or of the homogeneous parts of a sentence &hich secures a
gradual increase in significance, importance or emotional tension in the utterance. The de%ice is also called
e.g. Hour son is %ery ill seriously ill desperately ill.
4 gradual increase in significance may be achie%ed in three &ays/ logically, emotionally and
$ogical cli#a5/
e.g. The orator dre& a grim picture of the 3epublican 5arty, vague in its ideas, unsettled in its %olicy and
torn y internal strife.
e.g. 8obody e%er stopped him in the street to say, &ith gladsome loo(s, L!y dear ,crooge, ho& are you@
;hen &ill you come to see me@) 8o beggars implored him to besto& a trifle, no children as(ed him &hat it &as
o)cloc(, no man or &oman e%er once in all his life in$uired the &ay to such and such a place, of ,crooge. #%en
the blind men)s dogs appeared to (no& him, and &hen they sa& him coming on, &ould tug their o&ners into
door&ays and up courts2 and then &ould &ag their tails, as though they said, L8o eye at all is better than an e%il
eye, dar( masterI) (.ic(ens)
4#otional cli#a5/
e.g. ' am sorry, ' am so very sorry, ' am so e5tre#ely sorry.
e.g. 't &as a lovely city, a eautiful city, a fair city, a veritale ge# of a city.
e.g. ' &as stunned like a dervish, weak like an old #otor, defenceless like a eavers elly, and as sure of
success as a allet dancer with a wooden leg. (handler)
-uantitative cli#a5/
e.g. They loo(ed at hundred of houses2 they climbed thousands of stairs2 they inspected innu#erale
(itchens. (!augham)
e.g. $ittle y little, it y it, and day y day, and year y year the baron got the &orst of some disputed
$uestions. (.ic(ens)
The stylistic function of climax is to sho& the relati%e importance of things as seen by the author, or to
create the atmosphere of emotional tension, or to depict phenomena dynamically. ,uspense (described abo%e)
and climax sometimes go together/ all the information contained in the series of statement+clauses preceding the
solution+statement are arranged in the order of gradation.
Practical assignments:
Tas" 1. 2nswer the following 1uestionsA
?. 's there any difference bet&een grammatical and stylistic in%ersion@
A. ;hat parts of the sentence may be detached to sound especially important@
B. 7o& can a parenthesis be defined@
C. ;hat is the difference bet&een pure syntactical repetition and lexico+syntactical repetition@
D. ;hat other %ariants of chiasmus, except Lre%ersed) parallel constructions, can be distinguished@
E. ;hat is the main function of suspense@
O. ;hat (inds of climax can be distinguished@
Tas" 2. .ill in the ga%s with the a%%ro%riate words. !efine the syntactical stylistic device usedA
?. 4%oid e%il and it &ill K you. A. Ji%e not to K but eat to li%e. B. 4 K for e%erything and e%erything in its
place. C. :od defend me from my friends2 from my enemies ' can K myself. D. 'f the mountain &ill not come to
!ohammed, K must go to K .
Tas" 3. Co##ent u%on the synta5 and the tone of the given %assage. What stylistic device %roduces such
a tone? Is the end of the descri%tion easily %redictale?
;hen you are a boy and stand in the stillness of &oods, &hich can be so still that your heart almost stops
beating and ma(es you &ant to stand there in the green t&ilight until you feel your %ery feet sin(ing into and
clutching the earth li(e roots and your body breathing slo& through its pores li(e the lea%es &hen you stand
there and &ait for the next drop to drop &ith its small, flat sound to a lo&er leaf, that sound seems to measure
out something, to put an end to something, to begin something, and you cannot &ait for it to happen and are
afraid it &ill not happen, and then &hen it has happened, you are &aiting again, almost afraid. (3. ;arren)
). The peculiar forms of lin"a%e bet-een sentences
!.1. Asyndeton
Asyn"eton is a deliberate omission of conjunctions bet&een clauses or sentences. The listener 9 reader
understands the interrelation bet&een the clauses on the basis of the context. 4bsence of connecting elements
ma(es the utterance compact, imparts dynamic force to the text.
e.g. Students would have no need to &walk the hos%itals if they had #e. I was a hos%ital in #yself.
e.g. Soa#es turned away0 he had an utter disinclination for talk, like one standing efore an o%en grave,
watching a coffin slowly lowered. (:als&orthy)
e.g. "e notices a slight strain on the window/side rug. "e cannot change it with the other rug, they are a
different siCe. (hristie) R (for or ecause are omitted)
't should be noted that asyndetic connection is typical of rapid collo$uial speech, &here it doesn)t function
as a ,.. 7o&e%er, occurring in the literary text such examples ac$uire a certain stylistic force.
e.g. ?icket did not answer his throat felt too dry. (:als&orthy)
e.g. You get older, you want to feel that you acco#%lished so#ething. (!iller)
e.g. You want anything, you %ay for it. (=sborne)
't is a &ell+(no&n fact that attributi%e and object clauses in #nglish are %ery often joined to the principal
clause asyndetically. #xamples li(e L7e said he had seen it before) or LThe man he met yesterday &as an old
friend of his) are not to be regarded as collo$uial, and yet there is something slightly informal about them/ in a
formal text, sentences &ith conjunctions &ould be preferable.
!.2. $olysyndeton
Polysyn"eton is excessi%e use 9 repetition of conjunctions (mostly &and), connecting parts of a
sentence, clauses, simple and composite sentences, and e%en more prolonged segments of text.
e.g. ,he &as smartly dressedK 2nd her chee(s and lips &ere rouged a little. 2nd her eyes spar(led. 2nd
as usual she ga%e herself the airs of one %ery &ell content &ith herself. (.reiser)
e.g. The hea%iest rain, and sno&, and hail, and sleet, could boast of the ad%antage o%er him in only one
respect. (.ic(ens)
'n poetry and fiction polysyndeton ma(es an utterance more rhythmical. 't is one of its functions.
The repetition of and either underlines the simultaneity of actions, or close connections of the phenomena
e.g. 4d%ancing and prancing and glancing and dancing,
3ecoiling, turmoiling, and toiling, and boiling,
2nd thumping, and plumping, and bumping, and jumping,
2nd dashing, and flashing, and splashing, and clashing2
2nd so ne%er ending, and al&ays descendingK
2nd in this &ay the &ater comes do&n at Jodore. (,outhey)
5olysyndeton has also the function of expressing se$uence/
e.g. Then !r. "offinK sat staring at a little boo(case of Ja& 5ractice and Ja& 3eports, and at a
&indo&, and at an empty blue bag, and a stic( of sealing+&ax, and at a pen, and a box of &afers, and an apple,
and a &riting+pad R all %ery dusty R and at a number of in(y smears and blots, and at imperfectly disguised
gun+case pretending to be something legal, and at an iron box labeled F7armon #stateG, until !r. Jight&ood
appeared. (.ic(ens)
8ot infre$uently, polysyndeton promotes a high+flo&n tonality of narrati%e. 't is %ery probably explained
by associations &ith the style of the "ible, in &hich nearly e%ery sentence begins &ith and.
e.g. 4nd the rain descended, and the floods came, and the &inds ble& and beat upon the house2 and it fell2
and great &as the fall of it. (!atthe& N'')
,ometimes polysyndeton performs disintegrating function. Qnli(e enumeration, &hich integrates elements
into one &hole, polysyndeton sho&s them isolated.
't is note&orthy, that o%eruse of conjunctions in careless collo$uial speech is not a ,.. 't betrays the
po%erty of the spea(er)s syntax. "eing applied in fiction such examples ac$uire a certain stylistic force, sho&ing
the primiti%eness of the character.
e.g. ' al&ays been a good girl2 and ' ne%er offered to say a &ord to him2 and ' don)t o&e him nothing2 and
' don)t care2 and ' &on)t be put upon2 and ' ha%e my feelings the same as anyone else. (,ha&)
!.3. +umulation
$umulation The %ap-Sentence Link! [(ju/mju'leiTn] is a peculiar type of connection of sentences
&hich re$uires a certain mental effort to grasp the interrelation bet&een the parts of the utterance. 'n other
&ords, it is a &ay of connecting t&o sentences seemingly unconnected and lea%ing it to the reader to grasp the
idea implied.
The cumulation is generally indicated by and or ut, &hich ac$uire in such constructions %arious shades
of meaning.
e.g. 't &as not apeto&n, &here people only fro&ned &hen they sa& a blac( boy and a &hite girl. ?ut
hereK2nd he loved her. (4brahams)
The possibility of filling in the semantic gap depends largely on associations a&a(ened by the t&o
sentences lin(ed cumulati%ely.
e.g. ,he and that fello& ought to be the sufferers and they were in Italy. (:als&orthy)
R here the second part seems to be unmoti%ated and the &hole utterance illogical2 but after a more careful
semantic analysis it becomes clear that the exact logical %ariant of the utterance &ould be/ LThose &ho ought to
suffer &ere enjoying themsel%es in 'taly (&here rich #nglish people go for holidays)).
'n the follo&ing utterance the connection bet&een the t&o sentences needs no comment.
e.g. 't &as an afternoon to dream. 2nd she took out 3ons letters. (:als&orthy)
The gap+sentence lin( is based on the peculiarities of the spo(en language and is therefore most
fre$uently used in inner represented speech. #xcept this it may be used to indicate a subjecti%e e%aluation of the

!.. +oordination instead of subordination
$oor"ination instea" of subor"ination is the &ay of combining clauses and independent sentences.
The reader must (no& from his o&n experience that the use of complex sentences, especially &ith
complicated phrasal conjunctions (such as in view of the fact that, with regard to the circu#stances of which,
etc.), is a sure sign of formal &ritten types of speech. omplex sentences in e%eryday oral communication prefer
much simpler conjunctions R when, where, if, etc.
"ut on the &hole, in oral speech &e mostly find either asyndeton or fre$uent use of the Luni%ersal)
coordinati%e conjunction and. 'ts function becomes clear only due to the context.
e.g. You never can tell in these cases how they are going to turn out and its est to e on the safe side.
R here the conjunction and signali-es the relation of cause and conse$uence bet&een the t&o clauses.
e.g. 7%en that silly #outh of yours @ust once, and youll find yourself in @ail, right alongside the lack
oy= (:o& and .)Qsseau)
R this compound sentence is an e$ui%alent of a complex sentence &ith a subordinate clause of condition ( If
you o%enK).
e.g. It is funny that theyJthe #iceK should e there, and not a cru#, since Er. Ti#othy took to not
co#ing down @ust efore the war. (:als&orthy)
R here the conjunction and introduces something li(e an ad%erbial clause of concession (although there is not a
cru# here8).
Practical assignments:
Tas" 1. 2nswer the following 1uestionsA
?. an the sentences containing asyndeton be considered purely collo$uial@
A. 7o& can be defined the function of polysyndeton in enumerations@
B. ;hat are the main functions of cumulation@
C. 's the use of coordination instead of subordination a sign of collo$uial speech@
Tas" 2. 'ick out the cases of ,F asyndeton, )F %olysyndeton, GF cu#ulationA
?. The boys and girls of the bloc( sa& the trolley+dri%er &a%ing &ith a grey glo%e and dropped from trees,
left s(ip ropes to run and sit in the green plush seats, and there &as no charge. (3. "radbury). A. =n the
#xchange there &ere hurricanes and landslides and sno&storms and glaciers and %olcanoes, and those elemental
disturbances &ere reproduced in miniature in the bro(er)s offices. (=) 7enry). B. :eorge, of course, too( charge
of 4melia. ,he loo(ed as happy as a rose+tree in sunshine. (;. Thac(eray). C. !rs. ,tric(land fro&ned a little.
,he &as searching among her recollections. (;. !augham). D. 4nd then instead of going on to 4rusha they
turned left, he e%idently figured that they had the gas, and loo(ing do&n he sa& a pin( sifting cloud, mo%ing
o%er the ground, and in the air, li(e the first sno& in a bli--ard, that comes from no&here, and he (ne& the
locusts &ere coming up from the ,outh. (#. 7eming&ay). E. Then this old person got up and tore his paper all
into small shreds, and stamped on them, and bro(e se%eral things &ith his cane, and said ' did not (no& as much
as a co&2 and then &ent out and banged the door after him, and, in short, acted in such a &ay that ' fancied he
&as displeased about something. (!. T&ain). O. <eff is in the line of unillegal graft. 7e is not to be dreaded by
&ido&s and orphans2 he is a reducer of surplusage. (=) 7enry).
)I. The revaluation of syntactical meanin%
#.1. .hetoric questions
&hetoric 'uestion is either affirmati%e or negati%e statement expressed in the form of an interrogati%e
sentence. 4 rhetoric $uestion needs no ans&er, as the ans&er is $uite ob%ious. "eing used in oratory or
collo$uial speech it aims at expressi%eness, attracting the attention of the audience, ma(ing the implication more
significant, the statement more persuasi%e.
e.g. "ave I not had to wrestle with #y lot?
"ave I not suffered things to e forgiven? ("yron)
e.g. ?eing your slave, what should I do ut tend
L%on the hours and ti#es of your desire? (,ha(espeare)
The interrogati%e form ma(es the affirmati%e statement, that is implied, much stronger than it &ould be if
expressed directly.
e.g. Isnt that too ad? (U That is too bad.)
e.g. Why should I do it? (U ' shouldn)t do it.)
e.g. !id I say a word aout the #oney? (U ' did not say a &ord about the money.)
3hetoric $uestions in #nglish often ha%e the form of complex sentences &ith the subordinate clause
containing the pronouncement.
e.g. If this elief fro# heaven e sent,
If such e ;atures holy %lan,
"ave I not reason to la#ent
What #an has #ade of #an? (;ords&orth)
e.g. Is there not lood enough u%on your %enal code, that #ore #ust e %oured forth to ascend to "eaven
and testify against you? ("yron)
e.g. Who is here so vile that will not love his country? (,ha(espeare)
<udgments implied in the rhetoric $uestions express %arious (inds of modal shades of meaning, such as
doubt, challenge, scorn, irony and so on.
#.2. Ne%ative sentences implyin% emphatic affirmation.
e.g. ')ll hang myself if it isnt "arney ;oods &ho did itI (U 't is "arney ;oods &ho did it.)
e.g. !ont I re#e#er= (U ' do rememberI) (=. 7enry)

#.3. Affirmative structures -ith ne%ative meanin%.
e.g. 4s if ' e%er stop thin(ing about the girl and her confounded %o&els and consonants. (U ' ne%er stop
thin(ing about the girl andK)
;ell, dash me if ' do itI (U ' &on)t do it.) (,ha&)
#.. &itotes
Litotes ['laitouti/-] is a peculiar use of negati%e constructions/ the negation plus noun or adjecti%e ser%es
to establish a positi%e feature in a person or thing.
e.g. 't)s not a ad thing. ('t)s a good thing.)
7e is no coward. (7e is a rave man.)
Jitotes is a deliberate understatement used to produce a stylistic effect. 't is not a pure negation, but a
negation that includes affirmation. Therefore, here &e may spea( of transference of meaning.
The pairs of such constructions (negati%e and affirmati%e) are synonymous, but the positi%e feature in the
negati%e statement becomes &ea(er, diminished in $uality. 't explains the main communicati%e function of this
de%ice/ to ma(e statements and judgments sound delicate and diplomatic. ,ometimes, ho&e%er, it may also
express irony.
e.g. 4nd aptain Tre%elyan &as not over%leased about it. (hristie)
e.g. 't troubled him not a littleK
7e &as no gentle la#, and the part of the second fiddle &ould ne%er do for the high+pitched dominance
of his nature. (Jondon)
4 %ariant of litotes is a construction &ith t&o negations, as in not unlike. The result of double negation is
affirmation, but the meaning obtained is &ea(ened. 7ere &e may obser%e a meiotic effect.
e.g. 7e &as not without tasteK (Jondon)
e.g. Kshe &as not unli(e !orgiana in the L*orty Thie%es). (.ic(ens)
e.g. <eff is in the line of unillegal graft. 7e is not to be dreaded by &ido&s and orphans2 he is a reducer of
surplusage. (=. 7enry)
e.g. 4 chiselled, ruddy face completed the not/unhandso#e picture. (5endelton)

Practical assignments:
Tas" 1. 2nswer the following 1uestionsA

?. .oes a rhetoric $uestion need any ans&er@
A. ;hat (inds of re%aluation of syntactical meaning do you (no&@
B. ;hat is the main function of litotes@
Tas" 2. 6ead through the sentences and define the i#%lication e#odied in the rhetorical 1uestions. Try
to deter#ine the e#otions and feelings the 1uestions %rovokeA
?. ,he did not pester their young brains &ith too much learning, but, on the contrary, let them ha%e their
o&n &ay in regard to educating themsel%es2 for &hat instruction is more effectual than self+instruction@ (;.
Thac(eray). A. 5oor little tender heartI and so it goes on hoping and beating, and longing and trusting. K ;hat
&ere her parents doing, not to (eep this little heart from beating so fast@ (;. Thac(eray). B. To &rite of
someone lo%ed, of someone lo%ing, abo%e all of oneself being lo%ed ho& can these things be done &ith
propriety@ 7o& can they be done at all@ (#. ;augh). C. ,hall ' e%er forget those lessonsI They &ere presided
o%er nominally by my mother, but really by !r. !urdstone and his sister, &ho &ere al&ays present, and found
them a fa%ourable occasion for gi%ing my mother lessons in that miscalled firmness, &hich &as the bane of both
our li%es. (h. .ic(ens).