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echnology for Offshore Oil and Gas Operations
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March 2014
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World Trends and Technology for Offshore Oil and Gas Operations
For continuous news & analysis
www.offshore-mag.com
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Seismic vessels adapt
to changing demands
Asia/Pacific
shipyard review
Coiled tubing
case study
Dual gradient
drilling update
1403OFF_C1 1 2/28/14 5:03 PM
| baker hughes. com
We can sit around and debate whats possible.
Or we can invent the rst multizone single-trip completion system
that reduces risk and costs on a 26,586 ft well in 8,149 ft of water.
Because talking is easy but doing is hard.
Learn more at www.bakerhughes.com/thepayzoneleader
Man on the moon
Leaders do
while others talk.
2014 Baker Hughes Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. 38682 01/2014
1403OFF_C2 2 2/28/14 5:03 PM
1403OFF_1 1 2/28/14 4:50 PM
42
38
International Edition
Volume 74, Number 3
March 2014
C O N T E N T S
Offshore (ISSN 0030-0608) is published 12 times a year, monthly by PennWell, 1421 S. Sheridan Road, Tulsa, OK 74112. Periodicals class postage paid at Tulsa, OK, and additional offices.
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Celebrating 60 Years of Trends, Tools, and Technology
ASIA/PACIFIC
Sembcorp to integrate Singapore yards
at new mega shipyard ........................................................... 38
Sembcorp Marine has set up a mega shipyard in Singapore to service
the global oil and gas and marine sectors, and to maintain a competitive
edge in the construction of exploration rig and production platforms, ship
conversion, repairs, and maintenance. Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong
opened the frst phase of Sembmarine Integrated Yard @ Tuas on Nov.
6, 2013, 50 years after the industry began in 1963 as part of Singapores
industrialization program to support its then fedgling economy.
Innovation keeps Keppel
at the forefront of rig design ................................................... 42
Singapore rig builder Keppel continues to take on the challenges of
operating in a high-risk offshore oil and gas sector by using innovative
designs, effciency-driven capabilities, and close working relationships
with its customers. Pressure is always felt. And we treat all our com-
petitors, including the Chinese shipyards, very seriously, says Tong
Chong Heong, CEO of Keppel Offshore & Marine. But he is quick to
point out the advantage of being strategically located in the worlds
major hydrocarbon producing regions such as Brazil, the US, Caspian
Sea, and Southeast Asia, as well as China.
60 YEARS OF OFFSHORE
From the archives: U.S. rig makes
a gas strike in the North Sea ................................................... 48
Selected from the July 1964 issue of Of fshore, the article describes
how, after making a historic gas strike in the North Sea, Reading &
Bates mobile drilling unit Mr. Louie was forced to abandon the location
because of gas cratering the seafoor near the Nordsee B-1 well.
1403OFF_2 2 2/28/14 4:50 PM
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1403OFF_3 3 2/28/14 4:50 PM
50
20
62
International Edition
Volume 74, Number 3
March 2014
C O N T E N T S
4 Of fshore March 2014 t www.offshore-mag.com
Celebrating 60 Years of Trends, Tools, and Technology
GEOLOGY & GEOPHYSICS
Seismic vessel survey expands
to include additional vessel types .......................................... 50
The 2014 Worldwide Seismic Vessel Survey lists 179 vessels. This is
an increase if directly compared to the 2013 tally, but that is deceiving.
There are two signifcant changes this year. The listing adds Geokinet-
ics and its 43 transition zone/shallow water/OBC vessels for the frst
time, and the two electromagnetic survey vessels of EMGS.
2014 Worldwide seismic vessel survey .................................. 52
Get the latest comprehensive listing of the capabilities and features of
the worldwide seismic vessel feet.
Seismic LWD reduces time, risk
in remote ultra-deepwater well .............................................. 58
The Schlumberger seismicVISION seismic-while-drilling service used
real-time measurements to update the velocity model in a wildcat well
off the coast of West Africa and enabled the well target objectives to be
achieved with confdence while reducing risk and time to drill the well. In
one well section with a challenging mud weight window, SWD was used
alongside the Schlumberger StethoScope FPWD service to more accu-
rately calibrate the pre-drill pore pressure model. The acquired formation
pressures, coupled with while-drilling petrophysical data, facilitated cali-
bration of a velocity-to-pore-pressure transform and normal compaction
trend lines, providing reduced uncertainty in the pore pressure model.
DRILLING & COMPLETION
Advances in dual gradient drilling
will facilitate deepwater development ................................... 62
When drilling conventionally, the column of wellbore annulus returns
(mud and cuttings) presents a single depth-versus-pressure gradient. Dual
gradient drilling technology involves creating two or more depths versus
pressure gradients in the returns path. DGD is particularly suitable for ad-
dressing a number of offshore drilling challenges because it enables a well-
bore pressure profle to more closely match the pressures presented by
nature, reducing or eliminating the impact of water depth on well design.
1403OFF_4 4 2/28/14 4:50 PM
Q
A
Formation Evaluation
|
Well Construction
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Completion
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Production


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We have eight wells with a combined
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6 Of fshore March 2014 t www.offshore-mag.com
International Edition
Volume 74, Number 3
March 2014
PRODUCTION OPERATIONS
Compact coiled tubing unit makes
small facility completion interventions feasible ....................................................... 66
Baker Hughes has developed Micro CT Coiled Tubing service, a more compact, lighter weight,
and modular system using a combination of equipment and proprietary intervention modeling
software to circumvent the deployment challenges of larger CT equipment. The unit effectively
bridges the gap between traditional capillary and CT services to allow operators to economically
service wells that might otherwise have to be shut in or abandoned.
SUBSEA
Subsea processing retains innovation, moves toward standardization .................. 68
This issue of Of fshore contains the 2014 Worldwide Survey of Subsea Processing Systems, the
seventh installment of this industry resource, a joint effort between INTECSEA and Of fshore
magazine. The primary aims of this poster are to chronicle the development and the developers
of these systems, and to document the continued commitment of oil companies to the applica-
tion of these technologies.
Online .................................................... 8
Comment ............................................. 10
Data ..................................................... 12
Global E&P .......................................... 14
Offshore Europe .................................. 20
Gulf of Mexico ..................................... 22
Subsea Systems ................................. 24
Vessels, Rigs, & Surface Systems ...... 26
Drilling & Production .......................... 28
Geosciences ........................................ 30
Offshore Automation Solutions .......... 32
Regulatory Perspectives ..................... 34
Business Briefs ................................... 70
Advertisers Index ............................... 71
Beyond the Horizon ............................ 72
COVER: Seismic data acquisi-
tion on the open seas has evolved,
as work moves into deeper waters
and remote, and often harsh, environ-
ments. Purpose-built, high-capacity
seismic vessels will be sailing out of
shipyards over the next few years to
meet demand for increasingly complex
data acquisition techniques. Many of
those vessels will be powered by hy-
brid propulsion systems, as geophysi-
cal companies focus on fuel effciency.
In the photo, a worker unhooks a
workboat from a CGG mother vessel,
which is shown towing a seismic array.
(Image courtesy CGG)
1403OFF_6 6 2/28/14 4:50 PM
1403OFF_7 7 2/28/14 4:50 PM
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8 Of fshore March 2O14 www.offshore-mag.com
Available at
Offshore-mag.com
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To respond to articles in Of fshore, or to of fer articles for publication,
contact the editor by email (davidp@pennwell.com).
COMMENT
%BWJE 1BHBOJF t )PVTUPO
Setting the standard
for subsea processing
The possible benefts of subsea processing and boosting are well known, yet the
industry has been slow to adopt the technology. While slow adoption indeed is stan-
dard protocol in this industry, a common explanation I hear from industry operators
is the lack of a standardized approach to system supply and integrity management.
Recently formed API Committee 17x aims to flls this void for the boosting element of
the process.
Chaired by John Vicic, Technology Program Manager of Deepwater & Arctic
for ConocoPhillips, the committee is tasked to develop a guide to enable operators,
contractors, and suppliers to reach a common goal for the design of subsea pumps,
thereby standardizing the design
process. It will provide specifc
guidance on the design, qualifca-
tion, and factory testing of subsea
pumping systems. A draft Recom-
mended Practice is expected to be
available by the end of this year,
with the fnal version slated for
late 2015.
The formation of this committee
is timely in that the industry is ag-
gressively pursuing new methods
to improve the viability of deepwa-
ter development. Rising costs are
stretching project economics, and
it is thought that the implementa-
tion of subsea boosting could
improve recovery to a point that
justifes the investment.
The developers of the World-
wide Survey of Subsea Processing
Systems poster in their annual
technology review highlight the trending focus on technology implementation. Sub-
sea boosting is more of a matter of course for many operators, and efforts have shifted
towards effective implementation, they suggest.
The evolution of separator technology is another noteworthy trend identifed by the
poster team. Concerns over cost, size and weight continue to drive interest in alterna-
tives to the conventional technology. The full report by */5&$4&"T -BSSZ 'PSTUFS
.BD .D,FF BOE +PIO "MMFO begins on page 68.
The 7th edition of the poster, inside this issue, chronicles the evolution of subsea
processing technologies and their respective applications. For online access to view
and download all seven posters, please visit www.offshore-mag.com/maps-posters.
Meanwhile, Statoil is closing in on implementation of the worlds frst subsea gas
compression system (compressor pictured above, courtesy MAN Diesel & Turbo),
slated for the sgard feld in the Norwegian Sea. Subsea compression on sgard
is expected to improve recovery from the Mikkel and Midgard felds by about 280
MMboe, beginning in 2015. Proving subsea gas compression would mark an important
milestone in the application of a complete subsea processing and boosting system.
Still, other elements of subsea processing require further qualifcation. These
include advanced manifolds for multi-feld tie-ins, storage for oil and chemicals, more
sophisticated separation and processing equipment, and ft-for-purpose IMR concepts.
1403OFF_10 10 2/28/14 4:51 PM
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We are making the subsea factory vision a welcome reality.
www.akersolutions.com/subsea
1403OFF_11 11 2/28/14 4:51 PM
Worldwide offshore rig count & utilization rate
December 2011 January 2014
950
850
750
650
550
450
350
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
N
o
.

o
f

r
i
g
s
F
l
e
e
t

u
t
i
l
i
z
a
t
i
o
n

r
a
t
e

%
D
e
c

1
1
M
a
r
c
h

1
2
J
u
n
e

1
2
S
e
p
t

1
2
D
e
c

1
2
M
a
r
c
h

1
3
J
u
n
e

1
3
S
e
p
t

1
3
D
e
c

1
3
Contracted fleet utilization Total fleet Contracted Working
S
o
u
r
c
e
:

I
H
S
Operator capex share (%) in Asia/Pacifc 2009-2018
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Others
Reliance
Inpex
ExxonMobil
PTTEP
Woodside
Shell
ONGC
CNOOC
Chevron
Petronas
2009
Source: Infield Systems
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
O
p
e
r
a
t
o
r

c
a
p
e
x

(
%
)
Worldwide day rates
Year/Month Minimum Average Maximum
Drillship
2013 Feb $50,000 $451,005 $678,000
2013 Mar $50,000 $446,902 $678,000
2013 Apr $50,000 $454,798 $678,000
2013 May $50,000 $459,773 $678,000
2013 June $50,000 $464,803 $678,000
2013 July $151,000 $466,410 $678,000
2013 Aug $151,000 $465,170 $678,000
2013 Sept $151,000 $459,947 $678,000
2013 Oct $151,000 $464,995 $678,000
2013 Nov $151,000 $472,646 $678,000
2013 Dec $151,000 $477,618 $678,000
2014 Jan $151,000 $480,302 $678,000
Jackup
2013 Feb $30,000 $120,170 $361,000
2013 Mar $30,000 $121,039 $361,000
2013 Apr $30,000 $120,186 $361,000
2013 May $30,000 $122,553 $361,000
2013 June $30,000 $123,140 $361,000
2013 July $30,000 $123,997 $361,000
2013 Aug $30,000 $125,495 $361,000
2013 Sept $30,000 $126,438 $361,000
2013 Oct $30,000 $128,141 $361,000
2013 Nov $30,000 $127,766 $361,000
2013 Dec $30,000 $130,269 $361,000
2014 Jan $30,000 $132,719 $361,000
Semi
2013 Feb $145,000 $362,730 $656,662
2013 Mar $145,000 $364,283 $656,662
2013 Apr $145,000 $373,919 $656,662
2013 May $145,000 $381,672 $656,662
2013 June $145,000 $380,276 $656,662
2013 July $145,000 $384,420 $656,662
2013 Aug $145,000 $386,314 $656,662
2013 Sept $145,000 $386,531 $656,662
2013 Oct $145,000 $382,071 $656,662
2013 Nov $145,000 $395,145 $656,662
2013 Dec $145,000 $394,124 $656,662
2014 Jan $145,000 $394,016 $656,662
Source: Rigzone.com

GLOBAL DATA
12 Of fshore March 2014 t www.offshore-mag.com
Asia/Pacific is one of the most diverse regions in the
world; stretching from Pakistan and India in the west to
South Korea and Russias Sakhalin Island in the far east
and north, and Australia and New Zealand in the south.
While much of the region is dominated by shallow-water
development, recent years have seen an increase in
deepwater activity, driven by Malaysia and India. Going
forward Chevron is expected to lead deepwater invest-
ment across the region, followed by Indias ONGC and
Reliance.
The top two operators in terms of total forecast capex,
Petronas and Chevron, are each expected to account for
just over 9% of the market, while Shell, in third place, is
expected to command a 7% share of regional investment
across the 2014-2018 timeframe. In contrast to other
regions, capex spend in Asia/Pacific is characterized
by a variety of smaller operators. Outside of the top 10
operators, an additional 100 operators, equating to 42%
of regional spend, are expected to invest in the region
between 2014 and 2018. However, despite the presence of many relatively small operators, it is still the
supermajors and national oil companies that make it into the top nine companies, with Petronas, CNOOC,
ONGC, and PTTEP all present, while Chevron, Shell, and ExxonMobil are also expected to direct significant
expenditure toward the region. While Asia/Pacifics national oil companies focus primarily on their
respective home countries, the other large oil companies vary. Chevron is expected to direct the greatest
proportion of expenditure toward Australia and Indonesia, where key projects include Wheatstone and the
Gendalo-Gehem developments. Shell is expected to continue to focus on projects offshore Malaysia and
Australia where capital intensive developments such as Malikai and the giant Prelude are expected to drive
the operators investment demand. Northwest Australia is expected to remain a major area of investment
going forward for several operators, with a number large of gas projects in the planning stages.
Catarina Podevyn, Analyst, Infield Systems Ltd.
1403OFF_12 12 2/28/14 4:51 PM
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14 0G GTIPSF March 2014 t www.offshore-mag.com
Americas
Statoil has opted to exit a license agree-
ment offshore the Bahamas that started in
May 2009. The applications for the Falcones,
Islamadores, and Zapata offshore conces-
sions will now revert solely to Bahamas Pe-
troleum. Recently the islands government
issued a mandate to proceed with explora-
tion drilling on existing licenses. Bahamas
Petroleum plans to drill its frst well on its
southern licenses by April 2015, if it can se-
cure fnancing via a farm-out.
ttt
Range Resources has completed a farm-in
to Niko Resources Guayaguayare block on-
shore/offshore Trinidad. Exploration plans
include an offshore well drilled from the
shore, followed by appraisal drilling if the
outcome is successful.
ttt
BG Group expects approval from Colom-
bias government to farm into 30% of the Gu-
ajira Offshore 3 block. A 3D seismic survey
is planned this year.
ttt
SAExploration has signed a three-year stra-
tegic cooperation agreement with COMESA
to jointly source, acquire, and process 2D
and 3D seismic data. SAE and COMESA will
source and conduct new transition-zone and
shallow-water projects in Mexico, along with
developing data-processing opportunities in
South America.
Under the terms of the agreement, both
companies will share expertise, resources,
and technologies to pursue and fulfll new
seismic projects in the region. All project
awards will be contracted separately from
this agreement on a project-by-project basis.
Seadrill has executed the fnal contracts with
a total value of $1.8 billion with PEMEX for the
jackup drilling units West Oberon, West Intrep-
id, West Defender, and West Courageous.
ttt
Brazils frst tension leg wellhead platform
(TLWP), P-61, has sailed from the BrasFels
shipyard to the Papa-Terra feld in the Cam-
pos basin. It will operate with the P-63 FPSO
which began producing oil in November. In
tandem, the platforms will be able to pro-
duce up to 140,000 b/d from 18 wells. P-61 is
also designed to compress 1 MMcm/d (35
MMcf/d) of natural gas. Some will be used
on the two facilities, with the remainder
injected into the reservoir. The TLWP re-
sembles a semisubmersible, but is moored
to the seafoor via vertical anchors. The ar-
rangement is designed to suppress the plat-
forms range of motions, allowing the use of
dry christmas trees.
ttt
Premier Oil and partner Rockhopper Ex-
ploration have selected a TLP for Sea Lion,
the frst planned development project off-
shore the Falkland Islands. Front-end engi-
neering design is due to start soon, with a f-
nal investment decision to follow during the
frst half of next year. The aim is to achieve
frst oil within four years of project sanction.
Phase 1 of the project, designed to recover
293 MMbbl over 25 years, will likely cost
around $5.2 billion.
West Africa
Vaalco Energy says two new production
platforms remain on schedule for installa-
tion later this year on the Etam Marine block
offshore Gabon. One will go on the Etame
feld and the other between the Southeast
Etame and North Tchibala felds. Recently
the company resumed exploration drilling on
the area with a well on the Dimba prospect,
designed to evaluate the Gamba and deeper
syn-rift formations.
ttt
All wells have been P&Ad at the decom-
missioned Azurite feld off Republic of Congo
(Brazzaville), according to partner PA Resourc-
es. Demobilization has started of the foating
drilling, production, storage, and offoading
vessel, which is expected to sail away before
mid-year. Operator Murphy Oil is negotiating a
termination of the vessels contract.
ttt
Cobalt International Energy has discov-
ered hydrocarbons with its latest presalt
deepwater exploratory well offshore Ango-
la. Bicuar #1 on block 21 intersected 56 m
(184 ft) of net pay from multiple intervals.
It was also the frst discovery in the deeper
presalt syn-rift reservoir.
In offshore block 15/06, Total has sold its
15% stake to Sonangol E&P for $750 million.
A frst production hub is expected to start up
next year, but Total says it prefers to focus
its resources on its operated block 17, which
includes the current CLOV development
and ultra-deepwater block 32.
In Cabinda offshore northern Angola, Bos-
kalis subsidiary SMIT Salvage will start work
in 2Q to raise the Saipem jackup Perro Negro 6
from the seafoor. The rig sank last July after
suffering a punch-through close to a pigging
platform while under contract to CABGOC.
Mediterranean Sea
DNO has completed a farm-in to two con-
cessions offshore Tunisia held by Eurogas
International and Atlas Petroleum Explora-
tion Worldwide. DNO has taken an 87.5% op-
erated interest in the Sfaz and Ras El Besh
permits, both in mostly shallow waters in
the Gulf of Gabes. They include three small
oil discoveries, with 29 other prospects that
could collectively contain 500-700 MMbbl.
ttt
Croatia reportedly plans to open acreage
over the southern Adriatic Sea to bidders,
possibly this spring. Spectrum Geo recently
completed a fve-month multi-client seismic
survey providing the countrys frst modern
long-offset 2D data. This will be connected
to Spectrums reprocessed seismic from the
Italian side of the Adriatic.
ttt
Woodside Energy has reached a complex
agreement with Noble Energy and its partners
in the deepwater Leviathan gas feld offshore
Israel. The company hoped to conclude nego-
tiations by the end of this month if ratifed, it
would acquire 25% of petroleum licenses 349/
Rachel and 350/Amit containing Leviathan,
and would operate any LNG development.
Noble would remain upstream operator.
Last years Tamar SW discovery could hold
up to 917 bcf (26 bcm), according to partner
Delek Group. Costs of a tie-in to the Tamar in-
frastructure will be high possibly more than
$132 million due to the distance of the well
from Tamars subsea manifold and timing is-
sues for development drilling.
Eastern Europe
Nord Stream AG has completed a feasibility
study for expanding capacity of the twin-Nord
Stream gas trunklines through the Baltic Sea.
Results suggest one or two more lines would be
technically and economically viable. Addition-
ally, the study assessed several potential routes
that will serve as the basis for further research.
Activity offshore Namibia has taken a step up
Shell has taken over exploration blocks 2913A and 2914B in the Orange basin off-
shore Namibia from Signet Petroleum, with the Anglo-Dutch group acquiring a 90%
stake in the two blocks and Namibian national oil company, Namcor, keeping its 10%
carried interest.
Investment company Polo Resources Ltd. reports that Signet Petroleum Ltd.
intends to implement a share buyback under which funds not required for ongoing
operations and new business opportunities would be returned to shareholders.
Polo says the investment in Signet Petroleum is a central part it strategy to
increase its exposure to the oil and gas sector. The last 12 months have been a trans-
formative period for Signet in which the company has acquired and interpreted 3D
seismic data over Mnazi Bay (Tanzania), which has confirmed the up-dip extension
of the BG/Ophir Chaza-1 discovery well, acquired 2D seismic over block 2914B in
Namibia, demonstrating significant prospectivity, and launched a process to examine
strategic alternatives, which is being led by First Energy Capital LLP.
1403OFF_14 14 2/28/14 4:51 PM
1403OFF_15 15 2/28/14 4:51 PM
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GLOBAL E&P
Gazprom, supplier of the gas, says South Stream Transport has
awarded frst pipe supply contracts for the South Stream gas line sys-
tem through the southern Black Sea. This will eventually comprise
four 93-km (58-mi) offshore pipelines between the Russkaya com-
pressor station on the Russian coast and a landfall on the Bulgarian
side. Each line will be 32-in. diameter, with a wall thickness of 1.5-in.,
and made from X65 steel to withstand extreme operating pressure of
28.45 MPa (4,126 psi) during installation. Germanys Europipe and
Russias United Metallurgical Co. and Severstal will manufacture all
pipes for the frst line, with construction offshore due to start this fall.
Caspian Sea
Ramboll Group is performing winterization studies for a planned off-
shore drilling complex and living quarters for Lukoils Yuri S. Kuvykin
gas/condensate feld in the Russian sector. The northern part of the
Caspian Sea is prone to severe ice build-up
in winter, when temperatures often dip to
-21C (-6F). Lukoil is targeting produc-
tion of 4 bcm/yr (141 bcf/yr) of gas and
385,000 tons/yr of condensate.
ttt
Oil production has started through the
BP-operated West Chirag platform in the
Azeri sector, the centerpiece of the $6-billion
Chirag oil project. The platform, fabricated
entirely in Azerbaijan, has been installed in
170 m (558 ft) of water between the Chirag
and Deepwater Gunashli platforms. It can process up to 183,000 b/d of
oil, exported to the Sangachal terminal via a new pipeline linked to the
existing subsea trunkline system. Its gas export capacity is 285 MMcf/d
(8 MMcm/d).
BP and its partners in the Shah Deniz gas feld in the same sector have
awarded the AMEC Tefken Azfen consortium a $974-million contract for
the two new Stage 2 production/risers and quarters/utilities platforms.
Both of the topsides will be built at the ATA yard in Bibi-Heybat near Baku.
Middle East
Abu Dhabis government has extended the Upper Zakum offshore
oilfeld concession to the end of 2041. State oil company ADNOC oper-
ates in partnership with ExxonMobil and Japan Oil Development Co.
The feld came onstream in 1982, and the partners have progressively
added new facilities to raise production. Current development involves
use of artifcial islands to raise throughput
capacity to 750,000 b/d, and the partners
are looking at ways to raise the threshold
to 1 MMb/d.
ttt
Dubai Petroleum has awarded Technip
an engineering, procurement, construction,
and installation contract for the Jalilah B feld
development in 60 m (197 ft) of water, 90 km
(56 mi) offshore Dubai. Technip will build
and install a new platform comprising a 900-
ton deck and a 500-ton jacket; install 13 new
risers on existing platforms; and lay 110 km
(68 mi) of pipelines in diameters from 6- to
24-in. using three vessels.
The new West Chirag platform offshore
Azerbaijan. (Photo courtesy BP)
1403OFF_16 16 2/28/14 4:51 PM

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GLOBAL E&P
A new ultra-lightweight conductor-supported tripod platform is in
place on the same operators Fateh feld in 50 m (164 ft) water depth.
2H offshore designed the T-02 facility for installation from a jackup. The
minimal topside/subsea structure will host an upcoming exploration
drilling/well test campaign.
ttt
Masirah Oils second well in block 50 offshore Oman has discovered
oil. Cantilever jackup Aban VII drilled the well to a depth of 3,000 m (9,842
ft) in the Cambrian formation, encountering hydrocarbons in various
intervals. This was the frst-ever discovery east of Oman, the company
claimed.
India
Indias government expects to offer 29 offshore blocks under the NELP-
10 licensing round. Fifteen will be in shallow water and 14 in deepwater.
BG Exploration has awarded Larsen & Toubro a $114-million EPCI
contract for a new wellhead platform and subsea pipelines for the Panna-
Mukta felds off northwest India. The project should be complete by
March 2015.
On the east coast, Vessel Gasifcation Services has commissioned from
Wison Offshore & Marine a barge-based foating LNG regasifcation unit
designed to export 1 bcf/d of gas. It will be moored on a jetty structure
8 km (4.97 mi) offshore Andrha Pradesh alongside a permanent foating
storage unit, which will serve as the LNG offoading station for tankers.
Asia/Pacifc
CNOOC has started production from the Liuhua 19-5 gas feld in the
Pearl River Mouth basin in the South China Sea. The two-well develop-
ment, in 185 m (607 ft) of water, is linked to the production facility on
the Panyu 30-1 gas feld. At peak Liuhua 19-5 will deliver 29 MMcf/d.
ttt
Mubadala Petroleum has commissioned production facilities for its
Nong Yao oil feld development in block G11/48 in the Gulf of Thailand,
designed to produce up to 15,000 b/d. Nippon Steel and Sumikin Engi-
neering have started fabrication at a yard close to Bangkok. Develop-
ment calls for a wellhead platform, a processing platform, and intercon-
necting sealines to an FSO, with 23 wells during the initial phase.
Elsewhere in the Gulf, Mubadala has extended its lease of Petro-
facs FPSO on the Jasmine feld by an additional four years. However,
the company has decided to sell its 60% operated interest in northern
area block G3/48 to KrisEnergy.
ttt
Dragon Oil has agreed to farm into Service Contract 63 in the
northwest Palawan basin offshore the Philippines. Initially, the com-
pany will take 40% of Nido Petroleums 50% stake in the concession,
with Nido later hoping to recover an extra 10% through another farm-
in deal with PNOC-Exploration. Nido would remain technical opera-
tor for the planned Baragatan-1 exploration well.
ttt
Lundin Petroleum aims to drill at least six exploratory wells in South-
east Asia this year. In block 307 off Peninsular Malaysia, the company
plans to appraise its 2012 Tembakau gas discovery, with another well
targeting oil in the Rengas structure. Offshore Sabah, Lundin has com-
pleted processing of the 500-sq km (193-sq mi) 3D Emerald seismic
survey in block SB307 and plans to drill two of the covered prospects,
Kitabu and Maligan.
Australia
Shell, which has reported lower profts like numerous other majors,
is looking to cut costs via asset sales. One already agreed sale is the
companys equity interests in the Wheatstone-Iago Joint Venture and
the Wheatstone LNG project offshore Western Australia to KUFPEC for
$1.135 billion. Shell CEO Ben van Beurden insisted that the company
intended to remain a major player in Australias energy industry.
1403OFF_18 18 2/28/14 4:51 PM
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Phased approach
for Johan Sverdrup
Statoil and its partners have agreed on
a development concept for Johan Sverdrup
in the central Norwegian North Sea. The
project, potentially Norways largest since
the 1980s, will deliver production of 550,000
boe/d at peak and the facilities could remain
in service for 50 years.
Under the proposed frst phase the fnal
development plan will be submitted to Nor-
ways parliament next year the partners
will commission a four-platform feld center
to be installed in 120 m (393 ft) of water, with
design capacity of 315,000 boe/d. According
to Lundin Petroleum, 45 production and in-
jection wells will be drilled in Phase 1, with a
semisubmersible rig drilling 11-17 wells pri-
or to frst oil in late 2019. New long-distance
subsea trunklines will take the oil and gas
respectively to Mongstad and Kaarst on
Norways southwest coast.
The complexs 80-MW power supply will
come from a shore-based transformer at
Kaarst delivering direct current to a con-
verter on the riser platform. Over later phas-
es, power from shore could be extended to
other feld developments in the area, once
requirements have been established.
Statoil estimates frst-phase investments
in the range $16.4-19.8 billion, although work
continues to fnd ways to lower costs. The
partners have not yet addressed the scope
and costs of future phases, although their
long-term goal is to achieve a 70% recovery
rate from the feld.
Johan Sverdrup extends over 200 sq km
(77 mi) in licenses PL265, PL501, and PL502.
Reserves boost for Skarfjell
Wintershall has doubled the potential
resources at the Skarfjell feld in the Nor-
wegian North Sea to 120-230 MMboe. This
follows analysis of an appraisal well and side
track which proved oil and gas in Jurassic
sandstones a short distance south of the dis-
covery well. No further drilling should be
needed, the company said, and studies have
started for a development. Options include a
standalone project and a tieback to the GDF
Suez-operated Gjoa platform 15 km (9.3 mi)
to the northeast.
Last year, exploration activity offshore
Norway was highest in the North Sea, ac-
cording to the Norwegian Petroleum Direc-
torate (NPD). Wells proved seven oil and
gas accumulations, with seven discoveries
in the Norwegian Sea and fve in the Barents
Sea. NPD estimates cumulative recoverable
reserves at 50-106 MMcm of oil and 30-58
bcm of gas.
Currently 13 Norwegian felds are under
development and NPD expects operators to
submit plans for a further 13 projects over
the next two years. Investments across the
Norwegian shelf could rise by $487 million
this year to $28.5 billion, it adds.
Norway allocates more blocks
Norways government has offered 65
new production licenses to a total of 48 com-
panies under the 2013 Pre-defned Areas
(APA) licensing round. Of these, 38 are in
the North Sea, 19 in the Norwegian Sea and
eight in the Barents Sea. Seventeen rank as
acreage additional to existing licenses.
NPD says interest was greatest in the
northern Norwegian North Sea and in the
central Norwegian Sea. This was probably
down to familiarity with the geology in the
area, said exploration director Sissel Erik-
sen, and a general desire to maximize tie-ins
of resources to offshore infrastructure.
Britain has opened the bidding for the
UKs 28th offshore licensing round, with
Energy Minister Michael Fallon reaffrm-
ing the governments goal to fully extract
remaining reserves of potentially up to 20
Bbbl. Oonagh Werngren, operations direc-
tor of Oil & Gas UK, hopes that more new
applicants would participate, alongside the
established players, with the sector in need
of a revival. UK offshore production con-
tinues to slide, and reserves are not being
replaced. A mere 15 exploration wells were
drilled in UK waters last year, Werngren
said, and less than 100 MMboe have been
discovered over the past two years.
ATP UK back in business
Alpha Petroleum, a subsidiary of Petroleum
Equity, has acquired ATP Oil & Gas UK for
$133 million. Parent company ATP Corp. fled
for protection in 2012 under Chapter 11 of the
US Bankruptcy Code and had been looking to
sell the UK business, which includes operated
gasfelds in the southern North Sea.
The deal clears ATP UK of all debts and
leaves the company free to resume work on
undeveloped assets. One of these is the Chev-
iot feld in the northern UK North Sea, which
has in-place oil of over 200 MMbbl. Manage-
ment had commissioned an Octabuoy semi-
submersible drilling, production, and storage
platform designed by Moss Maritime to ac-
commodate dry wellheads. Cosco in China
had started construction, but the program has
been cancelled due to the high costs. Instead,
ATP UK and its new owners will examine al-
ternatives, most likely an FPSO, and will seek
to reduce costs via a farm-out of the license.
Another troubled North American indepen-
dent, Antrim Energy, is selling its UK North
Sea subsidiary to First Oil Expro for $53 mil-
lion. This follows problems related to fnanc-
ing of the Causeway feld subsea tieback to the
North Cormorant platform, which were com-
pounded when the platform had to be shut
down last September.
First oil fows from Amstel
GDF Suez has started production from
Amstel, its frst oilfeld development in the
Dutch North Sea. Oil is produced through
the Q13a-A platform and transported through
a new 25-km (15.5-mi) subsea pipeline to
TAQAs P15 platform to the northwest. At
peak, Amstel should deliver 15,000 b/d of oil,
with a production life estimated at 10 years.
Location of the Cheviot field in the UK northern
North Sea. (Courtesy Petroleum Equity)
Johan Sverdrup will be developed with four platforms. (Image courtesy Statoil)
1403OFF_20 20 2/28/14 4:51 PM
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BOEM outlines Gulf
of Mexico lease sale offer
The US Department of the Interior will of-
fer more than 40 million acres for oil and gas
exploration and development in the Gulf of
Mexico in March lease sales.
Secretary of the Interior Sally Jewell and Bu-
reau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM)
Director Tommy P. Beaudreau say Lease Sale
231 in the Central Planning Area and Lease Sale
225 in the Eastern Planning Area will be held
consecutively in New Orleans, Louisiana, on
March 19. The sales will be the fourth and ffth
offshore auctions under the Administrations
Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing
Program for 2012-2017 (Five-Year Program).
Sale 231 encompasses about 7,507 unleased
blocks, covering 39.6 million acres, located
from three to 230 nautical miles offshore
Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama, in water
depths ranging from 9 ft (3 m) to than 11,115 ft
(3,400 m). BOEM estimates the proposed sale
could result in the production of approximate-
ly 1 Bbbl of oil and 4 tcf of natural gas.
Sale 225 is the frst of only two lease sales pro-
posed for the Eastern Planning Area under the
Five-Year Program, and it is the frst sale offer-
ing acreage in that area since Sale 224 in March
of 2008. The sale encompasses 134 whole or
partial unleased blocks covering about 465,200
acres in the Eastern Planning Area. The blocks
are at least 125 mi. (201 km) offshore in water
depths ranging from 2,657 ft (810 m) to 10,213 ft
(3,113 m). The area is south of eastern Alabama
and western Florida. BOEM estimates the sale
could result in the production of 71 MMbbl of
oil and 162 bcf of natural gas.
In addition to opening bids for these two
sales, BOEM will open any pending bids sub-
mitted in Western Planning Area Sale 233 for
blocks located or partially located within three
statute miles of the maritime and continental
shelf boundary with Mexico (the Boundary
Area). Any leases awarded as a result of these
bids will be subject to the terms of the US-Mex-
ico Transboundary Hydrocarbons Agreement.

Lucius spar
installation completed
Anadarko has completed installation of the
80,000 b/d oil capacity Lucius spar in deepwa-
ter Gulf of Mexico. The topsides are expected
to be towed to location in 1Q 2014.
Lucius is on schedule toward frst oil produc-
tion in the second half of 2014, said Anadarko,
and construction on the Lucius-look-alike Hei-
delberg spar is more than 70% complete. Hei-
delberg is on schedule for frst oil production
in 2016.
Anadarkos 2013 deepwater GoM success was
highlighted by the emergence of the Shenandoah
basin. Following the Anadarko-operated Shenan-
doah-2 appraisal well, which encountered more
than 1,000 net feet of oil pay, and oil discoveries
at the nearby Coronado and Yucatan prospects,
Anadarko enhanced its ownership position in, and
will become the operator of Coronado.
Anadarko is the only company with owner-
ship in all three discoveries in the Shenandoah
basin. In addition, Anadarko and its partners
are accelerating appraisal activity in the basin
with appraisal wells under way at Coronado and
Yucatan, and a rig committed to drill a delinea-
tion well at Shenandoah beginning in 2Q 2014
Shell starts second
Mars production
Shell has started producing from the deep-
water Mars B platform in the Gulf of Mexico.
Production is going through the Olympus
installation, making this the frst deepwater
GoM project to expand an existing oil and
gas feld with signifcant new infrastructure.
Shell said this should extend the life of the
greater Mars basin production to 2050 or be-
yond. When added to future Olympus produc-
tion, the original Mars platform is expected to
deliver a total of 1 Bboe.
We safely completed construction and in-
stallation of the Olympus platform more than
six months ahead of schedule, allowing us
to begin production early from the develop-
ments frst well, said John Hollowell, execu-
tive VP for Deep Water, Shell Upstream Ameri-
cas. Olympus is the latest successful start-up
of our strong portfolio of deepwater projects,
which we expect to generate substantial value
in the coming years. Deepwater will continue
to be a core growth opportunity for Shell.
In addition to the Olympus drilling and pro-
duction platform, the Shell Mars B develop-
ment includes subsea wells at the West Boreas
and South Deimos felds, export pipelines, and
a shallow-water platform at West Delta 143.
Olympus is in approximately 945 m (3,100 ft)
of water.
Using the Olympus platform drilling rig and
a foating drill rig, additional development drill-
ing will enable ramp up to an estimated peak of
100,000 boe/d in 2016. Mars feld produced an
average of over 60,000 boe/d in 2013. Partners
in the development are operator Shell, 71.5%;
and BP, 28.5%.
BSEE, Coast Guard respond
to well control incident
On Jan. 31, the Bureau of Safety and Environ-
mental Enforcement (BSEE) announced that
along with the US Coast Guard it was respond-
ing to a loss of well control in Vermilion block
356. Vermilion block 356 is located about 108
mi (174 km) southwest of Lafayette, Louisiana.
EnVen Energy Ventures LLC reported a
natural gas fow while drilling from the Rowan
Louisiana, at the A production platform. The
gas was diverted overboard and work began
immediately to shut in the well. No visible
sheen was reported. Personnel were evacu-
ated, no injuries were reported, and all oil and
gas production at the platform was shut in.
BSEE approved EnVens plan to kill the well
with mud, and pumping began the afternoon
of Jan. 31. By Feb. 3, the well control incident
had been resolved. The BSEE reported that
weighted drilling fuids had been pumped into
well A-7 to stop the uncontrolled fow. The
agency said that it will require additional work
at the site, including setting of barriers to en-
sure no further gas release.
Shell says production from the deepwater Mars B platform has begun, marking the first deepwa-
ter GoM project to expand an existing oil and gas field with significant new infrastructure. (Photo
courtesy Shell)
Anadarko says it has completed installation of
the 80,000 b/d of oil capacity Lucius spar in Ke-
athley Canyon block 875 in the Gulf of Mexico.
Last year, Dockwise transported the spar on
its semisubmersible heavy-lift vessel Mighty
Servant from Pori, Finland, to Ingleside, Texas.
(Photo courtesy Dockwise)
1403OFF_22 22 2/28/14 4:51 PM
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platforms. ts compact design enables most components to ft in standard shipping containers, which
helps reduce crane load requirements and mobilization expenses.
Our patented vertical racking feature allows multi-well intervention operations to be performed
without laying down works string or rigging down the unit. This functionality leads to reduced trip
times, increased personnel safety, and smoother marine transport, compared to traditional platform
and jack-up rigs.
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1403OFF_23 23 2/28/14 4:51 PM
SUBSEA SYSTEMS
(FOF ,MJFXFS t )PVTUPO
24 0G GTIPSF March 2014 t www.offshore-mag.com
sgard gets power distribution units
Schneider Electric has delivered to Aker Solutions three control
power distribution units (CPDU) for the sgard subsea compres-
sion station project. Two CPDUs will be installed on the subsea tem-
plate, with the third being a spare. The sgard CPDUs will provide
fully redundant low voltage power for the worlds frst subsea gas
compression station.
The three CPDUs have been delivered to Egersund, Norway,
where the mechanical, electrical, and automation integration and
fnal testing of the complete subsea unit are being performed.
sgard feld, in 300 m (984 ft) water depth offshore Norway, is op-
erated by Statoil with partners Eni, ExxonMobil, Petoro, and Total.
Ceona to install umbilicals
for Bennu in Gulf of Mexico
Bennu Oil and Gas has contracted Ceona to work on the Clipper
Contingency Umbilical Installation Project in the Gulf of Mexico.
The project is to install 1.1 mi (1.77 km) of dymanic umbilical and
two 15-mi (24-km) electrical quad cables in more than 3,000 ft (914
m) of water.
Offshore work is planned to commence in May 2014 using the
Normand Pacifc. The vessel is chartered by Ceona and, once de-
livered in April 2014, it will be ftted with a 75 metric ton (82 ton)
vertical lay tower and two new high-specifcation Work Class ROVs
for deepwater fexible installation and subsea construction. The ves-
sel is 122 m (400 ft) long by 23 m (75 ft) in beam and also has a 200
ton knuckle boom crane.
Delta SubSea buys ROVs
from Schilling Robotics
As part of Delta SubSeas frame agreement with FMC Schilling
Robotics, DSS has fnalized an order to receive an additional feet of
four work-class ROV systems to be delivered in February-to-April.
Schilling Robotics is to supply two additional Schilling HD 150-hp
work-class ROV systems and two Schilling UHD 200-hp work-class
ROV systems.
DSS will add the new ROVs to its feet to service the global oil and
gas offshore drilling support, construction, and inspection, mainte-
nance, and repair (IMR) markets.
Shell agrees to sell interest
in BC-10 offshore Brazil
Shell has agreed to sell a 23% interest in the BC-10 deepwater devel-
opment offshore Brazil to Qatar Petroleum International for $1 billion.
Shell will continue to operate BC-10 with a 50% working interest.
The transaction is subject to approval by the National Petroleum
and Gas Agency (ANP) and the Administrative Council for Econom-
ic Defense (Brazils anti-trust authority).
BC-10 produces approximately 50,000 boe/d. Since coming on-
stream in 2009, BC-10 has produced more than 80 MMboe. Phase 2
of the project, to tie-in the Argonauta O-North feld, came online on
Oct. 1, 2013, with an expected peak production of 35,000 boe/d. The
fnal investment decision for Phase 3 of the BC-10 project was taken
in July 2013 and once online is expected to reach a peak production
of 28,000 boe/d.
Martin Linge platform
hookup awarded
Technip has awarded Rosenberg WorleyParsons a hookup and
commissioning contract for Totals Martin Linge platform in the
Norwegian North Sea.
Estimated value of the contract is $92 million.
Onshore preparations start with mobilization to France and sub-
sequently South Korea, with a project team to be established at
some point at Rosenberg WorleyParsons facilities in Stavanger.
The contractor expects main offshore activity to be executed dur-
ing mid-2016.
gotnes-based Atlantic Offshores newest offshore support ves-
sel Ocean Marlin will operate at the Martin Linge feld.
The hull recently was launched at the Astilleros Zamakona Pasaia
shipyard in San Sebastian, northern Spain.
Currently the vessel is undergoing painting, drydocking, and out-
ftting. It is expected to be delivered by end-July.
The Martin Linge development will consist of a production fxed
platform, a foating storage offoading vessel, 50 MW AC electric
power from shore through a 160-km (100-mi) subsea cable, a 24-in.
gas export pipeline, and an offshore control center in Stavanger.
Martin Linge is 180 km (112 mi) west of Bergen, Norway, in a
water depth of 115 m (377 ft).
MAN Diesel & Turbo is installing its first-ever hermetically
sealed compressor on an offshore production platform. The
HOFIM (High-Speed, Oil Free, Integrated Motor) compressor
is going onto Det norske oljeselskaps Ivar Aasen develop-
ment in the North Sea. The Ivar Aasen installation comprises
a multi-stage radial compressor (1x100%) arranged in tandem
around a centrally positioned 9.5 MW high-speed electrical
motor. The compressor is used to export produced gas into a
subsea pipeline to shore.
Deepwater spending to grow 130%
Deepwater expenditure is expected to increase by 130%,
compared to the preceding five-year period, reaching $260 bil-
lion from 2014 to 2018, forecasts Douglas-Westwood.
As production from mature onshore basins and in shal-
low water declines, development of deepwater reserves has
become increasingly vital. Robust oil prices support the in-
vestment as sustained high oil prices over the past few years
increase confidence in the sector.
Africa and the Americas continue to dominate deepwater
capex, with $213 billion to be spent over the next five years.
Africa is forecast to experience the greatest growth among the
three regions, as East African natural gas developments begin
production and become more prominent in the latter years
of the forecast period. Latin America will remain the largest
market and North America is expected to experience the least
growth.
Douglas-Westwood has identified a temporary trough in
global expenditure in 2015 primarily driven by delays to deliv-
ery of FPS units in Latin America. African projects have also
experienced delays resulting in a surge in capex from 2016
onward.
1403OFF_24 24 2/28/14 4:51 PM
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Fecon taps Keppel for frst jackups
Keppel FELS has won contracts worth $650 million to build three
high-specifcation jackups for startup Fecon International Corp. The
KFELS B Class rigs are scheduled for delivery in 2H 2016. Fecon,
a new offshore player with Russian roots, is targeting markets in
Africa, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia, and has identifed off-
shore drilling in Russia as a strategic market with good growth op-
portunities, Keppel said.
Keppel FELS also reported a $218-million contract with UMW
Drilling 8 for a KFELS B Class rig to be delivered in 3Q 2015. The
shipyard has another jackup, UMW NAGA 5, under construction for
the Malaysian driller, and in early 2013 delivered they UMW NAGA
4, which is currently working offshore Malaysia.
CIMC builds backlog
Yantai CIMC Raffes Offshore Ltd. has secured orders for a new-
build drillship and a harsh environment semisubmersible, with op-
tions for an additional four drilling rigs. The drillship, for Norwegian
drilling contractor Norshore, will be a small multi-purpose vessel
designed for riserless drilling and well intervention. Delivery is
scheduled for 2H 2016. Norshore has options to build up to three
similar drillships.
CIMC also received an order from Beacon Holdings Group Ltd.
for an ice class semisubmersible based on the GM4-D design.
Dubbed the Beacon Atlantic, the rig will be capable of drilling to
8,000 m (26,247 ft) in water depths up to 500 m (1,640 ft). The con-
tract carries an option for one additional semisub. CIMC has sched-
uled delivery of the Beacon Atlantic in 4Q 2016.
Ensco divests idle rigs
Ensco has sold its two remaining cold-stacked jackups for $33
million. The rigs, ENSCO 69 and Wisconsin, both date to 1976. The
London-based company has been undergoing a feet upgrade over
the past four years, having sold 13 older rigs and taken delivery of
12 high-performance units, including fve ultra-deepwater drillships,
fve ENSCO 8500 series semisubmersibles, and two harsh-environ-
ment jackups. Ensco has three more drillships and three premium
jackups under construction.
Wison to build second foating regas unit
EXMAR and Pacifc Rubiales have placed an order with Wison
Offshore & Marine for a barge-based foating LNG regasifcation
unit, to be delivered in 4Q 2015. Wison will build the unit at its Nan-
tong, China, shipyard. The companies have collaborated on the Pa-
cifc Rubiales-operated Caribbean FLNG project offshore Colombia,
which is scheduled to begin processing gas from an onshore feld
in 2Q 2015. In January, Wison announced that it will supply a barge-
based regasifcation unit to VGS for an LNG import project offshore
Andhra Pradesh, India.

Seadrill inks Pemex contracts
Seadrill has fnalized a set of contracts with Mexicos Pemex for
the West Oberon, West Intrepid, West Defender and West Courageous
jackup drilling units. A ffth contract for the recently acquired Pros-
pector 3 jackup, renamed West Titania, is expected to be fnalized in
2Q 2014. Each contract is for about six years. Seadrill said the total
value of the Pemex deal could exceed $1.8 billion.
The company also announced that it had formed a 50/50 joint
venture with investment company Fintech Advisory. The new part-
nership, SeaMex Ltd., was formed to own and manage the jackups
working for Pemex and to develop and pursue further opportuni-
ties in Mexico and other Latin American countries, Seadrill said.
Kraken contract inked
Deltamarin will provide basic design for the FPSO to be installed
at EnQuests Kraken feld in the UK North Sea. EnQuest approved
the 4-billion ($6-billion) project in November 2013, and announced
that Malaysias Bumi Armada would supply the FPSO. Deltamarin
had earlier provided Bumi Armada with technical support during
the tanker conversions front-end engineering and design stage. The
turret-moored FPSO will have a storage capacity of 600,000 bbl and
measure more than 285 m (935 ft) in length. Production is sched-
uled to begin in 2016 or 2017 and peak at a daily rate of more than
50,000 bbl.
Maersk Drilling held a naming ceremony at the Samsung Heavy
Industries yard in South Korea for the companys second and third
ultra-deepwater drillships, Maersk Valiant and Maersk Venturer. Maersk
has invested roughly $2.6 billion in four ultra-deepwater drillships to
be delivered by SHI by the end of this year. Maersk Valiant will go to
work for ConocoPhillips and Marathon Oil in the Gulf of Mexico under a
three-year, $694-million contract with an option to extend for two years.
Maersk Venturer and the fourth rig, which is scheduled for delivery in
3Q 2014, are not yet under contract.
Boskalis subsidiary Dockwise landed a contract with Statoil for the
transportation of two Cat-J jackup drilling rigs from South Korea to Nor-
way. Dockwise plans to deploy the Blue Marlin transport vessel (pictured
delivering the Noble Jim Day in 2010) and sister vessel White Marlin,
which Dockwise plans to put into service this year. The Statoil rigs are
scheduled to leave the Samsung Heavy Industries yard in late 2016 or
early 2017, and will be deployed to the Gullfaks and Oseberg fields.
1403OFF_26 26 2/28/14 4:52 PM
Email: qualitytubing@nov.com


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Over the last several months, the offshore
industry has taken delivery of quite a few
drilling units rated for 12,000-ft (3,659-m)
water depth. Since to date the deepest water
well measured in at 10,411 ft (3,174 m), the
worlds ultra-deepwater drilling contractors
must have visions of still deeper frontiers.
And judging by the number of units boasting
12,000-ft capability, the contractors must en-
visage quite a deepwater boom approaching.
For foating drilling units, deepwater capac-
ity is mainly limited by variable deck load. This
is the sum of the weights of all movable equip-
ment on deck from tubulars, to BOP stacks,
to drilling and completion fuids. Another lim-
iting consideration is hoisting power, but this
more a function of total well depth than water
depth.
But for oil and gas well drilling, operators
have concerns other than water depth. To en-
sure that wells actually reach their intended
targets requires formation evaluation, and
therein lies a challenge.
The deeper the water, the higher the overall
drilling and completion risk. Typically, verti-
cal or slightly deviated wells have been evalu-
ated by wireline logging measurements. The
service companies have done quite a lot of
engineering to make the logging process as
safe and effcient as possible. Downhole tools
are now combinable so almost all needed ser-
vices, including fuid samples and formation
pressure measurements, can be made in a sin-
gle trip, saving considerable time and greatly
reducing risk. Schlumberger has launched its
new TUFFline extra strength logging cable to
address the ultra-deep challenge. When bot-
tomhole conditions are considered, wireline
logging has a big advantage. The tool string
must be able to withstand the heat and pres-
sure at total depth for only a short time.
Operators of high-profle drilling programs
value the real-time aspects provided by log-
ging-while-drilling (LWD) tools. Incorporat-
ed in the drillstring and close to the bit, LWD
tool strings provide quality formation evalua-
tion, including formation fuid and pressure
sampling, with data transmitted to surface
in real-time. This enables engineers to geo-
steer the wellbore into reservoir sweet
spots while avoiding geohazards. This great-
ly reduces drilling risk, so much so that many
opt for LWD despite its cost premium.
However, since the LWD instruments must
remain at total depth for the entire bit run, they
may be exposed to harsh environment condi-
tions of pressure and temperature for quite a
long time. They are also subject to severe shock
and vibration from the drill bit. Rotary steerable
systems (RSS) are the preferred method of geo-
steering the wellbore because they can make
trajectory adjustments faster, and because they
eliminate the sliding mode that can hamper
drilling performance when mud motors and
bent subs are used to direct the drilling. Unfor-
tunately todays RSS typically have temperature
ratings below 350F (175C).
No matter which formation evaluation type
is used, concluding ultra-deepwater drilling
operations safely ushers-in a new series of en-
vironmental concernscompletions. To im-
prove well performance and avoid production
risks, operators are investing in sophisticated
completions. Besides the obvious desire to
maximize production, they must consider
fow assurance, sand management, and cor-
rosion. Other concerns focus on cementing
and perforating. To cost-effectively mitigate
these issues, or perform these services, re-
quires accurate measurements of downhole
conditions. Later, during production, opera-
tors need the ability to make downhole fow
adjustments. Downhole pressure and tem-
perature gauges, which are at the heart of
most production measurements, also have
environmental limits. The current tempera-
ture record-holder for a downhole pressure
gauge is 15 days at 410F (210C). Unfortu-
nately, the gauge recorded this temperature
several hundred meters above total depth,
forcing the operator to make correlations to
estimate actual reservoir temperature at the
completion.
In addition to instrumentation, sealing
technology must keep pace with the drillers.
Standard elastomeric seals are stressed by el-
evated temperatures and pressures. Metal-to-
metal seals can deform under pressure; then
fail when the pressure is relieved.
For the past few years, good news has
been coming ashore from many ultra deep-
water projects. Many, if not most, discoveries
boast of massive reservoirs, hundreds of feet
thick and containing millions of barrels of
high-quality crude oil. The prize more than
justifes the investment.
But if the industry is going to be successful
in drilling, completing, and producing ultra-
deep wells in ultra-deepwater, greater strides
must be made to develop reliable downhole in-
strumentation that can withstand bottomhole
conditions for the life of the reservoir. What
good are drillships that can drill in 12,000 ft of
water and 40,000 ft (12,192 m) of rock if log-
ging and production tools cannot perform un-
der those conditions?
How deep can the industry go?
1403OFF_28 28 2/28/14 4:52 PM
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3D seismic survey
underway off Namibia
A 3D seismic survey has commenced in
license area EL 0037 offshore Namibia, says
Pancontinental Oil & Gas. The 3D acquisition
will cover 3,000 sq km (1,158 sq mi) and a sec-
ond acquisition phase of 2D data will cover ap-
proximately 1,000 line km (386 mi). The total
acquisition is expected to take up to 120 days.
The survey is managed by the EL0037
joint venture operator Tullow Oil, using the
seismic acquisition vessel Polarcus Asima.
Tullow Oil farmed-in to EL 0037 in Sep-
tember 2013 and subsequently identifed a
number of geological leads to be covered by
the 3D survey.
Pancontinental retains a 30% free-carried
interest through the surveys and one op-
tional well to be drilled by Tullow, for Tullow
to retain its 65% interest. Pancontinental esti-
mates that Tullows farm-in expenditure may
be up to $130 million for the full program.
Eco (Atlantic) Oil & Gas has an updated re-
source report on block 2012A (Cooper) in the
Walvis basin offshore Namibia.
According to Colorado-based Gustavson As-
sociates, the P50 best estimate is 4.5 Bboe of
gross prospective oil over the existing targets.
The report evaluated an additional 700 km
(435 mi) of recently acquired 2D seismic data.
Eco retained PGS in the UK to work with its in-
ternal team to complete a new detailed geolog-
ical and geophysical interpretation of Cooper.
Overall, the report is based on interpretation
of more than 1,450 line km (901 mi) of 2D data
and an analysis of PGSs study on the block.
The Namibian Ministry of Mines and Ener-
gy has granted a one-year extension to March
2016 of the initial exploration period for the
license.
Elsewhere
offshore Africa
SeaBird Exploration will work with part-
ner Acorn Geophysical on an additional 3D
seismic acquisition project offshore West
Africa in the (VMG PG (VJOFB.
The 1,100-sq km (425-sq mi) survey is an
extension of a 1,500-sq km (579-sq mi) 3D proj-
ect announced earlier this year. Pre-funding
for the two programs totals around $8 million.
The survey vessel Geo Pacifc will acquire the
added data.
Marathon Oil says evaluation continues
of last years Diaman-1B exploration well on
the Diaba license G4-223 offshore (BCPO,
operated by Total.
Marathon announced in August that the
well encountered 160-180 net ft (48.7-55 m)
of hydrocarbon pay in the deepwater presalt
play. Early analysis suggests the hydrocar-
bons are natural gas with condensate con-
tent, although this remains to be confrmed.
Marathon, which holds a 21.25% interest
in the license, says the partners have identi-
fed numerous other presalt prospects.
Last October, the company was the high
bidder as operator of two deepwater blocks
in the presalt. Gabons government has
since withdrawn one of the blocks. Award of
the other block is pending government ap-
proval and negotiation of an exploration and
production-sharing contract.
Ophir Energy plc has begun drilling
on the Padouck Deep-1 well on the Ntsina
block, offshore (BCPO, using the Vantage
Drilling Titanium Explorer drillship.
The Padouck Deep-1 well is the frst well
targeting the presalt play offshore in the
North Gabon basin, and is located in a water
depth of 835 m (2,740 ft) and has a planned
TD of 3,500 m (11,483 ft). Operations are ex-
pected to take approximately 45 days.
Afren claims its Ogo discovery offshore
/JHFSJB is one of the largest worldwide, with
potential recoverable resources of 774 MM-
boe. Ogo is in license PL 310 in the Upper
Cretaceous fairway that runs along the West
African transform margin.
Afren says the synrift play that delivered
a 280-ft (85-m) gross hydrocarbon column in
the Ogo well also exists on the companys ad-
jacent OML 113 license. The company plans
to acquire 3D seismic ahead of appraisal and
additional exploration drilling.
This year Afren and its partners will start
development of three more shallow-water
Nigerian discoveries, namely the Okoro
Further Field Development, the Ebok North
Fault block, and Okwok.
Foz do Amazonas
3D survey ongoing
CGG and Spectrum say acquisition of the
BroadSeis 3D multi-client survey program
offshore Brazil in the Foz do Amazonas ba-
sin is going as planned. The two companies
are equal partners on this project which has
received high prefunding.
The 11,330-sq km (4,378-sq mi) survey
is being acquired by the Oceanic Endeavour
deploying Sercels new-generation Sentinel
RD solid streamer. The data set will be pro-
cessed in CGGs Rio de Janeiro subsurface
imaging center.
CNOOC wins
Iceland license
Orkustofnun, Icelands National Energy
Authority, has granted its third license in the
offshore Dreki area.
CNOOC Iceland will operate with 60%
interest, in partnership with Eykon Energy
(15%) and Petoro Iceland (25%).
Applications for the third licensing round
for the Dreki area between Iceland and Nor-
way closed last April.
The other successful consortia were Itha-
ca Petroleum, Kolvetni and Petoro Iceland;
and Faroe Petroleum Norge, slenskt kol-
vetni, and Petoro Iceland.
Norways oil ministry said that Norway
teamed last year with CNOOC to explore
for oil offshore Iceland. Under a 1981 treaty,
Norway has a right to take a 25% stake in
Icelands oil licenses, and the Norwegian
government decided to exercise this right
to join an exploration license with CNOOC
in the waters between Iceland and Norways
Jan Mayen Island.
The Dreki Area is part of the Jan Mayen
ridge micro-continent, thought to have sepa-
rated from the continental shelf of Green-
land and Norway via plate tectonic move-
ments 45-60 million years ago. A Strategic
Environmental Assessment of the Dreki
Area, and research on the marine biosphere,
climate and sea conditions, suggest there is
no danger of sea ice and wave heights are
lower than off Norways west coast.
SEAM data publicly available
The SEG Advanced Modeling Program (SEAM) Earth Models and synthetic data
sets from the Phase I project are now publicly available to license. The license fees
are based on distribution media of external USB drives or, for smaller sets, DVDs or
flash drives.
The SEAM data provides benchmarking tools to test imaging and inversion algo-
rithms; better understand features and artifacts in real image; and explore trade-offs
in acquisition methodologies. The SEAM data also provides teaching tools for aca-
demia to train the next generation of seismic processing and imaging experts.
Five earth models were generated in SEAM Phase I to simulate a realistic earth
model of a salt canopy region of the Gulf of Mexico. The models range in size from 3
GB to 426 GB. The data sets are available ranging in size from approximately 4 GB to
1.6 TB. The majority of the data sets are compressed, and decompression codes are
included with each set.
The Phase I project was initiated in March 2007 with the primary goal of designing
and generating synthetic model 3D geophysical data that represents exploration and
subsurface characterization challenges to the consortium members.
Following SEAM Phase I, SEAM launched Phase II, Land Seismic Challenges,
which is currently under way. A SEAM Phase III, Pressure Prediction and Hazard
Avoidance, is planned for 2014-2016.
1403OFF_30 30 2/28/14 4:52 PM
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1403OFF_31 31 2/28/14 4:52 PM
OFFSHORE AUTOMATI ON SOLUTI ONS
32 Of fshore March 2014 t www.offshore-mag.com
Ian Verhappen
Industrial Automation Networks Inc.
All of us are aware that we are being inundated with data at an
ever increasing rate. But how often are we able to use all this infor-
mation to make informed decisions? Getting from data to action is a
multi-step process in several dimensions.
The key to managing all this data is standards. Without standards
to defne the format in which the information is to be converted
from bits into a signal light (fber optic), frequency (wireless), volt-
age or current (cable) so that it can be transmitted and received
as packets of information, it would all simply be noise. It is likely
that a single packet of information moves from a feld sensor in an
offshore facility to the control room and then eventually to the cor-
porate MES (manufacturing execution system) or ERP (enterprise
resource planning) system.
Due to space limitations and to avoid becoming overly technical,
the focus here will be on the data fow side of the equation.
The four levels of transformation when moving from data to action
are: data (raw data collected from feld sensors, operators, purchase
orders, inventory levels, etc.), information (putting this information
into context of place, time, relative amounts), knowledge (how the
change in information affects the stability of the operation), and ac-
tion (doing something to maintain equilibrium in the system). Lets
take a look at each of these levels in more detail from the perspec-
tive of feld devices.
Todays feld sensors and actuators, including motor drives, all sup-
port some form of digital communication technology, whether it is
HART, one of the all-digital protocols such as Modbus, or one of the
many feldbuses. In addition to the process signal, these devices can
convey more than 300 parameters used to determine the health of the
device, and hence not only the reliability of the signal itself but also
the ability to predict when and what form of maintenance will be re-
quired to keep the signal within acceptable levels of tolerance. Taking
advantage of this information means you will only operate your facility
on information that you know is good, and with a bit more work allows
you to better manage your spare parts and equipment maintenance.
Using the single status byte converts the data into information.
However, to move the balance of the data from these feld devices
requires more work, typically in the form of intelligent device man-
agement. The International Society of Automation has a committee,
ISA-108, working on standards for data fow and work practices in
this area, so that data can consistently be used for more reliable
operation of feld devices and control systems.
Once it has been identifed that device maintenance is required,
the technicians then have to connect to the device. In the case of
most process industries and hence offshore platforms, that will
mean an EDDL (electronic device description language)-based de-
vice. However, the connection to that device or other devices such
as motors may use other protocols to identify the problem, and then
take corrective action without having to physically go into the feld,
thus reducing exposure hours of personnel. FDT technology is a
widely used tool to provide a graphical interface to view and in some
cases change the information in the device for a wide range of pro-
tocols with a common look and feel as defned in the ANSI/ISA-
62453 (103) documents based on the IEC 62453 series of standards.
Field device data is also being used in control systems to maintain
steady operations and in the case of some advanced applications, to
identify patterns of measurements indicating anomalies in the opera-
tion of other equipment such as separation vessels, heat exchangers,
and pumps. The information indicates when equipment is not operat-
ing within or is approaching the limits of its design envelope.
Experienced operators know that when they see a pattern of read-
ings, or hear a certain noise from a piece of equipment, that they have
to respond in a certain way. This represents the knowledge that we
are striving to capture with automated systems as represented by an-
other ISA standard, ISA-106 (Procedure Automation for Continuous
Process Operations), as well as at the higher levels of the enterprise
ERP and CMM (continuous maintenance management) systems.
There are two primary organizations working to integrate the
control system with enterprise systems: the ISA-95 Best Practices
Working Group (Enterprise-Control System Integration) and the
Manufacturing Enterprise Solutions Association (MESA). They
are defning the methods by which data can be consistently trans-
ferred between the various levels of an enterprise so that it can be
integrated with business data points such as inventory, pricing, and
workforce availability/planning.
Each of these systems is integrating ever more data into models
that convert it into a form from which the systems themselves
through knowledge coded into them as rules, procedures, and al-
gorithms can automatically take action, or alert a person about
the situation so that they can take the appropriate action in a timely
manner, whether they are in an offce in Houston, on a rig in the Gulf
of Mexico, or on a deep sea production facility.
Reliable deepwater installation requires tight integration with all
levels of the enterprise to manage the logistics of keeping the fa-
cility operating with spare parts, food and water, and maintenance.
Integrating data from weather satellites and GPS signals with the rig
controls keep the platform stable and properly oriented in the right
location over the drilling or production site.
The tools and processes used to turn data to information, informa-
tion to knowledge, and knowledge to action, are in many cases what
separate the successful offshore companies in all facets of operation
drilling, production, safety, and environment from their peers.
Each of us, therefore, needs to answer the question of where are we
in this hierarchy of integrated business operations. Our role as engi-
neers and managers is to enable people to make the right decisions
and take the actions that will maximize return on investment while
being sure that everyone gets home safe at the end of the day.
The Author
Ian Verhappen, P.Eng., is an ISA Fellow, ISA Certifed Automation Professional
(CAP), Automation Hall of Fame member, and a recognized authority on process
analyzer sample systems, Foundation Fieldbus, and industrial communications tech-
nologies. Verhappen provides consulting services in the areas of feld level industrial
communications, process analytics and hydrocarbon facility automation. Feedback is
always welcome via e-mail at iverhappen@gmail.com.
Turning data into actions
Ef fective data integration essential to safe and ef fcient operations
Reliable deepwater installation requires
tight integration with all levels of the enterprise.
1403OFF_32 32 2/28/14 4:52 PM
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REGULATORY PERSPECTI VES
Kenneth Hurwitz
Haynes and Boone, LLP
No one knows for certain what will turn up
when a drill bit reaches target depth, but seis-
mic data allow robust estimates of the prob-
ability of success. This has never been truer
than today as a result of dramatic technologi-
cal advances in seismic surveying and com-
puter modeling. But scientifc understanding
of the environmental impacts of seismic ac-
tivities has not kept pace, and the regulatory
state of the art is relatively unsophisticated.
These issues are now coming to a head in
the US, where future seismic activities and
leasing in the mid-Atlantic and South Atlantic
areas may hang in the balance.
The basics of seismic exploration can be
simply explained. A seismic survey uses sound
energy to map geological structures under the
seabed. Specialized vessels tow air guns that
use compressed air to produce pulses of high-
energy, low-frequency sound waves that travel
through rock layers beneath the seabed and
bounce back to hydrophones that measure the
strength of the waves and their return time.
Computer modeling of these measurements
produces a detailed picture of the structures
and rock formations in the survey area.
Rudimentary aspects of the impacts of air
guns on marine mammals and fsh are well
understood. It is generally agreed that for a
seismic sound to result in auditory impair-
ment or other physical harm to marine mam-
mals, animals must be located within a short
distance from the sound source. Most marine
mammals, including certain types of whales,
generally avoid active seismic vessels and swim
away when one is in the vicinity. Some marine
mammals, on the other hand, such as dolphins,
are known to bow ride (ride in the wake at
the vessels bow) with no apparent harmful
impacts. Also, there is evidence that, if seismic
surveys were to occur when a large aggrega-
tion of marine mammals, fsh, or sea turtles
were present, they could result in the displace-
ment of breeding, feeding, or nursing activities,
dispersion of fsh in spawning areas, and diver-
sion from migration routes. In other words,
there are potentially detrimental consequences.
But the risks are poorly quantifed or unknown.
It is not yet possible to establish unequivo-
cal criteria for determining the zone of in-
fuence around a noise source. Sound infu-
ences different species differently, based on
physiological variations and conditions of the
environment, and experimental data are lim-
ited. For example, determining the energy
levels that could cause temporary threshold
shift (temporary hearing loss) in whales is
extremely diffcult because of challenges in
replicating real-world conditions and in accu-
mulating data from adequately sized sample
populations. Moreover, it is impossible to ex-
trapolate reliably from one species to another.
The gaps in scientifc research are wide, and
they will not be eliminated any time soon.
Faced with these challenges, regulators
seem to have coalesced around several ba-
sic mitigation measures intended to reduce
the risk to marine mammals and fsh. The
frst of these is a prohibition against night-
time activities and the establishment and
monitoring of safety zones by a trained ma-
rine mammal observer. If a whale, dolphin,
porpoise, or sea turtle is spotted within the
safety zone, the air source array must be shut
down or postponed until the animal leaves
(although continued release of a minimum
amount of sound is allowed in some cases to
deter entry by others). In addition, seismic
operators are required to take advantage of
the characteristic avoidance behavior of most
marine species by using a start-up technique
Proposed offshore seismic rules appear to lack scientifc rigor
1403OFF_34 34 2/28/14 4:52 PM
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REGULATORY PERSPECTI VES
whereby activation of air source arrays takes
place gradually over a fxed period of time.
Reporting requirements for survey activities
and sightings are also common. Finally, pas-
sive acoustic monitoring is required by some
regulatory regimes to assist in mitigation ef-
forts. This technique can detect sound waves
generated by species that propagate noise in
mating behavior or for echolocation. All of
these measures, except the last are, under a
2012 Notice to Lessees, required of all US les-
sees that wish to conduct seismic survey op-
erations in waters deeper than 200 m (656 ft)
throughout the Gulf of Mexico, and in waters
of any depth east of 88 longitude.
While the above mitigation measures are
commonly required around the globe, no
one knows how effective they really are. The
problem is coming to a head in the US, where
the draft Programmatic Environmental Impact
Statement for Proposed Geological and Geophysi-
cal Activities in the Mid-Atlantic and South Atlan-
tic Planning Areas, a document mandated by
Congress in 2010, will soon be issued in fnal
form by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Manage-
ment. The terms under which future seismic
activities will be conducted in these areas will
be heavily infuenced by its content. These ac-
tivities, in turn, will determine whether the re-
gions hydrocarbon resources are suffciently
robust to support future leasing.
Intended as a tool for decision making by
regulators, the draft statement is an unfortu-
nately blunt and unwieldy instrument. It consid-
ers two different sets of mitigation measures,
Alternative A and Alternative B, distinguished
by the relative level of protection they afford,
and Alternative C, which would ban seismic air
gun surveys in the area. Alternative B would
require passive acoustical monitoring, impose a
25-mi (40-km) distance between simultaneous-
ly operating deep-penetration seismic air gun
surveys, ban air gun surveys in near-coastal
waters offshore Brevard County, Florida, dur-
ing sea turtle nesting season, and create an
expanded zone off the Atlantic coast adjacent
to the right whale critical habitat area, where
surveys would be banned from Nov. 15 through
April 15. Alternative A contains none of these
measures; it roughly corresponds to the mea-
sures in the Notice to Lessees described above.
The draft statement, while lengthy, appears to
lack scientifc rigor. It merely estimates that the
expanded time-area closure would reduce ves-
sel strikes and acoustic impacts on right whales
and other marine mammals by approximately
13%, a fgure whose origins seem unclear, and
that the expanded Brevard offshore time-area
closure would substantially reduce the impact
on sea turtles. Furthermore, the statement is
silent on the critical issue of how the additional
restrictions would affect industry. Whether they
would hurt the economics and predictive utility
of seismic surveys is simply not addressed.
In light of the defects of the draft state-
ment, industry is taking the position that the
fnal version must be buttressed with the lat-
est research data, and that the analysis must
be expanded to address the impact of addi-
tional restrictions on industrys ability to con-
duct seismic exploration. If improvements
are not made, regulators would simply not be
in a position to balance the benefts of addi-
tional restrictions against the costs. In effect,
they would be shooting in the dark.
The author
Ken Hurwitz is a partner at Haynes
and Boone, LLP, an international law
frm headquartered in Texas. A gradu-
ate of the University of Pennsylvania
Law School and the Wharton School,
Hurwitz is an energy and environ-
mental regulatory lawyer representing
clients in the oil and gas production,
transportation, and marketing sectors. He is a recog-
nized authority on of fshore safety, operational, and
environmental regulation.
1403OFF_35 35 2/28/14 4:52 PM
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38 Of fshore March 2O14 www.offshore-mag.com

ASI A/ PACI FI C
Sembcorp to integrate Singapore yards
at new mega shipyard
Government support helps local industry maintain competitive edge
S
embcorp Marine has set up a mega-shipyard in Singapore
to service the global oil and gas and marine sectors, and to
maintain a competitive edge in the construction of explora-
tion rig and production platforms, ship conversion, repairs,
and maintenance.
Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong opened the frst phase of Semb-
marine Integrated Yard @ Tuas on Nov. 6, 2013, 50 years after the
industry began in 1963 as part of Singapores industrialization pro-
gram to support its then fedgling economy.
Lee applauded the shipyard-based marine and offshore industries
survival through the vagaries of economic cycles, but warned of
ever-increasing competition from China and South Korea.
Jurong Shipyard, now one of several facilities owned by Semb-
corp, launched the national industry with a joint venture between
Singapores state-owned Economic Development Board (EDB) and
Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries (IHI) of Japan in 1963. As
Singapores frst commercial shipyard offering ship repair services,
Jurong Shipyard was part of the governments effort to develop the
marine and offshore industry as one of the key elements of indus-
trialization. It offcially opened in March 1972, and incorporated a
fshing islet of Samulun with a wooden pontoon bridge over a short
water rivulet.
Sembawang Shipyard, the second of the Sembcorp Marines
yards, was started when the British pulled out of the city state and
the Far East, leaving behind a vast, unused naval base. Sembawang
started operations from the Royal Navy Dockyard in late 1968 under
the management of Swan Hunter Group, the biggest and most fa-
mous ship repair group at the time.
Today, Sembcorp Marine and Keppel Marine & Offshore, the sec-
ond shipyard-based group, have thriving operations in major mar-
kets across the globe.
These industries have come through the diffcult times of the
1970s and severe recessions of the 1980s, Lee pointed out.
He also recalled how many had doubted the industrys long-term
viability in those challenging years.
Our marine and offshore industry has established a leading posi-
tion in the world, even though Singapore does not have enough land
and indigenous oil and gas production, Lee noted.
Two of the worlds top companies in this industry are from Singa-
pore Sembcorp Marine and Keppel Offshore & Marine. And both
are thriving today, starting from humble beginnings, he said.
Lee assured more government support for the industry, having
reclaimed the Tuas site on the west coast of Singapore for Sembcorp
yards, and pledged support for infrastructure to keep the industry
vibrant.
Weve got to keep upgrading ourselves, he said.
He noted a goal of Sembcorps former president, K.K. Tan, to
consolidate the groups yards at one site for overall effciency. Lee
pointed out that it took over a decade to achieve that goal. Tan has
retired after more than 50 years in the industry and now is an ad-
viser to Sembcorp.
Government support
The prime minister said the government would support the indus-
try with manpower training and continue to work on talent and skills
development for the marine and offshore sector.
Gurdip Singh
Contributing Editor
(Above) The Sembmarine Integrated Yard @ Tuas will eventually cover
more than 200 hectares. By 2024, Sembcorp plans to consolidate its
five Singapore shipyards at the site.
1403OFF_38 38 2/28/14 4:56 PM
Spectrum has acquired a truly unique Multi-Client
seismic survey offshore Croatia. This is the only seismic
data available to license in this hugely underexplored
region which expects to see its first offshore licensing
round this year.
The survey, acquired under contract to the Ministry of
the Economy in Croatia, covers approximately 14,700
kilometres of long offset seismic data with a 5 km x
5 km grid. It extends across most of the Croatian Adriatic
Sea and connects with Spectrums reprocessed
seismic data covering the Italian Adriatic Sea.
Final PSTM data has now been delivered and
all processed data will be available in early April.
The Government of Croatia plans to hold a licensing
round over the countrys offshore continental shelf
in 2014.
Croat i a
I tal y
Spectrums 2D Multi-Client
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Multi-Client 2D seismic section
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urope
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1403OFF_39 39 2/28/14 4:56 PM

ASI A/ PACI FI C
Elaborating on Lees comments, Singa-
pore Minister of Trade and Industry Lim
Hng Kiang stressed the need for the indus-
try to continue its progress.
Notwithstanding the current global leader-
ship position, the industry needs to continue
to innovate and to transform itself to stay
ahead of the competition, said Lim. This is
especially important as land and manpower
become increasingly valuable in our resource-
scarce Singapore.
Lim highlighted Sembcorps investment
in the integrated yard at Tuas and the com-
panys collaboration with Palfnger Systems
to jointly develop the hull treatment system.
This fully automated (hull treatment)
system integrates the washing, blasting, and
coating processes. Apart from cost, material,
and manpower savings, this system will also
result in the reduction of dust emissions,
noted Lim.
Lim said the government would partner
with and support the marine and offshore
industry in its transformation efforts.
First, we will help companies to increase
their design and engineering capabilities
through the public research infrastructure
such as the Singapore Maritime Institute and
ocean basin test facility, he said.
Second, we will work with companies to
look for ways to improve overall productivity
through new production technologies, train-
ing, equipment, and machinery.
Singapores Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong,
second from left, views a model of the new
consolidated shipyard.
1403OFF_40 40 2/28/14 4:56 PM
ASI A/ PACI FI C
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Third, we will help the industry attract
and develop talent by partnering the rel-
evant educational institutes to introduce
programs focused on offshore engineering,
petroleum engineering, naval architecture,
and marine engineering.
Lim continued: While we look forward to
a bright future for the marine and offshore
industry in Singapore, industry leaders
such as Sembcorp Marine need to continue
to forge ahead to develop innovative solu-
tions for the needs of tomorrow.
At the same time, Lim noted that the
supporting ecosystem of industry partners,
suppliers, and sub-contractors also needs to
continually transform and upgrade so as to
keep pace with the changing needs of the
world.
Integrated yard
Sembcorps Singapore shipyards Jurong
Shipyard, Sembawang Shipyard, Sembawang
Marine and Offshore Engineering (SMOE),
rig builder PPL Shipyard, and vessel repair
company Jurong SML will be consolidated
at the new Sembmarine Integrated Yard @
Tuas by 2024. The 73.3-hectare Phase 1 be-
gan operations on Aug. 5, 2013, while yard de-
velopment work continues on the other two
phases at the 206-hectare site.
Phase 1 of the new yard has four very
large crude carrier (VLCC) drydocks with a
total dock capacity of 1.55 million deadweight
metric tons, as well as fnger piers and basin
lengths totaling 3.9 km (2.4 mi).
The facilities include a drydock, YST D2,
measuring 360 m (1,181 ft) in length by 89
m (292 ft) in width, with a draft of 8.5 m (28
ft). Billed as the widest drydock in Singa-
pore, it is designed to accommodate jackup
and semisubmersible rigs. Another drydock,
YST D3, measures 412 m (1,352 ft) long by
66 m (217 ft) wide, with a draft of 11 m (36 ft),
making it what Sembcorp claims is the lon-
gest and deepest ship repair drydock in Asia.
It is equipped with an innovative intermediate
dock gate system and is capable of docking
containerships of up to 18,000 TEU (one TEU
is equivalent to the measurements of a stan-
dard container used on ships). The design
provides the fexibility to confgure the dock
to allow smaller ships to dock in front while
other works are carried out at the rear. There
is also a special reinforced load-out area for
offshore platforms of up to 20,000 metric
tons (22,046 tons). The natural deepwaters
at the new yard also enable the installation of
thrusters for semisubmersibles without tow-
ing the rig to sea, providing signifcant sav-
ings for customers.
To maximize the waterfront coverage in
land-scarce Singapore, the yard is confgured
with three fnger piers and a basin ranging
from 201 to 400 m (659 to 1,312 ft) with maxi-
mum draft of 9-15 m (30-49 ft), allowing for
ultra-deepwater semisubmersible rigs and
passenger vessels to be berthed without re-
strictions in the new yard.
The 34.5-hectare Phase 2 yard is expected
to begin operations in the next three to four
years. The site is located adjacent to and
north of the Phase 1 development. The yard
features the latest in production technologies,
processes, and equipment, and represents
a major step forward in the marine and off-
shore industrys efforts to transform itself for
sustainable long-term growth. It will enhance
the Singapore industrys competitiveness
and productivity, and reaffrm Singapores
position as a global offshore and marine hub,
Sembcorp said.
We are confdent that it will contribute
to the further success of Sembcorp Marine
in Singapore, said company chairman Goh
Geok Ling. The new yard is an apt symbol
of our growth and expansion. This next-gen-
eration yard is a testament of the efforts and
strategic investments of our pioneers and
leaders who have paved the way to our suc-
cess today.
1403OFF_41 41 2/28/14 4:56 PM
42 Of fshore March 2O14 www.offshore-mag.com

ASI A/ PACI FI C
Innovation keeps Keppel
at the forefront of rig design
New drillship aims for operations of fshore Brazil, West Africa
S
ingapore rig builder Keppel continues
to take on the challenges of operating
in a high-risk offshore oil and gas sec-
tor by using innovative designs, eff-
ciency-driven capabilities, and close
working relationships with its customers.
Pressure is always felt. And we treat all our
competitors, including the Chinese shipyards,
very seriously, says Tong Chong Heong,
CEO of Keppel Offshore & Marine. But he is
quick to point out the advantage of being stra-
tegically located in the worlds major hydro-
carbon producing regions such as Brazil, the
US, Caspian Sea, and Southeast Asia, as well
as China.
Additionally, our policy of being where
our customers want us to be, and where the
market is, has also helped us. Being close
to the customers meansthat if it is a re-
quirement to be built there, that they (the
competitors) would have no advantage com-
pared to us, Tong says.
He also sees the potential of venturing
into more regional yards within the Associa-
tion of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN),
especially in Malaysia and Thailand. It will
be a way to expand its shipyard network
outside of its expertise base but land-short
Singapore facility.
Keppel, he says, is driven by innovations
to meet the ever increasing demand for eff-
ciency from international hydrocarbon pros-
pecting companies. The company will have
to continue to strategize business across the
globe, especially given the strong competi-
tion from China-based shipyards. Obvious-
ly, competition from China is a big threat,
he says, noting Chinas low-cost funding
support to projects implemented at Chinese
yards. But we have been in this business
long enough. We have clientele loyal to us,
and they know that we will deliver reliably
on time and with the quality expected. Own-
ers who build rigs with us will not have to
have the contingency set in to overcome
surprises. By this he means any delay in
completion of capital-intensive project at a
shipyard would result in costly disruption to
businesses, especially the production from
offshore oil and gas felds.
Risks are always looked at very carefully
at Keppel. But then there is a risk and a re-
ward we should also be mindful of, Tong
points out. The capabilities and effciency
in the newly built rigs are higher at 10%, 20%,
and 30% in terms of time required, in terms
of ability to drill deeper, in harsher environ-
ment, and more complicated wells.
Engineering centers
With engineering centers in Singapore, Bul-
garia, Mumbai, Shenzhen, and Houston, the
company offers its customers 24 hours a day,
seven days a week engineering services. Our
engineering offces in Singapore and around
the world collaborate seamlessly through an
advanced web-based environment offering 3D
design tools and data management functions,
he says.
This state-of-the-art system enables our
engineering centers operating in different
time zones to work on projects with high ef-
fciency, around-the-clock, says Tong, who
retired in February 2014, leaving behind a
legacy of managing multi-billion dollar proj-
ects.
The company secured S$7 billion ($5.48
billion) worth of orders in 2013, taking its
total order book to S$14.2 billion ($11.12 bil-
lion), which will keep the groups shipyards
Gurdip Singh
Contributing Editor
The CAN-DO drillship will feature
next-generation 20,000-psi BOPs.
(Image courtesy Keppel Offshore & Marine)
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1403OFF_43 43 2/28/14 4:57 PM

ASI A/ PACI FI C
TO TAKE YOU TO YOURS.
We offer three platforms.
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The jackup Arabdrill 60 was the 21st rig delivered
by Keppel FELS in 2013, a new construction
record for the company.
busy through to 2019. It delivered a record
21 rigs in 2013. Keppel remains the worlds
leading jackup drilling rig builder, but is also
an established semisubmersible rig builder.
Its latest drillship is designed specifcally
to do development and completion drilling
as well as exploration drilling, particularly
in the deepwater hydrocarbon-rich regions
such as offshore West Africa and the presalt
basin of Brazil, where supporting infrastruc-
ture is less developed.
The drillship, CAN-DO, has increased deck
space so companies can drill more wells
more effciently. Comparatively, the present
drillships in the market are meant mainly for
exploration drilling, where the limited deck
load restricts activities. But for CAN-DO, we
discussed the design with the (rig) owners,
operators, and oil majors to expand the drill-
ship capabilities. As such CAN-DO will be a
development and exploration drillship, says
Tong. You have to be creative, innovative,
and decisive in coming up with something
that will fll the niche market.
He concedes that all these designs and en-
gineering have not come easy. It has been
a long and arduous journey at Keppel. It
began as a ship repair department in a Sin-
gapore port in the early days. Incorporated
in 1968, the then Keppel Shipyard Pte. Ltd.
has grown into one of Singapores top con-
glomerates, with global operations. Property,
telecommunications, and energy services are
among other businesses under parent group
Keppel Corp. Within the group is Keppel Off-
shore & Marine.
Of course, we started off building rigs to
others designs or owner specifed designs.
Increasingly and eventually, with experi-
ence gained, we were than able to do our
own design and won the confdence of rig
owners, he says. We have since then devel-
oped many designs for both the jackups and
semisubmersibles and now the drillship,
CAN-DO.
He points out the company has had good
opportunities to work with international en-
gineering experts since the 1970s. This has
given us the opportunities to overcome the
challenges and, today, we are able to offer
turnkey projects, he stresses.
Building to others designs gave the com-
pany the introduction to serving the offshore
oil and gas sector. Keppel had the advantage
of working closely with rig operators to gain
the understanding of what it takes to be a de-
signer of better rigs, he says.
Tong reveals that the company always
wants to do more than build rigs designed by
1403OFF_44 44 2/28/14 4:57 PM
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1403OFF_45 45 2/28/14 4:57 PM
46 Of fshore March 2O14 www.offshore-mag.com

ASI A/ PACI FI C
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others. It reaches a point whereby, if you just
simply wait for or continue to build on others
designs, all the improvement or the changes
would continue to remain with the designers.
But the companys determination is to
build rigs on its own designs. We felt that a
yard such as ours has the expertise to build
to our own designs. This also helped keep all
the improvements within our own designs.
I would say we have come a long way from
the late 1960s or early 1970s.

Prospects
Outlook for the upstream business is still
relatively bright. Exploration and production
spending is still on the uptrend, and our busi-
ness is directly linked to all these upstream
investments, he says. Tong thinks that shale
oil and gas will take a while to reach every
global market. So, conventional hydrocarbon
resources will remain the preferred sources
of coping with energy demands in developing
countries.
He also assures that more effcient equip-
ment and instruments are available for in-
creasing exploitation of conventional hydro-
carbon resources, though there is a concern
about replacing depleting oil and gas reserves.
Tong highlights Mexicos energy reforms
and its all out efforts to increase oil and gas
production. All these augur well for the
rig-building industry. More and more rigs
would be required and more drillings would
be done that would lead to higher rate of
production, he says.
The company has the experience of man-
aging through lean periods during economic
downturns. Sometimes, the downturn is
good for the whole industry as it stops a lot
of speculators from going all out to do more
than really necessary, he says. It is a kind
of awakening for investors not to rush into
1403OFF_46 46 2/28/14 4:57 PM
www.offshore-mag.com t March 2014 Of fshore 47
ASI A/ PACI FI C
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speculative projects. Also, it would leave such
investments to bona fde kind of investors/
builders and leave the owners to plan for bet-
ter projects.
He recalls the lean period of the late 1980s
and early 1990s. We are basically a shipyard
with a big engineering team. When there
were not any rigs to build, we felt then that
there was a need for some rigs that would be
required. Not forgetting that there has been
a big lull from 1980s to 2000s, when hardly
a rig was built. We then saw the potential re-
quirements of some new capacity rigs. As a
shipyard, when we dont have enough jobs,
we will have to make a decision. And our de-
cision then was to really build a rig on specu-
lation. It turned out to be the right decision
because before we had completed the unit,
we had buyers.
Though there are many rigs being built
today, the bulk of the rigs in operation will
soon be more than 30 years old. Then, there
should be another round of improving the
rigs, in designs and capabilities, and meet-
ing the need to increase effciencies in new
rigs compared to the older drilling units.
We defnitely like to see Singapore pros-
per with more of these high-value (rig) prod-
ucts over the next 10 years and compete in
the global market, he says.
The industry also enjoys the Singapore
governments support in terms of training,
research and development, innovation, and
automation. There is growing collaboration
with local universities. I think the offshore
oil and gas industry of Singapore can play a
much bigger role than we presently are play-
ing, says Tong. Keppel is always proud in
R&D work as the money invested is produc-
ing better systems, designs, and processes.
We do not shy away from using whatever
modern technology to help us in reducing
our man-hour costs.
Within Singapore yards, one of the in-
novative ideas is the use of a foating dock,
given the limited availability of water-front
sites. Rather than just simply transporting
a project from China to Singapore, for exam-
ple, we decided to use the foating dock. And
so far it has served us very well, he says.
Tong also emphasizes the companys safe-
ty culture, built over the years in Singapore
and now entrenched into the daily operations
at its global business centers.
Keppel Subic Shipyard added a 1,500-metric ton
(1,653-ton) gantry crane, which has the greatest
lifting capacity of all gantry cranes in Southeast
Asia.
1403OFF_47 47 2/28/14 4:57 PM
48 Of fshore March 2O14 www.offshore-mag.com

6 0 Y E A R S O F O F F S H O R E
From Offshore, July 1964
Offshore milestones, 1964-1968
1964 Oil strike sparks boom off Nigeria
1965 Australias first offshore well finds gas
1966 Shell drills GoM well in record 500-ft water depths
1967 Worlds largest platform installed in record 340-ft
depths in GoM South Pass 52
1968 Drilling in 11,753-ft water depths, research vessel
Glomar Challenger finds evidence of deepwater GoM oil
1403OFF_48 48 2/28/14 4:58 PM
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50 Of fshore March 2O14 www.offshore-mag.com

GEOLOGY & GEOPHYSI CS
T
he 2014 Worldwide Seismic Vessel Survey lists 179 vessels. This
is an increase if directly compared to the 2013 tally, but that is
deceiving. There are two signifcant changes this year. The list-
ing adds Geokinetics and its 43 transition zone/shallow water/
OBC vessels for the frst time, and the two electromagnetic sur-
vey vessels of EMGS. That tally should grow over the near term as
purpose-built, high-capacity vessels come out of shipyards, and more
non-traditional geophysical survey vessels are counted.
The new purpose-built vessels are in response to the demand for
increasingly complex seismic data acquisition techniques.
On the other side of the ledger, Reservoir Exploration Technology
and its seven vessels are deleted, with the company in the hands of
a Norwegian bankruptcy court. WesternGeco elected again this year
not to participate in the survey, and that leaves a further 20 or so ves-
sels unlisted.
New acquisition
vessel design
Innovation is not limited to support vessels. WesternGeco has
christened the frst of its Amazon-class seismic vessels, designed
from the bottom up to handle modern seismic spreads.
Modern seismic streamer spreads typically extend up to 12 km (5 mi)
in length and up to 1,400 m (4,600 ft) in width, requiring considerable
sideways defection leading to additional drag. Effcient and safe storage
and deployment of all this equipment requires large back decks with
specialized designs. There have been a range of hull designs considered
suitable for seismic operational needs, and these hulls have converted
decks to accommodate and deploy the equipment. A feature common
to all of these hull designs is that they were originally optimized for pur-
poses other than seismic operations.
In November 2013, WesternGeco christened the worlds frst vessel
designed from the bottom up to be a sustainable and effcient marine
seismic platform. The company expects these Amazon-class vessels will
support its activities for at least the next 10 years.
Maritime engineers were tasked to design a hull, propulsion system,
and all the other vessel components to meet seismic data acquisition re-
quirements with no compromises in HSE or operational effciency. The
design process involved input from equipment users, and WesternGecos
HSE knowledge management database was used to evaluate and miti-
gate potential safety risks.
The frst Amazon-class vessel, Amazon Warrior, is at the Flensburger
Shipyard in Germany and is scheduled to start operations in 2Q 2014.
The second Amazon-class vessel, yet to be christened, is expected to
enter service by 4Q 2014. At 126 m (413 ft) long, 28-32 m (92105 ft)
wide, they will provide large, powerful and stable platforms during in-
clement weather. The knife-shaped bow reduces slamming to help main-
tain streamer control and to reduce noise in the seismic data. There is
capacity for more than 200 km (124 mi) of streamers and 18 streamer tow
points. A quad-deployment design enables four steamers to be handled
simultaneously. The available work space enables safe and effcient at-sea
reconfguration of streamers.
Gene Kliewer
Technology Editor, Subsea & Seismic
Computer rendering of Amazon Warrior, scheduled to start operations in
2Q 2014. (Courtesy WesternGeco)
The CGG Sirius is capable of providing state-of-the-art broadband seismic
data using towed streamers for 2D, 3D, and 4C/4D surveys.
Seismic vessel survey is expanded
to include additional vessel types
BGP of Chinas fleet
includes the Pioneer
vessel capable of deep-
water 2D and 3D seismic
data acquisition.
1403OFF_50 50 2/28/14 4:59 PM
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1403OFF_51 51 2/28/14 4:59 PM
Worldwide Seismic Vessel Survey
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52 Of fshore March 2014
t
www.offshore-mag.com
BGP Marine, 5th Floor, E5C1, Finance Street, 3rd Avenue, TEDA, Tianjin, P.R. China 300457
BGP Challenger 2009 55 13.8 1 x 960, 2 x 480 Yes Worldwide 1 x 5,680, 2 x 2,840 1 x 12,000, 2 x 6,000
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Oceanic Sirius 2011 106 28 20 x 640 Yes Worldwide 2 x 5,000 20 x 8,000 x 100
Alize 1999 101 29 16 x 640 Yes Worldwide 2 x 5,000 16 x 8,000
Amadeus 1999 84 19 8 x 640 Yes Worldwide 2 x 5,000 8 x 8,000 x 100
Princess 2001 76 14 3 x 560 Yes Worldwide 2 x 5,000 3 x 6,000 x 100
Symphony 2000 121 23 12 x 640 Yes Worldwide 2 x 5,000 12 x 8,000 x 100
Venturer 2007 90 15 4 x 640 Yes Worldwide 2 x 5,000 4 x 8,000 x 100
Viking 1998 93 22 10 x 640 Yes Worldwide 2 x 5,000 14 x 8,000 x 100
Viking II 1999 93 22 8 x 640 Yes Worldwide 2 x 5,000 8 x 8,000 x 100
Viking Vanquish 2007 93 22 12 x 640 Yes Worldwide 2 x 5,000 12 x 8,000 x 100
Veritas Vantage 2002 93 22 10 x 640 Yes Worldwide 2 x 5,000 10 x 8,000 x 100
Viking Vision 2007 105 26 14 x 640 Yes Worldwide 2 x 5,000 14 x 8,000 x 100
Geowave Champion 2007 106 22 14 x 640 Yes Worldwide 2 x 5,000 14 x 8,000 x 100
Geowave Voyager 2008 93 22 10 x 640 Yes Worldwide 2 x 5,000 10 x 8,000 x 100
Oceanic Endeavour 2008 107 27 16 x 640 Yes Worldwide 2 x 5,000 16 x 8,000 x 100
Challenger 2006 90 19 12 x 640 Yes Worldwide 2 x 5,000 12 x 8,000 x 100
Oceanic Phoenix 2011 114 25 14 x 640 Yes Worldwide 2 x 5,000 14 x 8,000 x 100
Pacific Finder 2011 68 17 4 x 640 Yes Worldwide 2 x 5,000 4 x 8,000 x 100
Geo Coral 2010 108 28 16 x 640 Yes Worldwide 2 x 5,000 16 x 8,000 x 100
Geo Caspian 2010 108 28 16 x 640 Yes Worldwide 2 x 5,000 16 x 8,000 x 100
Geo Caribbean 2008 101 28 14 x 640 Yes Worldwide 2 x 5,000 14 x 8,000 x 100
Geo Celtic 2006 101 28 12 x 640 Yes Worldwide 2 x 5,000 12 x 8,000 x 100
Geo Barents 2007 77 21 8 x 640 Yes Worldwide 2 x 5,000 8 x 8,000 x 100
China Oilfield Services Ltd., No.6 Dongzhimenwai Xiaojie Beijing 100027 P.R.C
Bin Hai 511 1979 81 13.4 3 x 360 Yes China, Asia, CIS 2 x 2,490
Bin Hai 512 1979 79 13.4 4 x 360 Yes China, Asia, CIS 2 x 3,000
Bin Hai 517 1997 60 15 2 x 480 Yes China, Asia, CIS 4,075
HYSY 718 2005 78 18 6 x 480 Yes China, Asia, CIS 2 x 3100
HYSY719 2008 80 18 8 x 480 2 x 4,110
Dong Fang Ming Zhu 1994 79 16.5 4 x 480 2 x 3,185
Nan Hai 502 1980 66 11 2 x 360 Yes China, Asia, CIS 3,660
HYSY 708
HYSY 720
Dalmorneftegeophysica (DMNG), 426, Mira Ave., Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, 693004, Russia
Akademik Fersman 2007 81.5 14.8 SEAL 1 x 960 Contact SE Asia / Worldwide 4 x 5,000 1 x 1,100
Orient Explorer 2011 81.8 14.8 4 x 1,440 Contact SE Asia / Worldwide 6 x 2,920 4 x 6,000 x 150
Zephyr-I 2007 81.8 14.8 SEAL 1 x 960 Contact SE Asia / Worldwide 4 strings 2,940 higher on request 1 x 11,100
EMGS, Stiklestadveien 1, N-7041, Trondheim, Norway
BOA Galatea 80.35 16.4
BOA Thalassa 80.35 16.4
Fairfield Industries,1111 Gillingham, Sugar Land, Texas 77478, USA
Geo Wave Commander 2014 93 16.5 Shooting Vessel Yes North Sea 5,330 dual
Fairfield New Venture 2004 76 18 Shooting Vessel Yes West Africa 5,330 dual
Fairfield Challenger 2005 67 14 Shooting Vessel Yes Mexico 5,330 dual
Fairfield Pursuit 2011 59 14 Shooting Vessel Yes GoM 5,330 dual
Carolyn Chouest 2010 73 16 Node Handling Vessel Yes GoM Node Vessel 1,500 - Nodes
Ocean Pearl 2014 106 18 Node Handling Vessel Yes North Sea Node Vessel 5,000 - Nodes
European Supporter 2014 105 22 Node Handling Vessel Yes West Africa Node Vessel 7,000 - Nodes
Fugro Brasil Servios Submarinos e Levantamentos Ltda, Rua do Gelogo, 76 Zona Especial de Negcios / ZEN , Rio das Ostras - RJ - Brasil - CEP.:28.890-000. www.fugro-br.com
Fugro Odyssey 2003 (rebuilt) 39.9 7.6 1x Sercel Sentinel up to 1,5Km (120 ch) Yes Brasil 4x40 sleeve gun cluster or single 210 GIGun N/A
Fugro Brasilis 2012 65.65 14 1x Sercel Sentinel up to 1,5Km (120 ch) 12-Jun Brasil 4x40 sleeve gun cluster or single 210 GIGun N/A
Fugro GeoServices Inc, 200 Dulles Drive, Lafayette, Louisiana 70506, USA. www.fugrogeoservices.com
Fugro Enterprise 2007 52 12 1 x 48, 1 x 96 Yes GoM 90-300 GI Guns
Geodetic Surveyor 1985 37 9 1 x 48, 1 x 96 Yes GoM 90-300 GI Guns
Universal Surveyor 1980 37 9 1 x 48, 1 x 96 Yes GoM 90-300 GI Guns
Fugro OSAE GmbH, Fahrenheitstrasse 7, D-28359 Bremen, Germany. www.fugro-osae.de
Fugro Gauss 1980/2007 69 13 (Mobile) Yes Atlantic (Mobile) (Mobile)
1403OFF_52 52 2/28/14 4:59 PM
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www.offshore-mag.com March 2O14 Of fshore 53

x x x x x 85O2 nmarsat vSAT
x x x x x 85O2 nmarsat C

x x x x x x x 85O2 vSAT
x x x x x x x 85O2 nmarsat C,F vSAT
x x x x x

x x x x x x x x 85O2 vSAT


x x x x x x x x
x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x 85O2 vSAT > 128k
x x x x x x x x x 85O2 vSAT > 128k
x x x x x x x x x 85O2 vSAT > 128k
x x x x x x x x x 85O2 vSAT > 128k
x x x x x x x x x x 85O2 vSAT > 128k
x x x x x x x x x 85O2 vSAT > 128k
x x x x x x x x x x 85O2 vSAT > 128k
x x x x x x x x x 85O2 vSAT > 128k
x x x x x x x x x 85O2 vSAT > 128k
x x x x x x x x x 85O2 vSAT > 128k
x x x x x x x x x 85O2 vSAT > 128k
x x x x x x x x x 85O2 vSAT > 128k
x x x x x x x x x 85O2 vSAT > 128k
x x x x x x x x x 85O2 vSAT > 128k
x x x x x x x x x 85O2 vSAT > 128k
x x x x x x x x x 85O2 vSAT > 128k
x x x x x x x x x 85O2 vSAT > 128k
x x x x x x x x x x 85O2 vSAT > 128k
x x x x x x x x x 85O2 vSAT > 128k
x x x x x x x x x 85O2 vSAT > 128k
x x x x x x x x x 85O2 vSAT > 128k
x x x x x x x x x 85O2 vSAT > 128k
x x x x x x x x x 85O2 vSAT > 128k

x x >1O m x x x x x 85OO nmarsat
x x >1O m x x x x x 85OO Ku
x x >8 m x x x x 85OO
x x 85OO Ku
85OO
x x 85OO Ku
x x >1O m x x x x x 85OO



x x x x x x 85OO vSAT
x x x x x x x x 85OO vSAT
x x x x x x 85OO vSAT








x x x x x x x x 85OO
x x x X x x x x x 85OO
x x x X x x x x x 85OO

Yes ho ho ho Yes Yes ho ho Yes Yes Yes hard Brive ho
Yes ho ho Yes Yes Yes ho ho Yes Yes Yes hard Brive Yes

x x x x x x hard Brive vSat
x x x x x x hard Brive vSat
x x x x x x hard Brive vSat

x x x x x x (Mobile) TBA
1403OFF_53 53 2/28/14 4:59 PM
54 Of fshore March 2014
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Worldwide Seismic Vessel Survey
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Fugro Survey Ltd., Denmore Rd, Bridge of Don, Aberdeen AB23 8JW, UK. www.fugrosurvey.co.uk
Fugro Galaxy 2011 65.2 14 1 x 144 Yes NWECS 140
Fugro Meridian 1982/1997 72.5 13.8 1 x 240 Yes NWECS 140/1,000
Geo Prospector 1970/1997 72.6 11.8 1 x 120 Yes EAME 140
Fugro Discovery 1997/2007 70 12.6 1 x 120 Yes NWECS 140
Fugro Searcher 2010 65.2 14 1 x 240 Yes NWECS 140/1,000
Fugro Survey Africa (Pty) Ltd, Unit 24 Woodbridge Business Park, 7441 Milnerton, Cape Town, South Africa. www.fugro-africa.com
Geo Endeavour 1985/1998 45.7 10 1 x 48 Yes Subsaharan Africa 1 x 90, 1 x 150
Fugro SAE, Oil Company Complex, Km 12, Ain Sukhna Rd., Katameya, Cairo, Egypt. www.fugro-egypt.net
Fugro Navigator 1988/2009 54 11 1 x 120 Mid-2013 Med 1 x 140
Fugro Survey Pte Ltd, 35 Loyang Crescent, Singapore 509012. www.fugro.sg
Fugro Equator 2012 65 14 1 x 240 41579 Far East Mini G 4 x 40 / 4 x 20
Fugro Equinox 2011 60 16 1 x 120 41365 Far East Sleeve 4 x 40 / 4 x 20
Amarco Tiger 1975 / 2008 53 11.5 1 x 120 Yes Far East Sleeve 4 x 40 / 4 x 20
Fugro Supporter 1994 / 2013 75.4 12.5 (Mobile) Yes Far East (Mobile) (Mobile)
Fugro Survey (India) Pvt. Ltd., Fugro House, D-222/30, T.T.C. Industrial Area, M.I.D.C., Nerul, Navi, Mumbai - 400 706. Maharashtra. India Tel : +91 22 27629500 Fax : +91 22 2762 9140
Flamboyan 1983 / 2010 39 9.5 As required Yes India As required
Gardline, Endeavour House, Admiralty Rd., Great Yarmouth, Norfolk NR30 3NG UK
Sea Explorer 1993/1994/2004 58.8 11 1 x 120 Yes Worldwide 2 x 160
Ocean Endeavour 2004 64.4 11.4 1 x 120 Yes Worldwide
Sea Proflier 1992 65.7 11 1 x 120 Yes Worldwide 2 x 160
Sea Surveyor 1998/1999 64.4 11.4 1 x 480 Yes Worldwide 1 x 160 up to 1,950
Sea Trident 1984/1991/2006 57.9 10.2 1 x 120 Yes Worldwide 2 x 160
Ocean Seeker 1970/2000 80.7 13 1 x 120 Yes Worldwide 1 x 160
LEspoir 1971/1996 67.5 10.6 1 x 120 Yes Worldwide 1 x 160
Tridens 1 1984/1991 57.9 10.2 1 x 120 Yes Worldwide 1 x 160
Global Geophysical Services, 13927 S. Gessner Rd., Missouri City, TX 77489 USA
James H. Scott 2005 70 ft 22 ft Yes GoM, International 4 x 750 Source
Global Longhorn 2007 93.9 ft 26 ft Yes GoM, International Accommodation
Global Mirage 2008 65 ft 21 ft Yes India, International 2 x 750 Source
Global Vision 2007 65 ft 21 ft Yes India, International OBC Cable
Global Quest 2007 65 ft 18 ft Yes India, International OBC Cable
Lori B 2007 48 ft 20 ft Yes GoM OBC Cable
Tiny Tune 2005 38 ft 12 ft Yes USA Source
Kiwi I 2007 54 ft 16 ft Yes GoM OBC Cable
Kiwi II 2007 49 ft 13.8 ft Yes GoM OBC Cable
Kiwi III 2008 47 ft 16.4 ft Yes GoM OBC Cable
Cobourg 2008 52.5 ft 17.4 ft Yes India, International OBC Cable
Geokinetics, 1500 CityWest Blvd., Sute 800, Houston, TX 77042
GeoTiger 1 2007 19.9 6.8 Far East 2 x 850
GeoTiger 2 2010 19.9 6.8 Americas
GeoTiger 3 2010 19.9 6.8 Americas
GeoTiger 4 2010 19.9 6.8 Americas 2 x 1,200
Expedition 1997 19.9 6.6 US/Carribean 2 x 1,000
Nieuw Holland 1989 19.8 6.6 Australia Pacific
Wild Thing 2008 19.8 6.6 Australia Pacific
BLACK JACK 2006 19.8 6.6 Australia Pacific
Katmandu 2010 18.3 6.1 Australia Pacific
Bubbles 2003 17.4 5.8 EAME
C1 2001 15.8 5.3 Carribean
C2 2001 14.8 4.9 Carribean
C3 2001 14.8 4.9 Carribean
C4 2012 14.8 4.9 US/Carribean
C5 2012 14.8 4.9 US/Carribean
GeoCat 2003 12.8 4.3 EAME
Reliance 4 2008 12.5 4.2 US/Carribean
Reliance 5 2008 12.5 4.2 US/Carribean
Reliance 6 2008 12.2 4.1 US/Carribean
Reliance 7 2008 12.2 4.1 US/Carribean
TZ:3568 2001 9.8 3.3 EAME
TZ:3218 2001 9.8 3.3 EAME
TZ:3215 2001 9.8 3.3 EAME
TZ:3222 2003 9.8 3.3 EAME
TZ:3221 2003 9.8 3.3 EAME
TZ:3227 2003 9.8 3.3 EAME
TZ:3220 2006 9.8 3.3 EAME
TZ:3219 2006 9.8 3.3 EAME
TZ:3216 2006 9.8 3.3 EAME
TZ:3216 2008 9.8 3.3 Australia Pacific
TZ:3209 2008 9.8 3.3 Australia Pacific
TZ:3208 2010 9.8 3.3 Australia Pacific
1403OFF_54 54 2/28/14 4:59 PM
www.offshore-mag.com March 2O14 Of fshore 55
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x x x x x x LTO4 Marlink
x x x x x x LTO4 Marlink
x x x x x x LTO4 Marlink
x x x x x x LTO4 Marlink
x x x x x x LTO4 Marlink

x x x x x

x x x x x x x hard Bisk

X X X X X X X 84OOE vSAT 25G Kbit
X X X X X X X 84OOE vSAT 128 Kbit
X X X X X X X 84OOE TBA
X X X X X X X (Mobile) vSAT 25G Kbit

x x x x BLT FB

x x >1Om x x x x x 84OOE vSAT (25G)
x x
x >1Om x x x x x 84OOE vSAT (25G)
x x >1Om x x x x x 84OOE vSAT (25G)
x >1Om x x x x x 84OOE vSAT (128)
x >1Om x x x x x 84OOE vSAT (25G)
x >1Om x x x x x 84OOE vSAT (128)
x >1Om x x x x x 84OOE ardline G4k

x x x x x x x x
x x x x x x x x
x x x x x x x x
x x x x x x x x
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x x x x x x x x
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x x x x x x x x
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1403OFF_55 55 2/28/14 4:59 PM
56 Of fshore March 2014
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Worldwide Seismic Vessel Survey
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TZ:3205 2010 9.8 3.3 Australia Pacific
TZ:3205 2010 9.8 3.3 Australia Pacific
TZ:3203 2010 9.8 3.3 Australia Pacific
TZ:3201 2010 9.8 3.3 Mexico
TZ6-2801 2010 9.8 3.3 Mexico
RIB:2401 2006 9.8 3.3 Australia Pacific
RIB:2402 2006 9.8 3.3 EAME
RIB:2403 2006 9.8 3.3 EAME
TZ9-2304 2005 7.5 2.5 EAME
TZ9-2302 2005 7.5 2.5 EAME
TZ9-2302 2005 7.3 2.4 EAME
Marine Arctic Geological Expedition (MAGE)
Geolog Dmitriy Nalivkin 1985 71.7 12.8 1 x 648 Contract Arctic, Northern seas 1 x 3,410 1 x 8,100
Professor Kurentsov 1976 68.9 12.4 1 x 648 Contract Arctic, Northern seas 1 x 8,100
NAUTIC Offshore AS, Dronningen 1, 0211 Oslo, Norway
Neptune NAIAD 2008 66.3 14.2 4 x 2,560 Yes Worldwide 2x 4,000 4 x 6,000 x 100
Offshore Seismic Surveys, OSS, 13430 NW Freeway, Suite 800, Houston TX 77040
OSS Gulf Supplier 56.4 11.6 3 x 240 Yes South America 2 x 1,500 3 x 3,000 x 200
OGS Italy, Borgo Grotta Gigante 42c, P.O. Box 2011, 34016 Trieste, Italy
OGS Explora 8 71.9 12.8 1 x 96 Worldwide inc. Antarctic 2 x 355
Orogenic GeoExpro, Loyang Crescent, Loyang Offshore Supply Base, Block 217, SOPS Ave., Box No. 5043, Singapore 508988
Genesis 1995/2006 52 11 1 x 120 TBA Asia Pacific Single GI Gun 90/150/210 N/A
PGS, Lilleakerveien 4C, N-0216 Oslo
Atlantic Explorer 1994 91.5 18 6 x 960 Yes Worldwide 2 x 4,130 3.6 sq km
Nordic Explorer 1993 81.1 16.5 1 x 804 Yes Worldwide 2 x 4,130
Pacific Explorer 1994 91.4 22 6 x 1608 Yes Worldwide 2 x 4,130 3.5 sq km
Ramform Challenger 1996 86.2 39.6 14 x 1290 Yes Worldwide 2 x 4,135 6.35 sq km
Ramform Explorer 1995 83 39.6 10 x 1128 Yes Worldwide 2 x 4,130 6.35 sq km
Ramform Valiant 1998 86.2 39.6 16 x 1296 Yes Worldwide 2 x 4,130 8.9 sq km
Ramform Vanguard 1999 86.2 39.6 16 x 1296 Yes Worldwide 2 x 4,130 8.9 sq km
Ramform Viking 1998 86.2 39.6 16 x 1296 Yes Worldwide 2 x 4,130 8.9 sq km
Ramform Sovereign 2008 102.2 40 18 x 1296 Yes Worldwide 2 x 4,130 10.9 sq km
Ramform Sterling 2009 102.2 40 18 x 648 Yes Worldwide 2 x 4,130 10.9 sq km
PGS Apollo 2010 106.8 19.2 10 x 1290 Yes Worldwide 2 x 4,135 8.1 sqkm
Sanco Spirit 2011 86 16 1 x 1608 Yes Worldwide 2 x 4,135
Ramform Titan 2013 104.2 70 20 x 1296 Yes Worldwide 2 x 4,130 12.2 sqkm
Ramform Atlas 2014 104.2 70 20 x 1296 Yes Worldwide 2 x 4,130 12.2 sqkm
Polarcus, Almas Tower, Level 32, Jumeirah Lakes Towers, P.O. Box 283373, Dubai, U.A.E.
Polarcus Nadia 2009 89 19 10 x 648 Yes Worldwide 2 x 4,240 10 x 8,100 x 100
Polarcus Naila 2010 89 19 12 x 648 Yes Worldwide 2 x 4,240 12 x 8,100 x 100
Polarcus Asima 2010 92 21 12 x 648 Yes Worldwide 2 x 4,240 12 x 8,100 x 100
Polarcus Alima 2011 92 21 12 x 648 Yes Worldwide 2 x 4,240 12 x 8,100 x 100
Polarcus Amani 2012 92 21 14 x 648 Yes Worldwide 2 x 4,240 14 x 8,100 x 100
Polarcus Adira 2012 92 21 14 x 648 Yes Worldwide 2 x 4,240 14 x 8,100 x 100
Reflect Geophysical Pte. Ltd., 8 Temasek Boulevard #17-01, Suntec Tower Three, Singapore 038988
Reflect Aries 1993/2010 70.1 18 4 x 960 Yes Worldwide 2x 3,000 4 x 5,000 x 100
Orient Explorer 1988/1995 81.8 14.8 4 x 960 Yes Worldwide 2x 3,000 4 x 6,000 x 100
Pacific Titan 1982/2010 64.5 18.5 N/A Yes Worldwide 2x 3,000 N/A
Sea Bird Exploration Nedre Vollgate 3, P.O. Box 1302, Vika 0112 Oslo, Norway
Aquila Explorer 2007 71 17.5 1 x 960 PGS Worldwide 2 x 5,000
Geo Mariner 2001/2004 38.2 12.8 2 x 320 Yes Worldwide 2 X 1,700; 3 X 1,995 2 x 3,600 x 100
Harrier Explorer 2007 81 18.3 Source PGS Worldwide
Hawk Explorer 2006 66 14.5 1 x 960 Fugro Geoteam Worldwide 1 x 4,400
Hugin Explorer 2007/2008 86 20 Yes Worldwide 2 x 4,400
Kondor Explorer (source only) 1984/1997 63.5 13.6 Source Yes Worldwide 2 X 5,260 (client selectable)
Munen Explorer 2007 60 14 1 x 960 Yes Worldwide 2 x 5,000
Northern Explorer 1987/1998/2004 76 14 1 x 960 Yes Worldwide X 5,000 Bolt
Osprey Explorer 2006 81 16 Source Yes Worldwide 2 X 5,000 (client selectable)
Sevmorneftegeofizika (SMNG), 17 Karl Marx St., 183025 Murmansk, Russia
Akademik Lazarev 1987/96 81.8 14.8 1 x 960 Yes Worldwide 4 x 4,200 1 x 12,000
Akademik Nemchinov 1988/97 84 14.8 4 x 480 Yes Worldwide 6 x 7,874 4 x 6,000 x 100
Akademik Shatskiy 1986/91 83.5 14.8 1 x 960 Yes Worldwide 6 x 6,444 2 x 6,000 x 100
Geo Arctic 1988/97 84 14.8 1 x 960 Yes Worldwide 4 x 4,820 1 x 12,000
Iskatel - 5 1989/97 49.2 18.2 1 x 480 Yes Worldwide 4 x 3,000 1 x 6,000
Professor Rjabinkin 1989/1995/2007 49.9 10.5 2 x 800 Yes Worldwide 2 x 2,280 1 x 6,000
Vyacheslav Tikhonov 2011 84.2 17 8 x 480 Yes Worldwide 6 x 4,240 6 x 8,100 x 150
Shanghai Offshore Petroleum Bureau SINOPEC, 1225 Shangcheng Rd. Pu Dong, Shanghai China
Discoverer 1980 72 16.4 2 x 480 Yes Worldwide 2 x 3,480 2 x 6,000
Discoverer 2 1993 70.1 17.98 3 x 480 Yes Worldwide 2 x 3,480 3 x 6,000
Discoverer 6 2013 100 24 12 x 640 Yes Worldwide 2 x 5,800 12 x 8,000
1403OFF_56 56 2/28/14 4:59 PM
www.offshore-mag.com March 2O14 Of fshore 57
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x x x x x x x 85O2 vSAT
1403OFF_57 57 2/28/14 4:59 PM
58 Of fshore March 2O14 www.offshore-mag.com

GEOLOGY & GEOPHYSI CS
Seismic LWD reduces time, risk
in remote ultra-deepwater well
E
xploratory wells in ultra-deepwater hold great promise, but
are inherently risky and expensive. Complex, uncertain geol-
ogy in often-remote areas with little or no exploration history
or data present a host of unknowns that push the limits of
conventional technology. As activity continues to ramp up in
this new frontier, E&P companies are looking to expand the scope
of existing tools and expertise to plan and develop the most diffcult
wildcat wells, achieving what, until now, has been unachievable.
Ultra-deepwater wildcat wells present the greatest challenges to
the oil and gas industry today, due to lack of offset well data and lim-
itations of surface seismic data that compromise precise decision-
making. For this high-stakes environment, operators must be able
to accurately calibrate the seismic and pore pressure models used
extensively in exploration drilling to evaluate multiple reservoir tar-
gets, drill on budget, and drill safely.
High-tech logging-while-drilling (LWD) services have widened the
operational envelope for exploratory drilling in ultra-deepwater, deliver-
ing both real-time, time-depth-velocity data, and formation pressures to
address the fundamental challenges
of depth and pore pressure uncer-
tainty. Seismic LWD measures the
velocity, or speed of sound, between
the sea surface and the downhole
tool behind the drill bit. The ve-
locity measurement, or seismic
checkshot, is repeated as the well
is deepened, allowing the operator
to acquire velocity data as the well is
being drilled and more defnitively
calculate the depth of approaching
formation tops. Formation pressure-
while-drilling (FPWD) is able to di-
rectly measure formation pressure.
The formation tops can be up-
dated in the pre-drill pore pressure
model used to determine the number of casing sections
required, placement of casing shoes, and mud weight win-
dow parameters. Incorrect estimates of FPWD can result
in formation fracturing if the mud weight is too high, and
well control problems if the mud weight is too low.
The Schlumberger seismicVISION seismic-while-drill-
ing (SWD) service used real-time measurements to update
the velocity model in a wildcat well off the coast of West
Africa and enabled the well target objectives to be achieved
with confdence while reducing risk and time to drill the
well. In one well section with a challenging mud weight
window (MWW), SWD was used alongside the Schlum-
berger StethoScope FPWD service to more accurately
calibrate the pre-drill pore pressure model. The acquired
formation pressures, coupled with while-drilling petrophysical data, fa-
cilitated calibration of a velocity-to-pore-pressure transform and normal
compaction trend lines, providing reduced uncertainty in the pore pres-
sure model.
Understanding depth
Development of look-ahead SWD technology for drilling challeng-
ing exploratory wells and planning development wells is rooted in
the need to better understand the subsurface. Traditionally, indus-
try has relied on surface seismic data to assess the potential location
of a reservoir by using a refection seismic image to measure refec-
tions in time and estimate the velocity of the rock at different depths.
However, without reliable offset well data to calibrate the formation,
velocity depths are inherently uncertain.
Over the years, several while-drilling methods have been intro-
duced to determine where the bit is on the seismic map before reach-
ing the next casing point. These methods use indirect measurements
and observations, and rely on multi-disciplinary petrotechnical exper-
tise for data correlation between
surface seismic, basin modeling,
LWD petrophysical logs, synthetic
seismogram, mud logging, and
biostratigraphythe study of mi-
crofossils to determine the geo-
logic age of the rock.
The success of these techniques
to place the bit on seismic is limited,
because they depend on the accu-
racy of the assumptions used, con-
tinuous quality real-time logs, and/
or models developed from seismic
interpretation.
SWD addresses that defciency
by providing a direct time-depth conversion. During the
drilling process, guns are fred to measure the time for
the sound to travel from the surface to the downhole
tools, enabling the operator to determine well depth
with more certainty relative to formation tops ahead.
This more accurate depth measurement saves time,
minimizes risk and enhances safety, and potentially can
reduce hole size and the number of casings required.
In acquiring the time-depth data for exploration
wells, the SWD technique improves effciency by us-
ing an LWD tool in the bottomhole assembly (BHA),
rather than conventional wireline, to run seismic
tools while drilling. Whereas most wireline tools can
be run in combination in the hole, seismic tools are
sometimes deployed in a dedicated logging run.
Using an LWD tool involves little or no additional rig
time. Seismic sensors in the LWD tools consist of geo-
phones, which respond to the physical motion of the
wellbore, and hydrophones, which provide a more ro-
bust measurement by responding to pressure waves.
Real-time seismic measurements also have been used
Martin Richards
Chariot Oil & Gas
Neil Kelsall
Schlumberger
Seismic LWD system consists of a downhole LWD tool syn-
chronized with a surface air gun control system. Synchroni-
zation is achieved using high precision clocks with GPS time
as a reference. (Images courtesy Schlumberger)
1403OFF_58 58 2/28/14 5:00 PM
1403OFF_59 59 2/28/14 5:00 PM
60 Of fshore March 2O14 www.offshore-mag.com

GEOLOGY & GEOPHYSI CS
in development wells for highly deviated well landing. A seismic refec-
tor refects the sound off the top of the reservoir to build an image of
the reservoir location below the tool to more accurately place the well.
Real-time SWD data is continually transmitted through the Inter-
ACT global connectivity, collaboration, and information service to
ensure quality control in updating predicted target depths and po-
tential casing or coring points.
West Africa wildcat well
The seismicVISION service was deployed to guide the well trajec-
tory from spud to total depth (TD) in three sections of an ultra-deep-
water wildcat well for Chariot Oil & Gas off Namibia, an important
ultra-deepwater frontier. The SWD service provided real-time seis-
mic checkshot data for velocity model calibration during drilling,
signifcantly reducing depth uncertainty and providing waveform
data in real time for vertical seismic profle (VSP) look-ahead.
The service was used during the drilling operation of the Tapir South
well, located in a remote region with limited exploratory activity in wa-
ter depth of more than 2,100 m (6,890 ft). The nearest offset wells were
more than 100 km (62 mi) to the north and south, and the onshore base
and supply port was located more than 600 km (373 mi) away.
With rig spread rates exceeding $1 million per day, attention to detail
was essential in every phase of the remote operation, including pre-job
and logistical planning, offset evaluation, risk mitigation, and contingen-
cy measures. Because offset well data were extremely limited, with no
nearby wells, a key challenge was to reduce depth uncertainty in pre-drill
models to make accurate drilling decisions in the 17.5-in. and 12.25-in.
sections of the well. By reducing depth uncertainty, Chariot Oil & Gas
was able to update the formation depths in the pore pressure model dur-
ing drilling and thereby avoid drilling into potentially high-pressure areas.
The pre-job planning phase involved assessing how to effcient-
ly apply the technologies, minimize risk and non-productive time
(NPT), and ensure a clear process for the operation. A decision tree
was used to give the rig team autonomy to make drilling optimiza-
tion decisions, such as when to stop and take a pretest. Planning for
the SWD involved deciding where to acquire the data and ensuring
that the data would be reliably available. Plans for all three sections
included memory and real-time data acquisition at connections from
the mudline down to TD of the 12.25-in. section.
The exploration model began with the surface seismic data, which
was analyzed and interpreted to form a complex model upon which
other models could be developed to provide a framework for designing
the well. The pre-drill velocity analysis derived from surface seismic
data showed the frst reservoir target had depth uncertainty of +/-150
m (492 ft). The model also indicated that 13
3
8-in. casing needed to be
placed just above the frst target to optimize the mud weight and limit
the number of casing sections required for the remainder of the well.
S-shape trajectory
The depth uncertainty posed an additional problem due to the
need for an S-shape trajectory. This was required to avoid a seismic
anomaly, indicating a shallow drilling hazard, and to enable the well
to penetrate several amplitude variations with offset (AVO) responses
laterally offset on different horizons that could indicate hydrocarbons.
Deviated wells pose the risk of missing the target if the anticipated tar-
get depth is not correct. If the target depth is shallower than expected,
the wellbore will go under the target. If depth is deeper than expected,
the wellbore will go over the top. In this case, it was important that the
depth of the kick-off point from vertical be as accurate as possible to
maintain a smooth section and avoid side tracks.
For the 26-in. hole section, the plan was to drill without a riser
and acquire data when pulling out of the hole after jetting in the
36-in. conductor and drilling to section TD. After reaching the 20-in.
casing point, the operator took several days to run the blowout pre-
venter, riser, and casing. During this time, the onshore SWD team
processed the high-quality seismic data in memory acquired from
section TD up to 700 m (2,297 ft) above the seabed.
This produced a good-quality VSP and revealed a 4-ms time shift
between the VSP and surface seismic images. Checkshot data re-
vealed that the shallow velocity was slower than expected, making
the expected target depths shallower. The well trajectory was re-
vised accordingly and predicted depth of the frst target was continu-
ally updated as subsequent sections were drilled.
While drilling the 17.5-in. and 12.25-in sections, real-time checkshot
data was used to continuously calibrate the velocity model, place the
bit on the seismic section, and repeatedly predict the depth of reser-
voir targets ahead of the bit. The checkshot data ensured the reservoir
was not accidentally penetrated, since it was shallower than the pre-drill
model prediction. This enabled Chariot Oil & Gas to drill the 17.5-in.
section to within 20 m (66 ft) of the frst reservoir target as planned.
The 12.25-in. section intersected several 2D targets, with seismic
data acquired at each drilling connection. Because the casing shoe
was placed close to the frst target formation, it allowed the MWW
to be optimized. For this section the pre-drill pore pressure model
exhibited four different pore pressure models, with a disparity of up
to 1.8 pounds per gallon (ppg). The StethoScope formation pressure-
while-drilling service was deployed to calibrate in real time the best
pore pressure model for optimizing the MWW and casing placement
to minimize kicks and drilling delays.
For this complex ultra-deepwater well, the use of SWD service to cali-
brate a real-time velocity model enabled Chariot Oil & Gas to overcome
several major challenges related to depth uncertainty. With the integrat-
ed approach of using SWD and FPWD in the 12.25-in. section, the opera-
tor adjusted the well path while drilling and penetrated the key targets,
eliminating a 9.625-in. casing string and 8.5-in. hole section, which would
otherwise have been needed as the measurements gave assurance that
kick tolerance and safe overbalance were maintained at a safe level.
As operators continue to explore ultra-deepwater felds in remote
regions with unknown geological hazards, tools that deliver critical
model calibration information such as SWD and FPWD assist in meet-
ing well objectives and are essential for achieving effciency, reducing
costs and time, and mitigating risk.
Actual measured velocity data compared to the pre-drill velocity models
revealed slower formation than expected and hence shallower targets.
1403OFF_60 60 2/28/14 5:00 PM
Deep local knowledge.
Global expertise.
Anywhere in the world.
www.intecsea.com
This is more than a
subsea umbilical.
Its the delivery of more than 30 years of global
deepwater leadership. It represents hundreds
of hours of planning, design and manufacturing
oversight by experts around the world, and the
opportunity to learn from them.
And its my contribution in delivering just one part
of the solution to our customer.
- Ron L., INTECSEA Subsea Systems Engineer, USA
1403OFF_61 61 2/28/14 5:00 PM
62 Of fshore March 2O14 www.offshore-mag.com

DRI LLI NG & COMPLETI ON
Advances in dual gradient drilling
will facilitate deepwater development
W
hen drilling conventionally, the column of wellbore an-
nulus returns (mud and cuttings) presents a single
depth versus pressure gradient. Dual gradient drilling
(DGD) technology involves creating two or more depths
versus pressure gradients in the returns path.
The concept itself dates to the 1960s, and during the 1990s the tech-
nique gained favor as an underbalanced drilling (UBD) technique on
land drilling programs. A parasite string alongside the casing enabled
the injection of a gas (usually nitrogen) at some depth, creating a DG.
The objective was to invite the well to fow while drilling, primarily for
the purpose of increasing well productivity by avoiding damage to the
porosity of the pay zone.
The technique was later introduced to offshore drilling as one of the
four variations of managed pressure drilling (MPD). Unlike onshore UBD
applications, the offshore application of DG is certainly not to invite the
well to fow. The primary purpose is to more precisely stay within shifting,
narrow and sometimes relatively unknown safe mud weight windows, and
to achieve greater depths with each size casing string.
Don Hannegan, Weatherford manager, strategic technology develop-
mentMPD notes that in conventional deepwater and ultra-deepwa-
ter operations, the marine riser is flled with weighted mud and
cuttings that exert excessive hydrostatic pressure on the ex-
posed wellbore. This severely impacts casing design and cre-
ates a host of problems, not the least of which is well control.
DGD is particularly suitable for addressing a number of off-
shore drilling challenges because it enables a wellbore pres-
sure profle to more closely match the pressures presented
by nature, reducing or eliminating the impact of water depth
on well design. Regarding well control, current methods of
achieving dual gradient enable drilling with heavier mud
weights than is possible with conventional methods. Because
dual gradient is created in the annulus returns path and not
within the drill string, concurrent processes such as MWD
and LWD are usually not affected.
The method with the greatest number of applications
to date is riserless dual gradient, also called riserless mud
recovery. This method employs subsea pumps and a dedi-
cated fowline for returning mud and cuttings back to the
rig, as opposed to the riserless pumping and dumping
method of establishing subsea wellheads.
There are several DGD methods suitable for deepwater
rigs with conventional marine risers and subsea BOPs:
* Subsea mudlilt (pumps near the seaoor)
* Controlled annular mud level (pumps shallower to
the rig)
* Mud dilution (with concentric riser)
* !nert gas in|ection (with parasite string).
Wellbore pressure management (LCD management) is simi-
lar to the constant bottomhole pressure (CBH!) variation ol
MPD. Depending on the method and specialized equipment,
modifed kick circulation procedures may be required.
The subsea mud-lift method uses positive displacement
pumps and is often referred to as true DGD because the sub-
sea wellhead sees only seawater gradient pressure, as if the rig
were on the seafoor. Depending upon water depth and capability
of the subsea pumps, the method may allow drilling with a kill-
weight mud, posing less risk of environmental consequences in
the event of an emergency disconnect.
The controlled mud-level method is often referred to as mid-
riser DGD. The level in the riser some distance below sea level
is managed by subsea pumps mounted alongside the riser.
The mud dilution method is somewhat akin to that of using a
booster pump to inject cuttings-free mud into the riser at some
depth. A concentric riser enables a lighter mud from the rig to be
injected between the inner and outer riser into the annulus returns.
Centriluges may be used to recondition the in|ectable mud.
The inert gas injection method involves injecting an inert gas,
such as nitrogen, into the riser or casing at some depth. The use
of a nitrogen production unit (membranes) aboard may be most
practical source.
!n each method, the specialized equipment required
should comply with applicable industry standards.
For example, the subsea mud-lift method requires
a subsea rotating control device (SRD) to serve as
an annulus barrier, allowing the riser above to be
Don Francis
Special Correspondent
DGD enables navigation of narrow, shifting or relatively unknown safe
mud weight windows to greater depths, simplifying well construction
toward achieving total depth objective with large enough hole for well
productivity. (Courtesy Weatherford)
SRD being shop tested in preparation
of subsea mud-lift DGD application in the
Gulf of Mexico. (Courtesy of Weatherford)
1403OFF_62 62 2/28/14 5:00 PM
RIGHTDESIGN
TM
Making the RIGHTCHOICES
w
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p
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At Polarcus we operate the most
modern and uniform feet of high-end
3D seismic vessels in the industry.
Specifcally designed to deliver the
highest quality data with the lowest
environmental footprint, our vessels
incorporate advanced technologies
to support safe and effcient opera-
tions in the harshest of climates.
1403OFF_63 63 2/28/14 5:00 PM
64 Of fshore March 2O14 www.offshore-mag.com

DRI LLI NG & COMPLETI ON
flled with seawater and to positively divert re-
turns to the subsea pumps.
It is important to note that each method re-
quires considerable preplanning, appropriate
hazard identifcation, hydraulic fow model-
ing, crew training, and (in most waters) pre-
approval by regulatory bodies. The specialized
equipment required to perform each method is
still relatively new, and care should be taken to
qualify each component of the DGD kit with
shop tests or controlled feld trials to ensure
that it is ft for purpose.
Dual gradient
drilling challenges
According to Frederic Jacquemin, Pacifc
Drillings dual gradient drilling program direc-
tor, there are several challenges to successful
DGD operations. There is a lot of equipment
involved, a lot of heavy equipment especially on
the particular dual gradient drilling technology
that we are deploying with Chevron, said Jac-
quemin. Most of the equipment is right above
the BOP on the seabed. The key equipment is
called the MaxLift Pump. Its about the size and
the weight of the BOP and has the complexity
of the BOP as well, with control systems and
hydraulics, and despite all the redundancy built
in the system presents some incremental over-
all downtime risks.
The MLP is the heart of the DGD system,
says Jacquemin. Its the pump that is on the
seabed and brings all the returns on a sepa-
rate 6-in. line along the riser to provide the
dual gradient mechanism. Therefore, we end
up with heavy mud below the mudline and a
very light fuid with a density equivalent to
seawater inside the riser, above the pump.
In deepwater, mud-lift pumping is the
solution that provides the most beneft of
dual gradient, because we have the beneft
of the full mud column all the way down to
the seabed being lightened to the equivalent
seawater density, Jacquemin explained.
The full beneft of dual gradient can only be
achieved with the pump right on the seabed;
any other mechanism of pumping some-
where in the mud column or in a dilution-
based system cannot achieve those results.
Another challenge, he notes, is the au-
tomation of the control systems for these
pumps. Weve spent a lot of time getting
our rigs ready for dual gradient drilling by
automating a lot of the fuid managing sys-
tem. We are talking about three different
types of fuid: the heavy mud that is used to
drill below the mudline, the riser fuid that is
equivalent to seawater, and then we have the
seawater power fuid that is powering this
pump on the seabed, Jacquemin noted. So
we are talking about three completely inde-
pendent fuid systems that need to be man-
aged, that need to be transferred from A to
B to be manipulated on the surface without
any mixing of the different fuids.
And, it should be very clear at all times
where each fuid is and how it has been
transferred, Jacquemin added. Having all
those additional lines, additional valves prop-
erly tagged, most of them being remotely
controlled, all the virtualization tools and
screens and means to operate those valves
and educate all the crews and the third par-
ties into the different lineups is where we
spend a lot of effort, and this is where the
bulk of the rig modifcations were, to re-
vamp the fuid management system.
The technologies that need development
are in the valve control systems and in data
transmission, Jacquemin observes. The goal
is to gain as much as we can in rig integra-
tion, in having the controls of the system
from the rig side and from the pump side all
integrated into a comprehensive system on
the rig. This will assist with training of per-
sonnel, and the virtualization of different line-
ups will make sure that everything is lined up
properly and minimize the risk of misplaced
fuid, environmental contamination, or other
incidents by having the wrong lineups.
Ultra-deepwater DGD
GE Oil & Gas is one of the companies lead-
ing the way in the development of new dual gra-
dient drilling technology. Ahmet Duman, GE
Oil & Gas MaxLift pump engineering manager,
recently described some of his companies lat-
est efforts in this arena. Our DGD technology
removes the unwanted hydraulic pressure on
a formation by flling the riser with seawater-
density fuid instead of mud, and using a subsea
pump at the mudline to transfer mud from well-
bore annulus to the rig through a separate mud
return line, explained Duman. The hydrostat-
ic head of the mud from the rig to mudline is
totally eliminated from acting on the formation,
replaced with the hydrostatic head of seawater-
density fuid. The system can drill in tighter
fracture and pore pressure gradients of heavy
subsalt plays, making previously unreachable
reservoirs possible to reach.
Our dual-gradient technology was devel-
oped and tested 13 years ago in a joint indus-
try project and proven in the worlds frst DGD
well in 2001 in the Gulf of Mexico, Duman
continued. After a seven-year pause, we spent
more than four years designing and manu-
facturing the subsea MaxLift Pump, which is
the heart of the entire system. The 30-ft high
pump, the size of a lower blowout preventer
stack, is powered by seawater and lifts mud to
the surface from the seabed foor. It is rated
for 10,000 ft water depth and can pump up to
1,800 gal/min, at up to 6,600 psi.
DGD becomes essential
Appropriate caution is advised, but it is well
worth the effort and cost because the size of
the prize is great, Hannegan observes. We
have already drilled almost all of the easy
deepwater prospects with conventional sys-
tems, whose hydraulic principles were devel-
oped more than a century ago. Remaining
prospects are likely to be considerably more
challenging or even impossible to drill safely
and effectively with conventional means. As
with other variations of MPD, DGDs ability
to drill the undrillable is likely to ultimately
play out to be its legacythat of increasing
the worlds recoverable resources from what
otherwise would have been the case.
(Above) The heart of the dual gradient drilling system, the GE-built MaxLift
pump, was installed onboard Pacific Santa Ana in August 2013. (Courtesy
Pacific Drilling)
(Left) Pacific Santa Ana arrived in the US Gulf of Mexico in May 2012 and is
currently drilling for Chevron. (Courtesy Pacific Drilling)
1403OFF_64 64 2/28/14 5:00 PM
The future of offshore is farther out and deeper below. To get you there, Bentley combines the
forces of SACS, MOSES, and MAXSURF under one roof to deliver engineering software for
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THERE'S
A LOT RIDING
ON THIS
DRAUGHT
PLATFORM POSITION
128,500 FT
TO SEA LEVEL
VESSEL
TO PLATFORM
CENTER
OF GRAVITY
75 N
50 N
25 N
MAST HEIGHT
125.56
LATITUDE: 36
14 55.1789
LONGITUDE:-115
10 24.2677
545.135
35 DECK
TO WATER
VESSEL HEIGHT
WIND SPEED
135 FT
647.8
1403OFF_65 65 2/28/14 5:00 PM
66 Of fshore March 2O14 www.offshore-mag.com

PRODUCTI ON OPERATI ONS
Compact coiled tubing unit makes
small completion interventions feasible
Customized service has been deployed on a number of Southeast Asia workovers
A
s the number of offshore installations
increases globally and others mature,
there is a growing industry require-
ment for more cost-effective inter-
vention methods. Many times, these
installations require a costly and complicated
intervention to remediate the well for contin-
ued optimum production. In some cases, the
cost and logistics of conducting such an in-
tervention with conventional methods make
the endeavor technically and economically
infeasible.
Dating from original developments in the
early 1960s, coiled tubing (CT) has become
an integral component of many well services,
workover, and other intervention programs.
According to estimates from the Intervention
& Coiled Tubing Association (ICoTA), well
servicing and workovers account for 75% of
all CT applications, and the global number
of CT units continues to increase. The ad-
vantages associated with CT are well known,
and largely center around cost and effciency
benefts. A CT application can be run without
a workover rig, it can rapidly trip in and out
of the well, and CT operations may be per-
formed without having to kill the well.
As the offshore E&P community continues
to drill deeper, highly deviated and horizon-
tal wells, larger and more technically com-
plex completions have resulted. CT service
providers have followed suit by developing
larger and more robust equipment to deploy
larger CT pipe sizes and support increasingly
challenging wellbore interventions.
Conventional CT pipe sizes have increased
dramatically in the last 50 years, from -in.
OD to nearly 7-in. OD tubing. This has sub-
sequently increased the size and weight of
CT unit skids, which must be transported
to location by a vessel and positioned on the
deck of the platform using a crane. However,
many older, marginal, or depleted felds have
platforms with access, deck space, and crane
limitations (often with downgraded ratings)
that restrict the use of larger and heavier con-
ventional CT units.
Alternative offshore deployments and con-
fgurations exist, including the deployment
of temporary or self-erecting crane packages
to lift the CT unit and associated equipment
onto the platform, in instances where plat-
form cranes are not adequate. For platforms
with insuffcient deck space, the CT unit may
be placed on the platform, while the pump-
ing equipment remains onboard a nearby
support vessel. In cases where both deck and
crane limitations preclude these options, the
CT unit operation may be run from a lift boat,
barge, or rig.
While these alternate options may be tech-
nically feasible, they may be too costly to justi-
fy the expense. In some cases, wells have been
abandoned before reaching their potential
producing life because the economic incentive
was not strong enough to compel the operator
to deploy a conventional CT unit.
Think small for big gains
These realities guided Baker Hughes in
the development of its Micro CT Coiled Tub-
ing service, a more compact, lighter weight
and modular system using a combination of
equipment and proprietary intervention mod-
eling software to circumvent the deployment
challenges of larger CT equipment. The unit
effectively bridges the gap between traditional
capillary and CT services to allow operators to
economically service wells that might other-
wise have to be shut in or abandoned.
Tim Ramsey
Gordon Mackenzie
Adrian Terry
Rick Stanley
Baker Hughes
Micro CT units are a more compact, lighter weight and modular system
using a combination of equipment and proprietary intervention modeling
software to circumvent the deployment challenges of larger CT equipment.
1403OFF_66 66 2/28/14 5:00 PM
www.offshore-mag.com t March 2014 Of fshore 67
PRODUCTI ON OPERATI ONS
An operator in the Gulf of Thailand used Baker
Hughes Micro CT system because barge-sup-
ported CT operations were not economically
feasible, and the platform did not have sufficient
deck space to rig up either a conventional CT
equipment package or a hydraulic workover unit.
The smaller CT system is primarily designed
to run
5
8-in., -in., and 1-in. work strings with a
20,000-lb pull injector capacity, but can also run
larger CT, injector heads, and reels. The unit
breaks down into nine main components. The
modules include:
* A control cabin designed lor an operator
and with an additional lolddown seat lor
an assistant. The cabin includes integrat-
ed stairways, handrails, and food lights.
* An engine module and hydraulic module
power packs, designed to meet Zone II,
DNV 2.7-1, and/or Class 1 Div II speci-
fcations. The engine module drives the
hydraulic modules various hydraulic sys-
tems through a quick connecting prop-
shalt. The modules assemble in about
15 minutes with a lew hoses, cables, and
quickconnecting driveshalt.
* An auxiliary module provides powered
hose reels lor quick rig up and easy man-
ual handling, along with BOP accumula-
tor banks lor pressure control typically
associated with CT units. In situations
where deck space is limited or a larger
CT reel is required, the control cabin can
be stacked upon the auxiliary module.
* An option lor two drum sizes, capable ol
holding 1O,OOO lt (8,O48 m) and 17,OOO lt
(5,182 m) ol in. tubing (or larger tub-
ing with shorter lengths).
* A pressure control/in|ector/gooseneck
basket, which holds a 20,000-lb capacity
in|ector head capable ol running both
capillary and coiledtubing stings; a 8
1/1Gin., 1O,OOOpsi (G89bar) working
pressure well control stack.
The modular nature ol the system reduces
the need lor sellerecting cranes and support/
supply vessels, as it is easier to transport and
rig up compared to conventional systems. The
system also minimizes logistics and onboard
personnel to reduce HSE risks. To date, the
customized CT service has been deployed in a
number ol workovers in Southeast Asia to assist
in downhole scale removal, solids clean out, mill-
ing, perlorating, and gaslilt extension pro|ects.
Scale removal
An operator in the Cull ol Thailand was chal-
lenged with the buildup ol scale deposits in a
18,2OO lt (4,O28 m) well that prevented access
to deeper portions ol the well. Multiple wireline
attempts had proven unsuccesslul in removing
these deposits, which compelled the operator
to use CT to remove the scale and improve well
production. The Micro CT service was pro-
posed, as barge-supported CT operations were
not economically leasible, and the platlorm did
not have sulcient deck space to rig up either
a conventional CT equipment package or a
hydraulic workover unit. In addition, the rigs
crane capacity had been derated, which pre-
vented any heavy lilts onto the platlorm.
A site survey was conducted using the com-
pany`s C!RCA modeling soltware to simulate
CT operations and to provide a thorough un-
derstanding ol the available deck space. This
inlormation was then used to engineer a cus-
tomized equipment spread that was deployed
to the platlorm, thus eliminating the need lor
a support vessel.
The workover then began by running a 1-in.
CT string to 18,2OO lt TD, where a |etting tool
alxed to the string pumped a 15 HCl inhibit-
ed-acid solution treatment to dissolve the scale
deposits lrom the tubing completion. The scale
was removed in one trip, as confrmed by a sep-
arate wireline run to verily the posttreatment
condition ol the tubing and collect additional
data to improve well productivity.
The |ob took lour days ol actual operat-
ing time and required no milling tools. By
placing the modular system on the platlorm
deck, the operator was able to eliminate the
need lor a standby support vessel. At a day
rate ol $8O,OOO, avoiding a support vessel
saved the operator 8O to 4O ol the costs ol
a conventional CT operation.
Boosting production
An operator ol a monobore single gas well
in the Colok Barat eld ollshore Malaysia
was experiencing dwindling production
and challenges with reaching and perlorat-
ing the lower completion due to a damaged
permanent tubing patch straddle section at
a depth ol 5,2G9 lt (1,GOG m). The patch had
previously been installed to abandon an up-
per zone at 5,194 to 5,854 lt (1,588 to 1,G82
m), but now had to be milled out to allow ac-
cess to the lower zone and boost production.
The operator narrowed its intervention
options down to the small CT system or trac-
tor-deployed milling, but settled on the CT
system because ol its smaller lootprint and
lighter weight. Baker Hughes conducted
coiled tubing simulations on the well, which
had a corkscrew prole characterized by a
tortuous well path due to high dogleg sever-
ity ol 5.O4/8O.28 m at 2,O58 lt (G2G m) and a
maximum hole angle ol 71.
Civen these challenges, the service provid-
er and operator arrived at a deployment plan
that called lor rst milling the !D restriction
to gain access below the permanent tubing
patch, lollowed by spotting a gel pill across
the milled section to reduce potential cross
ow and nally, perlorating with slickline.
While the milling operation was successlul
using lrictionreduced water at a pump rate
ol O.8 to 1.O bpm and 4,OOO to 4,5OO psi (27G
to 81O bar), the subsequent slickline run be-
came held up at 5,2G2 lt (1,GO4 m).
A secondary option ol perlorating the lower
section with the small CT unit was then initi-
ated. A total ol 28 runs, including 14 perlora-
tion runs, were perlormed with the small CT
unit over 20 days, without any major issues.
The production ellect was instantaneous with
a gas rate ol 15 MMcl/d. The intervention has
allowed the operator to continue producing
the well and access new reserves without the
expense ol an extensive workover operation.
This small CT operation allowed lor various
downhole tools to pass through restrictions
and perlorate the new production interval. No
NPT was recorded, and the operation was car-
ried out as per the |ob program. Cood commu-
nication and teamwork between the service
company and the operator were key to execut-
ing the |ob salely and without incident.
Future applications
While the Micro CT service was initially
developed lor the Asia/!acic region its grow-
ing successlul track record there has garnered
greater interest lrom ollshore operators abroad.
The Cull ol Mexico, lor example, contains a
large number ol smalldeck satellite platlorms,
many ol which have been in production lor de-
cades and are in need ol workover operations to
boost production. In addition, the industry de-
sire lor modular and lightweight rig components
with a minimal lootprint has increased over the
past two decades in the CoM, and service pro-
viders have answered this call by designing ever
smaller and more nimble rig equipment.
The Micro CT service was specially de-
signed with these industry requirements in
mind, and Baker Hughes continues to tailor
the service lor the Cull ol Mexico, West Al-
rica, Middle Last, and Lurope.
1403OFF_67 67 2/28/14 5:00 PM
68 Of fshore March 2O14 www.offshore-mag.com

SUBSEA
T
his issue of Offshore contains the 2014
Worldwide Survey of Subsea Process-
ing Systems, the seventh installment
of this industry resource, a joint ef-
fort between INTECSEA and Offshore
magazine. The primary aims of this poster
are to chronicle the development and the de-
velopers of these systems, and to document
the continued commitment of oil companies
to the application of these technologies. For
online access to view and download all sev-
en posters, please visit www.offshore-mag.
com/maps-posters.html.
Each years edition of the poster refects
the evolution of the technology, and is also an
evolution in itself in the way the information is
presented. This year, we have noted a distinct
trend: subsea boosting is more a matter of
course for many operators, and efforts have
shifted toward effective implementation. The
formation of API Committee 17X, charged with
development of a Recommended Practice for
Subsea Pumping within the next year, is evi-
dence of the focus on effective implementation,
and also marks the beginnings of standardiza-
tion in the subsea processing arena. While we
have worked each year to graphically illustrate
the various subsea processing architectures
and their respective applications, this year we
have revised our approach to further capture
this trend toward implementation, even while
the key technologies continue to evolve.
Subsea confgurations
Subsea processing confgurations, a
newly revised section this year, is in the
lower right-hand quadrant of the poster. In
this section, there are three graphical sys-
tem confgurations, titled short, medium
and long distance confguration examples.
These diagrams capture the basic elements
of subsea processing systems, and show
how these systems evolve as requirements
of the feld under development steadily ex-
pand with increasing distance from the host
platform or shore facility. We also note that
the use of the various building blocks is not
necessarily restricted to the short, medium
or long distance examples in which we have
portrayed them. There are exceptions to
every rule, yet we believe we have captured
the concepts in a way that will help our read-
ers understand and apply the capabilities of
the technologies.
Short distance
The short distance confguration example
is in Figure 1 of the subsea processing con-
fgurations section of the poster. The single
element of subsea processing in this fgure
is subsea boosting which, again, is becoming
a matter of course for many operators. This
example applies to tieback distances up to
15 km (9.3 mi). Figure 1 is accompanied by
a one-line electrical diagram, Figure 2, and a
process fow diagram, Figure 3, correspond-
ing to the equipment layout of Figure 1.
Also included in the subsea processing con-
fgurations section are eight charts entitled
subsea power and processing technology at-
tributes, each showing currently qualifed ca-
pabilities and those being qualifed or under
further development. For the short distance
example, tables 4.2 and 4.3 are applicable for
the electrical power system and subsea boost-
ing technology, respectively.
Medium distance
The medium distance confguration ex-
ample is in Figure 4 of the subsea process-
ing confgurations section, and the electrical
one-line diagram and process fow diagrams
are shown in Figures 5 and 6, respectively.
Medium distance ranges up to 60 km (37.3
mi). In this range, fow assurance challenges
typically present the need for gas/liquid sepa-
ration (we have also included the capability
for raw seawater injection). The subsea pow-
er and processing technology attributes are
shown in Tables 4.4, 4.5, and 4.8 for power,
two-phase separation, and raw seawater injec-
tion technology, respectively; Table 4.3 still
applies for subsea boosting.
Long distance
The most challenging, and most interesting,
example is the long distance confguration, in
Figure 7, for distances ranging up to 140 km (87
mi). At this distance, all the major elements of
subsea processing might come into play: three
phase separation, produced water re-injection,
and gas compression, as well as subsea boost-
ing. The attributes are shown in Tables 4.1, 4.3,
4.6, and 4.7.
Power system step-out
One feature from the 2013 poster retained
for this year is Table 5: power system step-
out confgurations. The Type 1, 2, and 3 cat-
egories in this table correspond to the Type
1, 2, and 3 electrical diagrams used in the
short, medium and long distance confgura-
tions. The Type 4 category shown in Table
5 was not illustrated with a subsea process-
ing confguration in this years poster. The
range for Type 4 extends up to 400 km (~250
mi), and perhaps even further. This range
lies clearly in the future, beyond the projec-
tions we have made to date.
Two areas to watch
A number of technology advances are
identifed in the poster, each of which will be
quite interesting to follow, but there are two
areas worthy of special note: separator tech-
nology and gas compression. Whereas the
conventional vessel technology has seen suc-
cess, most notably at Pazfor, concerns over
cost, size and weight continue to drive inter-
est in alternatives. Finally, we are confdent
that the pending installations of gas compres-
sors at sgard and Gullfaks will draw special
interest, and may guide the subsea process-
ing industry closer toward a complete and
comprehensive subsea capability.
Larry Forster
Mac McKee
John Allen
INTECSEA
The subsea gas compressor for Statoils sgard
field, which is scheduled to start production in
1Q 2015. For more details on current subsea
processing trends and technologies, see the
poster included in this issue. (Image courtesy
MAN Diesel & Turbo)
Subsea processing retains innovation,
moves toward standardization
1403OFF_68 68 2/28/14 5:02 PM
Refinery-wide modelling
using your own standards
REFINING
Facility models that
understand field plans
PRODUCTION
answers@kbcat.com www.kbcat.com blog.kbcat.com
EMEA: +44 1932 242424 ASIA: +65 6735 5488 AMER: +1 281 293 8200
KBC Advanced Technologies plc
1403OFF_69 69 2/28/14 5:02 PM
MARCH 2014
STATUS OF THE TECHNOLOGY
2014 WORLDWIDE SURVEY OF SUBSEA
PROCESSING: SEPARATION, COMPRESSION,
AND PUMPING SYSTEMS
M A G A Z I N E
Offshore Magazine
1455 West Loop South, Suite 400
Houston, TX 77027 USA
Tel: 713-621-9720
www.offshore-mag.com
Larry Forster, Thiago Mesquita Paes, Richard Voight, Spiridon Ionescu,
John Allen, RJ Baker, Rachel Townsend, Julie Burke and Mac McKee of INTECSEA,
E. Kurt Albaugh of Repsol E & P USA, and David Davis of Offshore Magazine
Poster Assembled By: Chris Jones of XenonGroupDesign.com
Digital Images by: Sid Aguirre of C-Ray Media
E-Mail Comments, Corrections or Additions to: ssp@intecsea.com
To Download a PDF, go to: www.offshore-mag.com/maps-posters.html or www.intecsea.com/publications/posters
INTECSEA, Inc.
15600 JFK Boulevard, Ninth Floor
Houston, TX 77032 USA
Tel: 281-987-0800
www.intecsea.com
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF THE CONTRIBUTORS
INTECSEA and Offshore Magazine wish to acknowledge the following companies and individuals who continue to support our efforts
to educate and inform the oil & gas industry on the status of subsea processing technologies.
Aker Solutions: Jonah Margulis and Kate Winterton; OneSubsea: Jarle Michaelsen and Jessica Clements; Flowserve: Bob Urban and Marc L. Fontaine; FMC Technologies:
Janardhan Davalath, Jayne Merritt, Alan Szymanski and Citlalli Utrera; MAN Diesel & Turbo: Domingo Fernandez; Repsol E & P USA: Ron Pettus; Saipem: Claude Valenchon,
Stephanie Abrand and Stephane Anres; Shell: Chris Shaw; Siemens: Ordin Husa; Schneider Electric: Kristina Hakala; Schlumberger: Grant Harris; SEABOX AS: Torbjorn Hegdal
and Eirik Dirdal; SPX: Ross Dobbie; Technip: Chuck Horn, Mike Zerkus and Tim Lowry
Information Accuracy: We have attempted to use correct and current, as of press time, information for the subsea processing systems and equipment described herein. No installed,
sanctioned, or pending application was intentionally excluded. We have summarized the capability and operating experience by acting as a neutral party and integrator of information.
Information has been collected from public sources, company brochures, personal interviews, phone interviews, press releases, industry magazines, vendor-supplied information, and
web sites. No guarantee is made that information is accurate or all-inclusive. Neither INTECSEA nor Offshore Magazine guarantees or assumes any responsibility or liability for any partys
use of the information presented. If any information is found to be incorrect, not current, or has been omitted, please send comments to ssp@intecsea.com.

2
0
1
4
O
ffs
h
o
re
POSTER
111
Norwegian Sea
Tordis (Separation, Boosting, WI)
Troll C. Pilot (Separation, WI)
Tyrihans (WI)
Draugen (Boosting)
Draugen - Expansion (Boosting)
Aasgard (Compression)
Gullfaks (Compression)
DEMO 2000 (Compression)
Ormen Lange (Compression)
Troll (Compression)
Equatorial Guinea
Topacio (Boosting)
Ceiba FFD (Boosting)
Ceiba C3+C4 (Boosting)
North Sea
Columba E. (WI)
Brenda & Nicol (Boosting)
Lyell (Boosting)
Machar/ETAP (Boosting)
Highlander (Separation)
Argyll (Separation)
Mediterranean
Montanazo & Lubina (Boosting)
Prezioso (Boosting)
Angola
Pazflor (Sep., Boosting)
CLOV (Boosting)
GirRi (Girassol) (Boosting)
Congo
Azurite (Boosting)
Moho Phase 1 BIS (Boosting)
West of Shetlands
Schiehallion (Boosting)
Abu Dhabi
Zakum (Separation)
Barents Sea
Shtokman (Compression)
Snohvit (Compression)
Espirito Santo Basin
Jubarte - Phase 2 (Boosting)
Golfinho (Boosting)
Jubarte - Phase 1 (Boosting)
Jubarte EWT (Boosting)
Canapu (Separation)
Atlanta (Boosting)
Parque das Baleias (Boosting)
GOM
Perdido (Separation, Boosting)
Navajo (Boosting)
King (Boosting)
Cascade & Chinook (Boosting)
Jack and St. Malo (Boosting)
Julia (Boosting)
Stones (Boosting)
South China Sea
Lufeng (Boosting)
Campos Basin
BC-10 - Phase 1 (Separation, Boosting)
Espadarte (Field Trial) (Boosting)
Barracuda (Boosting)
Marimba (Separation, Boosting)
Marlim SSAO - Pilot (Separation)
Albacora L'Este (WI)
Marlim (Boosting)
Congro (Separation, Boosting)
Corvina (Separation, Boosting)
BC-10 - Phase 2 (Separation, Boosting)
Western Australia
Mutineer/Exeter (Boosting)
Vincent (Boosting)
Installed & Currently Operating
Installed & Not Currently Operating or In-active
Abandoned, Removed
Awarded and in Manufacturing or Delivered
Qualified/Testing
Conceptual Project
Canceled Project
WORLDWIDE LOCATIONS FOR SUBSEA PUMPING, COMPRESSION, AND SEPARATION SYSTEMS (As of Feb., 2014)
COURTESY OF
GRAPH 1 GVF vs. DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE - OPERATIONAL AND CONCEPTUAL CAPABILITIES
250
200
150
100
50
0 bar
3,625
300
4,400
2,900
2,175
1,450
725
0 psi
SPP - Single Phase Pump (Centrifugal)
TSP - Twin Screw Pump
WGC - Wet Gas Compression
DGC - Dry Gas Compression
HSP - Hydraulic Submersible Pump
D
if
f
e
r
e
n
t
ia
l P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
GVF (%)
High Boost
Helico-Axial
Standard
Helico-Axial
Hybrid
HSP
SPP (Centrifugal)
TSP
WGC DGC
TSP
100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 0 100 200 300 400
GRAPH 2 HIGH LEVEL COMPARISON OF SUBSEA BOOSTING OPTIONS
Pump Types GVF Range (Approximate) Pressure Differential (Bar)
CENTRIFUGAL
HYBRID (CENTRIFUGAL/
HELICO-AXIAL)
MULTIPHASE ESP
HSP
HELICO-AXIAL
TWIN SCREW
Notes:
1. Combination of parameter values shown above is not feasible.
2. There are a number of other parameters/factors that need to be considered for any pump selection.
3. Based upon recent updates from Flowserves subsea boosting system test results.
4. HSP can tolerate up to 100% of gas slug.
125
175 (Note 3)
200 (Note 2)
75%
COURTESY OF COURTESY OF
TABLE 2 PUMP TYPES & APPLICATIONS
TYPE CONFIG. APPLICABILITY FOR SUBSEA BOOSTING
CENTRIFUGAL
HORIZONTAL
OR VERTICAL
H Highest differential pressure capability among pump types.
H Handles low Gas Volume Fraction (GVF) < 15% at suction conditions.
HYBRID
(CENTRIFUGAL &
HELICO-AXIAL)
VERTICAL
H Combination of helico-axial and centrifugal impeller stages.
H Primary application is for use downstream of separator or in low GOR applications
where GVF is consistently < 38% at suction conditions.
MUDLINE ESP
HORIZONTAL
OR VERTICAL
H Widely deployed technology used for boosting in wells, caissons, flowline risers, and
mudline horizontal boosting applications.
H Applicable for conditions of GVF < 50% (continuous) and for improved flow assurance.
HSP
HORIZONTAL
OR VERTICAL
H Compact hydraulic drive boosting pump for wells, caissons & mudline applications.
H Applicable for conditions of GVF < 75% (continuous) and for improved flow assurance.
HELICO-AXIAL VERTICAL
H Applicable for higher GVF boosting applications - typical range of 30-95% GVF at
suction conditions.
H Moderate particulate tolerance.
TWIN SCREW
HORIZONTAL
OR VERTICAL
H Good for handling high GVF - up to 98% GVF at suction conditions.
H Preferred technology for high viscosity fluids.
SUBSEA BOOSTING PUMP TYPES
Fig. 1: Vertically Congured
Centrifugal Single Phase
Pump & Motor Diagram
Fig. 3: OneSubseas Multiphase
Hybrid SS Boosting Pump
HYBRID: OneSubseas hybrid pump
was developed and qualied for
the Pazor subsea separation and
boosting project. It comprises a
combination of lower helico-axial
stages and upper centrifugal
stages on the same shaft. This
conguration tolerates moderate
gas fraction and generates high
differential head to allow a wide
operating envelope.
CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS
(For GVF < 15%)
HYBRID PUMPS
(For GVF < 38%)
HELICO-AXIAL PUMPS
(For GVF < 95%)
TWIN SCREW PUMPS
(For GVF < 98%)
Courtesy of OneSubsea
Fig. 7: Deployment of a OneSubsea
Helico-Axial Multiphase Pump
HELICO-AXIAL: OneSubseas
multiphase pump stages in a vertical
conguration. Recent testing and
successful qualication work, in the
HiBoost MPP Joint Industry Project,
have greatly increased differential head
capability (see Graph 2 for details).
HSPs can be congured as a
downhole pump with the power
pressure pump residing on
a platform or on the seabed.
The downhole pump can also
be vertically congured in a
seabed caisson for boosting and
separation purposes.
Fig. 6: Vertically Congured
Helico-Axial Pump & Motor
Diagram
Courtesy of OneSubsea
Fig. 9: Vertically Cong-
ured SMPC Series 4 Twin
Screw Pump & Motor
Courtesy of Bornemann
Fig. 8: Twin Screw Pump
Cross Section Diagram
Courtesy of Leistritz
Fig 11: Vertically Congured SMPC
Series 4 Twin Screw Pump & Motor
Courtesy of Bornemann
Courtesy of Bornemann
Fig. 10: Bornemann Twin Screw
Cross Section Diagram
Fig. 12: Flowserve Horizontally Congured
Twin Screw Pump & Motor Concept
Courtesy of Flowserve
Fig. 2: Vertically
Congured Hybrid Pump
& Motor Diagram
Courtesy of OneSubsea
Fig. 4: Diagram of Vertically
Congured Gas Handling ESP in a
Seabed Caisson
Fig. 5: Diagram of HSP
Principle of Operation
ESP PUMPS
(For GVF < 50%)
HSP PUMPS
(For GVF < 75%)
Courtesy of Schlumberger
Courtesy of ClydeUnion Pumps (SPX)
ESPs can be installed in a caisson to
gather and boost ow from multiple
wells.
POSTER COLOR CODE KEY
The poster is divided into discrete sections
and each section is marked by a background
color. The colors denote the type of technology
presented in the sections. This color code is
carried throughout the poster. Below are the
intuitive color code designations for each of the
six themes.
Full Wellstream Subsea Boosting
Subsea Separation
Subsea Gas Compression
Water Injection with Subsea Pumps
Power Transmission/Distribution and Controls
Miscellaneous Information/Combination of Technologies
CHART 1 SUBSEA SUPPLIER MATRIX (As of Feb., 2014) SUBSEA PROCESSING
SUBSEA
PUMPING
AKER SOLUTIONS
akersolutions.com
FMC TECHNOLOGIES (6)
fmctechnologies.com
GE
ge-energy.com
AKER SOLUTIONS
akersolutions.com
BORNEMANN (8)
bornemann.com
FLOWSERVE
flowserve.com
PUMP
SYSTEM
PACKAGERS
ELECTRIC
MOTOR
MANUFACTURERS
ONESUBSEA
onesubsea.com
BAKER HUGHES
bakerhughes.com
ONESUBSEA
onesubsea.com
ONESUBSEA
onesubsea.com
ClydeUnion (SPX)
spx.com
SCHLUMBERGER
slb.com
LEISTRITZ
leistritzcorp.com
AKER SOLUTIONS
akersolutions.com
DIRECT DRIVE SYSTEMS (1)
fmctechnologies.com
FLOWSERVE
flowserve.com
CURTISS WRIGHT
curtisswright.com
LOHER (2)
automation.siemens.com
HAYWARD TYLER
haywardtyler.com
AKER SOLUTIONS
akersolutions.com
DUCO
technip.com
JDR
jdrcables.com
DRAKA
draka.com
OCEANEERING
oceaneering.com
NEXANS
nexans.com
PARKER
parker.com
ABB
abb.com
FURUKAWA
Furukawa.co.jp
MITSUBISHI
mitsubishielectric.com
BICC BERCA
biccberca.com
OKONITE
okonite.com
NKT
nktcables.com
SUMITOMO
sumitomo.com
BRUGG
bruggcables.com
HITACHI
hitachi.com
ALCATEL
alcatel-lucent.com
NEXANS
nexans.com
PRYSMIAN
prysmiangroup.com
ABB
abb.com
CONVERTEAM (7)
ge-energy.com
ONESUBSEA
onesubsea.com
BAKER HUGHES
bakerhughes.com
SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC
schneider-electric.com
AKER SOLUTIONS
akersolutions.com
BAKER HUGHES
bakerhughes.com
PUMP
MANUFACTURERS
AKER SOLUTIONS
akersolutions.com
FMC TECHNOLOGIES
fmctechnologies.com
GE
ge-energy.com
BAKER HUGHES
bakerhughes.com
ONESUBSEA
onesubsea.com
SUBSEA RAW
SEAWATER
INJECTION (3)
AKER SOLUTIONS
akersolutions.com
ASCOM
ascomseparation.com
SUBSEA
SEPARATION
SYSTEMS
AKER SOLUTIONS
akersolutions.com
ONESUBSEA
onesubsea.com
GE
ge-energy.com
XXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXX
DRESSER RAND
dresser-rand.com
GE POWER SYSTEMS
ge-energy.com
MAN Diesel & Turbo
mandieselturbo.com
ONESUBSEA
onesubsea.com
SIEMENS INDUSTRIAL
TURBO MACHINERY
turbomachinerysolutions.com
UMBILICALS
ALSTOM
alstom.com
XXXXX
BENNEX (4)
energy.siemens.com
DEUTSCH (5)
te.com
GE VetcoGray
ge-energy.com
SEACON
seaconworldwide.com
SIEMENS
energy.siemens.com
TELEDYNE ODI
odi.com
DIAMOULD
diamould.com
HV
CONNECTORS
BENESTAD (9)
benestad.com
DIAMOULD
diamould.com
SIEMENS
energy.siemens.com
DEUTSCH (5)
te.com
TELEDYNE ODI
odi.com
TELEDYNE D.G.OBRIEN
dgo.com
PENETRATORS
AKER SOLUTIONS
akersolutions.com
CONVERTEAM (7)
ge-energy.com
ALPHA THAMES
alpha-thames.co.uk
SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC
schneider-electric.com
AKER SOLUTIONS
akersolutions.com
BAKER HUGHES
bakerhughes.com
VETCO GRAY SCANDINAVIA
ge-energy.com
SIEMENS
energy.siemens.com
ASDs/VSDs &
X-FORMERS
POWER
CABLES
HV &
AC/DC POWER
CONTROL
SYSTEMS
TESTING
FACILITIES
FMC TECHNOLOGIES/
SULZER (6)
fmctechnologies.com
sulzer.com
ONESUBSEA
onesubsea.com
SEABOX
sea-box.no
SAIPEM
saipem.com
NSW
nsw.com
BORNEMANN (8)
bornemann.com
FLOWSERVE
flowserve.com
FMC TECHNOLOGIES
fmctechnologies.com
ONESUBSEA
onesubsea.com
PROLAB
prolabnl.com
STATOIL: P-LAB & K-LAB
(Norway)
PETROBRAS ATALAIA LAB
(Brazil)
SHELL GASMER
(Houston, TX)
SULZER (6)
sulzer.com
LEISTRITZ
leistritzcorp.com
OTHER
SUPPORTING
SYSTEMS
COMPRESSORS
FMC TECHNOLOGIES
fmctechnologies.com
COMPRESSION
SYSTEM
PACKAGERS
SUBSEA
COMPRESSION
GE
ge-energy.com
ONESUBSEA
onesubsea.com
FMC Technologies
fmctechnologies.com
TWISTER BV
twisterbv.com
SAIPEM
saipem.com
SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC
schneider-electric.com
SULZER (6)
sulzer.com
COURTESY OF
NOTES:
1. Direct Drive Systems is a subsidiary of FMC Technologies.
2. Loher is a Siemens company.
3. Subsea raw seawater injection refers to only those projects utilizing a subsea pump to inject
seawater and does not include typical water injection using a pump on a topside facility.
4. Bennex is a Siemens company.
5. Deutsch is part of the TE connectivity group.
6. FMC Technologies and Sulzer have formed a joint venture.
7. CONVERTEAM is a GE company.
8. Bornemann is an ITT Company.
9. Benestad is a Aker Solution company
TABLE 7 OTHER INFORMATION SOURCES
Go to www.onepetro.org to order the SPE & OTC papers listed below.
SUBSEA BOOSTING PROJECTS
OTC 23178 2012 FMC Pazflor: Test/Qual. of Novel Tech.
OTC-24498 2013 PETROBRAS SS Proc. & Boost. in Brazil
OTC-24401 2013 FMC/SULZER Dev. & Qual. of a High DP SS Pump
OTC-24201 2013 PETROBRAS Mudline ESP in a Subsea Skid
OTC-24428 2013 PETROBRAS/ONESUBSEA SS High Boost MPP
OTC-24217 2013 PETROBRAS Barracuda Subsea Helico-Axial MPP
SPE-164757 2013 JOH. HEINR. BORNEMANN MP Boosting in Oil and Gas
OTC-24263 2013 ONESUBSEA Evolution of SS Boosting
SUBSEA SEPARATION
IPTC-16914 2013 KERR-MCGEE & BAKER HUGHES Downhole Oil and Water Separation
SPE-166079 2013 BP & SOUTHWEST R. INST. Evaluation of Separation in a Casing
OTC-24533 2013 PETROBRAS Comiss./Startup of SS Marlim Separ.
SPE-167334 2013 PANDIT DEENDAYAL PET. UNIV. Effective Gas-Liquid Separation
OTC-24359 2013 SAIPEM SS Gas-liq. and Water-hydro. Sep.
OTC 23223 2012 FMC/EXMOB/WOODSIDE Compact SS Sep. for Deep Water
OTC 23478 2012 ENI SS Gas/Liquid Separation
DOT-T2S1O2 2011 SAIPEM Development of the Spoolsep
SUBSEA RAW SEAWATER AND PRODUCED WATER INJECTION DEVELOPMENT
OTC-24167 2013 PETROBRAS Albacora Subsea Raw WI
OTC-24111 2013 CHEVRON WI in the Gulf of Mexico
SPE-166576 2013 SEA-BOX/AKER SUBSEA SS Water Treatment and Injection
SPE-165138 2013 TOTAL EP Produced Water Re-Injection
SPE-164372 2013 SAUDI ARAMCO Prod. Water Re-Injection Sys. Optim.
OTC-24273 2013 TOTAL/SAIMPEM/VWS WEST. Springs: Subsea WI Treatment
MULTIPHASE BOOSTING SYSTEM
SPE 134341 2010 SHELL/FLOWSERVE Dev. of High Boost System
SUBSEA COMPRESSION
IPTC-17649 2013 A/S NORSKE SHELL SS Compression at Ormen Lange
IPTC-16982 2013 CURTIN U. Appl. of Downhole Gas Compressor
IPTC 14231 2011 FRAMO Advances in SS Wet Gas Comp.
OTC 21346 2011 STATOIL/ONESUBSEA Testing of SS Wet Gas Comp.
OCT 24211 2011 AKER SOLUTIONS SS Compression: A Game Changer
DOT AMST. 2010 SHELL Qualifying the Technology
POWER TRANSMISSION/DISTRIBUTION
OTC-25278 2014 INTECSEA Hybrid Split VFD / SSP Tieback
OTC-24129 2013 PETROBRAS SS Electrical Power Trans. and Dist.
OTC-24448 2013 INTECSEA High Voltage Power Transmission
OTC-24129 2013 PETROBRAS Devel. of a SS Elect. Power Transm.
OTC-23935 2013 DEUTSCH/SCHNEIDER Powering Subsea Processing
OTC-24147 2013 DET NORSKE VERITAS Power System for the New Era
SPE-166558 2013 SCHLUMBERGER SS Cable Applications in Offshore
IPTC-17269 2013 TOTAL EP Selection of Power from Shore
OTC-24183 2013 GE Modular Stacked DC Transmission
OTC-23960 2013 HUSKY OIL CHINA LTD. Husky Liwan Deepwater SS Control
COMPANY EXPERIENCE & APPROACH TO SUBSEA PROCESSING
OTC-24307 2013 STATOIL Steps to the Subsea Factory
OTC-24161 2013 PETROBRAS SS Proc. Systems: Future Vision
OTC-24519 2013 PETROBRAS Subsea vs Topside Processing
OTC-23970 2013 TECORP INT. Challenges World Largest Slug
Catcher
OTC-24162 2013 PETROBRAS Cascade and Chinook Subsea Dev.
COURTESY OF
2P Two Phase
3P Three Phase
AC Alternate Current
AL Artifical Lift
ALM Artifical Lift Manifold
ASD Adjustable Speed Drive
BOPD Barrels of Oil per Day
BPD Barrels per Day
CAPEX Capital Expenditures
COSSP Configurable Subsea Separation
& Pumping
CSSP Centrifugal Subsea Submersible
Pump
CTCU Cable Traction Control Unit
DMBS Deepwater Multiphase Boosting
System
ESP Electrical Submersible Pump
FFD Full Field Development
FPS Floating Production System
FPSO Floating, Production, Storage,
& Offloading Vessel
GLCC Gas/Liquid Centrifugal Cyclonic
GLR Gas Liquid Ratio
GVF Gas Volume Fraction
Hp Horsepower
HSP Hydraulic Submersible Pump
HV High Voltage
IOR Improved (Increased) Oil Recovery
JB Junction Box
kW Kilowatt
LDDM Long Distance Delivery Management
LDDS Long Distance Delivery System
MPP Multiphase Pump
MW Mega Watts
NF Natural Flow
OPEX Operational Expenditures
PCDM Power and Communication
Distribution Module
PCM Power Control Module
PFD Process Flow Diagram
PLET Pipeline End Termination
PLIM Pipeline Inline Manifold
PSIG Pipeline Simulation Interest Group/
Pounds per Square Inch (Gauge)
PSUTA Pump Subsea Umbilical Termination
Assembly
ROV Remote Operated Vehicle
RPM Revolutions per Minute
SCM Subsea Control Module
SFB Seafloor Boosting
SIORS Subsea Increased Oil Recovery System
SMUBS Shell Multiphase Underwater Boost
Station
SPEED Subsea Power Electrical Equipment
Distribution
SPP Single Phase Pump
SS Subsea
SSBI Subsea Separation Boosting Injection
SSP Subsea Processing
SUBSIS Subsea Separation and Injection
System
SUTA Subsea Umbilical Termination
Assembly
TUTA Topside Umbilical Termination
Assembly
VASPS Vertical Annular Separation and
Pumping System
VSD Variable Speed Drive
WD Water Depth
WI Water Injection
WI XT Water Injection Christmas Tree
XT Christmas Tree
COURTESY OF
TABLE 6 ACRONYMS & ABBREVIATIONS
SUBSEA GAS COMPRESSION SYSTEMS & PRODUCTS BY COMPANY
Fig. 1: Ormen Lange Subsea Compression Pilot
Courtesy of Aker Solutions
Fig. 2: Subsea Gas Compression Station Concept
Courtesy of FMC Technologies
Fig. 4: sgard SS Compressor
Courtesy of MAN Diesel & Turbo
Fig. 7: sgard SS Compression Support Structure in Transit
to Field
Courtesy of Aker Solutions
Fig. 8: Kvaerner Booster Station
(KBS) for SS Gas Compression
Courtesy of GE Oil & Gas
Fig. 6: sgard Subsea Compression
Station Template Installation
Courtesy of Aker Solutions
Fig. 5: Illustration of the OneSubsea Gullfaks
Wet Gas Compression Station
Courtesy of OneSubsea
Fig. 3 : OneSubsea Counter-rotating
5MW Wet Gas Compressor built for
Gullfaks Qualication Test
Courtesy of OneSubsea
SUBSEA POWER CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT & CONNECTORS
Note: The Siemens Subsea Power Grid is shown in Fig. 5, with the main building blocks in Figs. 6, 7 and 8.
Wet mate 36kV connectors and control system will also be part of the Siemens Subsea Power Grid.
Fig. 2: SS HV Multi Circuit Breaker 60 MVA Concept
Courtesy of Schneider Electric
Fig. 1: Ormen Lange Pilot SS Circuit Breaker
Courtesy of Aker Solutions
Fig. 5: Siemens Subsea Power Grid Concept
Courtesy of Siemens
Fig. 6: Subsea Transformer Prototype
at Shallow Water Test in 2012
Courtesy of Siemens
Courtesy of Siemens
Fig. 7: Subsea Variable
Speed Drive Illustration
Courtesy of Aker Solutions
Fig. 3: Ormen Lange
Pilot Subsea Pump ASD
Fig. 8: SS Circuit Breaker/
SS Switchgear Illustration
Figs.: 8-11 Courtesy of Siemens
Fig. 10: Tronic FoeTRON
Wet-Mate Connectors
Fig. 4: Tronic SpecTRON 10
Wet-Mate Connectors
Fig. 9: Tronic ElecTRON
Wet-Mate Connectors
Courtesy of Siemens
Fig. 11: Tronic DigiTRON
Wet-Mate Connectors
SUBSEA PROCESSING CONFIGURATIONS
SUBSEA SEAWATER INJECTION AND TREATMENT
Fig. 1: Aker Solutions
LiquidBoosterSubsea Raw
Seawater Injection System
(Photo: Statoil Tyrihans
Subsea Raw Seawater
Injection (SRSWI) System)
Courtesy of Aker Solutions
Figs. 5 and 6: Courtesy of SEABOX AS
Fig. 3: One of four Albacora
Raw Seawater WI Pump
Systems undergoing SIT in
OneSubsea Test dock in late 2009
Courtesy of OneSubsea
Fig. 4: Total-Saipem-VWS Westgarth
Conceptual Subsea Sulphate Removal
Station for Deep and Ultradeep Water
Applications Fig. 5: Subsea Water Intake and Treatment (SWIT)
Unit Capable of Treating 40,000 barrels per day
Fig. 6: Integrated SS Raw Seawater Injection System Integrating SPP and Filtration
SS Water Injection Tree
(WI XT)
Single Phase Pump
for Water Injection
(SPP WI)
Raw Seawater Intake
& Filtration (SWIT Unit)
Courtesy of Saipem SA
Fig. 2: Conceptual Illustration
of Installation of Tyrihans
Subsea Raw Seawater
Injection (SRSWI) System
SUBSEA SEPARATION SYSTEM TYPES: 1. GRAVITY SEPARATION SYSTEMS (Figs. 16)
HORIZONTAL SEPARATOR - This type is more efcient for oil/water
separation. An example is the orange colored horizontal separator for the
Tordis Project shown in Fig. 1A above.
VERTICAL SEPARATOR This type is more efcient for gas/liquid separation.
The liquid keeps a uid blanket on the pump and reduces potential pump
cavitation. An example is the Pazor vertical separator shown in Fig. 2.
Fig. 1A: Illustration of FMC Subsea Separation System for the Tordis Project
Courtesy of FMC Technologies
Fig. 2: Illustration of FMC SS Gas/Liquid Separa-
tion & Boosting System for Pazor Project
Courtesy of FMC Technologies
Fig. 5: Aker Solutions DeepBoosterwith
Separation System FlexsepConcept
Courtesy of Aker Solutions
Fig. 3: Troll C Separation System
Courtesy of GE Oil & Gas
Fig. 4: Saipem COSSP (2-Phase Gas/Liquid
Separation & Boosting System Concept)
Fig. 6: Saipem SpoolSep (3-Phase Separation & Produced
Water Reinjection System) Concept
Figs. 5 and 6 Courtesy of Saipem SA
Fig. 1B:
Tordis
Separator
TABLE 3: SURVEY OF SUBSEA ELECTRICAL POWER CONNECTOR
AND PENETRATORS
STATUS M
A
N
U
F
A
C
T
U
R
E
R
P
A
R
T
N
U
M
B
E
R
W
A
T
E
R

D
E
P
T
H
V
O
L
T
A
G
E

C
L
A
S
S
C
U
R
R
E
N
T

R
A
T
IN
G
F
R
E
Q
U
E
N
C
Y
C
A
B
L
E
T
E
R
M
IN
A
T
IO
N
W
E
T
M
A
T
E
P
E
N
E
T
R
A
T
O
R
(m) (ft) (kV) (A) (Hz)
Currently Operating TE Connectivity Deutsch P6-MD300 400 1,312 6/10(12) 300 15-70 H
Installed on Pilot TE Connectivity Deutsch P6-SW1600 2,000 6,562 6/10(12) 1,600 200 H H
Installed on Pilot TE Connectivity Deutsch P18-SW900 2,000 6,562 18/30(36) 900 15-70 H H
Qualified TE Connectivity Deutsch P18-SD 300 3,000 9,843 18/30(36) 400 200 H H
Qualified Siemens Tronic SpecTRON 5 1,330 4,364 2.9 /5(5.8) 200 100 H H H
Qualified Siemens Tronic SpecTRON 8 3,000 9,843 5/8.7(10) 355 200 H H H
Qualified Siemens Tronic SpecTRON 10 3,000 9,843 6/10(12) 630 200 H H H
Qualified GE VetcoGray MECON DM 900 2,953 76/132(145) 600 50 H
Qualified GE VetcoGray MECON WM-I 1,500 4,921 12/20(24) 300 50 H H
Qualified GE VetcoGray MECONWM-II 1,500 4,921 18/30(36) 500 50 H H
Under Qualification GE VetcoGray MECON WM 3,048 10,000 18/30(36) 500 15-100 H H
Under Qualification TE Connectivity Deutsch P6-3W250 3,000 9,843 6/10(12) 250 15-200 H H H
Delivered Benestad AS 15k Power Penetrator 3,048 10,000 6/10(12) 450 15-200 H H H
Delivered TE Connectivity Deutsch P6-SW400 3,000 9,843 6/10(12) 400 15-100 H H H
Delivered TE Connectivity Deutsch P18-SW400 3,000 9,843 18/30(36) 400 15-200 H H H
Delivered TE Connectivity Deutsch P18-SD400 3,000 9,843 18/30(36) 400 15-200 H H
Proposed TE Connectivity Deutsch P6-SW900 3,048 10,000 6/10(12) 900 200 H H H
Proposed TE Connectivity Deutsch P18-SW900 3,048 10,000 18/30(36) 900 200 H H H
Note 1: The configurations and diagrams below are examples only and do not represent specific projects. Note 2: The configurations shown below illustrate a building block approach, demonstrating mudline technologies and no ESP based
configurations. The building blocks primarily use retrievable module elements within their designs. Note 3: The distances implied in the short, medium, and long distance configurations of Figs. 1, 4, and 7 are indicative only for these examples.
Actual distance limitations and system configurations for real-world fields will depend on the specific production/reservoir conditions, and on the detailed capabilities of the associated processing and power system equipment. For applications
beyond 100 miles (160 Km), the system configurations are only in the conceptual stage, and are not depicted here.
Host
Switchgear
Host
Generation
ASD
(Frequency
Converter)
Host Floating
Production Facilities
Subsea
Topsides
TYPE 2
Direct Step Out
with Subsea Transformer
G
~
~
TUTA
PSUTA
Transformer
JB
Purge
Safety Disconnect /
Earthing Switch
(For multi-circuit
umbilicals)
Static or Dynamic
Power Umbilical
~
M
Subsea
Transformer
R
High
Resistance Resistance
Booster Pump
or Compressor
SS Processing
Station
~
M
R
High
Resistance
Water Injection
Single Phase
Pump
SS WI Station
SS
Transformer
Module
PSUTA
~
~
Up to ~12.5 MW,
Typically 6.6kV
Up to 36 kV
Fig. 5: Type 2 Electrical Diagram (see Table 5)
~
M
~
~
~
~
~
~
PSUTA
~
M
~
M
SS ASD
6.6 kV
Up to 36 kV
SS Power Skid with Switchgear
Static or Dynamic
Power Umbilical
Subsea
Platform
OR
Onshore
Facilities
Transformer
4.16 kV - 13.8 kV (typical)
TYPE 3
Subsea AC Power Distribution
w/MV or HV Power Transmission
TUTA
Host Switchgear
Wet Mate
Connector
(Typ.)
R
Solid or Low
Resistance
Earthing
Transformer
~
JB Purge
Host
Switchgear
(Output voltage ~36kV or higher
depending on load & distance)
(SS Transformer Optional
depending on selected
transmission voltage)
SPP Gas
Compr.
WI SPP
SS Processing Station (3P)
Shoreline
Topsides or Land
Fig. 8: Type 3 Electrical Diagram (see Table 5)
SYMBOL KEY
Production Umbilical
Utility Umbilical
Production Flowline
Pump Station
XT
XT
SS Manifold
PSUTA
SUTA
Fig 3: Short Distance Process Flow Diagram (PFD)
SS Processing
Station (Two Phase)
SS Processing
Station (2P)
Production Umbilical
Utility Umbilical
Gas Flowline
Liquid Flowline
Multiphase Flowline
Seawater
XT
XT
SS Manifold
PSUTA
WI XT
WI
Flowline
SUTA
SS WI Station SS WI Station
Fig 6: Medium Distance Process Flow Diagram (PFD)
Production Umbilical
Utility Umbilical
Gas Flowline
SS Processing Station (3P) (Three Phase + WI)
Oil Flowline Multiphase Flowline
WI Flowline
PSUTA SS Power Skid
XT
XT
WI XT
WI XT
WI XT
SS Manifold SUTA
Fig 9: Long Distance Process Flow Diagram (PFD)
Fig. 1: Short Distance Conguration Example
Subsea
Topsides
TYPE 1
Direct Step Out
G
~
~
Host
Switchgear
Host
Generation
TUTA
PSUTA
~
M
ASD
(Frequency
Converter)
Static or Dynamic
Power Umbilical
MP Boosting
Pump
Up to ~3000 kW,
Typically 6.6kV
Purge
Safety Disconnect /
Earthing Switch
(For multi-circuit
umbilicals)
JB
Electrical Flying
Lead (EFL)
Pump Station
Host Floating
Production Facilities
Fig. 2: Type 1 Electrical Diagram (see Table 5)
SUBSEA POWER SYSTEM TYPES AND CONFIGURATIONS
Fig. 1: SUBSEA POWER SYSTEM STEP-OUT CONFIGURATIONS TABLE 5: POWER SYSTEM STEP-OUT CONFIGURATIONS
C
A
T
E
G
O
R
Y
VOLTAGE &
POWER RATING
INDICATIVE
STEP-OUT
(4)
ADJUSTABLE
SPEED DRIVE
POWER
TRANS-
FORMERS
NOMINAL
TRANS-
MISSION FREQ.
Radius (1)
T
o
p
s
id
e
S
u
b
s
e
a
T
o
p
s
id
e
(S
te
p
U
p
)
S
u
b
s
e
a
(S
te
p
D
o
w
n
)
5
0
o
r
6
0

H
z
A
C
1
6
.7
-
2
5

H
z
A
C
Type
1
Capacity: 1-4 MW
Transmission: ~6kV
Distribution: ~6kV
0-15 Km
(0-9.3 Mile) H H
Type
2
Capacity: 1-4 MW
Transmission: Up to 36kV
Distr./Motor Input: ~6kV
0-60 Km
(0-37.3 Mile) H H

(2)
H

(2)
H
Type
3
Capacity: Up to 70 MW
Transmission: 36kV-145kV
Distr. Switchgear: Up to 36kV
Distr./Motor Input: ~6kV
0-160 Km
(0-100 Mile) H H

(3)
H

(3)
H
Type
4
Capacity: Up to ~100 MW
LF Transmission: Up to 145kV
LF Dist. Switchgear: Up to 36kV
Distr./Motor Input: ~6kV
>140-400 +Km
(>87-248.5 +Mile) H H

(3)
H

(3)
H
Notes:
1. Indicative radius subject to system power rating. See Figure 1, Step-Out Configurations.
2. Transformer location likely after ASD to meet umbilical transmission voltage.
3. Transformer location likely before ASD to meet umbilical transmission voltage.
4. Stepout is the distance from the host facility.
5. Barracuda project with a step out of 14 km (8.7 Mi) is a deployed example of Type 1 Configuration.
6. Tyrihans project with a step out of 31 km (19.3 Mi) is a deployed example of Type 2 Configuration.
7. There is no deployed example of Type 3. Type 4 is currently conceptual.
COURTESY OF
COURTESY OF
Host Floating
Production
Facility
Production
Flowline
Utility
Umbilical
Production
Umbilical
PSUTA
PLET
SUTA
SS Manifold
XT
(TYP.)
Pump Station
Type 1
Fig. 4: Medium Distance Conguration Example
Host Floating
Production
Facility
Production
Umbilical
Utility
Umbilical
Gas
Flowline
PLET
PLET
Liquid
Flowline
SS Processing
Station (2P)
PSUTA
SUTA
SS Manifold
Multiphase Line
Multiphase Line
WI
Line
WI XT
(TYP.)
XT
(TYP.)
Type 2
MPP
(2P)
MULTIPHASE BOOSTING SYSTEM EXAMPLES (CONCEPTUAL & DELIVERED)
Fig. 6: GE Oil & Gas Boosting Station
Courtesy of VetcoGray (GE Oil & Gas)
Fig. 1: Aker Solutions MultiBooster
System (BP King)
Courtesy of Aker Solutions
Fig. 2: FMC/Flowserve SS Multiphase Pumping
System with 2 Retrievable Pump Modules
Courtesy of FMC Technologies
Fig. 3: OneSubsea - Loadout
of 1 of 6, 2.3 MW Hybrid
Pumps for Pazor Project
Courtesy of OneSubsea Fig. 5: FMC Technologies
SS Multiphase Pumping
Module with Sulzer Pump
Courtesy of Sulzer
Fig. 4: 1 of 3 Jack & St Malo Pump Stations in
the Factory Test Pit for System Integration Test
(SIT) Immediately Prior to Filling with Water
Courtesy of Chevron and OneSubsea
MUDLINE ESP OR HSP SYSTEM EXAMPLES
Courtesy of FMC Technologies
Fig. 1: Horizontal ESP Boosting Station Fig. 2: ESP Jumper Boosting System
Courtesy of Baker Hughes
Fig. 3: Seaoor Boosting System
Using ESPs in Caissons
Courtesy of Baker Hughes
Fig. 4: Seaoor Boosting
Using ESP in caisson
Courtesy of Aker Solutions
Fig. 5: HSP for
Mudline Boosting
Courtesy of ClydeUnion
Pump (SPX)
2. CAISSON SEPARATION
SYSTEMS (Figs. 79)
INSTALLED < 100 m
INTO SEABED
Fig. 7: BCSS Seabed Equipment
Courtesy of Aker Solutions
3. COMPACT/DYNAMIC SEPARATION SYSTEMS (Figs. 10-12)
Fig. 10: OneSubseas Compact 2-Phase
Separator & Pump Module
Fig. 11: OneSubseas Compact 3-Phase
Separation Module Concept
Courtesy of OneSubsea
Fig. 12: FMC 3-Phase Separation System with Produced
Water Re-injection Using In-Line Separation Technology for
the Marlim Project
Courtesy of FMC Technologies
deeper understanding www.genesisoilandgas.com
Dont just scratch
the surface
More powerful pumps:
Maximize
production now.
Image courtesy of Sulzer Pumps
Copyright FMC Technologies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. www.MaximizeRecovery.com
operating hours.
And counting.
Delivering increased recovery requires a reliable subsea processing solution that is designed on the premise of the reservoir.
OneSubsea

presents the most comprehensive suite of products providing scalable subsea processing and boosting system
solutions for all environments, including extreme conditions up to 15,000 psi and 3000 meters water depth.

With more than 30 operating systems in subsea regions from the North Sea to Australia, West Africa to Brazil, OneSubsea
has a portfolio of proven, reliable boosting and pumping systems successfully increasing production rates from 30%up to
100%for operators. Visit www.onesubsea.com/pumpingsystems
Up to 100% increased production rate from the
industrys only subsea multiphase boosting systems
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Taking subsea
technology to the
next level?
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ABB is a world leading innovator of sub-
sea power and automation solutions, the
main enabler for safe and cost-effective
subsea developments at greater dis-
tances and depths.
ABB AS
Tel. +47 22 87 20 00
www.abb.com
TV0393
C
opyright 2014 A
B
B
. A
ll rights reserved.
Contact us:
cu.media@spx.com
www.clydeunion.com
Scan for more
infomation
Part of SPXs expansive portfolio of products serving the oil & gas industry.
Learn more at www.spx.com
Maximize your uptime & exibility; greatly lower OPEX with the SPX HSP:
Contact us:
cu.media@spx.com
www.clydeunion.com
Scan
for more
information
High reliability - MTTF > 11 years in subsea environment
True multi-phase capability; Excels in gassy, heavy crude applications
Unrivalled operating range from a single frame (particularly at high GVF)
Minimal installation time; plug & play design
Ideally suited to downhole lift & seabed boosting
Innovative Hydraulic Submersible Pump (HSP) Technology fromSPX
industry stry stry stry..
s:
m
com
OPEX
s: s:
mm
union.com com
nt
ude ap ude ap
ularly ularly
.clydeunion.com stry stry stry stry
X with the SPX HSP:
CContact us: Contact us:
spx cu.media@spx.com cu.media@spx.com
www.clydeunion.com www.clydeunion.com
applications applications
rly at high GVF) at high GVF)
For more information visit
www.owserve.com
Reliable Seabed Boosting With
Subsea Multiphase Pumps and Motors
Design Ratings
Beths to 8O5O m (1O OOO lt)
Suction ressures to 5OOO si (845 bar)
Bischarge ressures to 1O OOO si (GOO bar)
hominal 8.5 Mw (4GO8 h) motor rating
voltage G.G kv
Operating Parameters
Fressure boost exceeding 22OO si (15O bar)
Bislacement llow rates to
OO OOO bd (447 m8/h) @ 18OO rm
hominal seed ol 18OO rm (+1O% overseed)
Enabling Subsea Processing by
Connecting Innovation with Experience
siemens.com/energy/subsea
Fig. 9: FMCs Vertical
Access Caisson with ESP
Boosting (Gas/Liquid
Separation & Boosting)
System Diagram
Courtesy of FMC Technologies
Fig. 8: Caisson Separation/
ESP Boosting System
Courtesy of Baker Hughes
Note: This table is a sampling of the current market, and is not comprehensive.
Fig. 7: Long Distance Conguration Example
Onshore Facility
SS Processing
Station (3P)
SS Power Skid
(3P)
SPP Oil
WI SPP
Type 3
Production
Umbilical
Utility
Umbilical Gas
Flowline
PLET
PLET
Oil
Flowline PSUTA
SUTA
SS Manifold
Multiphase Line
WI
Line
WI XT
(TYP.)
~
~
Multi Phase Mudline Boosting, Single Phase
Pumping, or Water Injection Pumping
Two Phase or Three Phase Separation
Gas Compression
Seawater Filtration/Intake
SS Power System
Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD)
SS Transformer
Safety Disconnect/
Earthing Switch
Switchgear
HV Wet Mate Connector
6.6 kV Wet Mate
Connector ~ ~
Courtesy of OneSubsea
XT
(TYP.)
Note 1: SWIT Unit provides
disinfection and low Total
Suspended Solids (TSS) water for
either matrix or sweep ooding.
TABLE 1 2014 WORLDWIDE SURVEY OF SUBSEA GAS COMPRESSION, BOOSTING, WATER INJECTION, AND SEPARATION (1)(2) As of Feb. 2014
P
R
O
C
E
S
S
IN
G

D
IS
C
IP
L
IN
E
C
O
U
N
T
FIELD OR PROJECT
(Ordered by Start Date)
C
U
R
R
E
N
T
S
T
A
T
U
S
COMMENTS
OWNER/
FIELD
OPERATOR
REGION/
BASINS
WATER
DEPTH
TIEBACK
DISTANCE
SYSTEM FLOW RATE
(@LINE CONDITIONS)
DIFFERENTIAL
PRESSURE
U
N
IT
M
O
T
O
R

P
O
W
E
R
(3
)
G
V
F
(G
A
S
V
O
L
U
M
E

F
R
A
C
T
IO
N
) (5
)
SYSTEM
PACKAGER
NO. OF
PUMPS UNITS
PUMP TYPE
or
COMPR. TYPE
COMPRESSOR/PUMP
MANUFACTURER
IN-SERVICE/OPERATING
INFORMATION
COMPANY Meters Feet Km Miles M3/Hr.
MBOPD
MBWPD
BAR (4)
PSI
(4)
MW
% OF
VOL.
COMPANY
PUMPS or
COMPR.
TYPE COMPANY
START (11)
(Month-Year)
END or
PRESENT
MTHS
S
U
B
S
E
A
G
A
S

C
O
M
P
R
E
S
S
IO
N
1 DEMO 2000 Q Statoil K-Lab Test Statoil Offshore Norway 3.60 n/a OneSubsea Counter Axial OneSubsea 2001
2 Ormen Lange Gas Compression Pilot Q Testing 1 train @ Nyhamna, Norway Statoil Offshore Norway 860 2,821 0.0 0.0 25,000 3776 60.0 870 12.50 n/a Aker Solutions 1 Centrifugal GE Compr / Aker Pump 2011 1-Mar-14
3 Aasgard - Midgard & Mikkel Fields M Subsea Gas Compression Statoil Offshore Norway 300 984 40.0 25.0 40,000 6,042 60.0 870 11.50 n/a Aker Solutions 2+1 Spare +1 Centrifugal MAN / Aker pumps Q1, 2015
4 Gullfaks South Brent (28) M Subsea Wet Gas Compression Statoil Offshore Norway 135 443 15.5 9.7 9,600 1450 30.0 435 5.00 95% OneSubsea 2 + 1 Spare Counter Axial OneSubsea Q4, 2015
5 Ormen Lange Gas Compression Q Subsea Gas Compression Norske Shell Offshore Norway 860 2,821 120.0 75.0 50,000 7553 60.0 870 12.50 n/a TBA 2 Centrifugal TBA 2021
6 Troll C Subsea Gas Compression Statoil Offshore Norway 340 1,116 4.0 2.5 n/a TBA Undecided TBA 2016
7 Snohvit C Subsea Gas Compression Statoil Barents Sea 345 1,132 143.0 89.4 TBD n/a TBA Centrifugal TBA 2020
8 Shtokman C Subsea Gas Compression Gazprom Barents Sea 350 1,148 565.0 353.1 TBD n/a TBA Centrifugal TBA 2022
F
U
L
L
W
E
L
L
S
T
R
E
A
M
S
U
B
S
E
A
B
O
O
S
T
IN
G

(N
O
T
E
1
. S
E
A
B
E
D
&
R
IS
E
R
O
N
LY
, N
O
T
E
2
. E
X
C
L
U
D
E
S
D
O
W
N
H
O
L
E
E
S
P
s
)
1 Prezioso (20) A MPP at Base of Platform AGIP Italy 50 164 0.0 0.0 65.0 10 40.0 580 0.15 30-90% Nuovo Pignone (8) 1 Twin-Screw GE 1994 1995
2 Draugen Field A SMUBS Project, 1 HSP A/S Norske Shell Offshore Norway 270 886 6.0 3.7 193.0 29 53.3 773 0.75 42% OneSubsea 1 + 1 Spare HSP SPX ClydeUnion Nov-95 15-Nov-96 12.2
3 Lufeng 22/1 Field (9) (19) A Tieback to FPSO Statoil South China Sea 330 1,083 1.0 0.6 675.0 102 35.0 508 0.40 3% OneSubsea / FMC Tech. 5+2 Spare Centrifugal (SPP) OneSubsea Jan-98 15-Jul-09 138.0
4 Machar Field (ETAP Project) A Hydraulic Turbine Drive BP Amoco UK North Sea 85 277 35.2 21.9 1,100.0 166 22.0 319 0.65 64% OneSubsea 2+1 Spare Helico-Axial OneSubsea
5 Topacio Field O 1 x Dual MPP System ExxonMobil Equatorial Guinea 550 1,805 8.0 5.0 940.0 142 35.0 508 0.86 75% OneSubsea 2+1 Spare Helico-Axial OneSubsea Aug-00 1-Mar-14 162.2
6 Ceiba C3 + C4 O Phase 1 SS MPP Project Hess Equatorial Guinea 750 2,461 7.0 4.3 600.0 91 45.0 653 0.85 75% OneSubsea 2+1 Spare Helico-Axial OneSubsea Oct-02 1-Mar-14 136.2
7 Jubarte EWT A Riser lift to Seillean Drillship Petrobras Espirito Santo Basin 1,400 4,593 1.4 0.9 145.0 22 140.0 2,000 0.70 22% FMC Technologies 1 ESP Schlumberger (REDA) Dec-02 1-Dec-06 47.9
8 Ceiba Field (FFD) O Full Field Development (FFD) Hess Equatorial Guinea 700 2,297 14.5 9.0 2,500.0 378 40.0 580 1.20 75% OneSubsea 6+ 2 Spare Helico-Axial OneSubsea Dec-03 1-Mar-14 122.3
9 Mutineer / Exeter O 2 x Single MPP Systems Santos NW Shelf, Australia 145 476 7.0 4.3 1,200.0 181 30.0 435 1.10 0-40% OneSubsea 7 SS ESP, 2 MPP Helico-Axial OneSubsea (16) Mar-05 1-Mar-14 107.3
10 Lyell (Original Install) A SS Tieback to Ninian South CNR UK North Sea 146 479 15.0 9.3 1,100.0 166 18.0 261 1.60 40-70% Aker Solutions 1 Twin Screw Bornemann SMPC 9 Jan-06 Dec-06 11.0
11 Navajo (17) I, N ESP in Flowline Riser Anadarko GOM 1,110 3,642 7.2 4.5 24.0 4 40.2 583 0.75 57% Baker Hughes 1 ESP Baker Hughes Feb-07 1-Aug-07 5.5
12 Jubarte Field - Phase 1 A Seabed ESP-MOBO, Uses BCSS (14) Petrobras Espirito Santo Basin 1,350 4,429 4.0 2.5 120.0 18 138.0 2,002 0.90 10-40% FMC Technologies 1 ESP Schlumberger (REDA) Mar-07 Aug-07 5.0
13 Brenda & Nicol Fields O MultiManifold with 1 MPP Premier Oil UK North Sea 145 476 8.5 5.3 800.0 121 19.0 276 1.10 75% OneSubsea 1+1 Spare Helico-Axial OneSubsea Apr-07 1-Mar-14 82.4
14 King (7) (13) A SS Tieback to Marlin TLP Freeport McMoRan GOM, MC Blocks 1,700 5,578 29.0 18.0 496.5 75 50.0 725 1.30 0-95% Aker Solutions 2+1 Spare Twin-Screw Bornemann / Loher Nov-07 15-Feb-09 15.0
15 Vincent O Dual MPP System Woodside NW Shelf, Australia 475 1,558 3.0 1.9 2,400.0 363 42.0 609 1.80 25-70% OneSubsea 2+2 Spare Helico-Axial OneSubsea Aug-10 1-Mar-13 30.9
16 Marlim A SBMS-500 SS Field Test Petrobras Campos Basin 1,900 6,234 3.1 1.9 500.0 75 60.0 870 1.20 0-100% Curtiss-Wright / Cameron 1 Twin-Screw Leistritz 0.0
17 Golfinho Field I, N Seabed ESP-MOBO, Uses BCSS (14) Petrobras Espirito Santo Basin 1,350 4,429 146.0 22 138.0 2,002 1.10 10-40% FMC Technologies 2 ESP Baker Hughes (35) Mar-07 Aug-07 5.0
18 Azurite Field A Dual MPP System Murphy Oil Congo, W. Africa 1,338 4,390 3.0 1.9 350.0 53 41.0 595 0.85 28% OneSubsea 2+1 Spare Helico-Axial OneSubsea Sep-10 1-Oct-13 36.5
19 Golfinho Field I, N MOBO BCSS (ESP) Caissons (14) Petrobras Espirito Santo Basin 1,350 4,429 146.0 22 138.0 2,002 1.10 10-40% Aker Solutions 2 ESP Baker Hughes Mar-07 Aug-07 5.0
20 Espadarte (Field Trial) O Horizontal ESP on Skid Petrobras Brazil 1,350 4,429 11.5 7.1 125.0 19 100.0 1,450 0.90 10-40% FMC Technologies 2 ESP Baker Hughes Dec-11 Mar-13 14.5
21 Parque Das Conchas (BC 10) Phase 1 (23) O Caisson / Artifical Non-Separated Shell Campos Basin 2,150 7,054 9.0 5.6 185.0 28 152 2,205 1.10 40% FMC Technologies 2 ESP Baker Hughes Jul-09 1-Mar-14 55.4
22 Parque Das Conchas (BC-10) Phase 2 (23) M 2 additional ESP Systems Shell Campos Basin 2,150 7,054 9.0 5.6 185.0 28 152 2,205 1.10 40% FMC Technologies 2 ESP Baker Hughes
23 Jubarte Field - Phase 2 (25) I, N Tieback to FPSO P-57, Uses BCSS (14) Petrobras Espirito Santo Basin 1,400 4,593 8.0 5.0 1,325.0 200 200 3,000 1.20 30-40% Aker Solutions 15 ESP Schlumberger (REDA) 6-Dec-10 1-Mar-14 38.7
24 Cascade & Chinook (6) I, N Skid BCSS - Horizontal ESP on Skid Petrobras US GOM 2,484 8,150 8.0 5.0 135.0 20 220.0 3,191 1.10 10% FMC Technologies 4+2 Spare ESP Baker Hughes Q4 2013 0.0
25 Barracuda (32) O SS MP High Boost Pump System Petrobras Campos Basin 1,040 3,412 10.5 6.5 280.0 42 70.0 1,015 1.50 35-60% OneSubsea 1 Helico-Axial OneSubsea Jul-12 1-Mar-14 7.0
26 Montanazo & Lubina I, N Single MPP System Repsol Mediterranean 740 2,428 9.0 5.6 80.0 12 65.0 943 0.23 10% OneSubsea 2 Centrifugal (SPP) OneSubsea 2014
27 Schiehallion I, N 2 x Dual MPP Systems BP UK, West of Shetland 400 1,312 4.0 2.5 2,700.0 408 26.0 377 1.80 74% GE / OneSubsea 4+0 Spare Helico-Axial OneSubsea 2014 Delayed Start Up
28 CLOV (22) M Subsea MPP System TOTAL Angola, Blk 17 1,170 3,839 11.0 6.8 660.0 100 45.0 652 2.30 50% OneSubsea 2+1 Spare Helico-Axial OneSubsea Q3 2014
29 Jack & St. Malo M Full Wellstream subsea Boosting Chevron US GOM 2,134 7,000 21.0 13.0 1,191.0 180 241.3 3,500 3.00 10% OneSubsea 3+2 Spare Centrifugal (SPP) OneSubsea Q3-2014
30 Lyell Retrofit I, N MPP Retrofit System - Tieback to Ninian CNR UK North Sea 145 476 7.0 4.3 700.0 106 21.0 305 1.00 97% OneSubsea 1 Helico-Axial OneSubsea Q3 2012
31 GirRi (Girassol) (27) M Field Expansion Project Total Angola, Blk 17 1,350 4,429 18.0 11.2 600.0 91 130.0 1,885 2.50 20-50% OneSubsea 4+2 Spare Helico-Axial OneSubsea Q1 2015
32 Draugen Field M Brownfield Dual MPP System A/S Norske Shell Offshore Norway 268 879 4.0 2.5 1,710.0 253 47.5 689 2.30 10-31% OneSubsea 2 Helico-Axial OneSubsea Q3-2014
33 Julia M SS Tieback ExxonMobil US GOM 2,287 7,500 27.2 17.0 331 50 175.0 2,550 3.00 10% OneSubsea 2 Centrifugal (SPP) TBD Mid- 2016
34 Moho Phase 1bis M Brownfield Tieback to Alima FPU Total Congo, W. Africa 650 2,133 6.7 4.0 400 60 133.5 1,935 3.50 49% OneSubsea 2 Helico-Axial OneSubsea Q4 2015
35 Atlanta Field C Caisson Application QGEP (26) Santos Basin, Blk BS-4 1,500 4,922 TBD ESP 2015
36 Stones C Single Phase HPHT Pump System Shell US GOM 2,927 9,600 5.0 3.1 TBD TBD TBD TBD TBD <10% TBD 2 +1 Spare TBD TBD 2018
37 Parque Das Baleias M Skid BCSS - Horizontal ESP on Skid (14) Petrobras Espirito Santo Basin 1,500 4,922 10.0 6.2 125.0 19 100 1,450 1.10 10-25% FMC Technologies 3+1 Spare ESP Schlumberger (REDA) Q1 2015
S
U
B
S
E
A

W
A
T
E
R

IN
J
E
C
T
IO
N
1 Troll C Pilot (15) (21) O SUBSIS (SS Sep. and WI Sys.) NorskHydro AS Offshore Norway 340 1,116 3.5 2.2 250.0 38 151.0 2,190 1.60 0% GE / OneSubsea 1+1 Spare Centrifugal (SPP) OneSubsea Aug-01 1-Mar-14 149.9
2 Columba E. I, N Dual SPP System CNR North Sea 145 476 7.0 4.3 331.0 50 305.0 4,424 2.30 0% OneSubsea 2+0 Spare Centrifugal (SPP) OneSubsea May-07 1-Oct-13 76.4
3 Tordis (WI) O (12), Separation, Boosting, WI Statoil Offshore Norway 210 689 11.0 6.8 700.0 106 77.0 1,117 2.30 0% FMC Technologies 1+1 Spare SPP&MPP OneSubsea Oct-07 1-Mar-14 76.4
4 Tyrihans O SS Raw Sea WI System Statoil Offshore Norway 270 886 31.0 19.3 583.0 88 205.0 2,973 2.70 0% FMC / Aker Solutions 2+1 Spare Centrifugal (SPP) Aker Solutions 29-Nov-13 1-Mar-14 3.0
5 Albacora L'Este Field (33) I, N Raw Water Injection to 7 Wells Petrobras Campos Basin, Brazil 400 1,312 4 to 9 2.5-6.0 1125 170 85 1,233 1.2 0% OneSubsea 3+1 Spare Centrifugal (SPP) OneSubsea Q1 2013 0.0
S
U
B
S
E
A
S
E
P
A
R
A
T
IO
N
1 Zakum A Shallow Water Test Separation System BP Offshore Abu Dhabi 1969 1972 36
2 Highlander Field (34) A SS Separator / Slug Catcher Texaco UK North Sea 420 128
3 Argyll A SS Sep. and Pumping Unit (SSPU) Hamilton Bros UK North Sea BOET (30) 1989
4 Marimba Field (24) I, N VASPS Field Test Petrobras Campos Basin 395 1,296 1.7 1.1 60.0 9 52.0 754 0.3 Cameron 1 ESP Schlumberger (REDA) Jul-01 1-Jul-08 83.0
5 Troll C Pilot (15) (21) O Horizontal SUBSIS (SS Sep. & WI Sys.) Hydro (Statoil) Offshore Norway 340 1,116 3.5 2.2 250.0 38 151.0 2,190 1.60 0% GE / OneSubsea 1+1 Spare n/a OneSubsea Aug-01 1-Mar-14 149.9
6 Tordis O (12), Separation, Boosting, WI Statoil Offshore Norway 210 689 11.0 6.8 1,500.0 227 27.0 392 2.30 10-68% FMC Technologies 1+1 Spare Helico-Axial OneSubsea Oct-07 1-Mar-14 76.4
7 Parque Das Conchas (BC 10) Phase 1 (23) O Separation Caisson / Artifical Lift Manifold Shell Campos Basin 2,150 7,054 25.0 15.6 185.0 28 152.0 2,205 1.10 15% FMC Technologies 4(+2 Future?) ESP Baker Hughes Centrilift Aug-09 1-Mar-14 54.4
8 Perdido O Caisson Separation and Boosting Shell GOM 2,438 7,999 0.0 0.0 132-264 20 - 40 158.8 2,303 1.20 15% FMC Technologies 5 ESP Baker Hughes Centrilift Mar-10 1-Mar-14 47.9
9 Pazflor O 3 Gas/Liquid Vertical Separation System Total Angola, Blk 17 800 2,625 4.0 2.5 1,800.0 272 105.0 1,523 2.30 <16% FMC Technologies 6+2 Spare Hybrid H-A OneSubsea Aug-11 1-Mar-14 30.0
10 Marlim SSAO - Pilot O In-Line Separation Petrobras Campos Basin 878 2,881 3.8 2.4 135.0 20 245 3,553 1.9 67% FMC Technologies 1 Centrifugal (SPP) OneSubsea Mar-13 1-Mar-14 11.0
11 Congro (29) CP VASPS with Horizontal ESP Petrobras Campos Basin 197 646 11.0 7.0 135.0 20 21 305 0.4 <10% FMC Technologies 2 ESP Baker Hughes Centrilift
12 Parque Das Conchas (BC 10) Phase 2 (23) M 2 additional ESP systems Shell Campos Basin 2,150 7,054 25.0 15.6 185.0 28 152.0 2,205 1.10 15% FMC Technologies 2 ESP Baker Hughes Centrilift
13 Canapu M In-Line Separation by Twister BV Petrobras Espirito Santo Basin 1,700 5,579
14 Corvina (29) M VASPS w/Horizontal ESP Petrobras Campos Basin 280 919 8.0 5.0 135.0 20 21 305 0.4 <10% FMC Technologies 1 ESP Baker Hughes Centrilift
CURRENT STATUS CATEGORIES
C Conceptual Project
Q Qualified/Testing
M Awarded and in Manufacturing or Delivered
O Installed & Currently Operating
I,N Installed & Not Currently Operating or In-Active
A Abandoned, Removed
CP Canceled Project
NOTES:
1. Qualification Status - See information accuracy statement below title block and note that the qualification
status categorizations shown in this table, and throughout the poster, are based on unverified claims from
equipment suppliers and field operators. These qualification status designations are not necessarily derived
using technology readiness level (TRL) assessments per API RP 17Q or DNV-RP-A203.
2. Pumping & Boosting: The terms Pumping and Boosting are used interchangeably throughout this poster
and in the industry.
3. Unit Motor Power: Is the unit motor power for either a pump or compressor motor.
4. Differential Pressure: Differential Pressure values are for individual pumps.
5. GVF = Gas Volume Fraction at inlet of pump.
6. Cascade & Chinook - Utilizes horizontal ESPs on a skid above mudline. It is an alternative ESP boosting
configuration to caisson in the seabed. This technology is designed to cover the low GVF and high DeltaP
multiphase flow. Pump cartridge successfully installed Q4 2013.
7. King Field: Power cables are incorporated within the service umbilical.
8. Nuovo Pignone is now part of GE.
9. Lufeng 22/1: Low wellhead pressure of 100 psig at seabed dictated that artificial lift was required. System
has now been decomissioned due to field abandonment.
10. VASPS - Vertical Annular Separation and Pumping System
11. START: Month & Year indicates first month and year of operation for the SS processing system.
12. Tordis Field: 1+1 Spare Multiphase Boosting Pumps, and 1+1 Spare Water Injection Pumps; Tieback to
Gullfaks C platform. Statoil hopes to increase oil recovery from 49% to 55%, an additional 36 MMBO, due to
the world's first commercial subsea separation, boosting, injection and solids disposal system.
13. King Field: Is a subsea tieback to the Marlin TLP. In 2012, BP sold the field to Plains Exploration and
Production. McMoran Freeport later purchased the field. Pumps remain shut-in due to operational issues.
The company is reportedly considering to redo the boosting system.
14. BCSS - Centrifugal Subsea Submersible Pumps. Pumps are placed in protective holes in the seabed, 200m
from producing wells. MOBO - Modulo de Bombas (Pumping Module)
15. Troll C Pilot: SUBSIS - The world's longest operating subsea separation system and first subsea water
injection pump system.
16. Mutineer/Exeter Projects: Manufacturers are: OneSubsea and Centrilift. There are 2 ESPs per well feeding
one OneSubsea MPP per asset on seafloor.
17. Navajo Field: Is a Subsea tieback to Anadarko's Nansen spar.
18. BH Centrilift = Baker Hughes Centrilift
19. LUFENG - Closed down due to field economics, after 11 years of operation.
20. PREZIOSO - World's first deployment of an electrically driven twin screw MPP operating on a live well.
Testing occurred in 1994 and 1995 for a total of 7,850 hours of operation at base of platform on seafloor.
21. Troll C Pilot - Separation began on Aug. 25, 2001. See OTC paper 20619, page 10 for further details on
operating experience. Note that injection pump data is only shown in the subsea water injection section
of the table.
22. CLOV - Total reports that the CLOV development will utilize seabed multiphase pumps to boost Cravo, Lirio,
Orquidea and Violeta Miocene from First Oil + 2 years
23. Parque Das Conchas (BC 10) Phase 1 - Composed of 3 reservoirs: Ostra, Abalone and Argonauta B-West.
Argonauta O-North to be added in Phase 2.
24. Marimba VASPS - 2000 - First installation in Marimba (JIP Petrobras / Eni-Agip/ ExxonMobil, 2001 - Startup
and Operation (July to Dec.) until ESP failure, 2002 End of JIP, By-pass production, 2003 - Workover Plan,
2004 - Workover and Re-start on May 8, 2004. From 2005 until 2008 VASPS operated ok until well failure.
25. Jubarte Field (Phase 2) - Was installed in 2011. Wells were connected to the FPSO P-57. All wells will have
gas-lift as a backup.
26. QGEP - Queiroz Galvao Exploracao e Producao
27. Girassol Field Pumping System - for the Girassol Resources Initiatives (GirRI)
28. Gullfaks South Brent - According to Statoil the SS wet gas compression will increase recovery from the
reservoir by 22 million barrels of oil equivalent.
29. Canceled Project - Petrobras has determined Congro and Corvina are not commercially feasible.
30. BOET - British Offshore Engineering Technology
31. Perdido - Cassion for separation is 350 feet long drilled into the seabed. Read OTC Paper 21716.
32. Barracuda - Ref. 2013 OTC Paper 24217 for additional information about the MPP.
33. Albacora Field - Ref. 2013 OTC Paper 24167
34. Highlander Field - SS Tieback to the Tartan Field which has a SS separator/slug catcher installed for the
tie-in to the Tartan Platform
35. Petrobras is changing ESP supplier from Baker Hughes to Schlumberger (REDA) in Q4 2014.
REPRESENTATIVE SUBSEA POWER & PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY ATTRIBUTES (CURRENT AND UNDER DEVELOPMENT)
Table 4.8: Raw Seawater Injection Technology
Filter, Treat, & Boost Raw Seawater Subsea for Injection
Attribute Installed or Qualified To be Qualified within 5 yrs.
Water Depth 400 m (1,312 ft) 3,048 m (10,000 ft)
Shut-in Pressure Rating 5,000 psi (345 bar) 15,000 psi (1,035 bar)
System Flow Rate 88 MBOPD 150 MBOPD
Pump Differential Pressure (ea) 3,000 psi (205 bar) 4,500 psi (310 bar)
Unit Motor Power 2.5 MW 6.0 MW
Nominal Voltage 6.6 kV 6.6 kV
Water Quality 35-50 micron 5-10 micron
Key Elements in Current Development
& Qualification Projects
Enhanced Inlet Water Conditioning & Treatment / Higher Current & Power Penetrator /
Enhanced Motor and Pump Capabilities / Series Pumps for > Injection Pressure / Depth
Future Technology Enhancements
Salinity Reduction & Micro-Filtration (To Limit Reservoir Degradation Due to Injection) /
Higher Power Rating & P Capabilities / Enhanced Condition & Process Monitoring
Table 4.6: Power System Technology - Type 3
Extending Topside ASD Step Out by Increasing SS Umbilical Transmission Voltage
(See Table 5 for Detail)
Attribute Installed or Qualified To be Qualified within 5 yrs.
Water Depth 900 m (2.952 ft) 3,048 m (10,000 ft)
Tieback Distance 120 km (75 miles) 160 km (100 miles)
Power Rating 25 MW 70 MW
Distribution (Input) Voltage 145 kV 36 - 145 kV
Distribution Switchgear Voltage 36 kV 36 kV
Utilization (Output) Voltage 6.6 kV 6.6 kV
Key Elements in Current Development
& Qualification Projects
Integration of Subsea Elements: Switchgear / ASD with Integral
Transformer / Wet Mate Connectors + AC Umbilicals
Future Technology Enhancements
Enhancement for Power & Depth for HV Wet Mate Connectors /
Power Distribution System Surveillance
Table 4.4: Power System Technology - Type 2
Extending Topside ASD Step Out By Increasing SS Umbilical Transmission Voltage (See Table 5 for Detail)
Attribute Installed or Qualified To be Qualified within 5 yrs.
Depth Classification Ultra Deep Water Shallow Water Ultra Deep Water
Water Depth 2,439 m (8,000 ft) 300 m / (984 ft) 3,048 m (10,000 ft)
Tieback Distance 21 km (13 miles) 43 km (29 miles) 60 km (37 miles)
Power Rating per Motor 3.0 MW 11.5 MW 12.5 MW
Primary Voltage 36 kV 36 kV 36 kV
Secondary Voltage 6.6 kV 6.6 kV 6.6 kV
Key Elements in Current Development
& Qualification Projects
Transformer Marinization / High Resistance Grounding / Wet Mate Connectors for
Combination of Deep Water & High Current / AC Umbilical
Future Technology Enhancements
Higher Power Rating & Robustness of Primary Side Wet Mate Connectors / Power
Distribution System Surveillance
Table 4.2: Power System Technology - Type 1
Topside ASD with No Transformer to Subsea Motor (See Table 5 for Detail)
Attribute Installed or Qualified To be Qualified within 5 yrs.
Water Depth 1,700 m (5,576 ft) 2,485 m (8,150 ft)
Tieback Distance 29 km (18 miles) 15 km / 9.3 miles)
Power Rating per Motor 2.3 MW 4 MW
Nominal Voltage 6.6 kV 6.6 kV
Key Elements in Current Development
& Qualification Projects
Wet Mate Connectors / AC Umbilical
Future Technology Enhancements Power Distribution System Surveillance
Table 4.7: Three Phase Separation Technology
Raw Wellstream, Gas or Oil Service
Attribute Installed or Qualified To be Qualified within 5 yrs.
Water Depth 878 m (2,881 ft) 3,048 m (10,000 ft)
Shut-in Pressure Rating 5,000 psi (345 bar) 15,000 psi (1,035 bar)
System Capacity (Flow Rate) 20 MBOPD As Required for Duty
Target LVF in Gas at Outlet TBD < 2%
Target GVF in Oil or Water 10 - 15% < 10%
Outlet Oil in (Injection) Water TBD ppm TBD ppm
Booster Power (O/G/W) 1.9 MW As Required for Duty
Separation System Type Compact Separation - Modular
Key Elements in Current Development
& Qualification Projects
Proven Separation Effectiveness of Raw Wellstream / Turn
Down / Vessel Integrity / Control Logic with Pumps and / or
Compressor / Real Time Process Monitoring
Future Technology Enhancements
Wide Separator Operating Range and Separation Effectiveness
Especially at Turn Down Rates / Enhanced Process and Booster
Control Logic & Surveillance
Table 4.5: Two Phase Separation Technology
Raw Wellstream, Gas / Liquid Separation With Liquid Boosting
Attribute Installed or Qualified To be Qualified within 5 yrs.
Water Depth 2,439 m (7,999 ft) 3,048 m (10,000 ft)
Shut-in Pressure Rating 5,000 psi (345 bar) 15,000 psi (1,035 bar)
System Capacity (Flow Rate) 30 MBOPD As Required for Duty (See Table 4.3)
Boosting Differential Pressure 1,305 psi (90 bar) As Required for Duty (See Table 4.3)
Target GVF at Liquid Booster Inlet < 15% 10-15%
Unit Motor Power 1.1 MW As Required for Duty (See Table 4.3)
Separation System Type Compact Separation - Modular
Key Elements in Current Development
& Qualification Projects
Proven Separation Effectiveness of Raw Wellstream / Turn Down
/ Vessel Integrity / Control Logic with Pump and / or Compressor
/ Robust Process Monitoring
Future Technology Enhancements
Wide Separator Operating Range and Separation Effettiveness
Especially at Turn Down Rates / Enhanced Process and Booster
Control Logic Monitoring
Table 4.3: Subsea Boosting Technology
Single Phase or Multi Phase Pump
Attribute Installed or Qualified To be Qualified within 5 yrs.
Pump Classification Single Phase Multi Phase Single Phase Multi Phase
Water Depth 2,439 m (8,000 ft) 1,350 m (4,428 ft) 3,048 m (10,000 ft) 3,048 m (10,000 ft)
Shut-in Pressure Rating 13,000 psi (897 bar) 5,000 psi (345 bar) 15,000 psi (1034 bar) 15,000 psi (1034 bar)
Pump Flow Rate (Nominal) 60,000 MBOPD 40,000 MBOPD 75,000 MBOPD 60,000 MBOPD
Differential Pressure (Nominal) 3,700 psi (225 bar) 1,885 psi (130 bar) 4,500 psi (310 bar) 2,320 psi (160 bar)
GVF Range at Inlet 10 - 15% 0 - 90% 10 - 15 % 0 - 90%
Unit Motor Power 3.0 MW 2.5 MW 5.0 - 6.0 MW 5.0 - 6.0 MW
Nominal Voltage 6.6 kV 6.6 kV 6.6 kV 6.6 kV
Key Elements in Current Development
& Qualification Projects
Higher Power & Depth Rating of Penetrators & Wet Mates / 5-6 MW Motors / Permanent Magnet Motors
/ Alternate Barrier Fluid / 15 ksi Housings / High Rate & Head Multiphase Stages / Marinized Condition
Monitoring Equipment / Higher Operating Speed
Future Technology Enhancements
Higher Power & Depth Rating of Penetrators & Wet Mates / Higher Motor Power / High Rate & Head Single
Phase & Multiphase Stages / Enhanced Condition Monitoring Systems / >15 ksi System Rating
Table 4.1: Gas Compression Technology
Liquid Tolerant Compression - Raw Wellstream, Wet Gas Service
Attribute Installed or Qualified To be Qualified within 5 yrs.
Water Depth 914 m (3,000 ft) 1,024 m (5,000 ft)
Shut-in Pressure Rating 3,190 psi (220 bar) 7,500 psi (517 bar)
System Flow Rate 500 MMscf/d (14 Msm3/sd) 500 MMscf/d (14 Msm3/d)
Pressure Ratio 4 6
GVF at Inlet > 97 % < 95 %
Unit Motor Power 12.5 MW 12.5 MW
Nominal Voltage 6.6 kV 6.6 kV
Stage Type Liquid Tolerant Centrifugal
Key Elements in Current Development
& Qualification Projects
Enhancing Liquid Tolerance & System Robustness for Raw Gas
/ Active Magnetic Bearing & Anti Surge Marinization / Increased
Depth for Wet Mate Connectors / Pressure Ratio
Future Technology Enhancements
Depth and Power Capabilities of Power Penetrators & Wet
Mates / Supporting Process System Simplification / Enhanced
Condition Monitoring
COURTESY OF
COLOR CODE
Installed
Qualified
Manufactured
Proposed
1403OFFSubseaPoster_1 1 2/28/14 5:09 PM
MARCH 2014
STATUS OF THE TECHNOLOGY
2014 WORLDWIDE SURVEY OF SUBSEA
PROCESSING: SEPARATION, COMPRESSION,
AND PUMPING SYSTEMS
M A G A Z I N E
Offshore Magazine
1455 West Loop South, Suite 400
Houston, TX 77027 USA
Tel: 713-621-9720
www.offshore-mag.com
Larry Forster, Thiago Mesquita Paes, Richard Voight, Spiridon Ionescu,
John Allen, RJ Baker, Rachel Townsend, Julie Burke and Mac McKee of INTECSEA,
E. Kurt Albaugh of Repsol E & P USA, and David Davis of Offshore Magazine
Poster Assembled By: Chris Jones of XenonGroupDesign.com
Digital Images by: Sid Aguirre of C-Ray Media
E-Mail Comments, Corrections or Additions to: ssp@intecsea.com
To Download a PDF, go to: www.offshore-mag.com/maps-posters.html or www.intecsea.com/publications/posters
INTECSEA, Inc.
15600 JFK Boulevard, Ninth Floor
Houston, TX 77032 USA
Tel: 281-987-0800
www.intecsea.com
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF THE CONTRIBUTORS
INTECSEA and Offshore Magazine wish to acknowledge the following companies and individuals who continue to support our efforts
to educate and inform the oil & gas industry on the status of subsea processing technologies.
Aker Solutions: Jonah Margulis and Kate Winterton; OneSubsea: Jarle Michaelsen and Jessica Clements; Flowserve: Bob Urban and Marc L. Fontaine; FMC Technologies:
Janardhan Davalath, Jayne Merritt, Alan Szymanski and Citlalli Utrera; MAN Diesel & Turbo: Domingo Fernandez; Repsol E & P USA: Ron Pettus; Saipem: Claude Valenchon,
Stephanie Abrand and Stephane Anres; Shell: Chris Shaw; Siemens: Ordin Husa; Schneider Electric: Kristina Hakala; Schlumberger: Grant Harris; SEABOX AS: Torbjorn Hegdal
and Eirik Dirdal; SPX: Ross Dobbie; Technip: Chuck Horn, Mike Zerkus and Tim Lowry
Information Accuracy: We have attempted to use correct and current, as of press time, information for the subsea processing systems and equipment described herein. No installed,
sanctioned, or pending application was intentionally excluded. We have summarized the capability and operating experience by acting as a neutral party and integrator of information.
Information has been collected from public sources, company brochures, personal interviews, phone interviews, press releases, industry magazines, vendor-supplied information, and
web sites. No guarantee is made that information is accurate or all-inclusive. Neither INTECSEA nor Offshore Magazine guarantees or assumes any responsibility or liability for any partys
use of the information presented. If any information is found to be incorrect, not current, or has been omitted, please send comments to ssp@intecsea.com.

2
0
1
4
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re
POSTER
111
Norwegian Sea
Tordis (Separation, Boosting, WI)
Troll C. Pilot (Separation, WI)
Tyrihans (WI)
Draugen (Boosting)
Draugen - Expansion (Boosting)
Aasgard (Compression)
Gullfaks (Compression)
DEMO 2000 (Compression)
Ormen Lange (Compression)
Troll (Compression)
Equatorial Guinea
Topacio (Boosting)
Ceiba FFD (Boosting)
Ceiba C3+C4 (Boosting)
North Sea
Columba E. (WI)
Brenda & Nicol (Boosting)
Lyell (Boosting)
Machar/ETAP (Boosting)
Highlander (Separation)
Argyll (Separation)
Mediterranean
Montanazo & Lubina (Boosting)
Prezioso (Boosting)
Angola
Pazflor (Sep., Boosting)
CLOV (Boosting)
GirRi (Girassol) (Boosting)
Congo
Azurite (Boosting)
Moho Phase 1 BIS (Boosting)
West of Shetlands
Schiehallion (Boosting)
Abu Dhabi
Zakum (Separation)
Barents Sea
Shtokman (Compression)
Snohvit (Compression)
Espirito Santo Basin
Jubarte - Phase 2 (Boosting)
Golfinho (Boosting)
Jubarte - Phase 1 (Boosting)
Jubarte EWT (Boosting)
Canapu (Separation)
Atlanta (Boosting)
Parque das Baleias (Boosting)
GOM
Perdido (Separation, Boosting)
Navajo (Boosting)
King (Boosting)
Cascade & Chinook (Boosting)
Jack and St. Malo (Boosting)
Julia (Boosting)
Stones (Boosting)
South China Sea
Lufeng (Boosting)
Campos Basin
BC-10 - Phase 1 (Separation, Boosting)
Espadarte (Field Trial) (Boosting)
Barracuda (Boosting)
Marimba (Separation, Boosting)
Marlim SSAO - Pilot (Separation)
Albacora L'Este (WI)
Marlim (Boosting)
Congro (Separation, Boosting)
Corvina (Separation, Boosting)
BC-10 - Phase 2 (Separation, Boosting)
Western Australia
Mutineer/Exeter (Boosting)
Vincent (Boosting)
Installed & Currently Operating
Installed & Not Currently Operating or In-active
Abandoned, Removed
Awarded and in Manufacturing or Delivered
Qualified/Testing
Conceptual Project
Canceled Project
WORLDWIDE LOCATIONS FOR SUBSEA PUMPING, COMPRESSION, AND SEPARATION SYSTEMS (As of Feb., 2014)
COURTESY OF
GRAPH 1 GVF vs. DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE - OPERATIONAL AND CONCEPTUAL CAPABILITIES
250
200
150
100
50
0 bar
3,625
300
4,400
2,900
2,175
1,450
725
0 psi
SPP - Single Phase Pump (Centrifugal)
TSP - Twin Screw Pump
WGC - Wet Gas Compression
DGC - Dry Gas Compression
HSP - Hydraulic Submersible Pump
D
if
f
e
r
e
n
t
ia
l P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
GVF (%)
High Boost
Helico-Axial
Standard
Helico-Axial
Hybrid
HSP
SPP (Centrifugal)
TSP
WGC DGC
TSP
100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 0 100 200 300 400
GRAPH 2 HIGH LEVEL COMPARISON OF SUBSEA BOOSTING OPTIONS
Pump Types GVF Range (Approximate) Pressure Differential (Bar)
CENTRIFUGAL
HYBRID (CENTRIFUGAL/
HELICO-AXIAL)
MULTIPHASE ESP
HSP
HELICO-AXIAL
TWIN SCREW
Notes:
1. Combination of parameter values shown above is not feasible.
2. There are a number of other parameters/factors that need to be considered for any pump selection.
3. Based upon recent updates from Flowserves subsea boosting system test results.
4. HSP can tolerate up to 100% of gas slug.
125
175 (Note 3)
200 (Note 2)
75%
COURTESY OF COURTESY OF
TABLE 2 PUMP TYPES & APPLICATIONS
TYPE CONFIG. APPLICABILITY FOR SUBSEA BOOSTING
CENTRIFUGAL
HORIZONTAL
OR VERTICAL
H Highest differential pressure capability among pump types.
H Handles low Gas Volume Fraction (GVF) < 15% at suction conditions.
HYBRID
(CENTRIFUGAL &
HELICO-AXIAL)
VERTICAL
H Combination of helico-axial and centrifugal impeller stages.
H Primary application is for use downstream of separator or in low GOR applications
where GVF is consistently < 38% at suction conditions.
MUDLINE ESP
HORIZONTAL
OR VERTICAL
H Widely deployed technology used for boosting in wells, caissons, flowline risers, and
mudline horizontal boosting applications.
H Applicable for conditions of GVF < 50% (continuous) and for improved flow assurance.
HSP
HORIZONTAL
OR VERTICAL
H Compact hydraulic drive boosting pump for wells, caissons & mudline applications.
H Applicable for conditions of GVF < 75% (continuous) and for improved flow assurance.
HELICO-AXIAL VERTICAL
H Applicable for higher GVF boosting applications - typical range of 30-95% GVF at
suction conditions.
H Moderate particulate tolerance.
TWIN SCREW
HORIZONTAL
OR VERTICAL
H Good for handling high GVF - up to 98% GVF at suction conditions.
H Preferred technology for high viscosity fluids.
SUBSEA BOOSTING PUMP TYPES
Fig. 1: Vertically Congured
Centrifugal Single Phase
Pump & Motor Diagram
Fig. 3: OneSubseas Multiphase
Hybrid SS Boosting Pump
HYBRID: OneSubseas hybrid pump
was developed and qualied for
the Pazor subsea separation and
boosting project. It comprises a
combination of lower helico-axial
stages and upper centrifugal
stages on the same shaft. This
conguration tolerates moderate
gas fraction and generates high
differential head to allow a wide
operating envelope.
CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS
(For GVF < 15%)
HYBRID PUMPS
(For GVF < 38%)
HELICO-AXIAL PUMPS
(For GVF < 95%)
TWIN SCREW PUMPS
(For GVF < 98%)
Courtesy of OneSubsea
Fig. 7: Deployment of a OneSubsea
Helico-Axial Multiphase Pump
HELICO-AXIAL: OneSubseas
multiphase pump stages in a vertical
conguration. Recent testing and
successful qualication work, in the
HiBoost MPP Joint Industry Project,
have greatly increased differential head
capability (see Graph 2 for details).
HSPs can be congured as a
downhole pump with the power
pressure pump residing on
a platform or on the seabed.
The downhole pump can also
be vertically congured in a
seabed caisson for boosting and
separation purposes.
Fig. 6: Vertically Congured
Helico-Axial Pump & Motor
Diagram
Courtesy of OneSubsea
Fig. 9: Vertically Cong-
ured SMPC Series 4 Twin
Screw Pump & Motor
Courtesy of Bornemann
Fig. 8: Twin Screw Pump
Cross Section Diagram
Courtesy of Leistritz
Fig 11: Vertically Congured SMPC
Series 4 Twin Screw Pump & Motor
Courtesy of Bornemann
Courtesy of Bornemann
Fig. 10: Bornemann Twin Screw
Cross Section Diagram
Fig. 12: Flowserve Horizontally Congured
Twin Screw Pump & Motor Concept
Courtesy of Flowserve
Fig. 2: Vertically
Congured Hybrid Pump
& Motor Diagram
Courtesy of OneSubsea
Fig. 4: Diagram of Vertically
Congured Gas Handling ESP in a
Seabed Caisson
Fig. 5: Diagram of HSP
Principle of Operation
ESP PUMPS
(For GVF < 50%)
HSP PUMPS
(For GVF < 75%)
Courtesy of Schlumberger
Courtesy of ClydeUnion Pumps (SPX)
ESPs can be installed in a caisson to
gather and boost ow from multiple
wells.
POSTER COLOR CODE KEY
The poster is divided into discrete sections
and each section is marked by a background
color. The colors denote the type of technology
presented in the sections. This color code is
carried throughout the poster. Below are the
intuitive color code designations for each of the
six themes.
Full Wellstream Subsea Boosting
Subsea Separation
Subsea Gas Compression
Water Injection with Subsea Pumps
Power Transmission/Distribution and Controls
Miscellaneous Information/Combination of Technologies
CHART 1 SUBSEA SUPPLIER MATRIX (As of Feb., 2014) SUBSEA PROCESSING
SUBSEA
PUMPING
AKER SOLUTIONS
akersolutions.com
FMC TECHNOLOGIES (6)
fmctechnologies.com
GE
ge-energy.com
AKER SOLUTIONS
akersolutions.com
BORNEMANN (8)
bornemann.com
FLOWSERVE
flowserve.com
PUMP
SYSTEM
PACKAGERS
ELECTRIC
MOTOR
MANUFACTURERS
ONESUBSEA
onesubsea.com
BAKER HUGHES
bakerhughes.com
ONESUBSEA
onesubsea.com
ONESUBSEA
onesubsea.com
ClydeUnion (SPX)
spx.com
SCHLUMBERGER
slb.com
LEISTRITZ
leistritzcorp.com
AKER SOLUTIONS
akersolutions.com
DIRECT DRIVE SYSTEMS (1)
fmctechnologies.com
FLOWSERVE
flowserve.com
CURTISS WRIGHT
curtisswright.com
LOHER (2)
automation.siemens.com
HAYWARD TYLER
haywardtyler.com
AKER SOLUTIONS
akersolutions.com
DUCO
technip.com
JDR
jdrcables.com
DRAKA
draka.com
OCEANEERING
oceaneering.com
NEXANS
nexans.com
PARKER
parker.com
ABB
abb.com
FURUKAWA
Furukawa.co.jp
MITSUBISHI
mitsubishielectric.com
BICC BERCA
biccberca.com
OKONITE
okonite.com
NKT
nktcables.com
SUMITOMO
sumitomo.com
BRUGG
bruggcables.com
HITACHI
hitachi.com
ALCATEL
alcatel-lucent.com
NEXANS
nexans.com
PRYSMIAN
prysmiangroup.com
ABB
abb.com
CONVERTEAM (7)
ge-energy.com
ONESUBSEA
onesubsea.com
BAKER HUGHES
bakerhughes.com
SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC
schneider-electric.com
AKER SOLUTIONS
akersolutions.com
BAKER HUGHES
bakerhughes.com
PUMP
MANUFACTURERS
AKER SOLUTIONS
akersolutions.com
FMC TECHNOLOGIES
fmctechnologies.com
GE
ge-energy.com
BAKER HUGHES
bakerhughes.com
ONESUBSEA
onesubsea.com
SUBSEA RAW
SEAWATER
INJECTION (3)
AKER SOLUTIONS
akersolutions.com
ASCOM
ascomseparation.com
SUBSEA
SEPARATION
SYSTEMS
AKER SOLUTIONS
akersolutions.com
ONESUBSEA
onesubsea.com
GE
ge-energy.com
XXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXX
DRESSER RAND
dresser-rand.com
GE POWER SYSTEMS
ge-energy.com
MAN Diesel & Turbo
mandieselturbo.com
ONESUBSEA
onesubsea.com
SIEMENS INDUSTRIAL
TURBO MACHINERY
turbomachinerysolutions.com
UMBILICALS
ALSTOM
alstom.com
XXXXX
BENNEX (4)
energy.siemens.com
DEUTSCH (5)
te.com
GE VetcoGray
ge-energy.com
SEACON
seaconworldwide.com
SIEMENS
energy.siemens.com
TELEDYNE ODI
odi.com
DIAMOULD
diamould.com
HV
CONNECTORS
BENESTAD (9)
benestad.com
DIAMOULD
diamould.com
SIEMENS
energy.siemens.com
DEUTSCH (5)
te.com
TELEDYNE ODI
odi.com
TELEDYNE D.G.OBRIEN
dgo.com
PENETRATORS
AKER SOLUTIONS
akersolutions.com
CONVERTEAM (7)
ge-energy.com
ALPHA THAMES
alpha-thames.co.uk
SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC
schneider-electric.com
AKER SOLUTIONS
akersolutions.com
BAKER HUGHES
bakerhughes.com
VETCO GRAY SCANDINAVIA
ge-energy.com
SIEMENS
energy.siemens.com
ASDs/VSDs &
X-FORMERS
POWER
CABLES
HV &
AC/DC POWER
CONTROL
SYSTEMS
TESTING
FACILITIES
FMC TECHNOLOGIES/
SULZER (6)
fmctechnologies.com
sulzer.com
ONESUBSEA
onesubsea.com
SEABOX
sea-box.no
SAIPEM
saipem.com
NSW
nsw.com
BORNEMANN (8)
bornemann.com
FLOWSERVE
flowserve.com
FMC TECHNOLOGIES
fmctechnologies.com
ONESUBSEA
onesubsea.com
PROLAB
prolabnl.com
STATOIL: P-LAB & K-LAB
(Norway)
PETROBRAS ATALAIA LAB
(Brazil)
SHELL GASMER
(Houston, TX)
SULZER (6)
sulzer.com
LEISTRITZ
leistritzcorp.com
OTHER
SUPPORTING
SYSTEMS
COMPRESSORS
FMC TECHNOLOGIES
fmctechnologies.com
COMPRESSION
SYSTEM
PACKAGERS
SUBSEA
COMPRESSION
GE
ge-energy.com
ONESUBSEA
onesubsea.com
FMC Technologies
fmctechnologies.com
TWISTER BV
twisterbv.com
SAIPEM
saipem.com
SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC
schneider-electric.com
SULZER (6)
sulzer.com
COURTESY OF
NOTES:
1. Direct Drive Systems is a subsidiary of FMC Technologies.
2. Loher is a Siemens company.
3. Subsea raw seawater injection refers to only those projects utilizing a subsea pump to inject
seawater and does not include typical water injection using a pump on a topside facility.
4. Bennex is a Siemens company.
5. Deutsch is part of the TE connectivity group.
6. FMC Technologies and Sulzer have formed a joint venture.
7. CONVERTEAM is a GE company.
8. Bornemann is an ITT Company.
9. Benestad is a Aker Solution company
TABLE 7 OTHER INFORMATION SOURCES
Go to www.onepetro.org to order the SPE & OTC papers listed below.
SUBSEA BOOSTING PROJECTS
OTC 23178 2012 FMC Pazflor: Test/Qual. of Novel Tech.
OTC-24498 2013 PETROBRAS SS Proc. & Boost. in Brazil
OTC-24401 2013 FMC/SULZER Dev. & Qual. of a High DP SS Pump
OTC-24201 2013 PETROBRAS Mudline ESP in a Subsea Skid
OTC-24428 2013 PETROBRAS/ONESUBSEA SS High Boost MPP
OTC-24217 2013 PETROBRAS Barracuda Subsea Helico-Axial MPP
SPE-164757 2013 JOH. HEINR. BORNEMANN MP Boosting in Oil and Gas
OTC-24263 2013 ONESUBSEA Evolution of SS Boosting
SUBSEA SEPARATION
IPTC-16914 2013 KERR-MCGEE & BAKER HUGHES Downhole Oil and Water Separation
SPE-166079 2013 BP & SOUTHWEST R. INST. Evaluation of Separation in a Casing
OTC-24533 2013 PETROBRAS Comiss./Startup of SS Marlim Separ.
SPE-167334 2013 PANDIT DEENDAYAL PET. UNIV. Effective Gas-Liquid Separation
OTC-24359 2013 SAIPEM SS Gas-liq. and Water-hydro. Sep.
OTC 23223 2012 FMC/EXMOB/WOODSIDE Compact SS Sep. for Deep Water
OTC 23478 2012 ENI SS Gas/Liquid Separation
DOT-T2S1O2 2011 SAIPEM Development of the Spoolsep
SUBSEA RAW SEAWATER AND PRODUCED WATER INJECTION DEVELOPMENT
OTC-24167 2013 PETROBRAS Albacora Subsea Raw WI
OTC-24111 2013 CHEVRON WI in the Gulf of Mexico
SPE-166576 2013 SEA-BOX/AKER SUBSEA SS Water Treatment and Injection
SPE-165138 2013 TOTAL EP Produced Water Re-Injection
SPE-164372 2013 SAUDI ARAMCO Prod. Water Re-Injection Sys. Optim.
OTC-24273 2013 TOTAL/SAIMPEM/VWS WEST. Springs: Subsea WI Treatment
MULTIPHASE BOOSTING SYSTEM
SPE 134341 2010 SHELL/FLOWSERVE Dev. of High Boost System
SUBSEA COMPRESSION
IPTC-17649 2013 A/S NORSKE SHELL SS Compression at Ormen Lange
IPTC-16982 2013 CURTIN U. Appl. of Downhole Gas Compressor
IPTC 14231 2011 FRAMO Advances in SS Wet Gas Comp.
OTC 21346 2011 STATOIL/ONESUBSEA Testing of SS Wet Gas Comp.
OCT 24211 2011 AKER SOLUTIONS SS Compression: A Game Changer
DOT AMST. 2010 SHELL Qualifying the Technology
POWER TRANSMISSION/DISTRIBUTION
OTC-25278 2014 INTECSEA Hybrid Split VFD / SSP Tieback
OTC-24129 2013 PETROBRAS SS Electrical Power Trans. and Dist.
OTC-24448 2013 INTECSEA High Voltage Power Transmission
OTC-24129 2013 PETROBRAS Devel. of a SS Elect. Power Transm.
OTC-23935 2013 DEUTSCH/SCHNEIDER Powering Subsea Processing
OTC-24147 2013 DET NORSKE VERITAS Power System for the New Era
SPE-166558 2013 SCHLUMBERGER SS Cable Applications in Offshore
IPTC-17269 2013 TOTAL EP Selection of Power from Shore
OTC-24183 2013 GE Modular Stacked DC Transmission
OTC-23960 2013 HUSKY OIL CHINA LTD. Husky Liwan Deepwater SS Control
COMPANY EXPERIENCE & APPROACH TO SUBSEA PROCESSING
OTC-24307 2013 STATOIL Steps to the Subsea Factory
OTC-24161 2013 PETROBRAS SS Proc. Systems: Future Vision
OTC-24519 2013 PETROBRAS Subsea vs Topside Processing
OTC-23970 2013 TECORP INT. Challenges World Largest Slug
Catcher
OTC-24162 2013 PETROBRAS Cascade and Chinook Subsea Dev.
COURTESY OF
2P Two Phase
3P Three Phase
AC Alternate Current
AL Artifical Lift
ALM Artifical Lift Manifold
ASD Adjustable Speed Drive
BOPD Barrels of Oil per Day
BPD Barrels per Day
CAPEX Capital Expenditures
COSSP Configurable Subsea Separation
& Pumping
CSSP Centrifugal Subsea Submersible
Pump
CTCU Cable Traction Control Unit
DMBS Deepwater Multiphase Boosting
System
ESP Electrical Submersible Pump
FFD Full Field Development
FPS Floating Production System
FPSO Floating, Production, Storage,
& Offloading Vessel
GLCC Gas/Liquid Centrifugal Cyclonic
GLR Gas Liquid Ratio
GVF Gas Volume Fraction
Hp Horsepower
HSP Hydraulic Submersible Pump
HV High Voltage
IOR Improved (Increased) Oil Recovery
JB Junction Box
kW Kilowatt
LDDM Long Distance Delivery Management
LDDS Long Distance Delivery System
MPP Multiphase Pump
MW Mega Watts
NF Natural Flow
OPEX Operational Expenditures
PCDM Power and Communication
Distribution Module
PCM Power Control Module
PFD Process Flow Diagram
PLET Pipeline End Termination
PLIM Pipeline Inline Manifold
PSIG Pipeline Simulation Interest Group/
Pounds per Square Inch (Gauge)
PSUTA Pump Subsea Umbilical Termination
Assembly
ROV Remote Operated Vehicle
RPM Revolutions per Minute
SCM Subsea Control Module
SFB Seafloor Boosting
SIORS Subsea Increased Oil Recovery System
SMUBS Shell Multiphase Underwater Boost
Station
SPEED Subsea Power Electrical Equipment
Distribution
SPP Single Phase Pump
SS Subsea
SSBI Subsea Separation Boosting Injection
SSP Subsea Processing
SUBSIS Subsea Separation and Injection
System
SUTA Subsea Umbilical Termination
Assembly
TUTA Topside Umbilical Termination
Assembly
VASPS Vertical Annular Separation and
Pumping System
VSD Variable Speed Drive
WD Water Depth
WI Water Injection
WI XT Water Injection Christmas Tree
XT Christmas Tree
COURTESY OF
TABLE 6 ACRONYMS & ABBREVIATIONS
SUBSEA GAS COMPRESSION SYSTEMS & PRODUCTS BY COMPANY
Fig. 1: Ormen Lange Subsea Compression Pilot
Courtesy of Aker Solutions
Fig. 2: Subsea Gas Compression Station Concept
Courtesy of FMC Technologies
Fig. 4: sgard SS Compressor
Courtesy of MAN Diesel & Turbo
Fig. 7: sgard SS Compression Support Structure in Transit
to Field
Courtesy of Aker Solutions
Fig. 8: Kvaerner Booster Station
(KBS) for SS Gas Compression
Courtesy of GE Oil & Gas
Fig. 6: sgard Subsea Compression
Station Template Installation
Courtesy of Aker Solutions
Fig. 5: Illustration of the OneSubsea Gullfaks
Wet Gas Compression Station
Courtesy of OneSubsea
Fig. 3 : OneSubsea Counter-rotating
5MW Wet Gas Compressor built for
Gullfaks Qualication Test
Courtesy of OneSubsea
SUBSEA POWER CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT & CONNECTORS
Note: The Siemens Subsea Power Grid is shown in Fig. 5, with the main building blocks in Figs. 6, 7 and 8.
Wet mate 36kV connectors and control system will also be part of the Siemens Subsea Power Grid.
Fig. 2: SS HV Multi Circuit Breaker 60 MVA Concept
Courtesy of Schneider Electric
Fig. 1: Ormen Lange Pilot SS Circuit Breaker
Courtesy of Aker Solutions
Fig. 5: Siemens Subsea Power Grid Concept
Courtesy of Siemens
Fig. 6: Subsea Transformer Prototype
at Shallow Water Test in 2012
Courtesy of Siemens
Courtesy of Siemens
Fig. 7: Subsea Variable
Speed Drive Illustration
Courtesy of Aker Solutions
Fig. 3: Ormen Lange
Pilot Subsea Pump ASD
Fig. 8: SS Circuit Breaker/
SS Switchgear Illustration
Figs.: 8-11 Courtesy of Siemens
Fig. 10: Tronic FoeTRON
Wet-Mate Connectors
Fig. 4: Tronic SpecTRON 10
Wet-Mate Connectors
Fig. 9: Tronic ElecTRON
Wet-Mate Connectors
Courtesy of Siemens
Fig. 11: Tronic DigiTRON
Wet-Mate Connectors
SUBSEA PROCESSING CONFIGURATIONS
SUBSEA SEAWATER INJECTION AND TREATMENT
Fig. 1: Aker Solutions
LiquidBoosterSubsea Raw
Seawater Injection System
(Photo: Statoil Tyrihans
Subsea Raw Seawater
Injection (SRSWI) System)
Courtesy of Aker Solutions
Figs. 5 and 6: Courtesy of SEABOX AS
Fig. 3: One of four Albacora
Raw Seawater WI Pump
Systems undergoing SIT in
OneSubsea Test dock in late 2009
Courtesy of OneSubsea
Fig. 4: Total-Saipem-VWS Westgarth
Conceptual Subsea Sulphate Removal
Station for Deep and Ultradeep Water
Applications Fig. 5: Subsea Water Intake and Treatment (SWIT)
Unit Capable of Treating 40,000 barrels per day
Fig. 6: Integrated SS Raw Seawater Injection System Integrating SPP and Filtration
SS Water Injection Tree
(WI XT)
Single Phase Pump
for Water Injection
(SPP WI)
Raw Seawater Intake
& Filtration (SWIT Unit)
Courtesy of Saipem SA
Fig. 2: Conceptual Illustration
of Installation of Tyrihans
Subsea Raw Seawater
Injection (SRSWI) System
SUBSEA SEPARATION SYSTEM TYPES: 1. GRAVITY SEPARATION SYSTEMS (Figs. 16)
HORIZONTAL SEPARATOR - This type is more efcient for oil/water
separation. An example is the orange colored horizontal separator for the
Tordis Project shown in Fig. 1A above.
VERTICAL SEPARATOR This type is more efcient for gas/liquid separation.
The liquid keeps a uid blanket on the pump and reduces potential pump
cavitation. An example is the Pazor vertical separator shown in Fig. 2.
Fig. 1A: Illustration of FMC Subsea Separation System for the Tordis Project
Courtesy of FMC Technologies
Fig. 2: Illustration of FMC SS Gas/Liquid Separa-
tion & Boosting System for Pazor Project
Courtesy of FMC Technologies
Fig. 5: Aker Solutions DeepBoosterwith
Separation System FlexsepConcept
Courtesy of Aker Solutions
Fig. 3: Troll C Separation System
Courtesy of GE Oil & Gas
Fig. 4: Saipem COSSP (2-Phase Gas/Liquid
Separation & Boosting System Concept)
Fig. 6: Saipem SpoolSep (3-Phase Separation & Produced
Water Reinjection System) Concept
Figs. 5 and 6 Courtesy of Saipem SA
Fig. 1B:
Tordis
Separator
TABLE 3: SURVEY OF SUBSEA ELECTRICAL POWER CONNECTOR
AND PENETRATORS
STATUS M
A
N
U
F
A
C
T
U
R
E
R
P
A
R
T
N
U
M
B
E
R
W
A
T
E
R

D
E
P
T
H
V
O
L
T
A
G
E

C
L
A
S
S
C
U
R
R
E
N
T

R
A
T
IN
G
F
R
E
Q
U
E
N
C
Y
C
A
B
L
E
T
E
R
M
IN
A
T
IO
N
W
E
T
M
A
T
E
P
E
N
E
T
R
A
T
O
R
(m) (ft) (kV) (A) (Hz)
Currently Operating TE Connectivity Deutsch P6-MD300 400 1,312 6/10(12) 300 15-70 H
Installed on Pilot TE Connectivity Deutsch P6-SW1600 2,000 6,562 6/10(12) 1,600 200 H H
Installed on Pilot TE Connectivity Deutsch P18-SW900 2,000 6,562 18/30(36) 900 15-70 H H
Qualified TE Connectivity Deutsch P18-SD 300 3,000 9,843 18/30(36) 400 200 H H
Qualified Siemens Tronic SpecTRON 5 1,330 4,364 2.9 /5(5.8) 200 100 H H H
Qualified Siemens Tronic SpecTRON 8 3,000 9,843 5/8.7(10) 355 200 H H H
Qualified Siemens Tronic SpecTRON 10 3,000 9,843 6/10(12) 630 200 H H H
Qualified GE VetcoGray MECON DM 900 2,953 76/132(145) 600 50 H
Qualified GE VetcoGray MECON WM-I 1,500 4,921 12/20(24) 300 50 H H
Qualified GE VetcoGray MECONWM-II 1,500 4,921 18/30(36) 500 50 H H
Under Qualification GE VetcoGray MECON WM 3,048 10,000 18/30(36) 500 15-100 H H
Under Qualification TE Connectivity Deutsch P6-3W250 3,000 9,843 6/10(12) 250 15-200 H H H
Delivered Benestad AS 15k Power Penetrator 3,048 10,000 6/10(12) 450 15-200 H H H
Delivered TE Connectivity Deutsch P6-SW400 3,000 9,843 6/10(12) 400 15-100 H H H
Delivered TE Connectivity Deutsch P18-SW400 3,000 9,843 18/30(36) 400 15-200 H H H
Delivered TE Connectivity Deutsch P18-SD400 3,000 9,843 18/30(36) 400 15-200 H H
Proposed TE Connectivity Deutsch P6-SW900 3,048 10,000 6/10(12) 900 200 H H H
Proposed TE Connectivity Deutsch P18-SW900 3,048 10,000 18/30(36) 900 200 H H H
Note 1: The configurations and diagrams below are examples only and do not represent specific projects. Note 2: The configurations shown below illustrate a building block approach, demonstrating mudline technologies and no ESP based
configurations. The building blocks primarily use retrievable module elements within their designs. Note 3: The distances implied in the short, medium, and long distance configurations of Figs. 1, 4, and 7 are indicative only for these examples.
Actual distance limitations and system configurations for real-world fields will depend on the specific production/reservoir conditions, and on the detailed capabilities of the associated processing and power system equipment. For applications
beyond 100 miles (160 Km), the system configurations are only in the conceptual stage, and are not depicted here.
Host
Switchgear
Host
Generation
ASD
(Frequency
Converter)
Host Floating
Production Facilities
Subsea
Topsides
TYPE 2
Direct Step Out
with Subsea Transformer
G
~
~
TUTA
PSUTA
Transformer
JB
Purge
Safety Disconnect /
Earthing Switch
(For multi-circuit
umbilicals)
Static or Dynamic
Power Umbilical
~
M
Subsea
Transformer
R
High
Resistance Resistance
Booster Pump
or Compressor
SS Processing
Station
~
M
R
High
Resistance
Water Injection
Single Phase
Pump
SS WI Station
SS
Transformer
Module
PSUTA
~
~
Up to ~12.5 MW,
Typically 6.6kV
Up to 36 kV
Fig. 5: Type 2 Electrical Diagram (see Table 5)
~
M
~
~
~
~
~
~
PSUTA
~
M
~
M
SS ASD
6.6 kV
Up to 36 kV
SS Power Skid with Switchgear
Static or Dynamic
Power Umbilical
Subsea
Platform
OR
Onshore
Facilities
Transformer
4.16 kV - 13.8 kV (typical)
TYPE 3
Subsea AC Power Distribution
w/MV or HV Power Transmission
TUTA
Host Switchgear
Wet Mate
Connector
(Typ.)
R
Solid or Low
Resistance
Earthing
Transformer
~
JB Purge
Host
Switchgear
(Output voltage ~36kV or higher
depending on load & distance)
(SS Transformer Optional
depending on selected
transmission voltage)
SPP Gas
Compr.
WI SPP
SS Processing Station (3P)
Shoreline
Topsides or Land
Fig. 8: Type 3 Electrical Diagram (see Table 5)
SYMBOL KEY
Production Umbilical
Utility Umbilical
Production Flowline
Pump Station
XT
XT
SS Manifold
PSUTA
SUTA
Fig 3: Short Distance Process Flow Diagram (PFD)
SS Processing
Station (Two Phase)
SS Processing
Station (2P)
Production Umbilical
Utility Umbilical
Gas Flowline
Liquid Flowline
Multiphase Flowline
Seawater
XT
XT
SS Manifold
PSUTA
WI XT
WI
Flowline
SUTA
SS WI Station SS WI Station
Fig 6: Medium Distance Process Flow Diagram (PFD)
Production Umbilical
Utility Umbilical
Gas Flowline
SS Processing Station (3P) (Three Phase + WI)
Oil Flowline Multiphase Flowline
WI Flowline
PSUTA SS Power Skid
XT
XT
WI XT
WI XT
WI XT
SS Manifold SUTA
Fig 9: Long Distance Process Flow Diagram (PFD)
Fig. 1: Short Distance Conguration Example
Subsea
Topsides
TYPE 1
Direct Step Out
G
~
~
Host
Switchgear
Host
Generation
TUTA
PSUTA
~
M
ASD
(Frequency
Converter)
Static or Dynamic
Power Umbilical
MP Boosting
Pump
Up to ~3000 kW,
Typically 6.6kV
Purge
Safety Disconnect /
Earthing Switch
(For multi-circuit
umbilicals)
JB
Electrical Flying
Lead (EFL)
Pump Station
Host Floating
Production Facilities
Fig. 2: Type 1 Electrical Diagram (see Table 5)
SUBSEA POWER SYSTEM TYPES AND CONFIGURATIONS
Fig. 1: SUBSEA POWER SYSTEM STEP-OUT CONFIGURATIONS TABLE 5: POWER SYSTEM STEP-OUT CONFIGURATIONS
C
A
T
E
G
O
R
Y
VOLTAGE &
POWER RATING
INDICATIVE
STEP-OUT
(4)
ADJUSTABLE
SPEED DRIVE
POWER
TRANS-
FORMERS
NOMINAL
TRANS-
MISSION FREQ.
Radius (1)
T
o
p
s
id
e
S
u
b
s
e
a
T
o
p
s
id
e
(S
te
p
U
p
)
S
u
b
s
e
a
(S
te
p
D
o
w
n
)
5
0
o
r
6
0

H
z
A
C
1
6
.7
-
2
5

H
z
A
C
Type
1
Capacity: 1-4 MW
Transmission: ~6kV
Distribution: ~6kV
0-15 Km
(0-9.3 Mile) H H
Type
2
Capacity: 1-4 MW
Transmission: Up to 36kV
Distr./Motor Input: ~6kV
0-60 Km
(0-37.3 Mile) H H

(2)
H

(2)
H
Type
3
Capacity: Up to 70 MW
Transmission: 36kV-145kV
Distr. Switchgear: Up to 36kV
Distr./Motor Input: ~6kV
0-160 Km
(0-100 Mile) H H

(3)
H

(3)
H
Type
4
Capacity: Up to ~100 MW
LF Transmission: Up to 145kV
LF Dist. Switchgear: Up to 36kV
Distr./Motor Input: ~6kV
>140-400 +Km
(>87-248.5 +Mile) H H

(3)
H

(3)
H
Notes:
1. Indicative radius subject to system power rating. See Figure 1, Step-Out Configurations.
2. Transformer location likely after ASD to meet umbilical transmission voltage.
3. Transformer location likely before ASD to meet umbilical transmission voltage.
4. Stepout is the distance from the host facility.
5. Barracuda project with a step out of 14 km (8.7 Mi) is a deployed example of Type 1 Configuration.
6. Tyrihans project with a step out of 31 km (19.3 Mi) is a deployed example of Type 2 Configuration.
7. There is no deployed example of Type 3. Type 4 is currently conceptual.
COURTESY OF
COURTESY OF
Host Floating
Production
Facility
Production
Flowline
Utility
Umbilical
Production
Umbilical
PSUTA
PLET
SUTA
SS Manifold
XT
(TYP.)
Pump Station
Type 1
Fig. 4: Medium Distance Conguration Example
Host Floating
Production
Facility
Production
Umbilical
Utility
Umbilical
Gas
Flowline
PLET
PLET
Liquid
Flowline
SS Processing
Station (2P)
PSUTA
SUTA
SS Manifold
Multiphase Line
Multiphase Line
WI
Line
WI XT
(TYP.)
XT
(TYP.)
Type 2
MPP
(2P)
MULTIPHASE BOOSTING SYSTEM EXAMPLES (CONCEPTUAL & DELIVERED)
Fig. 6: GE Oil & Gas Boosting Station
Courtesy of VetcoGray (GE Oil & Gas)
Fig. 1: Aker Solutions MultiBooster
System (BP King)
Courtesy of Aker Solutions
Fig. 2: FMC/Flowserve SS Multiphase Pumping
System with 2 Retrievable Pump Modules
Courtesy of FMC Technologies
Fig. 3: OneSubsea - Loadout
of 1 of 6, 2.3 MW Hybrid
Pumps for Pazor Project
Courtesy of OneSubsea Fig. 5: FMC Technologies
SS Multiphase Pumping
Module with Sulzer Pump
Courtesy of Sulzer
Fig. 4: 1 of 3 Jack & St Malo Pump Stations in
the Factory Test Pit for System Integration Test
(SIT) Immediately Prior to Filling with Water
Courtesy of Chevron and OneSubsea
MUDLINE ESP OR HSP SYSTEM EXAMPLES
Courtesy of FMC Technologies
Fig. 1: Horizontal ESP Boosting Station Fig. 2: ESP Jumper Boosting System
Courtesy of Baker Hughes
Fig. 3: Seaoor Boosting System
Using ESPs in Caissons
Courtesy of Baker Hughes
Fig. 4: Seaoor Boosting
Using ESP in caisson
Courtesy of Aker Solutions
Fig. 5: HSP for
Mudline Boosting
Courtesy of ClydeUnion
Pump (SPX)
2. CAISSON SEPARATION
SYSTEMS (Figs. 79)
INSTALLED < 100 m
INTO SEABED
Fig. 7: BCSS Seabed Equipment
Courtesy of Aker Solutions
3. COMPACT/DYNAMIC SEPARATION SYSTEMS (Figs. 10-12)
Fig. 10: OneSubseas Compact 2-Phase
Separator & Pump Module
Fig. 11: OneSubseas Compact 3-Phase
Separation Module Concept
Courtesy of OneSubsea
Fig. 12: FMC 3-Phase Separation System with Produced
Water Re-injection Using In-Line Separation Technology for
the Marlim Project
Courtesy of FMC Technologies
deeper understanding www.genesisoilandgas.com
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the surface
More powerful pumps:
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production now.
Image courtesy of Sulzer Pumps
Copyright FMC Technologies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. www.MaximizeRecovery.com
operating hours.
And counting.
Delivering increased recovery requires a reliable subsea processing solution that is designed on the premise of the reservoir.
OneSubsea

presents the most comprehensive suite of products providing scalable subsea processing and boosting system
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With more than 30 operating systems in subsea regions from the North Sea to Australia, West Africa to Brazil, OneSubsea
has a portfolio of proven, reliable boosting and pumping systems successfully increasing production rates from 30%up to
100%for operators. Visit www.onesubsea.com/pumpingsystems
Up to 100% increased production rate from the
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ABB is a world leading innovator of sub-
sea power and automation solutions, the
main enabler for safe and cost-effective
subsea developments at greater dis-
tances and depths.
ABB AS
Tel. +47 22 87 20 00
www.abb.com
TV0393
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High reliability - MTTF > 11 years in subsea environment
True multi-phase capability; Excels in gassy, heavy crude applications
Unrivalled operating range from a single frame (particularly at high GVF)
Minimal installation time; plug & play design
Ideally suited to downhole lift & seabed boosting
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applications applications
rly at high GVF) at high GVF)
For more information visit
www.owserve.com
Reliable Seabed Boosting With
Subsea Multiphase Pumps and Motors
Design Ratings
Beths to 8O5O m (1O OOO lt)
Suction ressures to 5OOO si (845 bar)
Bischarge ressures to 1O OOO si (GOO bar)
hominal 8.5 Mw (4GO8 h) motor rating
voltage G.G kv
Operating Parameters
Fressure boost exceeding 22OO si (15O bar)
Bislacement llow rates to
OO OOO bd (447 m8/h) @ 18OO rm
hominal seed ol 18OO rm (+1O% overseed)
Enabling Subsea Processing by
Connecting Innovation with Experience
siemens.com/energy/subsea
Fig. 9: FMCs Vertical
Access Caisson with ESP
Boosting (Gas/Liquid
Separation & Boosting)
System Diagram
Courtesy of FMC Technologies
Fig. 8: Caisson Separation/
ESP Boosting System
Courtesy of Baker Hughes
Note: This table is a sampling of the current market, and is not comprehensive.
Fig. 7: Long Distance Conguration Example
Onshore Facility
SS Processing
Station (3P)
SS Power Skid
(3P)
SPP Oil
WI SPP
Type 3
Production
Umbilical
Utility
Umbilical Gas
Flowline
PLET
PLET
Oil
Flowline PSUTA
SUTA
SS Manifold
Multiphase Line
WI
Line
WI XT
(TYP.)
~
~
Multi Phase Mudline Boosting, Single Phase
Pumping, or Water Injection Pumping
Two Phase or Three Phase Separation
Gas Compression
Seawater Filtration/Intake
SS Power System
Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD)
SS Transformer
Safety Disconnect/
Earthing Switch
Switchgear
HV Wet Mate Connector
6.6 kV Wet Mate
Connector ~ ~
Courtesy of OneSubsea
XT
(TYP.)
Note 1: SWIT Unit provides
disinfection and low Total
Suspended Solids (TSS) water for
either matrix or sweep ooding.
TABLE 1 2014 WORLDWIDE SURVEY OF SUBSEA GAS COMPRESSION, BOOSTING, WATER INJECTION, AND SEPARATION (1)(2) As of Feb. 2014
P
R
O
C
E
S
S
IN
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C
IP
L
IN
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C
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FIELD OR PROJECT
(Ordered by Start Date)
C
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T
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COMMENTS
OWNER/
FIELD
OPERATOR
REGION/
BASINS
WATER
DEPTH
TIEBACK
DISTANCE
SYSTEM FLOW RATE
(@LINE CONDITIONS)
DIFFERENTIAL
PRESSURE
U
N
IT
M
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P
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SYSTEM
PACKAGER
NO. OF
PUMPS UNITS
PUMP TYPE
or
COMPR. TYPE
COMPRESSOR/PUMP
MANUFACTURER
IN-SERVICE/OPERATING
INFORMATION
COMPANY Meters Feet Km Miles M3/Hr.
MBOPD
MBWPD
BAR (4)
PSI
(4)
MW
% OF
VOL.
COMPANY
PUMPS or
COMPR.
TYPE COMPANY
START (11)
(Month-Year)
END or
PRESENT
MTHS
S
U
B
S
E
A
G
A
S

C
O
M
P
R
E
S
S
IO
N
1 DEMO 2000 Q Statoil K-Lab Test Statoil Offshore Norway 3.60 n/a OneSubsea Counter Axial OneSubsea 2001
2 Ormen Lange Gas Compression Pilot Q Testing 1 train @ Nyhamna, Norway Statoil Offshore Norway 860 2,821 0.0 0.0 25,000 3776 60.0 870 12.50 n/a Aker Solutions 1 Centrifugal GE Compr / Aker Pump 2011 1-Mar-14
3 Aasgard - Midgard & Mikkel Fields M Subsea Gas Compression Statoil Offshore Norway 300 984 40.0 25.0 40,000 6,042 60.0 870 11.50 n/a Aker Solutions 2+1 Spare +1 Centrifugal MAN / Aker pumps Q1, 2015
4 Gullfaks South Brent (28) M Subsea Wet Gas Compression Statoil Offshore Norway 135 443 15.5 9.7 9,600 1450 30.0 435 5.00 95% OneSubsea 2 + 1 Spare Counter Axial OneSubsea Q4, 2015
5 Ormen Lange Gas Compression Q Subsea Gas Compression Norske Shell Offshore Norway 860 2,821 120.0 75.0 50,000 7553 60.0 870 12.50 n/a TBA 2 Centrifugal TBA 2021
6 Troll C Subsea Gas Compression Statoil Offshore Norway 340 1,116 4.0 2.5 n/a TBA Undecided TBA 2016
7 Snohvit C Subsea Gas Compression Statoil Barents Sea 345 1,132 143.0 89.4 TBD n/a TBA Centrifugal TBA 2020
8 Shtokman C Subsea Gas Compression Gazprom Barents Sea 350 1,148 565.0 353.1 TBD n/a TBA Centrifugal TBA 2022
F
U
L
L
W
E
L
L
S
T
R
E
A
M
S
U
B
S
E
A
B
O
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IN
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(N
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1
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D
&
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O
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)
1 Prezioso (20) A MPP at Base of Platform AGIP Italy 50 164 0.0 0.0 65.0 10 40.0 580 0.15 30-90% Nuovo Pignone (8) 1 Twin-Screw GE 1994 1995
2 Draugen Field A SMUBS Project, 1 HSP A/S Norske Shell Offshore Norway 270 886 6.0 3.7 193.0 29 53.3 773 0.75 42% OneSubsea 1 + 1 Spare HSP SPX ClydeUnion Nov-95 15-Nov-96 12.2
3 Lufeng 22/1 Field (9) (19) A Tieback to FPSO Statoil South China Sea 330 1,083 1.0 0.6 675.0 102 35.0 508 0.40 3% OneSubsea / FMC Tech. 5+2 Spare Centrifugal (SPP) OneSubsea Jan-98 15-Jul-09 138.0
4 Machar Field (ETAP Project) A Hydraulic Turbine Drive BP Amoco UK North Sea 85 277 35.2 21.9 1,100.0 166 22.0 319 0.65 64% OneSubsea 2+1 Spare Helico-Axial OneSubsea
5 Topacio Field O 1 x Dual MPP System ExxonMobil Equatorial Guinea 550 1,805 8.0 5.0 940.0 142 35.0 508 0.86 75% OneSubsea 2+1 Spare Helico-Axial OneSubsea Aug-00 1-Mar-14 162.2
6 Ceiba C3 + C4 O Phase 1 SS MPP Project Hess Equatorial Guinea 750 2,461 7.0 4.3 600.0 91 45.0 653 0.85 75% OneSubsea 2+1 Spare Helico-Axial OneSubsea Oct-02 1-Mar-14 136.2
7 Jubarte EWT A Riser lift to Seillean Drillship Petrobras Espirito Santo Basin 1,400 4,593 1.4 0.9 145.0 22 140.0 2,000 0.70 22% FMC Technologies 1 ESP Schlumberger (REDA) Dec-02 1-Dec-06 47.9
8 Ceiba Field (FFD) O Full Field Development (FFD) Hess Equatorial Guinea 700 2,297 14.5 9.0 2,500.0 378 40.0 580 1.20 75% OneSubsea 6+ 2 Spare Helico-Axial OneSubsea Dec-03 1-Mar-14 122.3
9 Mutineer / Exeter O 2 x Single MPP Systems Santos NW Shelf, Australia 145 476 7.0 4.3 1,200.0 181 30.0 435 1.10 0-40% OneSubsea 7 SS ESP, 2 MPP Helico-Axial OneSubsea (16) Mar-05 1-Mar-14 107.3
10 Lyell (Original Install) A SS Tieback to Ninian South CNR UK North Sea 146 479 15.0 9.3 1,100.0 166 18.0 261 1.60 40-70% Aker Solutions 1 Twin Screw Bornemann SMPC 9 Jan-06 Dec-06 11.0
11 Navajo (17) I, N ESP in Flowline Riser Anadarko GOM 1,110 3,642 7.2 4.5 24.0 4 40.2 583 0.75 57% Baker Hughes 1 ESP Baker Hughes Feb-07 1-Aug-07 5.5
12 Jubarte Field - Phase 1 A Seabed ESP-MOBO, Uses BCSS (14) Petrobras Espirito Santo Basin 1,350 4,429 4.0 2.5 120.0 18 138.0 2,002 0.90 10-40% FMC Technologies 1 ESP Schlumberger (REDA) Mar-07 Aug-07 5.0
13 Brenda & Nicol Fields O MultiManifold with 1 MPP Premier Oil UK North Sea 145 476 8.5 5.3 800.0 121 19.0 276 1.10 75% OneSubsea 1+1 Spare Helico-Axial OneSubsea Apr-07 1-Mar-14 82.4
14 King (7) (13) A SS Tieback to Marlin TLP Freeport McMoRan GOM, MC Blocks 1,700 5,578 29.0 18.0 496.5 75 50.0 725 1.30 0-95% Aker Solutions 2+1 Spare Twin-Screw Bornemann / Loher Nov-07 15-Feb-09 15.0
15 Vincent O Dual MPP System Woodside NW Shelf, Australia 475 1,558 3.0 1.9 2,400.0 363 42.0 609 1.80 25-70% OneSubsea 2+2 Spare Helico-Axial OneSubsea Aug-10 1-Mar-13 30.9
16 Marlim A SBMS-500 SS Field Test Petrobras Campos Basin 1,900 6,234 3.1 1.9 500.0 75 60.0 870 1.20 0-100% Curtiss-Wright / Cameron 1 Twin-Screw Leistritz 0.0
17 Golfinho Field I, N Seabed ESP-MOBO, Uses BCSS (14) Petrobras Espirito Santo Basin 1,350 4,429 146.0 22 138.0 2,002 1.10 10-40% FMC Technologies 2 ESP Baker Hughes (35) Mar-07 Aug-07 5.0
18 Azurite Field A Dual MPP System Murphy Oil Congo, W. Africa 1,338 4,390 3.0 1.9 350.0 53 41.0 595 0.85 28% OneSubsea 2+1 Spare Helico-Axial OneSubsea Sep-10 1-Oct-13 36.5
19 Golfinho Field I, N MOBO BCSS (ESP) Caissons (14) Petrobras Espirito Santo Basin 1,350 4,429 146.0 22 138.0 2,002 1.10 10-40% Aker Solutions 2 ESP Baker Hughes Mar-07 Aug-07 5.0
20 Espadarte (Field Trial) O Horizontal ESP on Skid Petrobras Brazil 1,350 4,429 11.5 7.1 125.0 19 100.0 1,450 0.90 10-40% FMC Technologies 2 ESP Baker Hughes Dec-11 Mar-13 14.5
21 Parque Das Conchas (BC 10) Phase 1 (23) O Caisson / Artifical Non-Separated Shell Campos Basin 2,150 7,054 9.0 5.6 185.0 28 152 2,205 1.10 40% FMC Technologies 2 ESP Baker Hughes Jul-09 1-Mar-14 55.4
22 Parque Das Conchas (BC-10) Phase 2 (23) M 2 additional ESP Systems Shell Campos Basin 2,150 7,054 9.0 5.6 185.0 28 152 2,205 1.10 40% FMC Technologies 2 ESP Baker Hughes
23 Jubarte Field - Phase 2 (25) I, N Tieback to FPSO P-57, Uses BCSS (14) Petrobras Espirito Santo Basin 1,400 4,593 8.0 5.0 1,325.0 200 200 3,000 1.20 30-40% Aker Solutions 15 ESP Schlumberger (REDA) 6-Dec-10 1-Mar-14 38.7
24 Cascade & Chinook (6) I, N Skid BCSS - Horizontal ESP on Skid Petrobras US GOM 2,484 8,150 8.0 5.0 135.0 20 220.0 3,191 1.10 10% FMC Technologies 4+2 Spare ESP Baker Hughes Q4 2013 0.0
25 Barracuda (32) O SS MP High Boost Pump System Petrobras Campos Basin 1,040 3,412 10.5 6.5 280.0 42 70.0 1,015 1.50 35-60% OneSubsea 1 Helico-Axial OneSubsea Jul-12 1-Mar-14 7.0
26 Montanazo & Lubina I, N Single MPP System Repsol Mediterranean 740 2,428 9.0 5.6 80.0 12 65.0 943 0.23 10% OneSubsea 2 Centrifugal (SPP) OneSubsea 2014
27 Schiehallion I, N 2 x Dual MPP Systems BP UK, West of Shetland 400 1,312 4.0 2.5 2,700.0 408 26.0 377 1.80 74% GE / OneSubsea 4+0 Spare Helico-Axial OneSubsea 2014 Delayed Start Up
28 CLOV (22) M Subsea MPP System TOTAL Angola, Blk 17 1,170 3,839 11.0 6.8 660.0 100 45.0 652 2.30 50% OneSubsea 2+1 Spare Helico-Axial OneSubsea Q3 2014
29 Jack & St. Malo M Full Wellstream subsea Boosting Chevron US GOM 2,134 7,000 21.0 13.0 1,191.0 180 241.3 3,500 3.00 10% OneSubsea 3+2 Spare Centrifugal (SPP) OneSubsea Q3-2014
30 Lyell Retrofit I, N MPP Retrofit System - Tieback to Ninian CNR UK North Sea 145 476 7.0 4.3 700.0 106 21.0 305 1.00 97% OneSubsea 1 Helico-Axial OneSubsea Q3 2012
31 GirRi (Girassol) (27) M Field Expansion Project Total Angola, Blk 17 1,350 4,429 18.0 11.2 600.0 91 130.0 1,885 2.50 20-50% OneSubsea 4+2 Spare Helico-Axial OneSubsea Q1 2015
32 Draugen Field M Brownfield Dual MPP System A/S Norske Shell Offshore Norway 268 879 4.0 2.5 1,710.0 253 47.5 689 2.30 10-31% OneSubsea 2 Helico-Axial OneSubsea Q3-2014
33 Julia M SS Tieback ExxonMobil US GOM 2,287 7,500 27.2 17.0 331 50 175.0 2,550 3.00 10% OneSubsea 2 Centrifugal (SPP) TBD Mid- 2016
34 Moho Phase 1bis M Brownfield Tieback to Alima FPU Total Congo, W. Africa 650 2,133 6.7 4.0 400 60 133.5 1,935 3.50 49% OneSubsea 2 Helico-Axial OneSubsea Q4 2015
35 Atlanta Field C Caisson Application QGEP (26) Santos Basin, Blk BS-4 1,500 4,922 TBD ESP 2015
36 Stones C Single Phase HPHT Pump System Shell US GOM 2,927 9,600 5.0 3.1 TBD TBD TBD TBD TBD <10% TBD 2 +1 Spare TBD TBD 2018
37 Parque Das Baleias M Skid BCSS - Horizontal ESP on Skid (14) Petrobras Espirito Santo Basin 1,500 4,922 10.0 6.2 125.0 19 100 1,450 1.10 10-25% FMC Technologies 3+1 Spare ESP Schlumberger (REDA) Q1 2015
S
U
B
S
E
A

W
A
T
E
R

IN
J
E
C
T
IO
N
1 Troll C Pilot (15) (21) O SUBSIS (SS Sep. and WI Sys.) NorskHydro AS Offshore Norway 340 1,116 3.5 2.2 250.0 38 151.0 2,190 1.60 0% GE / OneSubsea 1+1 Spare Centrifugal (SPP) OneSubsea Aug-01 1-Mar-14 149.9
2 Columba E. I, N Dual SPP System CNR North Sea 145 476 7.0 4.3 331.0 50 305.0 4,424 2.30 0% OneSubsea 2+0 Spare Centrifugal (SPP) OneSubsea May-07 1-Oct-13 76.4
3 Tordis (WI) O (12), Separation, Boosting, WI Statoil Offshore Norway 210 689 11.0 6.8 700.0 106 77.0 1,117 2.30 0% FMC Technologies 1+1 Spare SPP&MPP OneSubsea Oct-07 1-Mar-14 76.4
4 Tyrihans O SS Raw Sea WI System Statoil Offshore Norway 270 886 31.0 19.3 583.0 88 205.0 2,973 2.70 0% FMC / Aker Solutions 2+1 Spare Centrifugal (SPP) Aker Solutions 29-Nov-13 1-Mar-14 3.0
5 Albacora L'Este Field (33) I, N Raw Water Injection to 7 Wells Petrobras Campos Basin, Brazil 400 1,312 4 to 9 2.5-6.0 1125 170 85 1,233 1.2 0% OneSubsea 3+1 Spare Centrifugal (SPP) OneSubsea Q1 2013 0.0
S
U
B
S
E
A
S
E
P
A
R
A
T
IO
N
1 Zakum A Shallow Water Test Separation System BP Offshore Abu Dhabi 1969 1972 36
2 Highlander Field (34) A SS Separator / Slug Catcher Texaco UK North Sea 420 128
3 Argyll A SS Sep. and Pumping Unit (SSPU) Hamilton Bros UK North Sea BOET (30) 1989
4 Marimba Field (24) I, N VASPS Field Test Petrobras Campos Basin 395 1,296 1.7 1.1 60.0 9 52.0 754 0.3 Cameron 1 ESP Schlumberger (REDA) Jul-01 1-Jul-08 83.0
5 Troll C Pilot (15) (21) O Horizontal SUBSIS (SS Sep. & WI Sys.) Hydro (Statoil) Offshore Norway 340 1,116 3.5 2.2 250.0 38 151.0 2,190 1.60 0% GE / OneSubsea 1+1 Spare n/a OneSubsea Aug-01 1-Mar-14 149.9
6 Tordis O (12), Separation, Boosting, WI Statoil Offshore Norway 210 689 11.0 6.8 1,500.0 227 27.0 392 2.30 10-68% FMC Technologies 1+1 Spare Helico-Axial OneSubsea Oct-07 1-Mar-14 76.4
7 Parque Das Conchas (BC 10) Phase 1 (23) O Separation Caisson / Artifical Lift Manifold Shell Campos Basin 2,150 7,054 25.0 15.6 185.0 28 152.0 2,205 1.10 15% FMC Technologies 4(+2 Future?) ESP Baker Hughes Centrilift Aug-09 1-Mar-14 54.4
8 Perdido O Caisson Separation and Boosting Shell GOM 2,438 7,999 0.0 0.0 132-264 20 - 40 158.8 2,303 1.20 15% FMC Technologies 5 ESP Baker Hughes Centrilift Mar-10 1-Mar-14 47.9
9 Pazflor O 3 Gas/Liquid Vertical Separation System Total Angola, Blk 17 800 2,625 4.0 2.5 1,800.0 272 105.0 1,523 2.30 <16% FMC Technologies 6+2 Spare Hybrid H-A OneSubsea Aug-11 1-Mar-14 30.0
10 Marlim SSAO - Pilot O In-Line Separation Petrobras Campos Basin 878 2,881 3.8 2.4 135.0 20 245 3,553 1.9 67% FMC Technologies 1 Centrifugal (SPP) OneSubsea Mar-13 1-Mar-14 11.0
11 Congro (29) CP VASPS with Horizontal ESP Petrobras Campos Basin 197 646 11.0 7.0 135.0 20 21 305 0.4 <10% FMC Technologies 2 ESP Baker Hughes Centrilift
12 Parque Das Conchas (BC 10) Phase 2 (23) M 2 additional ESP systems Shell Campos Basin 2,150 7,054 25.0 15.6 185.0 28 152.0 2,205 1.10 15% FMC Technologies 2 ESP Baker Hughes Centrilift
13 Canapu M In-Line Separation by Twister BV Petrobras Espirito Santo Basin 1,700 5,579
14 Corvina (29) M VASPS w/Horizontal ESP Petrobras Campos Basin 280 919 8.0 5.0 135.0 20 21 305 0.4 <10% FMC Technologies 1 ESP Baker Hughes Centrilift
CURRENT STATUS CATEGORIES
C Conceptual Project
Q Qualified/Testing
M Awarded and in Manufacturing or Delivered
O Installed & Currently Operating
I,N Installed & Not Currently Operating or In-Active
A Abandoned, Removed
CP Canceled Project
NOTES:
1. Qualification Status - See information accuracy statement below title block and note that the qualification
status categorizations shown in this table, and throughout the poster, are based on unverified claims from
equipment suppliers and field operators. These qualification status designations are not necessarily derived
using technology readiness level (TRL) assessments per API RP 17Q or DNV-RP-A203.
2. Pumping & Boosting: The terms Pumping and Boosting are used interchangeably throughout this poster
and in the industry.
3. Unit Motor Power: Is the unit motor power for either a pump or compressor motor.
4. Differential Pressure: Differential Pressure values are for individual pumps.
5. GVF = Gas Volume Fraction at inlet of pump.
6. Cascade & Chinook - Utilizes horizontal ESPs on a skid above mudline. It is an alternative ESP boosting
configuration to caisson in the seabed. This technology is designed to cover the low GVF and high DeltaP
multiphase flow. Pump cartridge successfully installed Q4 2013.
7. King Field: Power cables are incorporated within the service umbilical.
8. Nuovo Pignone is now part of GE.
9. Lufeng 22/1: Low wellhead pressure of 100 psig at seabed dictated that artificial lift was required. System
has now been decomissioned due to field abandonment.
10. VASPS - Vertical Annular Separation and Pumping System
11. START: Month & Year indicates first month and year of operation for the SS processing system.
12. Tordis Field: 1+1 Spare Multiphase Boosting Pumps, and 1+1 Spare Water Injection Pumps; Tieback to
Gullfaks C platform. Statoil hopes to increase oil recovery from 49% to 55%, an additional 36 MMBO, due to
the world's first commercial subsea separation, boosting, injection and solids disposal system.
13. King Field: Is a subsea tieback to the Marlin TLP. In 2012, BP sold the field to Plains Exploration and
Production. McMoran Freeport later purchased the field. Pumps remain shut-in due to operational issues.
The company is reportedly considering to redo the boosting system.
14. BCSS - Centrifugal Subsea Submersible Pumps. Pumps are placed in protective holes in the seabed, 200m
from producing wells. MOBO - Modulo de Bombas (Pumping Module)
15. Troll C Pilot: SUBSIS - The world's longest operating subsea separation system and first subsea water
injection pump system.
16. Mutineer/Exeter Projects: Manufacturers are: OneSubsea and Centrilift. There are 2 ESPs per well feeding
one OneSubsea MPP per asset on seafloor.
17. Navajo Field: Is a Subsea tieback to Anadarko's Nansen spar.
18. BH Centrilift = Baker Hughes Centrilift
19. LUFENG - Closed down due to field economics, after 11 years of operation.
20. PREZIOSO - World's first deployment of an electrically driven twin screw MPP operating on a live well.
Testing occurred in 1994 and 1995 for a total of 7,850 hours of operation at base of platform on seafloor.
21. Troll C Pilot - Separation began on Aug. 25, 2001. See OTC paper 20619, page 10 for further details on
operating experience. Note that injection pump data is only shown in the subsea water injection section
of the table.
22. CLOV - Total reports that the CLOV development will utilize seabed multiphase pumps to boost Cravo, Lirio,
Orquidea and Violeta Miocene from First Oil + 2 years
23. Parque Das Conchas (BC 10) Phase 1 - Composed of 3 reservoirs: Ostra, Abalone and Argonauta B-West.
Argonauta O-North to be added in Phase 2.
24. Marimba VASPS - 2000 - First installation in Marimba (JIP Petrobras / Eni-Agip/ ExxonMobil, 2001 - Startup
and Operation (July to Dec.) until ESP failure, 2002 End of JIP, By-pass production, 2003 - Workover Plan,
2004 - Workover and Re-start on May 8, 2004. From 2005 until 2008 VASPS operated ok until well failure.
25. Jubarte Field (Phase 2) - Was installed in 2011. Wells were connected to the FPSO P-57. All wells will have
gas-lift as a backup.
26. QGEP - Queiroz Galvao Exploracao e Producao
27. Girassol Field Pumping System - for the Girassol Resources Initiatives (GirRI)
28. Gullfaks South Brent - According to Statoil the SS wet gas compression will increase recovery from the
reservoir by 22 million barrels of oil equivalent.
29. Canceled Project - Petrobras has determined Congro and Corvina are not commercially feasible.
30. BOET - British Offshore Engineering Technology
31. Perdido - Cassion for separation is 350 feet long drilled into the seabed. Read OTC Paper 21716.
32. Barracuda - Ref. 2013 OTC Paper 24217 for additional information about the MPP.
33. Albacora Field - Ref. 2013 OTC Paper 24167
34. Highlander Field - SS Tieback to the Tartan Field which has a SS separator/slug catcher installed for the
tie-in to the Tartan Platform
35. Petrobras is changing ESP supplier from Baker Hughes to Schlumberger (REDA) in Q4 2014.
REPRESENTATIVE SUBSEA POWER & PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY ATTRIBUTES (CURRENT AND UNDER DEVELOPMENT)
Table 4.8: Raw Seawater Injection Technology
Filter, Treat, & Boost Raw Seawater Subsea for Injection
Attribute Installed or Qualified To be Qualified within 5 yrs.
Water Depth 400 m (1,312 ft) 3,048 m (10,000 ft)
Shut-in Pressure Rating 5,000 psi (345 bar) 15,000 psi (1,035 bar)
System Flow Rate 88 MBOPD 150 MBOPD
Pump Differential Pressure (ea) 3,000 psi (205 bar) 4,500 psi (310 bar)
Unit Motor Power 2.5 MW 6.0 MW
Nominal Voltage 6.6 kV 6.6 kV
Water Quality 35-50 micron 5-10 micron
Key Elements in Current Development
& Qualification Projects
Enhanced Inlet Water Conditioning & Treatment / Higher Current & Power Penetrator /
Enhanced Motor and Pump Capabilities / Series Pumps for > Injection Pressure / Depth
Future Technology Enhancements
Salinity Reduction & Micro-Filtration (To Limit Reservoir Degradation Due to Injection) /
Higher Power Rating & P Capabilities / Enhanced Condition & Process Monitoring
Table 4.6: Power System Technology - Type 3
Extending Topside ASD Step Out by Increasing SS Umbilical Transmission Voltage
(See Table 5 for Detail)
Attribute Installed or Qualified To be Qualified within 5 yrs.
Water Depth 900 m (2.952 ft) 3,048 m (10,000 ft)
Tieback Distance 120 km (75 miles) 160 km (100 miles)
Power Rating 25 MW 70 MW
Distribution (Input) Voltage 145 kV 36 - 145 kV
Distribution Switchgear Voltage 36 kV 36 kV
Utilization (Output) Voltage 6.6 kV 6.6 kV
Key Elements in Current Development
& Qualification Projects
Integration of Subsea Elements: Switchgear / ASD with Integral
Transformer / Wet Mate Connectors + AC Umbilicals
Future Technology Enhancements
Enhancement for Power & Depth for HV Wet Mate Connectors /
Power Distribution System Surveillance
Table 4.4: Power System Technology - Type 2
Extending Topside ASD Step Out By Increasing SS Umbilical Transmission Voltage (See Table 5 for Detail)
Attribute Installed or Qualified To be Qualified within 5 yrs.
Depth Classification Ultra Deep Water Shallow Water Ultra Deep Water
Water Depth 2,439 m (8,000 ft) 300 m / (984 ft) 3,048 m (10,000 ft)
Tieback Distance 21 km (13 miles) 43 km (29 miles) 60 km (37 miles)
Power Rating per Motor 3.0 MW 11.5 MW 12.5 MW
Primary Voltage 36 kV 36 kV 36 kV
Secondary Voltage 6.6 kV 6.6 kV 6.6 kV
Key Elements in Current Development
& Qualification Projects
Transformer Marinization / High Resistance Grounding / Wet Mate Connectors for
Combination of Deep Water & High Current / AC Umbilical
Future Technology Enhancements
Higher Power Rating & Robustness of Primary Side Wet Mate Connectors / Power
Distribution System Surveillance
Table 4.2: Power System Technology - Type 1
Topside ASD with No Transformer to Subsea Motor (See Table 5 for Detail)
Attribute Installed or Qualified To be Qualified within 5 yrs.
Water Depth 1,700 m (5,576 ft) 2,485 m (8,150 ft)
Tieback Distance 29 km (18 miles) 15 km / 9.3 miles)
Power Rating per Motor 2.3 MW 4 MW
Nominal Voltage 6.6 kV 6.6 kV
Key Elements in Current Development
& Qualification Projects
Wet Mate Connectors / AC Umbilical
Future Technology Enhancements Power Distribution System Surveillance
Table 4.7: Three Phase Separation Technology
Raw Wellstream, Gas or Oil Service
Attribute Installed or Qualified To be Qualified within 5 yrs.
Water Depth 878 m (2,881 ft) 3,048 m (10,000 ft)
Shut-in Pressure Rating 5,000 psi (345 bar) 15,000 psi (1,035 bar)
System Capacity (Flow Rate) 20 MBOPD As Required for Duty
Target LVF in Gas at Outlet TBD < 2%
Target GVF in Oil or Water 10 - 15% < 10%
Outlet Oil in (Injection) Water TBD ppm TBD ppm
Booster Power (O/G/W) 1.9 MW As Required for Duty
Separation System Type Compact Separation - Modular
Key Elements in Current Development
& Qualification Projects
Proven Separation Effectiveness of Raw Wellstream / Turn
Down / Vessel Integrity / Control Logic with Pumps and / or
Compressor / Real Time Process Monitoring
Future Technology Enhancements
Wide Separator Operating Range and Separation Effectiveness
Especially at Turn Down Rates / Enhanced Process and Booster
Control Logic & Surveillance
Table 4.5: Two Phase Separation Technology
Raw Wellstream, Gas / Liquid Separation With Liquid Boosting
Attribute Installed or Qualified To be Qualified within 5 yrs.
Water Depth 2,439 m (7,999 ft) 3,048 m (10,000 ft)
Shut-in Pressure Rating 5,000 psi (345 bar) 15,000 psi (1,035 bar)
System Capacity (Flow Rate) 30 MBOPD As Required for Duty (See Table 4.3)
Boosting Differential Pressure 1,305 psi (90 bar) As Required for Duty (See Table 4.3)
Target GVF at Liquid Booster Inlet < 15% 10-15%
Unit Motor Power 1.1 MW As Required for Duty (See Table 4.3)
Separation System Type Compact Separation - Modular
Key Elements in Current Development
& Qualification Projects
Proven Separation Effectiveness of Raw Wellstream / Turn Down
/ Vessel Integrity / Control Logic with Pump and / or Compressor
/ Robust Process Monitoring
Future Technology Enhancements
Wide Separator Operating Range and Separation Effettiveness
Especially at Turn Down Rates / Enhanced Process and Booster
Control Logic Monitoring
Table 4.3: Subsea Boosting Technology
Single Phase or Multi Phase Pump
Attribute Installed or Qualified To be Qualified within 5 yrs.
Pump Classification Single Phase Multi Phase Single Phase Multi Phase
Water Depth 2,439 m (8,000 ft) 1,350 m (4,428 ft) 3,048 m (10,000 ft) 3,048 m (10,000 ft)
Shut-in Pressure Rating 13,000 psi (897 bar) 5,000 psi (345 bar) 15,000 psi (1034 bar) 15,000 psi (1034 bar)
Pump Flow Rate (Nominal) 60,000 MBOPD 40,000 MBOPD 75,000 MBOPD 60,000 MBOPD
Differential Pressure (Nominal) 3,700 psi (225 bar) 1,885 psi (130 bar) 4,500 psi (310 bar) 2,320 psi (160 bar)
GVF Range at Inlet 10 - 15% 0 - 90% 10 - 15 % 0 - 90%
Unit Motor Power 3.0 MW 2.5 MW 5.0 - 6.0 MW 5.0 - 6.0 MW
Nominal Voltage 6.6 kV 6.6 kV 6.6 kV 6.6 kV
Key Elements in Current Development
& Qualification Projects
Higher Power & Depth Rating of Penetrators & Wet Mates / 5-6 MW Motors / Permanent Magnet Motors
/ Alternate Barrier Fluid / 15 ksi Housings / High Rate & Head Multiphase Stages / Marinized Condition
Monitoring Equipment / Higher Operating Speed
Future Technology Enhancements
Higher Power & Depth Rating of Penetrators & Wet Mates / Higher Motor Power / High Rate & Head Single
Phase & Multiphase Stages / Enhanced Condition Monitoring Systems / >15 ksi System Rating
Table 4.1: Gas Compression Technology
Liquid Tolerant Compression - Raw Wellstream, Wet Gas Service
Attribute Installed or Qualified To be Qualified within 5 yrs.
Water Depth 914 m (3,000 ft) 1,024 m (5,000 ft)
Shut-in Pressure Rating 3,190 psi (220 bar) 7,500 psi (517 bar)
System Flow Rate 500 MMscf/d (14 Msm3/sd) 500 MMscf/d (14 Msm3/d)
Pressure Ratio 4 6
GVF at Inlet > 97 % < 95 %
Unit Motor Power 12.5 MW 12.5 MW
Nominal Voltage 6.6 kV 6.6 kV
Stage Type Liquid Tolerant Centrifugal
Key Elements in Current Development
& Qualification Projects
Enhancing Liquid Tolerance & System Robustness for Raw Gas
/ Active Magnetic Bearing & Anti Surge Marinization / Increased
Depth for Wet Mate Connectors / Pressure Ratio
Future Technology Enhancements
Depth and Power Capabilities of Power Penetrators & Wet
Mates / Supporting Process System Simplification / Enhanced
Condition Monitoring
COURTESY OF
COLOR CODE
Installed
Qualified
Manufactured
Proposed
1403OFFSubseaPoster_1 1 2/28/14 5:09 PM

BUSI NESS BRI EFS
70 Of fshore March 2014 t www.offshore-mag.com
People
Elisse B. Walter, former chairman of the
US Securities and Exchange Commission, has
been elected to Occidental Petroleum Corp.s
board of directors.
Nautronix has appointed Donald Thomson
as vice president sales, commercial acoustics,
and Bob Barrett as global sales manager
NASNet.
Glacier Energy Services has appointed
Mike Straughen as a non-executive director.
EnQuest has appointed Neil McCulloch as
president, North Sea.
Somesh Singh has joined Paradigm as
chief product offcer.
ONGC has appointed Tapas Kumar Sen-
gupta as director (offshore).
Ashtead Technology has
appointed Wendy Lee as
regional general manager in
Singapore and Paul Mor-
rison as key account manager
in Aberdeen, UK.
Seatronics has promoted
Phil Middleton to deputy
managing director based in the Aberdeen
offce.
STATS Group has promoted Dave Vernon
to director of isolation services and promoted
Dale Millward to director of emergency pipe-
line repair systems and subsea
services.
HB Rentals has named
Kristian Magar as director of
health, safety, and environ-
ment.
LDD has appointed James
McGovan as vice president
sales and marketing.
dGB Earth Sciences has appointed Arnaud
Huck as chief geoscientist and Nanne Hems-
tra as executive vice president for Brazil.
Sparrows has appointed Stewart Mitchell
as CEO.
iSURVEY Offshore Ltd. has appointed
Andrew McMurtrie as managing director.
Aker Arctic Technology Inc. has elected
Ole Johansson as chairman of the board of
directors and Juha Marjosola as vice-chair-
man of the board. The company has appointed
Reko-Antti Suojanen as managing director.
Bowtech Products Ltd. has appointed Colin
Main as sales manager - sub-
sea connections.
Andrew Bridges has
joined Enteq Upstream as
head of engineering.
Aquatic Asia Pacifc Pte.
Ltd. has appointed Nicholas
Dale as regional manager,
Asia/Pacifc.
Kenneth A. Pontarelli and Peter R.
Coneway have resigned from Cobalt Interna-
tional Energys board of directors.
WEG has appointed
Andrew Glover as European
and Middle East low voltage
motors product manager.
Quickfange UK general
manager Pamela Ogilvie has
been elected to the board of
directors of Decom North
Sea. She is the frst female to
be elected to the board.
Robert Conners has joined
Prysmian Group as head of
the subsea umbilicals, risers,
and fowlines business unit.
Total has appointed
Maarten Scholten as senior
vice president, general coun-
sel.
PMI Industries has promoted Jay Marino
to laboratory manager.
Det norske oljeselskap has appointed Gro
G. Haatvedt as senior vice president explora-
tion.
Tendeka has promoted An-
nabel Green to vice president
of strategy and marketing.
Marathon Oil Corp. has
elected Deanna L. Jones
as vice president of human
resources and administrative
services.
Pulse Structural Monitoring
has appointed Mike Campbell as operations
director. Based in the UK, he will lead the pro-
duction, project management,
and offshore departments.
Markel International has
promoted Li Shengnan to
head the offshore energy
team in Singapore, and has
appointed Kelvin Lee as as-
sistant manager, fnance and
operations.
Andy Brown has taken medical leave.
Maarten Wetselaar will serve as acting
upstream international director, in addition to
carrying out his regular duties as executive
vice president integrated gas.
Company News
GE Oil & Gas has agreed to acquire Cam-
erons Reciprocating Compression division for
$550 million.
Aker Solutions has completed the sale of
its mooring and loading systems business to
Cargotec for an enterprise value of NOK 1.4
billion ($231 million).
Specialist recruitment agency for the oil
and gas industry, Oil Consultants Ltd., has
opened an offce in Dubai.
Artifcial Lift Co. has moved its headquar-
ters from Great Yarmouth, UK, to Houston.
Situated in the Westchase District near the
Energy Corridor, the companys offces and
warehouse total 28,000 sq ft (2,600 sq m) with
40 employees based at the location. The head-
quarters consist of engineering, manufactur-
ing, operations, and general support services.
SpeedCast has opened new facilities in
Perth, Australia.
dGB Earth Sciences has opened an offce
in Rio de Janeiro.
Newpark Resources Inc. has agreed to
sell its Environmental Services business to
ECOSERV, part of Lariat Partners, for $100
million.
Suretank has entered into a formal agree-
ment with long-term Dutch partner Stain-
less Equipment Works to launch Suretank
Netherlands. The new partnership will act
as an agent for Suretank providing engineer-
ing and sales support to strengthen Sure-
tanks market position in the Dutch offshore
industry.
Jacobs Engineering Group Inc. has
acquired Eagleton Engineering.
Offshore marine and engineering consul-
tancy Aqualis Offshore has opened an offce
in Bahrain.
Great Yarmouth, UK-based Sonar Equip-
ment Services has changed its name to
Subsea Technology & Rentals.
Fendercare Marine Middle East has
opened new premises in Sharjah, UAE. The
new base will provide products including
fendering, buoyancy, mooring, quayside and
deck equipment, and a new range of lifting and
testing services, diving and ROV, single-point
mooring maintenance, and hose testing.
The University of Texas at Austin De-
partment of Petroleum and Geosystems
Engineering has opened three new state-of-
the-art laboratories that will advance energy
research and transform how students learn
about drilling for oil and gas. The three labs
include the Real-time Operations Center, the
Drilling Automation Lab, and the Zonal Isola-
tion Lab. Baker Hughes donated $1.7 million
to the university.
2H Offshore has opened a newly refur-
bished 16,547-sq ft (1,537-sq m) offce in
Woking, Surrey.
Atlas Copco Air & Gas Purifcation
has inaugurated its new production facility
in Oosterhout, the Netherlands. The facility
will provide custom engineered solutions for
air and gas purifcation systems and biogas
upgrading.
MicroSeismic has purchased the US assets
of Reservoir Imaging Inc. The acquisition
includes geospace equipment, wireline units,
and equipment for downhole microseismic
data acquisition services.
Prysmian Group has established a new
headquarters in Houston for its subsea umbili-
cals, risers, and fowlines business.
EV has opened an offce in Perth, Australia.
Lee
Glover
Ogilvie
Green
Shengnan
Magar
Bridges
1403OFF_70 70 2/28/14 5:02 PM
PENNWELL PETROLEUM GROUP
1455 West Loop South, Suite 400, Houston, TX 77027
FhhL +1 718 6Z1 97Z0 FkX +1 718 968 6ZZ8
David Davis (Worldwide Sales Manager)
davidd@pennwell.com
Shelley Cohen (Regional Sales Manager)
shelleyc@pennwell.com
Grace Jordan (Classified Sales) gracej@pennwell.com
GREATER HOUSTON AREA, TX
David Davis davidd@pennwell.com
64" t $"/"%"
Shelley Cohen shelleyc@pennwell.com
8"4)*/(50/ t 03&(0/ t $"-*'03/*"
Mary Sumner marys@pennwell.com
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FhhL +44 1984 788871
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SALES OFFICES
A
Aker Solutions
...................................... 11
www.akersolutions.com
ASME / UH Crawfish Boil
..................... 46
B
Baker Hughes
...................................... C2
www.bakerhughes.com
Bentley Systems
................................... 65
www.bentley.com
Bluebeam Software, Inc.
........................ 7
www.bluebeam.com
Bredero Shaw
.......................................... 9
brederoshaw.com
Brunswick Commercial &
Government Products
.......................... 44
brunswickcgp.com
C
Cameron
................................................ 13
www.c-a-m.com
CGG Services US, Inc. ......................... 31
www.cgg.com
CUDD Energy Services .................. 10, 23
www.cudd.com
D
Deep Down, Inc. ...................................... 6
www.deepdowninc.com
Dreger .................................................. 59
www.draeger.com
Dril-Quip .................................................. 1
www.dril-quip.com
E
Elettrotek Kabel S.p.A.
......................... 47
www.elettrotekkabel.com
F
FMC Technologies
............................... C4
www.fmctechnologies.com
I
INTECSEA
............................................. 61
www.intecsea.com
IPLOCA
.................................................. 34
www.iploca.com
J
JD Neuhaus Group
............................... 29
www.jdngroup.com
K
Karmsund Maritime Offshore
Supply
....................................................16
www.kamos.no
KBC Advanced Technologies
..............69
www.kbcat.com
Kobelco / Kobe Steel, Ltd.
....................43
www.kobelcocompressors.com
L
Lincoln Electric ..................................... 35
www.lincolnelectric.com
M
M-I SWACO .............................................. 3
www.miswaco.com
Magnetrol .............................................. 49
www.magnetrol.com
N
National Oilwell Varco. .......................... 27
www.nov.com
Nylacast. ................................................ 18
www.nylacast.com
O
Oceanic Marine Contractors ................ 15
www.oceanicmc.com
OneSubsea ............................................ 25
www.onesubsea.com
P
PennWell
Deep Offshore Technology
Conference & Exhibition .................33
www.deepoffshoretechnology.com
Offshore Group .......................... 36-37
www.offshore-mag.com
PNEC Conferences ..........................17
www.pnecconferences.com
PH Industrie-Hydraulik
Gmbh & Co. KG..................................... 19
www.ph-hydraulik.de
Polarcus ................................................. 63
www.polarcus.com
S
S. Himmelstein and Company ............. 41
www.himmelstein.com
SERCEL ................................................. 51
www.sercel.com
Spectrum GEO, Inc. ..............................39
www.spectrumasa.com
Supreme Services ................................40
www.supremeservices.com
T
T.D. Williamson, Inc. ............................. C3
www.tdwilliamson.com
TOTAL SA .............................................. 21
www.total.com
V
Van Oord Offshore B.V. ........................ 45
www.vanoord.com
W
W&O Supply .......................................... 41
wosupply.com
Weatherford ............................................. 5
weatherford.com
The index of page numbers is provided as
a service. The publisher does not assume
any liability for error or omission.
"%7&35*4&34 */%&9
1403OFF_rev_71 71 3/5/14 9:09 AM
This page refects viewpoints on the political, economic, cultural, technological, and environmental issues that shape the future of the petroleum industry. Offshore
Magazine invites you to share your thoughts. Email your Beyond the Horizon manuscript to David Paganie at davidp@pennwell.com.
72 Of fshore March 2014 t www.offshore-mag.com
BEYOND THE HORI ZON
Who are the natural owners of maturing offshore assets in the
UK North Sea? It has become an increasingly pertinent question,
and one that is central to helping to create a sustainable, long-term
future for the province.
One of the characteristics of a maturing basin is that the chal-
lenges get bigger while the prizes become smaller. The last barrel
of oil is the hardest to produce. It therefore takes a huge amount of
focus, energy, commitment, vision, and technical expertise to suc-
cessfully manage maturing assets.
The largest operators certainly possess those qualities but it can
be diffcult for late-life assets to compete for these companies re-
sources with many other opportunities elsewhere on the agenda.
A vicious circle can develop as neglect of the facilities increasingly
diminishes prospects of attracting the fresh investment that they
need.
When considering natural ownership, materiality is the key. If
an asset is material to the owner it will receive maximum attention,
creating a virtuous circle of investment and prolonged production
life.
Thistle, northeast of the Shetland Islands, is a textbook case of the
virtuous circle in action. The feld was frst developed in the 1970s,
but by 2009 was struggling to produce 2,000 b/d. The turnaround
program that followed under new ownership paid huge dividends.
By last summer, it was recording the highest production levels since
the 1990s.
If EnQuest had done nothing with Thistle after acquiring it in
2010 -- when the infrastructure was aging to the point where produc-
tion may have stopped -- it would potentially have been abandoned
by now. It is a similar story for some of the companys other assets
in the region such as Heather and the Dons felds.
Reinstating the platform rig allowed EnQuest to drill the felds
frst new wells in 20 years. Furthermore, a series of modifcations
and upgrades as part of the companys Late Life Extension project
will secure the future of the Thistle platform to 2025 and beyond.
The UK governments brownfeld tax allowance, one of a series
of new measures designed to stimulate North Sea investment, has
helped the company to execute this program, in the process real-
izing reserves of 35 MMboe. The goals include simplifying and
streamlining the Thistle process to create a safe and reliable pro-
duction environment. The project calls for a major power upgrade
featuring the installation of a 30-MW power generation turbine, a
new process control safety system, and topsides integrity work to
ensure the platforms long-term future.
There are tremendous opportunities in the North Sea but the as-
sets must be in the hands of the right companies with the capability
and the determination to invest time, effort, and money to make the
most of these prospects.
As Sir Ian Wood, who recently led a major independent review of
the UK North Sea oil and gas industry, pointed out, UK production
could increase substantially over the coming years if major changes
are made to how the oil and gas sector operates. If these changes are
not made, he warned, Britain could fail to recover even a fraction of
the remaining oil and miss out on a 200-billion ($333-billion) injec-
tion to the economy.
EnQuests approach to maximizing oil recovery from mature as-
sets was underpinned by a recent report by Oil & Gas UKs produc-
tion effciency taskforce. The report showed that during 2010-2012,
the companys operations exceeded the taskforces ambitious target
of 80% production effciency and that last year, it had moved into the
top quartile of production effciency performance of all companies
on the UK continental shelf.
The North Sea will continue to witness a strategic trend of matur-
ing assets moving from the global major operators to independents.
This process is also evident in more mature provinces such as on-
shore US, where more and more assets are in the hands of smaller
companies.
This shift is a natural progression - to use a wildlife analogy, a lion
may make the kill and eat its fll, but there is still a viable meal there
for others. It is essential, however, that current owners do not run
maturing assets into the ground before moving them on. The in-
dustry has to have a regulatory framework that protects assets and
helps them move into the hands of companies that are committed to
investing in maximizing recovery.
John Cowie
Area Manager-Northern North Sea
EnQuest
New life for North Sea fields
under new management
1403OFF_72 72 2/28/14 5:02 PM
Quality runs deep.
Remote operation enables subsea
access, reduces diver dependency
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Compact and lightweight for
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To learn more about the Subsea 1200RC Tapping Machine or our
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1403OFF_C3 3 2/28/14 5:03 PM
Copyright FMC Technologies, Inc. Bll Rights Reserved.
www.fmctechnologies.com
FMC Technologies is rapidly expand-
ing its subsea services to provide
the tools, vessels and technological
expertise you need to maintain high
production levels for the life of your
eld. That includes installation, asset
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1403OFF_C4 4 2/28/14 5:03 PM
Energy
Abundance
Securing Australias
petroleum resources
SUPPLEMENT TO

140303OGJBHP_C1 1 2/14/14 3:12 PM


Contents
2 Home Team Advantage
4 Macedon
8 Good Neighbors
13 The North West Cape
17 Minerva
18 Other Joint Ventures
20 Just Ahead
22 Company Profiles
Energy
Abundance
Securing Australias
petroleum resources
140303OGJBHP_C2 2 2/14/14 3:12 PM
Australia has the enviable
position of being self-
suffcient in natural gas as
well as being a signifcant oil
producer, and BHP Billiton
has played a major part in
making it so. Our goal now is
to wisely steward Australias
rich petroleum reserves, to
develop the countrys energy
potential well into the future.
TIM CUTT
PRESIDENT, PETROLEUM AND POTASH
BHP BILLITON
140303OGJBHP_1 1 2/14/14 3:12 PM
BHP Billiton
|
Energy Abundance 2
Home Team Advantage
BHP Billiton is Australias largest producer
of oil, and the nations main provider of natural
gas for domestic use.
BHP Billiton owns or operates major oil and gas projects on fve
continents. Within the companylong known for its strength in the
minerals mining sectorPetroleum now delivers about one third of
BHP Billitons annual income. Australia accounted for 60 percent of
the companys total oil and gas production in 2013. That same year,
the Energy Intelligence Group ranked BHP Billiton among the worlds
largest private-sector petroleum companies.
At home, BHP Billiton is Australias largest producer of oil, and
the nations main provider of natural gas for domestic use.
Through projects such as the US$1.5 billion Macedon domestic gas
development, facility expansions in Bass Strait and the North West
Shelf, and exploration offshore Western Australia, the company will
continue to deliver reliable, affordable and sustainable energy for
decades to come.
Aussie Oil
Oil was produced for the frst time in Australia in 1869, but for the
next 96 years, no one found enough of it to develop a signifcant
petroleum industry. As the global reliance on oil continued to rise
in the frst half of the 20th century, Australias economy suffered
for the lack of it. In the early days, most of the countrys refned
products came from the United States, but when the Suez Canal
crisis erupted in 1956 and dragged into 1957, refned products
became even harder to get.
Although BHP had a sprinkling of oil and gas wells in Australia,
the portfolio was not a signifcant part of the mining companys
business. The Petroleum side of BHP Billiton was founded in 1961
as BHP Petroleum. Its urgent mission was to explore for and develop
domestic petroleum.
The Petroleum side of
BHP Billiton was founded
in 1961 as BHP Petroleum.
Its urgent mission was to
explore for and develop
domestic petroleum.
RIGHT: Todd Lee, general manager of the Australia Production
Unit for BHP Billiton Petroleum.
140303OGJBHP_2 2 2/14/14 3:12 PM
BHP Billiton
|
Energy Abundance 3
BHPs petroleum business took off in 1965 with the frst oil discovery
drilled in Bass Strait. It was a career milestone for the American
geologist Lewis Weeks and the famboyant Australian geology
professor Samuel Carey, who collaborated with Weeks on the fnd.
Far beyond that, fnding oil and gas in Bass Strait was a turning
point for Australias economy.
That 1965 discovery off the Gippsland coast created a critical
mass for Australias oil industry, says Todd Lee, general manager,
Australia, for BHP Billiton Petroleum.
By 1967, a quick succession of discoveries by BHP and its venture
partner, Esso Australia, had identifed enough crude in Bass Strait
to make the country 70 percent self-suffcient in oil. Recovering
it pushed the limits of existing offshore technology, yet drilling
continued. The pace of innovation increased dramatically, laying the
foundation for Australias modern petroleum industry.
BHP Petroleum was the frst to deploy a foating production,
storage and offoading vessel (FPSO) in Australia, Lee says.
We introduced FPSO technology in the Timor Sea, and that
experience shows. Today, many operators use them, and
BHP Billitons record run-times for its FPSOs leads the industry.
The second big boost to Australias energy future was a series of
offshore discoveries in what became known as the North West Shelf
(NWS), Australias largest oil and gas development. BHP Petroleums
involvement in the NWS began in 1976. Since NWS exploration
began, the venture partners have spent more than US$27 billion on
offshore platforms, subsea wells, pipelines and onshore processing
facilities. Exploration and development continues to extend the lives
of the felds.
With Room to Grow
The Brookfeld Place offce building in Perth is the headquarters for
BHP Billiton Petroleum in Australia, and the global headquarters for
BHP Billitons Iron Ore business. It houses almost 3,500 employees.
The billion-dollar multiplex, completed in 2012, earned Green Stars
rare 6-star rating for energy effciency and sustainable design.
Green Star is a voluntary rating system to evaluate the design and
construction of new buildings. The Perth offce is the nerve center
for the companys Macedon, Pyrenees, Stybarrow, Minerva, NWS
and Bass Strait projects featured in the following pages.
ABOVE: BHP Billiton Petroleum operates or is a partner in all of Australias major oil and gas regions.
1 Macedon (71.43%)
A domestic gas development with a stand-alone
gas plant. First production achieved in August 2013.
2 Pyrenees Venture (4071.4%)
An FPSO facility producing oil from the
Crosby, Stickle and Ravenworth felds.
3 Stybarrow Venture (50%)
An FPSO facility producing oil from the
Stybarrow and Eskdale felds.
4 Minerva (90%)
An offshore gas feld and onshore plant
producing gas and condensate.
5 North West Shelf (8.316.7%)
Supplies oil and gas to Australian and international markets.
6 Bass Strait (50%)
20 producing oil and gas felds with 21 offshore structures.
3
2
1
4
5
6
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Energy Abundance 4
Macedon
the economics of the project were
tight. We knew that if we didnt develop
it then, we might not do it at all.
At the beginning of 2008, Macedon was still working its way up
BHP Billitons queue of potential developments, but it was not yet
the highest priority. Gas from the Macedon feld was of slightly
lower heating value than was approved for sale on the open market.
Upgrading the gas, while technically possible, would have cost more
than the gas was worth. Instead, Macedons production could simply
be added to the higher quality gas already in the pipeline, so that
the blended mix would still meet specifcations. One delay was the
legal limit on the amount of broad specifcation gas that could be
put into the states main pipeline system. Lawmakers feared that an
inadvertent slug of lower quality gas could cause older appliances
such as home water heaters and stoves to malfunction.
Things changed suddenly in 2008 when a serious industrial accident
and subsequent emergency legislation pushed the Macedon project
to the head of the line. In early June of that year, an aging methane
pipeline ruptured on Varanus Island. No one was injured, but
the resulting explosion and fre knocked out nearly 35 percent of
Western Australias supply of natural gas. Within days, businesses
were curtailing operations or closing altogether. Ministers pleaded
with citizens to voluntarily conserve power to avoid mandatory cuts.
They did, but for a time the Perth skyline went dark.
The incident highlighted the need for a more secure supply of
domestic natural gas, said Garry Walker, Macedon project director,
who led the Macedon development project through the summer of
2013. We were already working with regulators to convince them
to blend the broad specifcation gas, because upgrading it frst
would be too expensive. They quickly passed new laws to allow it,
and that meant we could proceed. It was a key piece of legislation.
We made a 130 million-dollar commitment prior to sanctioning,
Walker explained. That was quite unusual, but we had to move
quickly. We had a rig available from the Pyrenees project, so
we extended the contract and moved that rig into the Macedon
feld, which saved a lot of time and money in the long run. That
was important because the economics of the project were tight.
We knew that if we didnt develop it then, we might not do it at all.
The Appliance Replacement Program
The legislative green light to sell gas from the Macedon feld was
welcome, but it was not the only hurdle. There was still the question
of what to do about older home appliances that might not be
able to handle it. The most direct solutionapproved by Western
ABOVE: Garry Walker, Macedon project director.
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Energy Abundance 5
Australias Offce of Energy Safetywas to test and certify or
replace all home gas appliances made before 1980.
We spent more than US$22 million in about 18 months, said
Catherine Leong, who led the Gas Appliance Rectifcation Program
for BHP Billiton. There was a massive advertising campaign to
reach anyone with older appliances. By January 1, 2012, we had
tested more than 24,000 water heaters, stoves and home heaters
to make sure they could operate safely using gas with the revised
specifcation. Any appliance that did not meet those requirements
was replaced at our expense. One of the oldest was a water heater
made in 1937.
As a bonus, the inspection process revealed many leaks and other
safety hazards that homeowners might might not have otherwise
been aware of. Ken Bowron, director of Energy Safety for Western ABOVE: Catherine Leong led the Gas Appliance Rectifcation
Program for the Macedon project.
ABOVE: The Macedon plant provides about 20 percent of Western Australias domestic gas.
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Energy Abundance 6
Australia, commented on that in the Department of Commerce
Energy Bulletin in July, 2013.
A major success of the program has been an increase in the safety
of the older gas installations and the replacement of a number
of domestic gas appliances that were converted from town gas
to natural gas in the early 1970s, Bowron said. The safety
inspections undertaken as part of the program found a number of
old unvented gas water heaters installed in bathrooms, despite them
being banned in the early 1990s.
Moving on
The Macedon feld development includes four subsea wells
connected to the onshore gas treatment plant by a 90-kilometer
(65-mile) 20-inch wet gas pipeline.
Chemical and electrical umbilical lines are used to control and
monitor the subsea wells. BHP Billiton, with 71.48 percent of
the project, is the operator. Apache Corporation is the joint-
venture partner.
The Macedon gas plant is located at Ashburton North, about
17 kilometers (10.5 miles) southwest of Onslow. At the Macedon
gas plant, which can handle up to 200 million scf per day, the small
quantity of liquids are removed and the gas is compressed. The dry
gas is exported from Macedon through a 67-kilometer (42-mile)
20-inch pipeline that ties into the Dampier to Bunbury trunk line,
which supplies most of Western Australias natural gas.
Both offshore drilling and onshore construction began in 2010.
Over the next two years, the project employed more than
600 workersabout 10 percent of them from the indigenous
communityand pumped more than $865 million into the economy
of Western Australia.
The States Strategic Plan
The Macedon domestic gas plant is the frst in what the government
of Western Australia has designated as the Ashburton North Strategic
Industrial Area (ANSIA). The long-term goal is to attract heavy
industries to build there, and to provide the land and infrastructure
to support them.
ABOVE: Steve Pastor (left), BHP Billiton Petroleum asset president for the conventional business and Colin Barnett, premier of Western
Australia, at the offcial opening of the Macedon plant in September 2013.
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Energy Abundance 7
The initial state plan, approved in 2011, includes two main access
and utility corridors to facilitate construction of new plants and
access to the planned port. After Macedon, Chevron became the
second tenant of the ANSIA when it began building its Wheatstone
LNG plant, which is scheduled for startup in 2016.
The frst years activity was very much about building
infrastructure, says Steve Jeffcote, Health, Safety and
Environmental supervisor for the Macedon project. Onslow is a
town of about 600 people and the area is remote, so there was
very little to support industrial development.
Not Without Challenges
The land set aside for the industrial zone is fat and near the ocean,
so anyone building in the area must plan for potential storm surges
from the sea, and the areas sudden, torrential rains.
We did the overall food modeling and looked at what wed need
as a minimum elevation, says Dene Kuenen, Macedon project
supervisor. Then we decided that as an extra margin of safety,
we would build the plant and construction camp 7.5 meters (25 feet)
above the mean sea level.
Crews began moving dirt, building roads and laying out the
construction camp in 2011. One of the frst tasks was to drill a water
well, but even that was not routine. Much of the effort was ensuring
that the well was safe.
The old Tubridgi gas feld is nearby, Jeffcote explains. Since we
were drilling deeper than normal to reach water, we knew there was
a chance that the water might contain traces of natural gas. To be
absolutely safe, we took the precaution of using a blowout preventer
on the water bore, and that was an extraordinary measure.
The frst of nearly 40 equipment modules built in Thailand began
arriving at the port in Dampier in 2012. From there, the modules
were trucked the fnal 300 kilometers (186 miles) to the Macedon
plant. The main limitations were the overall weight the bridges could
handle safely, and the height of power lines across the roads.
Eventually, the onshore workforce building the plant grew to a
peak of more than 600. By the time Macedon went on stream in
September, 2013, crews had logged more than 5.8 million man-
hours. The US$1.5 billion project was delivered on time, on budget,
and with just one lost-time injury. That was enough to win the
2013 Western Australia Gas Industry Development Award for
contributions to the domestic natural gas industry.
It is a steady, secure supply of gas, Walker adds. The Macedon
project will continue to make a signifcant contribution to the
security of the states domestic gas supply through at least 2033.
The Macedon project will
continue to make a signifcant
contribution to the security
of the states domestic gas
supply through at least 2033. ABOVE: Dene Kuenen, engineering delivery supervisor.
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Good Neighbors
The benefts will last well beyond
the length of our project.
Long before the heavy equipment arrived to clear land for the
pipeline and the Macedon plant, Angelo Mustica, senior commercial
advisor, began working with local residents to let them know what
was planned and what to expect.
Preserving Heritage Sites
Several Aboriginal groups live in the Pilbara region, but by law the
Thalanyji people have the strongest ancestral ties to land around
Onslow. Those who were most familiar with the heritage were hired
to assist as project monitors.
Our initial meeting with Thalanyji representatives about Macedon
was in June, 2008, Mustica recalls, but we already had a long
relationship with them because of our earlier involvement with
the Griffn feld and Tubridgi gas plant. Shortly after, we made a
presentation to a larger group, including four of the elders.
Much of the discussions were about long-term opportunities
for Thalanyji youth and projects to preserve the groups
cultural heritage.
We settled on a number of projects that we would sponsor under the
native title agreement, Mustica says. We also established a business
incubation fund that will be available for the next 20 years.
Some of the earliest involvement was a Thalanyji joint-venture with
an established catering frm to provide services to Macedon and
other industrial sites planned for the area. It was a win-win for all
parties, Mustica says. The benefts will last well beyond the length
of our project.
Another initiative is the companys continuing support of the
David Wirrpanda Foundation. David was a popular footballer
here in Western Australia, says Bindi Gove, Government and
External Affairs manager for Australia. His foundation has a
strong reputation for encouraging indigenous kids to continue their
education. The foundations work begins with the primary schools,
providing incentives for students to learn and for their parents to
participate in the process.
BHP Billiton is helping the larger community as well, including
plans to build a new basketball facility in town. The company
already sponsors regular youth basketball tournaments that bring in
hundreds of players and fans.
Were committed to our relationship with the community, Gove
says. Weve been here in Onslow for quite a while, and well be
here for at least another 20 years. It is essential for our operations
that we are accepted in town, and we want the community to be on
board with everything we do.
The company has treated Onslow like it has all communities,
Gove adds. Whether were building in Onslow, or building in
a highly urbanized and environmentally sensitive area like Port
ABOVE: Angelo Mustica, senior commercial advisor.
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Energy Abundance 9
Campbell, Victoria, BHP Billiton recognizes the intrinsic value of the
land and takes the same care with it as the people who live there.
BHP Billiton has been part of the Onslow community for
over 20 years. Since 2007, the company has invested more
than AUD$5.5 million in the township to improve the lives of
Onslows citizens.
The way we do things in Onslow is a function of how this company
operates elsewhere in the world, says Michiel Van Akkooi, senior
manager, International Government and External Affairs.
BHP Billitons way of working with its neighbors is quite different
from many other companies.
Honoring their ancestors
In 2007, BHP Billiton was the frst company to
launch the Reconciliation Action Plan, which seeks
to strengthen relationships with Australias various
Aboriginal groups. The goal is to provide work and
business opportunities for local indigenous people,
while respecting their rich cultural heritage.
For the Macedon project, Thalanyji monitors worked
with project planners to identify numerous cultural
heritage sites. Especially sensitive areas were avoided
altogether. Awareness trainingalso conducted with
the help of Thalanyji monitorsacquainted every
BHP Billiton employee and contractor who was working
on the project with the local cultural history.
ABOVE: Claire Hall with one of many local children who take
part in the community events she organizes.
Were committed to our
relationship with the
community. Weve been
here in Onslow for quite a
while, and well be here for
at least another 20 years.
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Turtle Monitoring
Most visitors to Onslow never see a live cowrie, but the marine
turtles that lay their eggs at Urala Beach are hard to miss. These
dinosaur descendants are the size of a dinner table, and they weigh
more than 300 pounds. The tracks they leave in the sand make it
look like a tractor has just gone by.
Sea turtles mate offshore, and up to seven times a season, females
cross the beach to lay their eggs and bury them in the sand. When
the eggs hatch seven weeks later, hundreds of palm-sized baby
turtles dig their way out and scramble to the sea.
The female turtles lay clutches of more than 100 eggs, but many are
found and eaten by predators before they hatch. Hatchlings lucky
enough to survive beyond birth may be gobbled by other predators
waiting for them offshore. That, plus a loss of natural habitat,
are the reasons sea turtle populations are declining worldwide.
Its also why the life cycle of the turtles affected the timing of the
Macedon plant.
The turtle season runs from the frst of November through the end
of April, says HSE supervisor Steve Jeffcote. That coincided with
the time we were preparing to bring our pipeline ashore.
In this case, the shore crossing meant that a trench had to be dug
for the pipeline, and the beach restored to its natural state once the
line was in place.
We decided on a shore crossing point that was likely to have the
fewest number of turtles trying to lay their eggs, Jeffcote says.
We knew there would be fewer turtles because there were much
better nesting sites up and down the beach.
But, as Jeffcote explained, few is not the same as none.
We established a 200-meter protected area on either side of the
pipeline trench. During the breeding season, we monitored the
area 24 hours a day and clearly marked any new nests. Not a single
turtle egg was lost due to our activities, and now, when you visit the
place where our pipeline crosses the shore, you wouldnt even know
we were there.
Even the Macedon plants fare system was designed with the turtles
in mind. Instead of a fame at the top of a tall tower, Macedons
ground-level fare cannot be seen from the beach.
Cowrie Care
The name cowrie applies to a wide range
of egg-shaped sea snails with exceptionally
beautiful shells. For at least 3,000 years
probably much longer cowrie shells have
been used as currency, employed as tools,
prized as decoration, worn as jewelryand
fought over in games of chance. They just feel
good in your hand. Some cowries are quite rare,
and it turns out that one such species lived
right in the underwater path of the proposed
Macedon pipeline.
There are a series of low, pristine islands
between the beach and our subsea wells, says
HSE supervisor Steve Jeffcote, Theyre home
to a variety of animals we knew about, but
not this rare snail. The state had just approved
the environmental plan for the offshore
portion of our pipeline when we learned
about the cowries. Shifting gears at that point
required several kilometers more pipe and an
extra six months, but we applied for a new
permit and routed our line well away from
the cowrie beds.
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Energy Abundance 11
ABOVE: Hidden beneath the sands of Western Australia beaches are the nests of marine turtles, each holding clutches of up to 120 eggs.
RIGHT: During construction of the Macedon pipeline, senior
environmental specialist Andrew McTaggart and his team
monitored turtle nesting sites along the beach to make sure that
none of them were disturbed.
Of the seven species of marine
turtles in the world, six can
be found off the coast of
Australia. Each year, hundreds
of themmostly greens
and leatherbackslay their
eggs on Urala beach, not far
from the Macedon plant.
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The FPSO Pyrenees Venture can
process up to 100,000 barrels of
liquids per day, with an onboard
storage capacity of around
900,000 barrels.
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If oil and gas development
in Western Australia were
a baseball game, the
Pyrenees and Stybarrow
felds have been home runs.
As their reservoirs mature, the twin offshore
developments continue to be star players.
Now, exploration and planned drilling campaigns
in both felds could extend their careers for at least
another decade.
The North West Cape
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Energy Abundance 14
Pyrenees
The Pyrenees feld is located in water depths as much as 820
meters (2,690 feet) deep off the North West Cape of Australia,
some 25 kilometers (15 miles) from Exmouth. It is a US$1.7 billion
joint venture between the operator, BHP Billiton (71.43 percent),
and Apache Energy (28.57 percent). Discovered in 2003, the
project began production ahead of schedule in 2010. In its frst
year, Pyrenees delivered the energy equivalent of more than 30
million barrels of oil. The production system is a foating production,
storage, and offoading vessel, (FPSO), called the Pyrenees Venture.
Soon after Pyrenees came on line, it was making more than 100,000
barrels of oil per day, says feld manager Mark Thomson. Thats one
tanker cargo every six days.
The initial development plan included 13 horizontal oil wells
producing from the Crosby, Stickle and Ravensworth reservoirs.
A planned expansion of Pyrenees includes six new wells that should
be completed by early 2014. Production from the three reservoirs
could extend the life of the feld beyond 2035.
In the near term, drilling
at Pyrenees and Stybarrow
will make up for the natural
decline in production from
existing wells, says feld
manager Mark Thomson.
ABOVE: Operations supervisor Spencer Black (left), production operation technician Dwight McMasters (center) and maintenance
supervisor Kevin Scarterfeld (right) discuss operations in the Stybarrow FPSOs Central Control Room.
ABOVE: Mark Thomson, feld manager.
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Energy Abundance 15
Stybarrow
Discovered in 2003, the Stybarrow development is a 50/50 joint
venture between the operator, BHP Billiton, and Woodside Energy.
The oil and gas feld is located some 65 kilometers (40 miles)
northwest of Exmouth in about 825 meters (2,707 feet) of water.
It is one of Australias deepest offshore felds.
Stybarrows 10 subsea well completions include six producing wells,
three water injectors and one gas injector. The $760 million project,
also includes the Stybarrow Venture FPSO, which can process up to
80,000 barrels of oil per day and 45 million scf of gas. The vessel
itself can store 900,000 barrels of oil.
Reliable Performance
Both the Pyrenees and Stybarrow developments are known for their
industry-leading run-timesthe number of days each year that the
facilities are producing oil, rather than shut down for repairs.
In 2012, Pyrenees had by far the best up-time in the region,
Thomson says, and Stybarrow was not far behind. If you take out
the eight or nine days we lost due to cyclones, our facilities were
operating about 97 percent of the time.
Thomson credits at least part of good operational performance to
the skill of BHP Billiton engineers.
In December 2012, a routine underwater inspection of the
Pyrenees Venture found hairline cracks in the outer shell of the double
hull. he says. The initial response from the maritime authorities
was that we had to take the vessel straight to dry dock to get it fxed.
That would have caused long delays and lost production. As there was
no environmental risk, our engineers designed braces that could be
welded on to secure the hull and give us more time.
Production continued for the next six months aboard the FPSO
while divers worked on the hull. When the FPSO left for dry dock in
October, 2013, it was a scheduled event, rather than a hasty retreat.
There was a clear engineering plan for making the repairs quickly
and a budget in place to cover them. The extra ten months that the
Pyrenees Venture remained in the feld allowed marketers to reallocate
shipments of crude oil to customers, and to minimize the overall loss
of revenue. Thomson estimates that the additional time the FPSO
stayed on site amounted to at least a million barrels of production.
Pyrenees and Stybarrow have each produced more than
50 million barrels of oil, Thomson adds. In terms of proftability,
reliability and cash fow, oil and gas developments dont get much
better than this.
ABOVE: Pyrenees and Stybarrow have the best up-time
operating records of any FPSOs in the region.
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Energy Abundance 16
Wave-cut limestone towers known
as the Twelve Apostles mark the
southern boundary of the Port Campbell
National Park.
Photo iStock.com
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Energy Abundance 17
Minerva
Out of sight in one of Australias
most popular tourist spots
The most noteworthy thing about the Minerva gas development
is what you dont see. When onshore work began in 2003, the
planners were especially careful to ensure this was the case. The
area is one of Victorias premier tourist attractions, and their goal
was to keep it that way.
Minervas two wells, for example, are subsea completions in 60
meters (200 feet) of water, about 11 kilometers (seven miles) south-
southwest of the township of Port Campbell in Western Victoria.
The production pipeline comes ashore under the beach at Two Mile
Bay. From there, the buried line brings the wet gas another 4.5
kilometers (2.8 miles) inland, where it is processed at the Minerva
gas plant. Most of the plants equipment is painted green, with
shrubs and trees planted around the site to hide it from view.
The Minerva development is a joint venture between BHP Billiton
(90 percent) and Santos (10 percent). It is the second of two gas
plants that BHP Billiton operates in Australia. Minerva can produce
up to 150 terajoules of natural gas and 600 barrels of condensate
per day for customers in South Australia and Victoria.
One hallmark of Minerva was the lengthy approval process to build
it, says Ian Sinclair, feld manager for onshore gas processing. A
national park runs along the beach and extends at least a kilometer
inland in most places.
Tiny fairy penguins stroll the beach, while giant limestone stacks
some the height of 12-story buildingsenhance the view from
the Great Ocean Road. Just outside the park boundaries, pristine
homesteads support families, crops and livestock. The area has
a rich Aboriginal heritage as well. All of that remained largely
undisturbed as the plant and pipeline were being built.
The environmental approvals were very stringent in terms of noise,
emissions and runoff from the site, Sinclair explains. There were
restrictions on when we could run vehicles in and out of the plant.
We were not allowed to operate trucks on the weekends or public
holidays, and when we were on the road, there were designated
routes. The facility itself is very low profle, and our ground level
fare is completely enclosed. We reuse most of our water to irrigate
the trees on our site, and we even supply some of our extra water to
a farmer nearby.
Although Minerva is relatively small, it has contributed a dependable
supply of natural gas to the region for more than a decade. It will
continue to do so for several more years, allowing time for other
development projects to take its place.
ABOVE: Little penguinsalso known as Fairy penguins and Little
Bluesthrive along Australias southern beaches and bays.
P
h
o
t
o

i
S
t
o
c
k
.
c
o
m
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Energy Abundance 18
Other Joint Ventures
Introducing the rest of the team
Besides the felds and facilities that BHP Billiton operates in
Australia, the company has an interest in several major
developments that are operated by one of the other joint venture
partners.
The projects vary in size and the nature of their production.
While those on the North West Shelf tend to produce more natural
gas, activity off the North West Cape tends to yield more oil.
Developments in the Bass Strait produce a mix of oil, natural gas
and condensates.
The North West Shelf
More than 40 percent of Australias oil and gas comes from two
major areas of what geologists call the North West Shelf. Since
1984, the North West Shelf has been producing natural gas from the
North Rankin A, Goodwin A and Angel platforms. Collectively, they
have the capacity to produce from 600 million to 2,300 million cubic
feet of gas per day. The gas is transported by pipeline to an onshore
plant at Withnell Bay in Western Australia.
The world-class Karratha gas
plant is the North West Shelf
Ventures largest onshore asset.
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Energy Abundance 19
The ventures oil comes from the Wanaea, Cossack, Lambert and
Hermes felds. The oil is retrieved through the Okha FPSO, which has
a capacity of 60,000 barrels per day.
North West Shelf is operated by Woodside Petroleum, which owns
16.67 to 33.34 percent of the asset. Woodsides joint venture
partners include BHP Billiton, Chevron, BP, and Japan Australia, each
with about 16.67 percent.
The ventures largest land-based asset is the world-class Karratha
Gas Plant, which includes fve LNG processing trains and two
domestic gas trains. The 200-hectare (495-acre) facility can produce
more than 16 million metric tons of LNG per year. Each day it
delivers some 12,000 metric tons of natural gas to the domestic
market, and 130,000 barrels of condensate.
Bass Strait Turrum, Tuna and Kipper
The Bass Strait oil and gas felds in southern Australias Gippsland
Basin is a 50/50 joint venture between BHP Billiton and the venture
operator, Esso Australia. Developed in the 1960s, Bass Strait is
capable of producing the energy equivalent of 200,000 barrels
of oil per day from its 20 producing felds. Of these, 17 produce
oil and the rest produce natural gas. Since 1969, Bass Strait has
delivered more than four billion barrels of oil and seven trillion
cubic feet of gas.
The felds infrastructure includes 14 steel jacket platforms, three
subsea developments, two steel gravity-based towers and two
concrete gravity-based platforms. About 600 kilometers (373
miles) of pipeline connect the Bass Strait to Longford and the Long
Island fractionation plant and crude oil tank farm. The plant serves
Melbourne and other cities in Victoria. In addition, crude oil can
be transported by sea tankers or pipeline from Long Island Point to
refneries in Altona and Geelong.
The Bass Strait has been producing for more than four decades,
says Rob Jellis, joint interest general manager for BHP Billiton in
Australia through 2013. The producing sands are tilted in a number
of felds. The reservoirs have high permeability and strong water
drives. In many ways, they are ideal.
The Kipper Tuna Turrum (KTT) projectthe last major discovery in
the Bass Straitbegan an expansion program in 2008. The newest
structure is the Marlin B platform, which is linked by a walkway
to Marlin A. The US$1.4 billion facility, completed in late 2013,
could boost the felds daily production by 11,000 barrels of oil and
200 million cubic feet of gas. New wells from Marlin B will access
the Turrum reserves.
To handle the additional gas, the Longford Gas Conditioning Plant,
about 19 kilometers (12 miles) south of the town of Sale, is being
expanded to serve customers throughout East Australia. When the
US$1 billion facility is operational in 2016, it will deliver 1.6 trillion
cubic feet of gas to the domestic market, helping to replace the
declining production from existing felds. The state-of-the-art facility
also will reduce the carbon dioxide content of the treated gas to less
than 3 percent.
Work on the Kipper, Tuna and Turrum project, including the
Longford expansion, is the largest domestic oil and gas development
in eastern Australia. So far it has created some 1,300 construction
and installation jobs. When the expansion is complete in 2016,
Longford will be able to supply enough clean-burning energy to
power a city of a million people for 35 years.
ABOVE: The North Rankin B platform, attached by bridges to
North Rankin A, is the newest structure in the North West Shelf.
140303OGJBHP_19 19 2/14/14 3:13 PM
BHP Billiton
|
Energy Abundance 20
Just Ahead
Strong growth in Western Australia
While even the most fast-track projects take years to come on
stream, recent movement on three fronts could go a long way
toward securing Australias energy future.
Tallaganda
BHP Billitons largest fnd in 2012 tapped the Tallaganda formation
of the Carnarvon Basin. The discovery well, completed late in the
year, is in an area between the Macedon feld and BHP Billitons
50-50 joint venture known as Scarborough. Although pre-drilling
estimates suggest a substantial amount of gas, the well data is still
being evaluated.
Scarborough
One of the most interesting new projects is the proposed 50-50
joint venture between BHP Billiton and ExxonMobil to develop the
Scarborough natural gas feld off Western Australia. ExxonMobil
affliate Esso Australia would operate the feld, which is located
about 220 kilometers (137 miles) northwest of Exmouth in 900
meters (2,950 feet) of water. Scarborough is one of the most remote
of the Carnarvon Basin gas resources.
One concept being considered is a Floating LNG (FLNG) vessel, an
innovative way to recover natural gas from remote areas. Instead
of bringing the gas to shore by pipeline, it is processed in the
feld, converted to LNG and offoaded onto LNG tankers at regular
intervals. The technology has the potential to recover so-called
stranded offshore gas that would otherwise not be produced.
The challenge in this projectestimated at more than
US$10 billionis not the LNG technology itself, but rather the
diffculty of making LNG trains compact enough to ft on a ship.
With a length of 495 meters (1,624 feet) and a width of 75 meters
(246 feet), a Scarborough FLNG would become the largest ocean
vessel of any kind ever built. An alternative concept is to bring
Scarborough gas to shore via pipeline and to tie into existing
onshore facilities and infrastructure.
If the project moves ahead, the Scarborough gas would come from
as many as 12 new wells. The front-end engineering and design
work could begin soon, leading to a fnal investment decision.
Regardless of the development plan, Scarborough is likely to become
a major part of the countrys energy mix.
ABOVE: The petroleum industry as a whole has committed
an estimated US$120 billion to develop Australias oil and gas
resources over the next few years, and much of that activity will
be off the coast of Western Australia.
140303OGJBHP_20 20 2/14/14 3:13 PM
BHP Billiton
|
Energy Abundance 21
Seismic surveys like this one
will lead explorers to Western
Australias next big felds.
140303OGJBHP_21 21 2/14/14 3:13 PM
22 Axens
23 Baker Hughes
24 Bureau Veritas Australia PTY Ltd
25 Wood Group Kenny
26 Oceaneering International, Inc
28 OneSubsea
29 Streicher Australia PTY Ltd
30 Schlumberger
32 Technip Oceania Pty Ltd
AXENS
COMPANY PROFILE
Axens Mercury Removal
Products Selected for Macedon
Axens is an international provider of advanced
technologies, catalysts, adsorbents and
services, with a global reputation for basic
engineering design excellence. The main scope
of Axens business is focused on the conversion
of oil, coal, natural gas and biomass to clean
fuels as well as the production and purifcation
of major petrochemical intermediates.
Axens was the pioneer of mercury (Hg)
removal technology in the 1970s as a direct
result of the frst mercury corrosion related
industrial incident at Skikda in Algeria. Axens
technology consists of an active phase
impregnated on devoted and optimised alumina
carriers (AxTrap 200 Series). The trapping
mechanism implies a chemical reaction between
the mercury and the sulphur of the active
phase to form cinnabar (HgS) which is a non-
hazardous and very stable form.
Thanks to an intensive R&D, licensing
activities and technical services, Axens has
an extensive mercury removal portfolio and
provides a global offer including a wide range
of services.
BHP Billiton operates the Macedon
gas feld located in Western Australia. The
Macedon plant consists of four offshore
production wells and an onshore gas
treatment plant (Onslow).
The natural gas is routed to the onshore
plant via a subsea pipeline, where the gas
is processed prior to being sent to Bunbury
Natural Gas Pipeline. The natural gas contains
2 g/Sm
3
(microgram of Hg per standard cubic
meter) of mercury and the outlet concentration
needs to be lowered to 10 ng/Sm
3
(nanogram
of Hg per standard cubic meter). Axens received
an award for the design of a 5-year lifetime
mercury removal unit. The mercury removal unit
is placed in water saturated gas upstream of the
dehydration unit. This unit treats 200 MMSCFD
and consists of two vessels in parallel loaded
with Axens product.
Axens
89, bd Franklin Roosevelt BP 50802
92508 Rueil-Malmaison France
www.axens.net
Axens mercury removal technology
Hg
Porous
support
Active phase
Mercury
Cinnabar HgS
Company Profles
VP, PennWell Custom Publishing
Roy Markum
roym@pennwell.com
Managing Editor and
Principal Writer
Richard Cunningham
richard@rcunninghamstudio.com
Art Director
Meg Fuschetti
Production Manager
Shirley Gamboa
PennWell Petroleum Group
1455 West Loop South, Suite 400
Houston, TX 77027 U.S.A.
713.621.9720
fax: 713.963.6285
PennWell Corporate
Headquarters
1421 S. Sheridan Rd.,
Tulsa, OK 74112
P.C. Lauinger, 19001988
Chairman
Frank T. Lauinger
President/CEO
Robert F. Biolchini
140303OGJBHP_22 22 2/14/14 3:13 PM
COMPANY PROFILE
BAKER HUGHES
BHP Billiton
|
Energy Abundance 23
Innovative Wellbore Cleanup Solution
Enables Casing Repair, Assures Production
Baker Hughes has served BHP Billitons
Australian operations since 2001, providing a
wide range of technologies from drill bits to
openhole completions and wellbore cleanup
services for the Pyrenees, Upper Pyrenees,
Stybarrow, Scarborough and Griffn projects.
A recent example of an innovative Baker
Hughes technology solution delivered to
BHP Billiton was the engineered application
of wellbore cleanup technology to enable
the repair of a damaged well and assure its
future production.
The Challenge
In 2013, BHP Billiton conducted a three-well
drilling campaign in the Moondyne Field on
Australias Northwest Shelf. On one well,
drilled as an oil producer, BHP Billiton installed
the sand screens, then during a test of the
reservoir isolation valve (RIV) at the top of the
lower completion, a leak was identifed in the
10 = 9
5
8-in casing crossover approximately
100 m below the mud line. To remediate the
casing leak, BHP Billiton decided to install an
internal casing patch.
Installing the casing patch required use
of an aluminum internal shoe. However, after
setting the patch and engaging the seals,
BHP Billiton would have to drill out the shoe,
which would create debris that, if left in the
well, could prevent the RIV from re-opening,
creating a high risk of losing the well.
The Baker Hughes Solution
BHP Billiton contacted Baker Hughes to help
protect the lower completion from the debris
and guard it from pressure cycles that would
occur during the patch and casing tests. BH
engineers worked along with BHP Billiton
engineers to design a solution that included
a GT retrievable bridge plug and a
modular vectored annular cleaning system,
modular VACS tool.
The Model GT retrievable bridge plug
is designed to provide a pressure barrier to
temporarily shut in offshore template wells.
In this application, the plug would provide a
barrier to hold proppant sand and cement and
to prevent debris from falling onto the RIV.
The modular VACS system captures debris
left at the bottom of the well after drilling
or other well operations. As fuid fows
through the tools jet nozzles, the VACS jet
engine design produces increased suction
pressure at the base of the tool, pulling in
debris or junk from the well into the tool
basket. The systems modular design makes
it safe and easy to operate, and also reduces
nonproductive time (NPT) by eliminating the
need to handle debris at the rig site.
Well Repair and Cleanup Operation
The frst step of the casing patch operation
was to set the GT bridge plug at a depth of
509m MDRT and to place 500 kg of frac sand
proppant above the plug. An 80 m cement
plug was then spotted above the proppant to
enable milling of large debris. The aluminum
shoe was then milled out and debris settled
on top of the cement plug. This debris was
then milled up as 40 m of the cement plug
was drilled out.
The modular VACS assembly was then
run in hole, comprised of one VACS debris
module and fnger catchers installed inside
a shoe to capture large and small debris. A
second drill out run was then made to remove
the remaining cement and enable access
to the proppant above the GT bridge plug.
A second VACS system was run with two
modules, recovering approximately 50% of
the frac sand.
Prior to the operational program being
complete a Rig De-man was required due to a
cyclone in the area. After the weather delay,
the VACS system was run for a third time and
retrieved the remaining sand. In case any
debris remained in the well, a debris-tolerant,
short-catch LT-CT tool was used to retrieve
the GT plug. This run went smoothly and
the operator successfully installed the upper
completion to prepare the well for production.
Baker Hughes
2929 Allen Parkway; Houston, Texas 77019
Phone: +1 713-439-8600
Fax: +1 713-439-8699
www.bakerhughes.com
Christine Mathers
713.438.8738
Christine.Mathers@bakerhughes.com
140303OGJBHP_23 23 2/14/14 3:13 PM
COMPANY PROFILE
BUREAU VERITAS
BHP Billiton
|
Energy Abundance 24
Validation Services for BHP Billitons
Macedon Onshore Gas Plant
Design to Operations Verifcation,
Inspection, Certifcation, Validation
Established in 1828, Bureau Veritas is a global
leader in Testing, Inspection and Certifcation
(TIC), delivering high quality services to
help clients meet the growing challenges of
quality, safety, environmental protection and
social responsibility. We are recognized and
accredited by major national and international
organizations. Bureau Veritas has 59,000
employees worldwide, 1,330 offces and
laboratories in 140 countries, 400,000 clients,
8 global businesses with leadership positions
and 900 accreditations and delegations
As a trusted partner, Bureau Veritas offers
innovative solutions that go beyond simple
compliance with regulations and standards.
Bureau Veritas helps operators understand
and control risk, improve performance and
promote sustainable development. Whether
you are operating in the upstream, midstream,
or downstream segment of the oil and gas
industry, environmental, safety and reliability
issues are business critical. Bureau Veritas has
solutions to help meet those challenges.
At Bureau Veritas, we use our own
methods, verifcation tools and laboratories
to help operators to meet internal, regulatory
and governmental requirements. Our scope
of services encompasses Asset Integrity
Management, Training and Consulting in oil
and gas and LNG markets.
From conception through design of your
new facilities (CAPEX) to maintenance and
operation (OPEX), Bureau Veritas operates
worldwide to support deepwater, offshore
and onshore projects.
In April, 2012, Bureau Veritas Australia
Pty Ltd was contracted by BHP Billition
to provide Third Party Validation Services
for the Macedon onshore gas plant in
accordance with Division 7 Regulation 41.0
of the Western Australia Petroleum Pipeline
(Management of Safety of Pipeline Operation)
Regulations 2010 and the Department
of Mines and Petroleum (DMP) accepted
Scope of Validation. Our services included 3
key activities:
1. IRC (Independent Review Certifcate)
This service involves the review of documents
with safety critical elements. Safety critical
elements include the structure, containment
systems, shutdown systems, power systems,
pressure systems and drainage systems.
To further protect people and equipment we
also review communication, escape, rescue,
detection (gas, smoke, fre) and active fre
protection systems. We ensure the facilities
have the proper safety and protection
systems defned.
The IRC also confrmed the Macedon
onshore gas plant used the Safety Case
description, appropriate design codes and
standards, and is designed to incorporate
measures that protect the health and safety
of people at the facility.
2. Overall Site Surveillance
for Construction Verifcation
(Fabricators sites)
The Macedon Onshore Gas Plant had
components manufactured at Technip and
other vendors at locations worldwide.
These components were then installed at
the BHP Billiton site. QA/QC activities were
carried out on all safety critical equipment
as per the Overall Site Surveillance for
Construction Verifcation Plan.
Bureau Veritas made both inspections
of, and surveillance visits to, these locations.
Inspections verifed that the components
were manufactured in accordance with
Inspection at Construction site
Inspection at Fabrication site
140303OGJBHP_24 24 2/14/14 3:13 PM
WOOD GROUP KENNY
COMPANY PROFILE
BHP Billiton
|
Energy Abundance 25
Plant - Concept Design
the specifed Codes and Standards and
that facility construction addressed all the
interfaces between vendor packages.
While not an integral part of the scope
of design validation, surveillance visits were
made to ensure that design requirements
were incorporated during the process of
construction. These visits included a review
of Manufacturers Data Reports (MDR) of the
vendor supplied packages and components at
the manufacturing facilities. Both inspections
and surveillance visits were performed by
designated and suitably qualifed inspectors.
3. Overall Site Surveillance
for Construction Verifcation
(Macedon Site)
The Construction Verifcation process
is aligned with the project completion
and handover process. The Interim
Construction Validation certifes
the onshore gas plant is ready for the
commencement of commissioning, Ready For
Gas In (RFGI).The interim validation scope for
the site construction completion was executed
via routine in-process surveillance visits, and
via unrestricted gas plant site access provided
by BHP Billiton. The key documents reviewed
during these visits included:
t Mechanical Completion Certifcates and
associated Inspection Test Records (ITRs)
t Functional test ITRs
t Pre-commissioning Test Procedures
t System Completion certifcates
t Project Completion System
t System complete punch-list items
The Final Construction Validation
certifed the OGP was complete, ready for
hand over to operations and is prepared to
deliver natural gas and other hydrocarbon
products to market.
Bureau Veritas Australia Pty Ltd
26 Colin Street. WA 6005
Tel: +61 - 8 - 9481 0100
http://www.bureauveritas.com.au/
www.woodgroupkenny.com
WGK Integrates Global Teams
Offshore projects require engineering and
project personnel to be located across
global locations. Wood Group Kenny (WGK)
provided integrated dual project locations to
support the BHP Billiton Macedon project.
The Houston team provided early
Front-End Engineering Design (FEED), risk
management assessments and detail design.
The Perth team provided additional detail
design, support for pre-commissioning,
installation, start-up, and ongoing asset
integrity management.
Design Phase
FEED services for the Macedon project
included engineering and project
management for fexible fow lines, an in-line
SLED (ILS), subsea manifold, and an export
wet gas pipeline. The subsea equipment
and four production wells are operated 100
km from the offshore wells at the Macedon
onshore gas plant (OGP) .
WGK conducted a thorough fow
assurance analysis to optimize the
performance of the Macedon production
system. The teams also analyzed offshore wet
gas pipelines at start-up phase and onshore
sales gas pipelines.
WGKs Houston and Perth teams
successfully transitioned from design to
operations with BHP Billitons operators.
Execute and Operations Phase
The Perth team applied risk management
standards in the following studies
and analyses
t Corrosion modelling/management
t Material and coating selection
t Cathodic protection design
t Erosion pipeline assessments
t Sand management
t Inspection
t Maintenance, monitoring, and repair
t Onshore sales gas pipeline modeling
BHP Billiton and WGK recognised the
importance of corrosion risks associated with
multiple wells, manifold, pipelines, and a 100
km offshore site. Environmental safety drove
a thorough simulation of many production
scenarios using WGK custom modelling
software. WGK evaluated the dynamic liquid
and vapour phase effects in more than
50,000 individual corrosion simulations.
Our integrity management team used
its Nexus Integrity Centre (NEXUS IC) to
implement an industry risk-based inspection
(RBI) programme for the OGP. This programme
provides the lowest lifecycle operations cost
and ensures system integrity and safety. Risk
assessment workshops determined potential
failure points, resulting in plant inspection
plans and repair work scopes.
140303OGJBHP_25 25 2/14/14 3:13 PM
COMPANY PROFILE
OCEANEERING
BHP Billiton
|
Energy Abundance 26
Distance, Remoteness, and Creature
Features Test Oceaneering Design Teams
Every umbilical project involves specifc challenges
and requires creative, customized solutions.
But the Macedon gas development off Western
Australia was in a class of its own.
Early in the Macedon design phase, once
BHP Billiton opted to develop the feld as a
subsea tieback to shore, the company faced
a crucial choice: to control the project from
a local buoy near the offshore well site,
or to connect Macedons subsea wells to
controls systems onshore with an extended
reach umbilical. Both options had their
challenges, says BHP Billiton senior manager
Garry Walker, who was Macedon project
director at the time. But based on the
environmental and safety risks associated
with having surface facilities out on the
ocean in a cyclone-impacted area, he says,
we decided to go with the extended reach
umbilical 66 km single length of umbilical,
tied into a 13-km near-shore umbilical.
To build and install this critical lifeline to
shore, the company turned to Oceaneering
International, which has more than 35
years of experience manufacturing highly
engineered, technologically complex
umbilicals and related hardware. Along
with in-house engineering and project
management teams, the companys
Oceaneering Umbilical Systems (OUS) division
manufactures umbilicals at strategically
placed sites in Panama City, Florida; Niteroi,
Brazil; and Rosyth, Scotland.
Down Under demands
While every job requires specifc, customized
solutions, the Australia project presented
challenges of both scale and technology,
explains Oceaneering Umbilical Systems
technical sales manager Alun Rees.
The challenge really was, it was a
subsea-to-shore tieback that would run 70
km from the beach to the subsea well site,
he says. In the end, we supplied 15 steel
tube and electric power/fber optic umbilicals
about 120 km altogether and 17 major
hardware pieces. It was a huge project,
probably the largest one OUS had ever done.
To deliver it successfully, Oceaneering
would rely on its integrated supply chain for
sourcing a global network that, in this case,
included sourcing from the United States,
Colombia, Norway, Czech Republic and the
United Kingdom.
One particularly challenging aspect of the
job was the need to extend the umbilicals
Telescopic cutaway of the main
subsea-to-shore Macedon umbilical that
runs from the subsea well site to shore.
Installation vessel carousel loaded with Macedon umbilical and hardware before lay operations.
20 Subsea Pig Launch System with intelligent
pig capability. Shown on test and shipping stand,
the system can load and independently and
sequentially launch up to four pigs in succession.
140303OGJBHP_26 26 2/14/14 3:13 PM
BHP Billiton
|
Energy Abundance 27
more than 15 km inland to the onshore
processing plant. On the shore side, in a very
remote part of Western Australia, they had to
go inland with an umbilical, Rees says. That
was unusual for us. We build umbilicals for
subsea. But we had to bring it ashore, trench
it along the beach, get through some sand
dunes, through some wetlands, under a river,
more wetlands, and fnally the plant.
This being Western Australia, there
were some fora and fauna issues to get
through, he notes. For the onshore portion,
the umbilical electric power cables had to be
coated in nylon to protect against electrical
cable-eating termites; offshore, the tubes
passed through a lengthy stretch prone to
Teredo worms, or shipworms, that burrow
into ship hulls, and are also fond of electrical
cables. To discourage them, the shallow
water and subsea power cables include a
layer of copper tape.
Linking up
To connect the shallow water and subsea
sections of the main umbilical, Oceaneering
developed a connector that could be
retrieved from the seafoor, used to connect
both sections, and then re-deployed to the
seabed. Another connection had to be made
in the main onshore section, where the
umbilical was split into two separate cables
to meet installation weight limitations. The
onshore umbilicals had to be divided into
multiple sections no heavier than 50 tonnes,
including the installation reels and pieces of
hardware. The challenge was, if youve got
all these short lengths, how are you going
to join them together in the outback with no
infrastructure? Rees says.
Oceaneering Subsea Products engineering
team, including VP of business development
Michael Cunningham, came up with custom-
built connection systems for the umbilicals
that allowed them to be assembled onsite,
both onshore and offshore. Having to make
the thing up offshore was a pretty signifcant
challenge, Cunningham says. Oceaneering
had performed a similar operation offshore
in the Gulf of Mexico. But that was a
thermoplastic hose-style umbilical, so torsion
in the umbilical was quite easy to deal with,
relative to the steel tube one. Thats where the
idea for an inline joint installation tool came
into play, so we could actually manipulate the
ends of the umbilical to align the two halves of
the splice to be able to mate them.
Low-loss fber was included to keep the
umbilicals circumference, and overall weight,
within bounds. Normally, they would have
used electric cables for communications,
but its too far the cables would be too
big, Rees says. So they communicate from
shore to the well site digitally, through an
optic cable. Then, when they get to the well
site, they convert to analog and distribute
communications via electrical cables.
Precision pigging
During the Macedon planning process,
BHP Billiton asked Oceaneering to come
up with a design for a subsea pig launcher.
They wanted the unit to be able to do
commissioning work on the pipeline at the
completion of installation, and then to do
operational pigging, including intelligent
pigging operations, says Cunningham.
They asked us to come up with a design
that they felt was the least risky for a single
fowline system.
Oceaneering had done similar work on
other projects, albeit on a smaller scale. Even
though it was ROV operable, the complexity
was signifcantly greater than what we had
done in the past for commissioning systems,
he continues. BHP Billiton wanted different
types of pigs to be deliverable through the
system, and to the best of my knowledge,
this may be the frst one that can deliver
an intelligent pig from the subsea location,
certainly the frst wed ever done.
During pigging operations, the pig
launcher attaches to the subsea manifold
via an Oceaneering Grayloc clamp-style
connector. It is not a self-contained system
in that it has to have intervention from the
surface, both from an ROV to operate the
barriers between pigs, and also to deliver the
kicker fuid required for initial motivation,
Cunningham says. The design was
customized very specifcally for this location.
The oil and gas industry has long sought
a pig launching system for single-fow
projects such as Macedon, he adds. But its
got signifcant challenges. If youre going to
bet the farm basically, bet the wells on
a single pipeline system, then you better be
pretty darn comfortable that you can get a
pig from the well location back to the beach
without getting stuck somewhere.
Overall, Rees says, Macedon was one
of the most challenging umbilical jobs that
Oceaneering has ever taken on. Usually, were
faced with depth and weight, he explains.
Here, it was not the depth but the length,
horizontally, and the environmental challenges.
And then these odd creature features. It was
very interesting. And it worked well the
relationship has always been good with BHP.
Oceaneering International, Inc.
11911 FM 529, Houston, Texas 77041 U.S.A.
www.oceaneering.com
Onshore installation of Macedon umbilical using an inline joint installation tool to facilitate
the alignment and engagement process.
140303OGJBHP_27 27 2/14/14 3:13 PM
COMPANY PROFILE
ONESUBSEA
BHP Billiton
|
Energy Abundance 28
One Comprehensive
Resource for Integrated
Subsea Solutions.
Macedon World Class Subsea Solution
OneSubsea production system solution
OneSubsea is a unique company, launched
in mid-2013 by two subsea leaders, Cameron
and Schlumberger. OneSubsea delivers
integrated solutions, products, systems and
services for the subsea oil and gas market.
The company offers a step change in reservoir
recovery for the subsea oil and gas industry
through integration and optimization of the
entire production system over the life of the
feld. OneSubsea combines Camerons fow
control expertise, process technologies, and
world-class manufacturing and aftermarket
capabilities with Schlumbergers
petrotechnical leadership, reservoir
and production technology and
R&D capabilities.
For the BHP Billiton Macedon
feld development, OneSubsea
delivered:
t A subsea production system
producing directly to and
controlled from the onshore
facility, nearly 100 kilometers away
t The production system, including
wellhead systems, trees and
fowbases and diverless fowline
connection equipment
t Valves for the subsea manifold valve
assemblies; valves for the onshore gas
plant were provided by Cameron
t The subsea fber-optic controls system
As with many large, complex projects,
OneSubsea engaged its global resources for
increased capability. OneSubsea provided
support to BHP Billiton and its project team
from manufacturing and design facilities
in Houston, USA; Johor, Malaysia; Leeds,
England; Celle, Germany; and Perth, Australia.
Production System and Valves
OneSubsea provided the production
wellheads, fowbases, trees, chokes and
CVC diverless fowline connection systems.
The wellhead systems were based on a feld-
proven STM-15 metal-to-metal sealing
system and were equipped to accommodate
the OneSubsea drill-through SpoolTree and
completion system. This unique design helps
reduce rig time. The subsea trees included
fully clad annulus fowpath, including valve
and fowloop, which allowed for gas lift
injection and erosion protection.
OneSubsea also provided valves for the
subsea manifold, while Cameron provided
the valves for the Macedon onshore gas
plant. This included more than 2800
valves of all sizes and working pressures,
as well as gate, ball and check valves.
Materials and equipment were designed to
industry standards and specifc Australian
requirements.
Control System
One of the key aspects of this project was
the control system for the subsea trees,
manifold and subsea distribution systems.
OneSubsea has feld-proven, reliable,
advanced and modular control systems,
based on fexible state-of-the-art power and
communication systems, providing best-
in-class, customer-specifc solutions. For
the BHP Billiton Macedon development,
the OneSubsea Broadband Communication
System was utilized. Subsequently,
OneSubsea supervised the installation
activities and performed the commissioning.
The broadband communication system is an
open communication network based on the
use of fber optics to control all valves and
chokes, and provides communication for all
instrumentation/sensors.
The OneSubsea pre-engineered
design allows for remote monitoring,
additional surveillance and data access.
All data and signals from the subsea drill
centers are carried via the subsea fber-
optic lines, a much faster system than a
traditional copper-based production controls
communications system.
The umbilical connects the onshore gas
plant and the subsea wells carrying hydraulic
and electrical power and communication.
The fber-optic communication lines carry
instructions and data to and from the subsea
equipment and operators in the control room.
With the control room located at the onshore
gas plant nearly 100 km from the
well locations, this is one of the
longest offset control systems
worldwide. The Macedon project
has helped prove the reliability
of these systems, pioneering
development of projects with less
offshore infrastructure.
The system is equipped with
unique, multiple channel, back-
up redundancy, eliminating the
need for additional back-up copper
communications lines; this reduces
the overall main umbilical cost.
Furthermore, the system is designed
to handle additional wells depending on
the operators full feld development plans.
Importantly, the OneSubsea broadband
communication system is designed to
communicate with the onshore gas plant
emergency shut-down (ESD) system to
protect people and the subsea and onshore
equipment. Other safety measures of the
system include an escalating warning process
when certain parameters reach critical values,
and interlocks, which prevent operators from
performing unsafe actions. Safety is a top
priority at OneSubsea, and was a critical
aspect of this control system design.
OneSubsea
www.onesubsea.com
140303OGJBHP_28 28 2/14/14 3:13 PM
COMPANY PROFILE
STREICHER AUSTRALIA PTY LTD.
BHP Billiton
|
Energy Abundance 29
STREICHER Australia Pty Ltd
STREICHER Australia
is the Australian branch
of STREICHER Group
based in Germany.
Established in 1909 STREICHER Group
operates in four business sectors:
t Pipeline and Plants
Pipeline Construction
Microtunneling
Horizontal Directional Drilling
Special Crossings
Pipeline Operation and Maintenance
Hydrotesting
Condition Monitoring
t Mechanical Engineering
Drilling Technology
Process Engineering
Amusement Rides
t Civil and Structural Engineering
Road and Civil Engineering
Bridge Construction
Landfll Construction
Industrial Construction
Public Private Partnership
t Raw and Construction Material
Asphalt Mixing Plant
Quarries and Gravel Mills
Sand and Gravel extraction
Construction Material Acceptance
STREICHER Australia is based in Queensland
and can undertake projects in the Asia Pacifc
Region drawing on the STREICHER Group
support and cooperation to provide the full
services that the group offers.
BHP Billiton was attracted to the
capability of STREICHER subsidiary, DrillTec,
and invited DrillTec to tender on the
BHP Billiton gas project.
DrillTec realized the opportunity to
showcase STREICHER Group capability in
Australia and tendered for the complete
installation package for the wet and sales
gas pipelines on the Macedon project,
bringing together the three subsidiaries of the
STREICHER Group to deliver one project.
STREICHER with its Joint Venture partner,
Clough Seam Gas, constructed:
t 82 km of DN 500 gas pipeline
(heavy and light wall)
t Two shore crossings using horizontal
directional drilling
t Two river crossings of the Ashburton River
t A number of road crossings; some roads
were required to remain operational
t Installation of 16 km shoreline of electrical
umbilical pipeline
t Installation of 16 km shoreline of hydraulic
umbilical pipeline
t All hydrotesting, drying and pigging of the line
safety was an absolute priority, with a team
of safety professionals providing support
along the whole length of the pipeline.
The environmental and heritage
requirements presented some unique
challenges, such as a round-the-clock turtle
monitoring campaign during the shore crossing
operation, the twice daily fauna inspection of
the open trench that was done on foot, and
the identifcation, fencing and monitoring of
heritage areas.
STREICHER Australia PTY Ltd.
First Floor (RHS)
225 Brisbane Terrace
Goodna QLD 4300
Australia
Phone: +61(0)7 3436 0700
offce@streicher.com.au
www.streicher.com.au
140303OGJBHP_29 29 2/14/14 3:13 PM
COMPANY PROFILE
SCHLUMBERGER
BHP Billiton
|
Energy Abundance 30
Collaboration Lands Complex Wells
Schlumberger and BHP Billiton work closely
to sharpen the view in complex reservoirs
For BHP Billiton, successfully delivering wells
to target depth in their offshore felds often
means navigating through a geologically
complex patchwork of overlapping and
dipping channel sands and unconformable
top and subseismic faulting. To deliver
these wells to target, on time and within
budget, BHP Billiton called on Schlumberger
for assistance.
Schlumberger has a well-
established work history in
Australia, which includes
several successful technology
deployments with BHP Billiton
over the past fve years.
Schlumberger approaches
each of BHP Billitons drilling
projects as a partnership, with
an ultimate goal of helping
the operator overcome its
technical challenges and
meet its drilling and well
placement objectives.
Working Together to
Reduce Well Tortuosity
Such a technology partnership
was critical to BHP Billitons
goal of drilling and
completing a well within the
oil-bearing Lower Barrow
Group sandstones within the
Pyrenees development. The
well was to be positioned
within 3 m total vertical
depth (TVD) of the reservoir
top to maximize intersection
with the reservoir, which
was made more complicated
by the reservoirs internal
stratigraphic layering and
unconformable top.
A multidisciplinary team
of Schlumberger personnel
collaborated with BHP Billitons
subsurface team to develop
a geosteering solution for
wells in this challenging
geological environment. After
reviewing all relevant reservoir properties
and drilling and completion parameters, the
team decided to deploy the Schlumberger
PeriScope HD* multilayer bed boundary
detection service, which incorporates
several formation evaluation measurements,
including real-time directional resistivity and
azimuthal gamma ray, to yield a multi-layer
detection capability and optimally place the
well with respect to the overburden.
Schlumberger provided a bottomhole
assemble (BHA) with the new PeriScope HD
service to minimize potential standoff with
respect to the unconformable overlying shale.
The tool identifed multiple resistivity layers
and delivered information about the reservoir
internal geometry.
Schlumbergers well placement engineers
worked hand-in-hand with BHP Billiton to
successfully drill and place the well. The
PeriScope HD services unique depth of
investigation, coupled with the multilayer
detection capability, provided
an increased understanding
of the complex reservoir
geometry, in addition to
continuously detecting
the upper boundary
of the reservoir while
simultaneously identifying
internal layering and several
dipping progrades.
The well was drilled with
an average of 3 m TVD below
the top of the unconformable
reservoir and achieved a 100
percent net-to-gross ratio to
remain within the sweet spot.
This confrmed to BHP Billiton
that the multilayer bed
boundary detection service
would provide the level
of performance and well
placement assurance that is
needed. BHP Billiton plans
to use PeriScope HD service
in additional horizontal wells
within the feld.
A Sharper Focus on
Formation Fluids
BHP Billiton has advanced its
real-time reservoir knowledge
with the use of the FLAIR*
fuid logging and analysis in
real-time service delivered
by engineers at Geoservices,
a Schlumberger company.
This premium gas service
provides near real-time
PVT-equivalent analysis at
*Mark of Schlumberger
The PeriScope HD service accurately detects multiple formation layers,
orientation of approaching beds and fuid boundary positions to enable
advanced well placement.
140303OGJBHP_30 30 2/14/14 3:13 PM
BHP Billiton
|
Energy Abundance 31
the well site, by extracting hydrocarbons
directly from the drilling mud at surface and
conducting a unique quantitative analysis
of lighter organics (C1 through C5), as well
as a qualitative analysis of C6 through C8
components and light aromatics.
The FLAIR technology provides accurate
analysis from deepwater wells, cold mud
returns and complex modern drilling fuids,
while circulating. Rather than send a fuid
sample to a lab and wait weeks or months
for results, the customer gets this information
for each drilled section in quasi-real time.
This speeds up drilling decision making
for subsequent sections, and gives greater
assurance that the well is on track to hit its
intended target.
BHP Billiton used FLAIR in three wells
in 2013. The frst well, the Homevale-1,
was a vertical exploration well drilled at a
water depth of 1,283 m offshore Western
Australia. The service clearly identifed
the presence of hydrocarbons, despite a
very low gas concentration in the analyzed
range. By heating the cold mud to 90 C,
the service identifed hydrocarbons down to
a minimum of 5 ppm in the C3+ range, and
highlighted a clear compositional trend from
light to heavier fuids in the lower part of the
logged section.
The second and third wells were a primary
well and a sidetrack in the Stybarrow feld,
offshore Western Australia. The data collected
and the interpretation provided by the service
indicated the presence of hydrocarbons in
the main target. However, the sidetrack
well showed low concentrations, and with
a different signature than the PVT sample
from an offset well where FLAIR was not run.
Further comparison between the primary
and sidetrack wells indicated a lighter fuid
composition (only traces of C3 and no C3+
fraction) in the sidetrack. This suggested that
the formation penetrated by the sidetrack
was water bearing. The decrease of gas signal
and the shift towards lighter components
in a continuous hydrocarbon column was
interpreted as an indication of the presence
of water. This is because the high solubility
of the C1 (Methane) in water pushes the C1/
Cn ratios towards lighter values, and this is
clearly identifed by the FLAIR technology in
nearly real-time.
In each of these applications, BHP Billiton
was able to integrate the FLAIR interpretation
with other formation data collected by
logging-while-drilling and on wireline to
provide a deeper understanding of the fuid
distribution in the felds.
Collaborations Continue
Schlumberger is committed to further
collaboration with BHP Billiton to solve
challenging well problems. The two
companies recently collaborated to use the
XL-Rock* large-volume rotary sidewall coring
service, which closes the gap between core
plugs from continuous conventional core and
wireline-conveyed rotary sidewall cores.
The service retrieves up to ffty 1.5-in-OD
by 2.5-in-long sidewall core samples in a
single descent. These large-volume core
samples, which are 300% larger by volume
than MSCT core plugs, deliver a rock volume
equivalent to conventional core plugs,
matching the industrys standard sample
size for routine (RCAL) and most special core
analyses (SCAL) measurements.
BHP Billiton is using the XL-Rock
service to run additional analyses on the
rock. Not only will the operator be able to
routinely test for petrology, biostratigraphy,
geochemistry, chemostratigraphy, but the
larger core size allows for more specialized
analyses. And because this new service
takes rotary cores rather than percussion
cores, there is a lower risk of rock fabric
damage, which is an important beneft
in the analysis of porosity, permeability,
petrology and the study of individual sand
grains in a reservoir rock.
While the XL-Rock coring service is not
a direct replacement for conventional cores
in every application, the larger diameter
core plugs provided by the new tool offer
an effcient, lower cost alternative to
recovering the volume of rock required
for post well studies. The successful
recovery rate of the XL-Rock service already
observed in BHP Billiton wells hasgiven the
operator confdence that its rock analysis
requirements can be met.
Large-volume XL-Rock sidewall cores recover a suffcient volume of rock to extract three
triaxial minicores for full analysis of completion quality, which previously required samples
taken from conventional core. (Image courtesy of Schlumberger)
Schlumberger Australia Pty Ltd.
256 St Georges Terrace, Level 5
Perth, WA 6000
www.slb.com
140303OGJBHP_rev_31 31 2/19/14 3:57 PM
COMPANY PROFILE
TECHNIP
BHP Billiton
|
Energy Abundance 32
Integrated Team Delivers
World Class Macedon Gas Plant
In a remote part of Western Australia, Technip relies on its local
experience and global capabilities to complete Macedon facility
BHP Billiton has successfully started
production from the Macedon gas feld,
delivering 20% of Western Australias
domestic gas supply via the Dampier to
Bunbury Natural Gas Pipeline (DBNGP).
Technip is proud to have delivered the
onshore portion of this important project as
the lead EPCM (Engineering Procurement
Construction Management) contractor, later
transitioning to an integrated team with
BHP Billiton.
The scope of work for the Macedon
onshore gas plant project was to design and
build a gas dehydration and compression
facility capable of producing 200 million
standard cubic feet per day of dry gas, along
with associated support facilities. The scope
included the following key components:
t Construction of a 13km-long plant access
road within a nominated 150m-wide
easement
t Establishment of a 380-person
construction village
t Establishment of ground water supply for
the construction camp, and reverse osmosis
treatment to provide potable water to the
construction village
t Installation of a 15km wet gas pipeline and
umbilical from the shore crossing to the
plant site, including horizontal directional
drilling under sand dunes
t Construction of a gas treatment and
compression plant and associated
infrastructure
t Installation of condensate storage and
truck off-loading facilities to export
produced condensate
t Installation of a 67km sales gas pipeline to
the DBNGP, including metering station
The Macedon onshore plant was delivered
in July, 2013 and commenced the export of
sales gas in August, 2013. Execution of the
Macedon project required a combination
of global capabilities and local knowledge
and experience. Globally, Technip is a world
leader in project management, engineering
and construction for the energy industry.
Technips Onshore segment provides the full
range of onshore facilities for oil and gas,
petrochemicals and other energy industries.
Technips local knowledge from in-house
engineering disciplines within Australia,
combined with access to the Groups
proprietary and third-party technologies,
enables project support for a wide
range of services. These include concept
studies through to design, construction,
commissioning and start-up.
Umbilical installation
Sales gas compressor
140303OGJBHP_32 32 2/14/14 3:13 PM
BHP Billiton
|
Energy Abundance3C3
In Australia and New Zealand, Technip
has been involved in the delivery of three
recent onshore gas plant projects; Macedon,
Woodside Otway Gas Plant and Origin
Kupe Gas Plant.
The Macedon Onshore Gas Plant Project
team was based in Technips Perth offce
with design support from the Kuala Lumpur
operating centre. Technips local workforce
includes 600 personnel in Perth, Brisbane
and New Plymouth (New Zealand) of which
90% are Australian citizens or permanent
residents of Australia.
Successful execution was supported by a
suitably timed transition into an integrated
team, which led to signifcant cost savings
and enhanced effectiveness and productivity
by streamlining decision making processes.
Having both management teams embrace
the importance of the new organizational
concept was paramount to the successful
integration. The mutual respect between
Technip and BHP Billiton fostered a healthy
working relationship and a culture of
success that lasted for the duration of the
Macedon project.
Technips extensive experience with
modularised design and construction was
drawn on to optimise and monitor the
fabrication of modules. This approach
allowed for fabrication in a controlled
workshop environment in South East
Asia while site preparation work was
being completed.
Technips Group HSE Program, Pulse,
was implemented on Macedon to support
BHP Billitons vision of Zero Harm to its
people, the environment and the communities
in which it operates.
In order to protect the local environment,
Technip consistently assessed the risks and
potential impacts before commencing any
work. The company had the full support
of BHP Billiton, which has similarly aligned
values. With local experts supporting the
project team, the Macedon project
was able to successfully conserve
the unique and diverse range of
fora and fauna in the area. For
example, the project implemented
a turtle management plan that
restricted disruptive lighting and
included a turtle spotting program
on the beach.
One of the major challenges
faced by the project team was
the location of the gas plant
Ashburton North is located in a
remote part of Western Australia.
Before construction began,
there were no established roads,
water supply, power supply or
accommodation at the project
site. As noted in BHP Billitons
Petroleum Annual Review 2013,
everything from roads to the
construction camp had to be built, including
water and sewage systems. The completely
self-contained site was also built to withstand
a category 5 cyclone.
It was in this harsh and remote location,
and in a challenging economic climate, that
the integrated project team came together
to deliver a world-class facility on time
and on budget.
Technip Oceania Pty Ltd
Perth, AUSTRALIA
Level 1, 1100 Hay Street
West Perth, WA 6005
Phone: +61 (0)8 9463 2500
Fax: +61 (0)8 9463 2501
Email: technipperth@technip.com
technip.com
Absorber vessels
The project
featured a
detailed Turtle
Management Plan
140303OGJBHP_C3 3 2/14/14 3:13 PM
BHP Billiton Petroleum
1360 Post Oak Boulevard
Houston, Texas 77056
(713) 961-8500
140303OGJBHP_C4 4 2/14/14 3:13 PM