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Our next-generation bearings for engine

accessorieshighly reliable and durable


against premature white structure aking.
Long-Life Bearings for
Engine Accessories
New!
NSK Ltd. has a basic policy not to export any products or technology designated as controlled items by export-related laws. When exporting the products in this brochure,
the laws of the exporting country must be observed. Specications are subject to change without notice and without any obligation on the part of the manufacturer. Every
care has been taken to ensure the accuracy of the data contained in this brochure, but no liability can be accepted for any loss or damage suffered through errors or
omissions. We will gratefully acknowledge any additions or corrections.
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NSK Bearings Europe Ltd.
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Newark tel: 01636-605123
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Sales Ofces:
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Chicago tel: 630-620-8500
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Bennington, Vermont tel: 802-442-5448
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Miami tel: (305) 477-0605
CAT. No.E1256 2004 A-3 Printed in Japan NSK Ltd. 2004
For more information about NSK products, please contact:
Printed on 100% recycled paper.
Patent approved
2 1
Long-Life Bearings for Engine Accessories
How can we solve the problem with
white structure aking?
Engine accessories for automobiles need
to be highly durable and reliable.
Bearings for engine accessories used under
harsh conditions may generate white structure
aking.
NSK has ascertained the cause of white structure aking with
our state-of-the-art technologies.
To solve the problem, we have developed new long-life bearings for
engine accessories utilizing HAB grease and high chrome steel material.
The new bearings are durable against white structure aking, and offer
excellent durability against seizure and rust, meeting vehicle needs well
into the future.
HAB Grease
More than
twice
as durable as
conventional grease
High chrome
steel material
Compared with SUJ2,
Four times
more durable with SHJ5
Ten times
more durable with ES1
White structure aking
Close-up of white structure aking
1.0 mm
50 m
NSK bearings for engine accessories
will solve the problem.
Carburized steel
Mass-produced steel Specially melted steel
Dust-resistant
bearing
Cost reduction
Electrical
conductivity
added
Optimization of
chromium quantity
High reliability
applications
Sub-surface origin-type flaking Surface origin-type flaking
Prevention of
foreign matter
contamination
Heat treatment Material Material
Clean environments
White structure origin-type flaking
Environments where hydrogen is
apt to enter the bearing steel
Dust-contaminated
environments
Strengthening Reduction of
nonmetallic intermediate
Strengthening of bearing steel
Strengthening of
solid solution
by nitrogen
Optimum
ingredients
Carbonitriding
Control of particle
distribution of
nonmetallic
intermediates
High reliability applications
Airplanes applications
Special heat
treatment
Optimization
of material
ingredients

R control
High
purification
UR treatment
Sealed-clean
bearings for T/M
TF bearing
New TF
bearings
Z-steel
VIM-VAR
EP-steel
Hi-TF
bearings
Super-TF bearings
Four-row, sealed
tapered roller
bearings
NSJ2
Long-life bearings
Material
Increase of
chromium quantity
SHJ5 Steel
ES1 Steel
Grease
HAB grease
Reduction of
O2 in steel
Reduction of
impurities
Positioning and applications of high chrome steel material
Long-Life Bearings for
Engine Accessories
Newly designed HAB grease and high chrome steel
<Durability against white structure aking>
Formation of a new surface
at the area of rolling contact
Thickness of grease film
<Catalyst of new surface formation> <Catalyst of new surface formation>
Generation of hydrogen ions
caused by tribo-chemical reaction
Static electricity generated between the
pulley and belt discharges between the
ball and ring, accelerating the generation
of hydrogen, which is caused by the
decomposition of grease.
Intrusion and diffusion of
hydrogen atoms into the steel
Formation of white color structure
Generation of
white structure flaking
Prevention of metallic contact by
ensuring a solid grease film
S
table base structure
for hydrogen
Inhibition of
hydrogen intrusion/diffusion
E
le
c
t
r
ic
c
o
n
d
u
c
t
iv
it
y
e
ffe
c
t
s
o
f g
r
e
a
s
e
Solutions
Prevents metallic contact by
ensuring a solid film of grease
(oil film).
Prevents static electricity from
being generated between the
pulley and belt by energizing the
bearing at all times.
Solutions
Inhibits intrusion and diffusion of
hydrogen by reducing abrasion
through fine dispersion of high-
hardness chromium carbide.
Prevents white etching
constituents from forming by
controlling diffusion (movement)
of carbon atoms.
HAB grease
High surface
pressure
Micro-slip Water Vibration
HAB grease
combined with
nanoscale carbon
particles helps
solve the problem.
High chrome
steel material
High chrome steel,
resistant to white
structure flaking,
also helps solve
the problem.
4 3
Long-Life Bearings for Engine Accessories
What are the causes of
white structure aking?
NSK eliminates the causes of
white structure aking.
Mechanism of white structure aking and
preventive measures to be taken
Grease film
Fixed ring
Reactional film
H2 gas
H2
H2
H2
H2
H2
H2
H2 H2
H2
H2
H2 H2
Rolling element
White structure aking
Flaking patterns of bearings are largely classied into sub-surface origin-
type aking in clean environments and surface origin-type aking in water-
and dust-contaminated environments. White structure aking is a sub-
surface origin-type, not caused by a defect in inner materials such as
nonmetallic intermediates, but by intrusion of hydrogen into the bearing
steel generated by tribo-chemical reaction, which in turn forms a white
etching constituent and generates aking sooner than the end of the
calculated operational life.
Data sets 1 and 2 show the measured
amount of hydrogen that intruded into
the bearing after durability tests.
Intrusion of hydrogen was seen in the
bearing with aking, with a peak at
around 300C. Intrusion of hydrogen
was not found in the bearing without
aking, and no hydrogen peak was
detected.
Close-up of white
structure aking seen
in commercially
available bearings
H
y
d
r
o
g
e
n

r
e
le
a
s
e

s
p
e
e
d


1
0

5
,

p
p
m
/
s
e
c
Temperature, C
0 100 200 300 400 500
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
H
y
d
r
o
g
e
n

r
e
le
a
s
e

s
p
e
e
d


1
0

5
,

p
p
m
/
s
e
c
Temperature, C
0 100 200 300 400 500
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Data set 2. Measured amount of hydrogen
in bearings with aking
Conceptual diagram of hydrogen intrusion
Data set 1. Measured amount of hydrogen
in bearings without aking
Newly designed HAB grease and high chrome steel
Long-Life Bearings for
Engine Accessories
6 5
Long-Life Bearings for Engine Accessories
What are the performance characteristics of
HAB grease and high chrome steel?
Together they ensure
unprecedented long life.
HAB grease and high chrome steel ensure long life and
resistance to white structure aking.
An innovative grease, combined with nanoscale
carbon particles, with electric conductivity.
HAB grease enables bearing use in environments
up to 180C by improving property stability at high
temperatures. HAB grease contains no
environmentally harmful substances. Furthermore,
with electric conductivity, HAB grease is more than
twice as durable against white structure aking.
HAB Grease
High chrome steel enhances the bearings
durability against white structure aking.
The operational life of SHJ5 is four times longer
than SUJ2, while ES1 lasts ten times longer than
SUJ2. In addition, high chrome steel is excellent
for dimensional stability and can be used in high-
temperature environments.
High Chrome Steel
Standard specication
HAB grease-packed bearings enhance durability against white structure aking.
They are recommended as standard specication bearings for conventional uses
of engine accessories.
High-temperature specication
High heat-resistant bearings with SHJ3, which solve problems with SUJ2 in high-
temperature environments, are recommended for engine accessories used at high
temperatures, up to 180C.
<Characteristics of SHJ3>
1. Less softening during tempering due to dimensional stabilization treatment
2. Less softening in high-temperature environments
3. Excellent dimensional stability
Long-life specication
SHJ5 has longer operational life than SUJ2 and enables longer operational life
than bearings with standard specications.
This specication is recommended when downsizing of bearings is required.
Ultra long-life specication
ES1 provides maximum durability against white structure aking.
This specication is optimal for bearings for engine accesories.
Four types of bearings for automobile engine accessories
Bearing specication Bearing material Grease
Current specication SUJ2 Current grease
Standard specication SUJ2 HAB
High-temperature specication SHJ3 HAB
Long-life specication SHJ5 HAB
Ultra long-life specication ES1
8 7
Long-Life Bearings for Engine Accessories
Prevention of metallic contact
Nanocarbon forms a more solid grease lm.
The grease utilizes a thickener with stability
(hardening/softening with time) at high
temperatures.
Electric conductivity: 93.2% Electric conductivity: 12.1%
Item HAB Test method
Appearance Black, buttery
Thickener Diurea
Base oil Ether oil
40C 100
JIS K2283
100C 13
Worked penetration
290 JIS K2220 (5.3)
25C, 60W
Dropping point C 260 or higher JIS K2220 (5.4)
Copper corrosion
Passed JIS K2220 (5.5B)
100C, 24h
Evaporation
0.18 JIS K2220 (5.6B)
%, 99C, 22h
Oil separation
0.3 JIS K2220 (5.7)
%, 100C, 24h
Oxidation stability
0.02 JIS K2220 (5.8)
MPa, 99C, 100h
Worked stability
331 JIS K2220 (5.11)
25C, 10
5
W
Water washout resistance
1.0 JIS K2220 (5.12)
%, 79C, 1h
Activated 0.30
JIS K2220 (5.14)
Rotations 0.10
Rust test 0.1% NaCI
1, 1, 1 ASTM D1743
25C, 48h, 100%RH
Representative properties of HAB grease
Test conditions
Load: 176N
Speed: 0.5 m/s
Temperature: 20C
Grease supplied
(Minimum oil lm
thickness: 1.14 m)
After one minute
(Minimum oil lm
thickness: 0.16 m)
Grease supplied
(Minimum oil lm
thickness: 1.14 m)
After one minute
(Minimum oil lm
thickness: 0.10 m)
The oil lm of HAB grease is more than
1.5 times thicker than that of
conventional greases
Measurement results for EHL oil lm
Current grease
HAB
HAB grease Current grease
Results of HAB grease electric conductivity
Test conditions
Bearing: 608 ( 22 8 7 mm)
500 min
1
, F
r
= F
a
= 29.4N, 30C
Long-Life HAB Grease
Blending nanoscale carbon particles into HAB grease creates electric conductivity, eliminating static electricity
generated between the belt and the pulley. Since static electricity is not charged inside the bearing, discharge
phenomena is reduced and decomposition of the grease is inhibited, which in turn prevents the generation of
hydrogen. As a result, long-life HAB grease-packed bearings resist white structure aking far better than
conventional bearings and are also more resistant to seizing.
Electric
resistance
Constant voltage
power supply
Measuring
instrument
Test bearing
Slip ring
Time, h
C
u
m
u
l
a
t
i
v
e

d
a
m
a
g
e

p
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
,

%
10
1
1
5
10
50
90
99
99.9
10
2
10
3
10
4
Test conditions
Test bearing: 6303 equivalent
P/C: 0.10
Speed: 10 500 min
1
Before
countermeasures
were taken
Current grease
HAB
Time, h
C
u
m
u
l
a
t
i
v
e

d
a
m
a
g
e

p
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
,

%
10
1
1
5
10
50
90
99
99.9
10
2
10
3
10
4
Test conditions
Test bearing: 6301
P/C: 0.13
Speed: 1 000 7 000 min
1
Rotational fluctuation: 0.5%
Current grease
HAB
Time, h
C
u
m
u
l
a
t
i
v
e

d
a
m
a
g
e

p
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
,

%
10
1
1
5
10
50
90
99
99.9
10
2
10
3
10
4
Test conditions
Test bearing: 6303 equivalent
P/C: 0.17
Speed: 20 000 min
1
Bearing temperature: 170C
Current grease
HAB
Time, h
C
u
m
u
l
a
t
i
v
e

d
a
m
a
g
e

p
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
,

%
10
1
1
5
10
50
90
99
99.9
10
2
10
3
10
4
Test conditions
Test bearing: 6301
P/C: 0.14
Speed: 14 000 min
1
Bearing temperature: 130C
Current grease
HAB
Results of white structure aking durability test (grease)
Results of seizure durability test (grease)
Alternator test (inner ring rotation) Idler pulley test (outer ring rotation)
Alternator test (inner ring rotation) Idler pulley test (outer ring rotation)
Measured durability data of HAB grease
Electric conductivity
Combined with electrically conductive substances,
static electricity is prevented from charging
between the pulley and the belt.
Kinetic viscosity of
base oil
mm
2
/sec
Low-temperature
torque
N m
10 9
Long-Life Bearings for Engine Accessories
Long-Life High Chrome Steel
Measured durability data of SHJ5 and ES1
By using high chrome steel as a bearing material to counter white
structure aking, wear resistance is improved, tribo-chemical reactions
due to wear are reduced, intrusion/diffusion of hydrogen (hydrogen
trapping effect) is inhibited, and carbides and base structure are
stabilized (movement of carbon atoms is inhibited at the time of white
etching area formation). SHJ5 and ES1 provide longer life against white
structure aking and exhibit higher durability against seizure than
conventional materials.
Time, h
C
u
m
u
l
a
t
i
v
e

d
a
m
a
g
e

p
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
,

%
10
1
1
5
10
50
90
99
99.9
10
2
10
3
10
4
SUJ2
SHJ5
ES1
Test conditions
Test bearing: 6303 equivalent
P/C: 0.10
Speed: 10 500 min
1
Grease: Before
countermeasures
taken
Time, h
C
u
m
u
l
a
t
i
v
e

d
a
m
a
g
e

p
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
,

%
10
1
1
5
10
50
90
99
99.9
10
2
10
3
10
4
SUJ2
SHJ5
ES1
Test conditions
Test bearing: 6301
P/C: 0.13
Speed: 1 000 7 000 min
1
Rotational fluctuation: 0.5%
Grease: Before
countermeasures
taken
Time, h
C
u
m
u
l
a
t
i
v
e

d
a
m
a
g
e

p
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
,

%
10
1
1
5
10
50
90
99
99.9
10
2
10
3
10
4
Test conditions
Test bearing: 6303 equivalent
P/C: 0.17
Speed: 20 000 min
1
Bearing temperature: 170C
SUJ2 + Current grease
SHJ5 + HAB grease
Time, h
C
u
m
u
l
a
t
i
v
e

d
a
m
a
g
e

p
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
,

%
10
1
1
5
10
50
90
99
99.9
10
2
10
3
10
4
Test conditions
Test bearing: 6301
P/C: 0.14
Speed: 14 000 min
1
Bearing temperature: 130C
SUJ2 + Current grease
SHJ5 + HAB grease
Results of white structure aking durability test (material)
Alternator test (inner ring rotation) Idler pulley test (outer ring rotation)
Alternator test (inner ring rotation) Idler pulley test (outer ring rotation)
Stabilized carbide and base structures
Inhibits diffusion of carbon in steel, and controls
formation of white etching areas.
Compared with SUJ2, SHJ5 and ES1 have longer
operational lives due to their abrasion resistance,
hydrogen intrusion/diffusion inhibition, and
stabilized carbide and base structures.
Chromium quantity
High Low
No flaking generated
W
h
i
t
e

s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e
f
l
a
k
i
n
g

d
u
r
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

L
1
0
,

h
0
200
400
600
800
1 000
1 200
Test conditions
Test bearing: 6303 equivalent
P/C: 0.10
Speed: 10 500 min
1
Chromium quantity
High Low
No flaking generated
W
h
i
t
e

s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e
f
l
a
k
i
n
g

d
u
r
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

L
1
0
,

h
0
200
400
600
800
1 000
1 200
Test conditions
Test bearing: Sample of a thrust bearing
P/C: 0.4
Speed: 2 500 min
1
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
y
d
r
o
g
e
n

d
i
f
f
u
s
i
o
n

r
a
t
e
,

p
p
m
/
h
SUJ2 SHJ5 ES1
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.10
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
S
e
i
z
u
r
e

P
V

v
a
l
u
e
,

G
P
a

m
/
s
SUJ2 SHJ5 ES1
0
12
2
4
6
8
10
R
a
t
e

o
f

c
h
a
n
g
e
,

%
Time, h
1
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.10
10 100 1 000 10 000
ES1
SHJ5
SUJ2 (usual heat treatment)
Left at 170C
Improved wear resistance
Finely dispersing and precipitating, high-hardness
chromium carbides inhibit abrasion, preventing new
surface formation, and reduce tribo-chemical
reactions (generation of hydrogen).
Inhibited hydrogen diffusion
High hydrogen trapping energy.
H
H
H
H
H
Alternator test
Conceptual illustration of the hydrogen trapping function
Hydrogen diffusion rate
Seizing test for each material
Relationship between chromium quantity and white structure aking durability
SUJ2:
Weak trapping function
Fast hydrogen diffusion
Hydrogen may accumulate in
stress concentration areas such as
micro damages
High chrome steel:
Strong trapping function
Slow hydrogen diffusion
Hydrogen cannot accumulate easily
Newly designed HAB Grease and High Chrome Steel
Long-Life Bearings for
Engine Accessories
Results of seizure durability test (material)
Hydrogen charging test
Dimensional stability of each material