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TASK 1 : CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE THEMES AND SPEECHES.


Guru: Pencetus Kreativiti, Penjana Inovasi is the theme for the 43
rd
Teachers Day
Celebration for the year 2014. This theme is found very interesting and significant as
recognition to the role and contribution of teachers in educating the children and promoting
the country's progress. YAB Tan Sri Dato Hj Muhyiddin Bin Hj Mohd Yassin, the Deputy
Prime Minister, as well as the Malaysia Education Minister stated that the effort to
transform the country education system through the Malaysia Education Blueprint (2013-
2025), which emphasized on the element of creativity and innovation and Higher-order
Thinking Skills (HOTS) performed in schools, further strengthened through the program i
Think, is believed to be able to produce future generations of Malaysia with great abilities of
thinking critically, creative and innovatively.
In accordance with the Teachers Day theme for this year, it is almost time where
teachers work towards igniting creativity and empowering the innovation in teaching
the students. This is indeed very important as our country is progressing towards the era of
an advanced county where it should be driven by peoples innovativeness. To cope with the
increasingly intensified global competition in an economic environment that is driven by
innovation, our education system actually play a very important role in generating people's
innovativeness.
Malaysia is on the verge of being one of the developed countries. Our country is
going through a crucial phase of transformation which will determine whether we have made
the right moves to be a developed country in 2020. In this era of transformation, the mind
and the people need to work to accelerate the progress of being a develop country in a more
challenging global environment. During our journey through the era of transformation, there
are a number of challenges that we face. For teachers, the greatest challenges are to boost
the quality and equity of education. The aim is, first, that our national education system is
able to produce individuals who are capable of driving the country's progress rapidly and fill
the needs of a progressive society. And second, that each pupil in our country, regardless of
race, religion, region and social status has the opportunity in getting a quality education in a
fair and equitable manner, said YAB. Tan Sri Dato Hj Muhyiddin Bin Hj. Mohd Yassin in his
speech of Teachers Day Celebration 2013.
Thus, the main focus of the government is to improve the quality of education across
the country. This is because we know that providing quality education to the people is the
only means to produce human capital that is knowledgeable, skilled, creative, innovative and
competitive. Human capital is what will drive the development of our country to a higher
level. Our hopes stand on their shoulder, to see the progress and development of the
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country that is generated more rapidly and sustained, for the benefit and prosperity of our
future together.
We cannot take things for granted and feel satisfied with the existing performance. In
the increasingly massive global competition, the education system and the practices in the
country need some transformation. The quality of the teachers needs to be enhanced,
and the leadership quality needs to be improved. Curriculum and evaluating system
are needed to be restructured as well as improving the school infrastructure.
Resources and education delivery systems need to be managed more efficiently. In
short, the whole education system should be reviewed from time to time to enhanced the
education quality. (YAB Tan Sri Dato Hj. Muhyiddin, 2012).
The government is transforming the country's education system through the Malaysia
Education Blueprint (MEB, 2013-2025), which emphasized the element of creativity and
innovation. Thus, the Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) is implemented in the school
which includes seven elements of the curriculum which are the pedagogy, assessment,
resources, community support, extra-curricular and building the capabilities of the teachers.
HOTS in the classroom has been strengthened through the i-Think program that will help
to develop thinking skills, cultivate a culture of lifelong learning, skills in problem solving and
able to produce creative solutions among students. Through i-Think, we will be able to
produce future generations of Malaysia with great abilities, critical thinking skills, creative
and innovative.
Thus, to be able to come out with the Malaysia Education Blueprint (2013-2025), the
ministry has initiated the process of Education Review. A preliminary report outlining the
key aspects that needed attention has been prepared by an expert group. They have also
started Dialog Nasional Pendidikan Negara to invite views and suggestions from the
societies, on how we can improve the quality and level of education in our country to
be on par with developed countries. Teachers are invited to participate and to contribute with
ideas to improve the quality of our education.
To develop a better nation especially the young generation that has innovative and
creative mind, the teachers itself need to be innovative. (YAB Tan Sri Dato Hj.
Muhyiddin, 2012). A teacher who is innovative has the ability to equip the pupils towards the
global skills such as the ability to think critically, has the skills of solving problem and
creative. In teaching context, before stepping into the classroom, an innovative teacher will
concentrate on the curriculum and evaluate the outcomes to be achieved. While in the
classroom, teachers who are innovative will not be bound towards any teaching and
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learning approach, but will try to think out of the box to search for effective approach and
methods in teaching as long as the learning objectives is achieved.
Furthermore, an innovative teacher will also focus on teaching and learning
methods that can stimulate pupils thinking and creativity. Innovative teachers has the
priority to ensure the pupils are able to use the knowledge that is taught in the classroom,
and not simply to succeed in the exam, but to allow them to solve problems that is faced in
the real world. Thus, innovative teachers are teachers who are able to provide a learning
environment that is conducive so that pupils are groomed to think intelligently. Next, an
innovative teacher are able to evaluate the performance and pupils potential in a holistic
manner, and always take a proactive measures to enhance the excellence of pupils so that
they able to compete in a challenging world.
This brings the meaning; innovative teachers are teachers who had always thought
about the future challenges that the pupils will face as soon as they leave the school and
what he had learnt in school are able to give advantages to compete in the real world. The
innovative teachers will always use a variety of methods and means to brush up the
intellectual, creativity and flexibility of children, and make them competitive and virtuous
human being. If all the teachers in our country are innovative teachers, I believe that our
goals to achieve human capital that is highly knowledgeable, creative, innovative and
competent can be achieved. Thus, this supported the theme of the Teachers Day
Celebration in 2012, Guru Inovatif Melonjakkan Transformasi Pendidikan Negara.
In order to evaluate the effectiveness of HOTS, 30 percent of the questions in the
public examination such as UPSR, PMR, SPM, STPM and STAM lead to HOTS element.
Among the pupils, HOTS is being assessed through international examinations such as
TIMSS and PISA. School Based Assessment (SBA), which was implemented, is expected to
detect the failure or mastery of pupils from an early stage. Through the SBA system, I
believe teachers can elicit higher-order thinking skills in pupils and encourage innovative
mind among them. (YAB Tan Sri Dato Hj. Muhyiddin, 2013). This supports the agenda of
having the nation that has higher order thinking skills as mooted by Tan Sri Dato Hj.
Muhyiddin Bin Hj. Mohd Yassin in his speech for Teachers Day Celebration in 2014.
To promote innovative culture among educators, the Ministry of Education
gives credit and recognition for innovation projects to teachers through the
Pertandingan Anugerah Guru Inovatif Peringkat Kebangsaan that has been launched
since 2002. Among the projects that have been awarded with the credit is Smart Kiosk by
Mr. Mohd Solleh Halim Bin Mohd Sokhi from Sekolah Kebangsaan Parit Serong, Tanjung
Karang, Selangor. He invented the kiosk by using recyclable materials found in the school
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compound. Besides that, a teacher, Teh Tik Seng from SMK Sacred Heart, Sibu, Sarawak
has invented Mathematics EZ Draw, a problem solving method to improve students
performance in Mathematics. Vimala d/o Muniandy from SJK(T) Subramaniya Barathee,
Gelugor, Penang invented Tamil Literature Courseware for Tamil school. Apart of
academic innovation, discipline innovation product is produced to enhance the management
of discipline in schools. In 2013, SMKA Putrajaya has produced X-Time2 to help students
to be punctual. Sabah Education Department produces Minda Ajaib Portable Whiteboard to
overcome learning outside the classroom problems. In addition, Sekolah Kebangsaan
Pendidikan Khas Alma, Bukit Mertajam, Penang produces Smart Iqra to overcome the
basic mastery of the Quran among students with sight impairment. (YAB Tan Sri Dato Hj.
Muhyiddin Bin Hj. Mohd Yassin, 2014). Those are the examples of teachers who hold the
criteria of Guru: Pencetus Kreativiti, Penjana Inovasi.
On behalf of the students, there is also recognition being given to the school for their
students achievement in innovation. For example, the students from SMK USJ 4, Subang
Jaya who won gold medal in World Robotic Olympiad Competition in Abu Dhabi, United
Arab Emiriah in November 2011.
In conclusion, to be able to develop a country with the nation that uphold creativity,
innovative and could think using higher order thinking skills, the responsibility is not to be
shouldered by the teachers only. But, teacher should be innovative and creative enough to
the pupils so that the pupils would make the teachers as their role model. Apart from that,
there are schools in Malaysia such as Mara Junior Science College (MRSM) and boarding
school (SBP) which always send students to compete in various competitions which involve
creativity and innovation. Teachers, parents and other stakeholders need to model these
aspects to the children so that they are interested and able to uphold the agenda as
proposed by our deputy prime minister, which to be able to produce creative, innovative and
could think using higher order thinking skills among the children to be a better nation in the
future.





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TASK 2: MANAGING CLASSROOM ISSUES USING LEADERSHIP THEORY
(REFLECTIVE ESSAY WRITING)
Reflective or reflection is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary (2012) as the
action or process of thinking carefully or deeply about a particular subject, typically involving
influence from one's past life and experiences. Reflection is a way of enabling self-
development and deeper learning by looking back at an experience so as to learn from it and
then move forward. A person may discuss learning from an experience; reflective writing
takes this a stage further by putting the reflection into the more permanent and structured
format of a written account and linking it to academic theory. Reflecting on an experience
reflection on action can help us to make links between theory and practice and between
our past and present knowledge. Reflecting on and learning from our experiences can help
us to avoid repeating mistakes and move away from acting automatically without thought; it
will help us to identify the successful aspects of an experience, and any useful principles
which can be applied to other situations.
Classroom control is indeed one of the important aspects that need to be addressed
by a teacher. Teachers certainly cannot run away from mingling with matters related to the
pupils discipline due to a very close relationship with classroom control. In this case,
Omardin Ashaari (1999) argues that the most effective method in controlling the class and is
often used by teachers using the own strength and rigidity. For example, there are many
teachers who used their voices to tell the pupils to be silent when they are busy chatting
while the teacher is teaching and when the class is out of control.
Classroom management is a process to ensure that the lessons in the classroom run
smoothly even at the same time a disruption of student behaviour exists. Many say that
classroom management is the most difficult aspect. 36% of teachers in the United States
indicated that they would not be a teacher if they know they will face difficulties in classroom
management, (report of the National Education Association, United States, 1981).
Maskowitz and Hayman (1976) once said that once a teacher loses control of the classroom,
it will become more difficult to control again. Generally, classroom management may be
represented as "a live orchestra in the classroom: which include planning the curriculum,
organizing procedures and resources, arranging the environment to maximize efficiency,
monitoring student progress, and anticipate potential problems." (Lemlech, 1988). However,
effective classroom management according to Anderson (1989) is the behaviour that
resulted in the maximum student involvement in learning activities and minimizes disruptive
student behaviour as well as the efficient use of learning time.
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Today, we know more about teaching than we ever have before. Research has
shown us that teachers' actions in their classrooms have twice the impact on student
achievement as do school policies regarding curriculum, assessment, staff collegiality, and
community involvement (Marzano, 2003a). We also know that one of the classroom
teacher's most important jobs is managing the classroom effectively. A comprehensive
literature review by Wang, Haertel, and Walberg (1993) amply demonstrates the importance
of effective classroom management. These researchers analysed 86 chapters from annual
research reviews, 44 handbook chapters, 20 government and commissioned reports, and 11
journal articles to produce a list of 228 variables affecting student achievement. They
combined the results of these analyses with the findings from 134 separate meta-analyses.
Of all the variables, classroom management had the largest effect on student achievement.
This makes intuitive sensestudents cannot learn in a chaotic, poorly managed classroom.
Based on my experience during practicum as a novice teacher, there are many
classroom management issues that I encounter. And these issues need to be addressed in a
rational way. In this essay, the issues will be addressed using the educational leadership
theory. But, before we go further, I need to define the terms leadership first. Leadership is
an important element in a group of organization. Many studies show that a successful
organization depends on the function of leadership. According to Ibrahim Mamat (2001), a
leader is a combination of qualities of a director and also an assistant who drives an
organization. Leadership is ability for a person to inspire confidence and support among the
group members that are needed to achieve organizational goals, (Kim and
Maubourgne,1992). According to Leithwood & Janti, (1999), leadership is the ability to
influence the belief systems, actions and values of group members.
One of the problems that I encountered during my practicum is, the pupils could not
carry out group activities. This is because they dont agree with the way I divide them into
group. Apart from that, they do not have the motivation to do group activities. Another factor
that contributes to this problem is, some of the pupils like to do individual work. To overcome
this problem, I used transformational or transactional theory. This theory is proposed by
Burn (1978). The theory defines as motivating subordinates through giving
reinforcement on what they do. The leader of this kind is sensitive towards the desire
of the subordinate, giving reinforcement and responsive towards the interests of the
subordinate. I overcome the problem by using star awarding method to motivate the
pupils to work in group that has been set. The group that gives and shows good
commitment, behaviour and performance while doing the activities and homework will be
awarded a star for the group. In the end of the week or month, the group with the most
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stars will get a reinforcement from the teacher. This could motivate the pupils because most
of the pupils love positive reinforcement from the teachers. In order to get the reinforcement,
they are able to work and give commitment towards their group members.
Another problem that I encountered is pupils are chatting with their friends,
making noise and some do not give attention while teacher is teaching. In dealing with
this problem, I used behavioural theory. Behavioural theory focuses on how leaders behave
in the process of leadership especially towards followers. I am using Blake and Mouton
(1964, 1978) Grid Management theory to deal with the problem. Grid Management theory
pays attention to two different dimensions related to leadership concerns namely:
i) Concern for production; which leaders show concern for the task and employee
productivity in order to achieve organizational goals.
ii) Concern for the human; where leaders are paying attention and emphasis on
good relations with the workers in the organization.
I focus on the concern for the human, which in my case they are my pupils. The types of
action that I used is country club management where it emphasis on human needs,
human relations and a harmonious work culture and fun. I made a behavioural
contract with the pupils in order to minimalize the arising issues. When they issue arises in
the classroom, I discussed with the pupils on the rules and regulation that they need to
adhere when I teach. Thus, we discussed together on the punishment to be carried out if the
pupils violate the rules that is being set. For example, we have agreed that if they want to
answer questions, they need to put up their hand. If some of them shouting the answer, even
when the answer is right, we agreed to punish the pupil by asking him or her to stand at their
place for two minutes. Thus, they are aware with the consequences because the rules were
made together and they have a contract that need to be followed.
According to a research based in Iowa University that is proposed by Kurt Lewin,
Ronald Lippitt and Robert K. White, the leadership style that is used is democratic
leadership where the leader encourages discussion and making the decision together with
the subordinates. It is a participative-democratic where the subordinates are invited to
contribute ideas in making the decision. This made a win-win situation on both sides where
then subordinates are given the opportunity to voice out their opinion.
The third problem that I come across while teaching during the practicum session is
pupils who are lack of motivation to learn, do not want to participate during the lesson
and doing own work while the teacher is teaching. These pupils need to be handled with
care and patience. Teachers should not force or act violently towards the pupils because
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they will go astray from what we meant to do. Thus, I used situational leadership theory to
cope with this problem. Prof Emeritus Dr James E. Gruing (1997) is the academician that
forms the situational theory. He stated that a leadership is usually influenced by the
situation in which certain factors from a specific situation determine an appropriate
leadership for the particular situation.
Situational theory by Hersey and Blanchard (1977, 1992) combined and expand the
idea of Blake and Mouton Management Grid and Fielder Contingency Model. Leadership
effectiveness is based on the situation. It focuses on the level of maturity of the
subordinates and the use of leadership style varies to match the maturity level. There
are two aspects namely;
i) Low Maturity Group: low motivation, lack of skills, lack of definite goals of the
organization and lack of cohesion of the group.
For this group, leader is expected to take time to clarify the role and goals of the
organization, making a more intensive supervision and encourages members to accept work
through persuasion.
ii) High Maturity Group: high motivation, high skills, committed to the goals of the
organization, team members and leaders trust.
Whereas for this group, leader is expected to facilitate and maintain a good communication.
Leader should take appropriate leadership style to be adopted for the high-skilled group but
less enthusiastic. There are four leadership styles that are related to this theory which is:
i) Telling- reflects the high concern for task and concern for people and
relationships, this is a directive style. Leaders give explicit directions on how
tasks should be accomplished.
ii) Selling- based on a high concern for relationships and tasks. In this approach,
leaders explain the decision and give followers a chance to ask questions and
seek clarification on the task.
iii) Participating- behaviour characterized by high relationship and low task. Leaders
are to share ideas with followers, encourage participants, and facilitate decision
making.
iv) Delegating- reflects the low concern for task and relationship. Leaders gave little
direction or support because responsibility for decisions and their implementation
is given to the followers.
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Back to the pupils problem, I used telling and selling leadership style to suit the low
maturity group. These pupils are lack of motivation and not committed towards the lesson.
This could lead to the problem where teacher could not achieve the objective of the lesson.
Thus, I need to persuade the pupils and explain to them the importance of studying.
Sometimes, pupils could not really see the importance of learning. Thus, teachers are
expected to make it clear to them and awake and make them alert on the importance. These
pupils need more supervision and attention so that they feel encouraged to learn. Thus, I
gave them more attention and supervision as well as personal coaching if they have problem
in their learning. Moreover, to get their attention to learn, I used various teaching aids and
teaching activities to make sure that they do not feel bored towards chalk and talk teaching
style.
In conclusion, the uses of leadership style when teaching the pupils need to be
suitable with their maturity level. Every problem that arises needs different style and ways of
overcoming them. Teachers should be flexible and dynamic in this case. The style of
leadership or organizational structure has the same purpose that is to form positive working
effectiveness. Effectiveness of the work is the degree attainment of an organization based
on the activities done. Effectiveness of the work is influenced by various factors, among
others, leadership styles, communications, motivation, organizational structure and other.
These factors are things that need to be organized and developed and continue to be
treated in such a way that the organization remains intact and does not strip out the purpose
for which it is set. Leadership style differences affect the success of the automatic
implementation of the whole process of the organization. Therefore, with the development of
theories about leadership style is expected to make the organization more effective and
efficient.








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