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THE STATE OF DOMESTIC COMMERCE IN

PAKISTAN

STUDY 7
AN OVERVIEW OF THE TRANSPORT SECTOR






For
The Ministry of Commerce
Government of Pakistan
November 2007











By
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt.) Ltd.
House No. 2, Street 44, F-8/1, Islamabad.

Table of Contents




List of Abbreviations ............................................................................................................... i
Glossary of terms .................................................................................................................. v
Acknowledgments ............................................................................................................... vii


Executive Summary ........................................................................................................... 3

Section 1: Introduction .................................................................................................. 7

Section 2: Methodology ................................................................................................ 9
2.1 Road ...................................................................................................................... 9
2.2 Data Reliability ........................................................................................................ 11
2.3 Rail, Aviation, and Ports .......................................................................................... 11

Section 3: Transport Indices ....................................................................................... 13
3.1 Output index ............................................................................................................ 13
3.2 Weights for value added index ................................................................................ 16
3.3 Weights for price index ............................................................................................ 16
3.4 Tackling scarcity of data in future attempts .............................................................. 17

Section 4: Road transport ........................................................................................... 18
4.1 Output 18
4.2 Price, Cost, and profit margin estimates .................................................................. 18
4.2.1 Freight services ........................................................................................... 18
4.2.2 Passengers .................................................................................................. 20
4.3 Time estimates ........................................................................................................ 21
4.4 Characteristics of the Road Sub-sector ................................................................... 22
4.4.1 Road Network and Administration ................................................................ 22
4.4.2. Structure of the Road Sub-sector ................................................................ 23
4.4.3 Composition of the Freight Market ............................................................... 25
4.4.4. Financing and Contractual Arrangements .................................................... 27
4.5 Determinants of Growth in the Road Sector ............................................................ 28
4.5.1 Infrastructure Issues .................................................................................... 29
4.5.2 Competition .................................................................................................. 33
4.5.3 Regulatory Framework ................................................................................. 33
4.5.4 Governance Issues ...................................................................................... 35
4.5.5 Access to finance ......................................................................................... 36
4.5.6 Travel restrictions due to zoning and law and order situation ....................... 37
4.5.7 Owners Prior Experience & Skill Level ........................................................ 37
4.6 Enhancing efficiency of road transport ..................................................................... 39

Section 5: Railways ..................................................................................................... 41
5.1 The PR network ....................................................................................................... 41
5.2 Share in the market ................................................................................................. 42
5.2.1 Value added in the rail sub-sector ................................................................ 44
5.2.3 Commodities carried .................................................................................... 44
5.3 Constraints to growth ............................................................................................... 46
5.3.1 The governance of PR freight ...................................................................... 47
5.3.2 Lack of a competitive environment ............................................................... 48
5.4 Building on the strengths to enhance competitiveness ............................................ 48

Section 6: Aviation ...................................................................................................... 51
6.1 Aviation Network and Administration ....................................................................... 51
6.2 Freight and passenger handling .............................................................................. 52
6.3 The way forward ...................................................................................................... 55

Section 7: Ports ........................................................................................................... 56
7.1 Port administration, makeup and network ................................................................ 56
7.2 Costs 57
7.3 Port Clearance times ............................................................................................... 58
7.3.1 Customs clearance: ..................................................................................... 59
7.4 Potential avenues for improvement ......................................................................... 61

Section 8: Major Government Initiatives .................................................................... 62
Section 9: Conclusion ................................................................................................. 65

Annex 1 ................................................................................................................... 69
Annex 2 ................................................................................................................... 72


List of Boxes




Box 1: Relative weights to compute output index ................................................. 14
Box 2: Relative weights for value added index ..................................................... 16
Box 3: Relative weights for price index ................................................................. 17
Box 4: Interaction of road carriers with public sector representatives ................... 35
Box 5: Major constraints at land borders ............................................................. 60

List of Tables


Table 2.1: Sampling details ............................................................................................ 9
Table 2.2: Interview details for rail, aviation, and ports sub-sectors .............................. 12
Table 3.1 Total, freight, and passenger indices............................................................ 14
Table 3.2: Annual growth rates of transport output index and national GDP ................. 15
Table 4.1: Total passenger and freight output for road.................................................. 18
Table 4.2: Freight prices for major routes ..................................................................... 19
Table 4.3: Freight transporter costs for major routes .................................................... 19
Table 4.4: Profit margins estimates for freight carriers (PKR) ....................................... 20
Table 4.5: Passenger fares for major routes (PKR) ...................................................... 21
Table 4.6: Passenger transport cost and profit margin estimates (PKR) ....................... 21
Table 4.7: Estimates of times taken for transportation .................................................. 22
Table 4.8: Transport density estimates (2005) .............................................................. 22
Table 4.9: Type of workers in the transport industry (%) ............................................... 24
Table 4.10: Gap between business services required and used ..................................... 25
Table 4.11: Mode of payment of transport deals ............................................................. 27
Table 4.12: Average time to have credit cleared? ........................................................... 28
Table 4.13: Respondent views on Various Contractual Statements ................................ 28
Table 4.14: Cross-country comparison of rural accessibility ........................................... 30
Table 4.15: Transport Access and Service Availability in Rural Pakistan. ....................... 30
Table 4.16: Selected Human Development Indicators and Road Access (%) ................. 31
Table 4.17: Start-up capital requirements for road transport enterprises ......................... 36
Table 4.18: Major Problems in accessing credit (% of respondents) ............................... 36
Table 4.19: Reasons for acquiring informal loan ............................................................. 36
Table 4.20: Medium of learning management and technical skills .................................. 38
Table 4.21: Level of education of enterprise owners ....................................................... 38
Table 5.1: Classification of PR lines (2004-05) ............................................................. 41
Table 5.2: Pakistan Railways: Core and Non-Commercial Networks ............................ 42
Table 5.3: Passenger volume revenue and fare............................................................ 42
Table 5.4: Pakistan Railways: Freight Data .................................................................. 43
Table 5.5: Pakistan Railways: Network Costs FY2004 (PKR million) ............................ 44
Table 5.6: Pakistan Railways Basic Rate Scale for Freight Transport .......................... 44
Table 5.7: Commodity Volume Carried ......................................................................... 45
Table 6.1: Domestic Air Traffic of Passengers and Freight of Pakistan International
Airlines ......................................................................................................... 51
Table 6.2: Aircraft Landing Charges at Various Airports in Pakistan ............................. 54
Table 6.3: Aircraft Housing Charges at Various Airports in Pakistan ............................. 54
Table 7.1: Cargo handled at Karachi Port and Port Qasim ........................................... 57
Table 7.2: Port Tariffs at KPT and Port Qasim .............................................................. 57
Table 7.3: Free storage periods at KPT and Port Qasim ............................................... 60
Table 7.4: Estimates of informal costs associated with custom clearance ..................... 61


List of Figures


Figure 1: Plot of GDP growth against transport output index growth (%) ..................... 15
Figure 2: Forecast for output index movement ............................................................ 16
Figure 3: Fuel costs relative to total cost (%) .............................................................. 20
Figure 4: Type of Ownership in the truck industry ....................................................... 23
Figure 5: Relative size of firms in the road industry ..................................................... 24
Figure 6: Share of road freight trips by commodity type (%) ........................................ 26
Figure 7: Reasons for Damage to Perishable items .................................................... 26
Figure 8: Preference among available dispute settlement mechanisms ...................... 27
Figure 9: Key Constraints to Growth ........................................................................... 29
Figure 10: Perception of state of the road network (% of respondents) ......................... 32
Figure 11: Average time lost due to condition of roads (hours/trip)................................ 32
Figure 12: Reasons for not registering a transport enterprise (% of respondents) ......... 34
Figure 13: Relative importance of constraints due to lack of education (% of
respondents) ................................................................................................ 38

Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) i
List of Abbreviations

ABAD Association of Builders and Developers
ADB Asian Development Bank
ADBI Asian Development Bank Institute
APCA All Pakistan Contractors Association
ATT Afghan Trade Transit
BAF Bank AlFalah
BCI Business Competitiveness Index
BOR Board of Revenue
CAA Civil Aviation Authority
CBM Cubic meter
CBR Central Board of Revenue
CDA Capital Development Authority
CIB Credit information bureau
CMR Contract for the International Carriage of Goods by Road
CPI Corruption Perceptions Index
CPIA Country Policy and Institutional Assessment
DFID Department for International Development
DHA Defense Housing authority
EDF Export Development Fund
EIU Economist Intelligence Unit
EOS Executive Opinion Survey
EPB Export Promotion Bureau
ESCAP Economic and Social Development in Asia and the Pacific
FBS Federal Bureau of Statistics
FCL Full Container Load
FDI Foreign Direct Investment
FIAS Foreign Investment Advisory Service
Ft Foot
FY Fiscal Year
GCI Global Competitiveness Index
GCR Global Competitiveness Report
GD Goods Declaration
GDP Gross Domestic Product
GoP Government of Pakistan
GOR Government Officials Residences
GRT Gross Register Tonnage
GST General Sales Tax
HBFC Housing Building Finance Corporation
HBL Habib Bank Limited
HDR Human Development Report
HFIs Housing Finance Institutions
IFC International Finance Corporation
IFS International Financial Statistics
IMF International Monetary Fund
ISAL Informal Subdivision of Agricultural Land
ISO International Standards Organization
IT Information Technology
ITU International Telecommunications Union
Survey Report on Domestic Commerce

Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) ii
KBCA Karachi Building Control Authority
KDA Karachi Development Authority
KESC Karachi Electric Supply Corporation
KM(s) Kilometer(s)
KPT Karachi Port Trust
KSE Karachi Stock Exchange
LCL Less Than Container Load
LOA Length Overall
MCB Muslim Commercial Bank
MENA Middle East and North Africa
MOC Ministry of Commerce
MOD Ministry of Defense
MTDF Medium Term Development Framework
NBP National Bank of Pakistan
NCS National Conservation Strategy
NER Net Primary School Enrollment Rate
NHA National Highway Authority
NIE Newly industrialized economy
NIT National Institute of Transport
NLC National Logistics Cell
NTN National Tax Number
NTRC National Transportation Research Center
NTTFC National Trade and Transport Facilitation Committee
NWFP North West Frontier Province
PASSCO Pakistan Agricultural Storage and Services Corporation
PEC Pakistan Engineering Council
PHDEB Pakistan Horticulture Development and Export Board
PIAC Pakistan International Airlines Corporation
PIDE Pakistan Institute Of Development Economists
PIHS Pakistan Integrated Household Survey
PKR Pakistani Rupee
PQA Port Qasim Authority
PR Pakistan Railways
PREF Pakistan Real Estate Federation
PSDP Public Sector Development Program
R&D Research and Development
REER Real Effective Exchange Rate
REITs Real Estate Investment Trusts
RICS Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors
SAI Social Accountability International
SBP State Bank of Pakistan
SKAA Sindh Katchi Abadis Authority
SME Small and Medium Enterprises
SPS Sanitary and Phytosanitary
SRO Statutory Regulation Order
Std Standard
TEP Total Factor Productivity
TEU Twenty-Foot Equivalent Units
TI Transparency International
TOR Terms of Reference
Survey Report on Domestic Commerce

Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) iii
TSDI Transport Sector Development Initiative
TTFP Trade and Transportation Facilitation Program
UK United Kingdom
UNDP United Nations Development Program
US United States
USA United States of America
USC Utility Stores Corporation
USD United States Dollars
WAPDA Water and Power Development Authority
WDI World Development Indicators
WEF World Economic Forum
WGI Worldwide Governance Indicators
WTO World Trade Organization


Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) v
Glossary of terms

Aadaa Transport hub/station

Bilty Local term for receipt given to the shipper upon booking any transport
consignment
Maal gari Pakistan Railways dedicated freight wagon
Passenger-km Standard unit for measuring passenger output; it is calculated as the product
of the total number of kilometers traveled and the number of passengers
traveling the total distance
Ton-km Standard unit for measuring freight output; it is calculated as the product of
the total number of tons carried and kilometers traveled

Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) vii
Acknowledgment

The IDS team owes a debt of gratitude to the officers of the Ministry of Commerce for their
guidance, assistance and feedback during the course of this study. Our special thanks go out,
in particular, to Syed Asif Ali Shah, Secretary; Mr. Naseem Qureshi and Mr. Ashraf Khan,
Additional Secretaries; Mr. Abrar Hussian, Joint Secretary; Syed Irtiqa Zaidi, Consultant and
Mr. Qaseem Subhani, Section Officer, for sparing their precious time and efforts for the
study.

We feel a deep sense of gratitude for the Minister for Commerce. Mr. Humayun Akhtar
Khan, who took out considerable time from his busy schedule to guide us. It was his sincere
and deep conviction which enabled us to conduct and compile this detailed and
comprehensive study on Domestic Commerce of our country. His apt guidance and keen
analytical oversight were extremely helpful in finalizing the study and formulating the policy
recommendations.

This study has benefited from comments received from the following:
1. State Bank of Pakistan, Karachi.
2. Federal Board of Revenue, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad.
3. Planning and Development Division, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad.
4. Trade Development Authority, Government of Pakistan, Karachi.
5. (Management Consultants) Establishment Division, Government of Pakistan,
Islamabad.
6. Finance Division, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad.
7. Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad.
8. NTTFC, Karachi.
9. FPCCI, Karachi.
10. Planning and Development Board, Government of Punjab, Lahore.
11. Planning and Development Board, Government of NWFP, Peshawar.
12. Planning and Development Board, Government of Sindh, Karachi.
13. Planning and Development Board, Government of Balochistan, Quetta.
14. Investment and Commerce Department, Government of Punjab, Lahore.
15. Ministry of Communications, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad.
16. Industries, Production & Supplies Initiatives, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad.
17. Statistics Division, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad.




1







AN OVERVIEW OF THE TRANSPORT
SECTOR*


by


MOEED YUSUF






For detailed survey results, please see separate volume entitled Basic Statistics of the Sample
Survey Data.


Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 3
Executive Summary

1. The transport sector plays a pivotal role in Pakistans economy, both in enhancing the
global competitiveness of an economy as well as in ensuring efficient functioning of the
domestic commerce supply chain. It accounts for about 11 percent of the countrys Gross
Domestic Product (GDP), 17 percent of Gross Capital Formation, and 6 percent of
employment. However, much of the economic gains from efficient transport services are lost
in Pakistans case due to the overall poor performance of the sector. According to some
estimates, the economy suffers a loss of 8.5 percent of GDP annually. Such a grave situation
necessitates the need to analyze various facets of the transport sector to identify the key
constraints causing efficiency losses. The need for such an analysis is further underscored by
the fact that demand for transport is expected to double by 2015, thus requiring significantly
higher levels of service.

Methodology

2. The analysis benefits from a review of existing literature and information gathered
through primary sources. Findings from literature have been used to complement primary
information. Therefore, rather than reporting existing literature and findings from primary
data separately, the report combines the analysis to present a holistic overview of each sub-
sector.

Transport Indices

3. The Laspeyres fixed-weighted index has been used to derive the results. Three
separate indices have been generated: the total transport output index, the passenger output
index, and the freight output index. Relative weights for the index have been computed using
operating revenue estimates for passenger and freight services. No value added index could
be created owing to the lack of time series data on operating revenues and costs for the
transport sub-sectors. However, utilizing the sample data, relative weights have been
computed for the road sub-sector, using 2004-05 as the base year. Only weights for the road
sub-sector are generated to allow computation of a price index in the future. Reasons to
exclude rail and road, and for not being able to create an actual index are the same as those
stated in the discussion on value added weights.

Road transport

4. The annual growth in output rates for road transport closely approximate the increase
in the total transport index, pointing to the overbearing importance of road transport for the
sector as a whole. The mean prices of freight services for the major transport routes highlight
the substantial difference between inward and outward rates at the port city of Karachi.
Goods transported to other border towns do not experience such variations in transport
charges.
5. Transporter costs for goods per route are fairly low. The gross profit margins on
inward routes are relatively high. Passenger fares (prices) are fixed and do not vary between
inward and outward traffic. Longer routes have substantially higher per passenger profit
margins. The mean times taken for any given route are much lower for passenger vehicles
than for commercial goods carriers.
6. Large numbers of individual owners providing for hire and reward services
dominate the trucking industry. Survey results depict that the vast majority of businesses are
Survey Report on Domestic Commerce
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 4
organized as sole proprietorships. Majority of the businesses are small, employing less than
10 employees on average. Yet, vast majority of firms employ full-time paid staff. Only 8
percent of businesses surveyed had hired part-time personnel. None of these were large firms.
7. Firms in the road sub-sector have yet to fully embrace automation in their day-to-day
functioning. The make-up of the road industry does not incentivize automated services in any
way. There is a significant gap between business services required by a firm and the actual
services being used. Engineering, legal, marketing and insurance services were cited as being
highly sought after. While enterprises largely fulfill their engineering and to an extent, legal
needs, marketing, insurance and accounting requirements largely go unentertained. Word of
mouth is by far the most predominant marketing tool used by the transporters. Only a few
businesses use marketing agents. There is no organized database through which particular
transporters can be accessed.
8. The role of the local transport associations was greater than expected. Almost three-
fourths of the firms included in the survey were found to be members of transport
associations. There is a lack of standardization in the quality of road transportation services.
Clients in general receive a level of service commensurate with the amount they are willing
to pay. Shippers of low-value goods are more price sensitive and depend on the less reliable
services of the spot market.
9. In the freight market the private sector is the dominant player and handles 95 percent
of the total freight. Ballast, gravel, stone, cement, fruit, fertilizers and wheat are the most
important commodities in terms of tons transported by trucks . The transport volume of fruit
is the highest in terms of ton-kms. The countrys true potential to trade fresh foods is severely
undermined due to the lack of an adequate temperature controlled transport system.
According to survey findings, the incidence of loss or damage to perishable items is fairly
high. Lack of prevalence of insurance practices exacerbates the problems of transport related
losses in general. Cash is the predominant mode of payment in the road transport industry.
Only 33 percent of the enterprises buy their inputs on credit.
10. Various forms of contractual modes are functional in the industry as arrangements to
transport goods. Companies based in Punjab typically engage in contract arrangements more
often Sindh based enterprises. Almost 50 percent of contracts are simply statements written
on plain paper and signed by both parties.
11. According to the survey results, 96 percent of transport enterprises observed an
expansion/improvement in their business over the last year. A greater proportion of passenger
services reported to have expanded. Infrastructure development and a competitive
environment are key drivers of growth. The most important constraints of growth according
to the survey include the taxation and regulation system (licensing, permits, etc), law and
order, lack of access to finance, quality of public services (electricity, communications), and
corruption. Others that are obvious from literature are the low education/skill levels of
enterprise managers and miscellaneous governance concerns.
12. Given the road sub-sectors overwhelming importance in the transport industry,
policy measures that manage to correct current constraints would impact the overall economy
tremendously.

Railways

13. Pakistan Railways (PR) is a subordinate department of the Ministry of Railways. It is
governed by the Railway Act of 1890. Rail accounts for less than 10 percent of the total
passenger traffic in the country. In the freight business, rail has an even lower and stagnant
market share. Out of the total transport output of approximately 123 billion ton-kms in the
countrys transport sector, rail accounts for a mere 5 billion ton-kms.
Domestic Commerce In Pakistan: An Overview Of The Transport Sector
Innovative Development Srategies (Pvt) 5
14. Major commodities carried by Pakistan Railways include petroleum and other non-
dangerous hydrocarbon oils (18.1 percent), chemical manures (9.9 percent) and railway
materials and stores (17.4 percent). A major reason for the steep decline in rails importance
as a freight carrier is the loss of oil transport as a major commodity. The growth in ATT
activity, which provided significant business to PR, has slowed down. This is partly due to
trade flows being diverted to Iranian facilities due to cumbersome procedures at Karachi but
more so because of a shift from rail to road as the preferred mode of transport of ATT goods.
The NLC now gets priority on this front. The railway plays an unimportant role in
transporting agricultural produce, it does not have any specialized containers to carry
agricultural goods and given the frequent delays, clients often prefer road to carry such goods
despite the lack of temperature-controlled road transport.
15. There are many constraints to growth. The organizations management culture is non-
commercial and thus functional efficiency has always been a low priority. Like most other
mega-organizations in Pakistans public sector, PR suffers from tremendous political
interference both in deployment of personnel and in day-to-day management. Lack of a
principal focus on commercial viability has meant that PR has primarily remained a
passenger railway services. PRs infrastructure and rolling stock have become aged and
decrepit. The PR is a monopoly. Being the only rail service in the country, no competition is
faced from within the sector. Lack of any compulsion to orient the service with market
realities is thus obvious. A direct outcome of these shortcomings and perhaps the most
significant constraint for PR is the inability to provide guarantees in terms of time needed for
consignments to arrive at the destination.

Aviation

16. The aviation industry is unique in that the pace of transportation offered by it cannot
be matched by any other sub-sector. It constitutes a miniscule share of the transport sector. In
2004-05, 6.94 million passengers traveled domestically by air out of which 0.08 million were
transit passengers. A total of 1.76 billion passenger-kms were flown. In addition, a mere
116,202 tons of cargo and 10,412 tons of mail were hauled. A total of 36.94 million ton-kms
were performed. These low volumes are despite the steady increase in air cargo traffic over
the years, save a minor decline during the 1990s.
17. Most of the aviation industrys shortcomings stem from a highly bureaucratic and
discretionary regulatory authority, which has discouraged the industry from developing into a
truly competitive one. There is a need to allow civil aviation experts to take up key decision-
making positions in CAA, and to depute experts in MOD to deal with civil aviation in the
country. Such a development may allow better use of the existing liberal policy to allow new
passenger and cargo operators to enter the market.

Ports

18. It is impossible to reflect upon the transport sectors impact on commerce without
dealing with the entry (for imports) and exit points (for exports) for the countrys external
trade. Efficiency of trade flows and that of the transport sector are complementary. Pakistans
1,100 km long coastline opens to the Arabian Sea. Karachi Port and Port Qasim are the two
major international ports. Other ports are relatively insignificant.
19. Port Qasim is operating as a landlord port, primarily serving the steel, petroleum, and
chemical industries. Karachi Port Trust (KPT) is also making progress towards converting
itself into a landlord port. The total cargo volume handled by the two ports in 2003-04 was
43.26 million tons. At the Karachi port, the total port traffic increased from 20.5 million tons
Survey Report on Domestic Commerce
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 6
in 1991-1992 to 27.5 million tons in 2003-04. The total port traffic at Port Qasim rapidly
increased from 7.2 million tons in 1991-92 to 15.6 million tons in 2003-04, representing an
annual growth rate of 6.7.
20. Both the KPT as well as Port Qasim Authority (PQA) run on excessive profits. PQA,
for example, accumulated a net financial surplus amounting to PKR 1.08 billion at the end of
FY 2003-04. Port entry costs on average are 5-9 times higher than other countries in the
region. However Port entry costs on average are 5-9 times higher than other countries in the
region. The high costs are despite the fact that there is significant private sector involvement
at the ports.
21. Private sector involvement has ensured that the ship-shore handling speeds at Karachi
are in line with those at efficient international ports for all categories of cargocontainers,
bulk cargoes and general cargo. Despite the efficient ship-shore handling, overall container
dwell times in ports stand at 11 days on average. The major factor behind excessive times is
the tardy customs clearance process, which suffers from tremendous operational bottlenecks.
22. The main need with regard to port management is to instill a more commercial
approach in management and operations decisions. The ports have made progress in
modernizing internal procedures, at least at the ship-shore handling level. Now there is a need
to work towards creating robust down-stream linkages to integrate the entire commerce
supply chain.

Major Government Initiatives

23. The government remains cognizant of the multifaceted problems confronting the
transport sector. The irony is that majority of macro level initiatives undertaken by the
government often end up remaining mere visions. The lack of on ground impact is clear from
the fact that as many as 80 percent of our survey respondents said they were not aware of any
major public sector initiatives to improve the functioning of the transport sector.

Conclusion

24. It needs to be understood that while the road, rail and aviation industries are
competitors, maximum gains will be realized not by altering the market share of one sub-
sector vis--vis the other, but by ensuring that each sub-sector attains the primary market
share in commodities it is most efficient at transporting. Ideally, policy makers ought to focus
on devising incentives for each service to capitalize on its respective comparative advantage.
25. This report concludes that there are three major factors that determine the degree of
efficiency in each sub-sector. The biggest constraint afflicting the rail and aviation sectors is
the perverse governance protocols. The second major determinant of performance is the
degree of competition in the sub-sector. Finally, the transport sector is no exception to the all-
pervasive problem of the policy-implementation disconnect across Pakistan. The presence of
up-to-date and dynamic legislation is a necessity. The transport sector suffers from highly
dated legislations, which have little meaning under the present scenario. The interplay of the
three factors: bureaucratic governance, degree of competition and implementation
performance end up determining the output of the transport sub-sectors.



Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 7




Section 1
Introduction




1. Pakistan attributes its recent macro economic success to its export-led model of economic
growth. The transport sector plays a pivotal role, both in enhancing the global competitiveness of
an economy as well as in ensuring efficient functioning of the domestic commerce supply chain.
Literature on global trade and domestic commerce highlights the multifaceted links between a
countrys economic growth and the performance of the transport sector
1
. This study is part of a
combination of eight sectoral studies covering the entire ambit of commerce activity in Pakistan.
The objective of these undertakings is to understand the dynamics of each of the major sectors
impacting commerce as well as to analyze the interplay between various components of the
commerce supply chain. The study focuses on the transport sector in the country, covering the
road, rail, aviation and ports sub-sectors.
2. Pakistans transport sector already plays a major role in the national economy. It accounts
for about 11 percent of the countrys Gross Domestic Product (GDP), 17 percent of Gross Capital
Formation, and 6 percent of employment
2
. It also receives 12 to 15 percent of the annual Federal
Sector Development Program allocations
3
. Notwithstanding, much of the economic gains from
efficient transport services are lost in Pakistans case due to the overall poor performance of the
sector. According to some estimates, the economy suffers a loss of 8.5 percent of GDP annually.
4

Such a grave situation necessitates the need to analyze various facets of the transport sector to
identify the key constraints causing efficiency losses. The need for such an analysis is further
underscored by the fact that demand for transport is expected to double by 2015, thus requiring
significantly higher levels of service.
3. In this report, we have conducted an analysis of the road, rail, aviation, and ports sub-
sectors, identifying each ones relative importance and major weaknesses and strengths. We
develop indicators of the sectors growth, outline the structure and make-up of each sub-sector,
identify the various institutional and governance concerns relevant to the functioning of the
sector, and emphasize factors that are constraining or driving its growth. Much of the discussion
in the report is focused on the road sub-sector, which is warranted, given that road transport
constitutes an overwhelming majority of the sectors output.
4. Section 2 presents the methodology for the analysis. In section 3, an output index is
developed for the transport sector. Sections 4, 5, 6, and 7 are devoted to an analysis of the road,

1 C. Carnemark,. Some Economic, Social and Technical Aspects of Rural Roads, ESCAP workshop on rural
roads, Dhaka, 10-23 January, 1979.
2 World Bank, Pakistan Transport Sector: Overview,
<http://web.worldbank.org/WEBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/SOUTHASIAEXT/EXTSARREGTOPTRANSPO
RT/0,,contentMDK:20694261~pagePK:34004173~piPK:34003707~theSitePK:579598,00.html> (accessed on 30
November, 2006).
3 Government of Pakistan, Pakistan Economic Survey 2005-06 (Islamabad: Finance Division, Economic Advisors
Wing, 2006).
4 Government of Pakistan, Annual Plan 2006-07 (Islamabad: Planning Commission, 2006).
Survey Report on Domestic Commerce
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 8
rail, aviation, and ports sub-sectors. Section 8 highlights major macro level transport related
initiatives undertaken by the government in the recent past.


Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 9




Section 2
Methodology




5. The analysis benefits from a review of existing literature and information gathered
through primary sources. Findings from literature have been used to complement primary
information. Therefore, rather than reporting existing literature and findings from primary data
separately, we have combined the analysis to present a holistic overview of each sub-sector.
Qualitative information was readily available on the road (freight) and rail (passengers and
freight) sub-sectors, but was scant on aviation and ports. To the contrary, sufficient quantitative
data to conduct the required statistical analysis was only available for rail. Virtually no detailed
data sets existed for road transport, a fact that necessitated undertaking an extensive survey
exercise. Our report has ended up adding tremendous value to previous knowledge. This is
especially true with regard to institutional and governance dynamics of the entire transport sector,
and quantitative estimates of price, margin growth, and other relevant indicators for road services.
Below, we detail our methodology for each sub-sector:

2.1 Road

6. A detailed structured questionnaire was prepared and a survey conducted in 14 locations
across Pakistan. Our sample size was 100, divided among freight and passenger carriers. The
sample size and locations were determined with the help of national level industry data acquired
from the Federal Bureau of Statistics (FBS). The final sample was both representative and
significant at the national level.

Table 2.1: Sampling details
Location No. of structured questionnaires
Freight services Passenger services
Punjab
Faisalabad 8 5
Lahore 15
Multan 3 2
Okara 4 3
Rawalpindi 4 5
Gujrawala 2 4
Sindh
Karachi 5 10
Hyderabad 4 2
Nawabshah 3 2
Sukkur 4 2


Continued
Survey Report on Domestic Commerce
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 10
Location No. of structured questionnaires
Freight services Passenger services
NWFP
Peshawar 4 3
Abbotabad 4 2
Balochistan
Quetta 4 3
Federal area
Islamabad 4 1
Total 68 44
Sigma total 112
5

Source: Primary data analysis

7. A staged sampling procedure was implemented. To begin with, FBS estimates were
used to identify the proportion of respondents coming from freight and passenger services.
The higher number of respondents from the freight industry is an indication of its greater
relevance to commerce activity in the country. The FBS also identified the specific
cities/towns for the survey. Within each identified location, respondents were selected using
the snowballing technique, keeping in mind the need to conduct the exercise in multiple
markets within a selected city as well as to ensure variation among the size of the firms
interviewed. A random sampling technique was not feasible, as no universe for the transport
sector exists for any of these locations. Moreover, the diversity of the selected locations and
the transient nature of most transporters (especially those without any physical hub) would
have made mapping a cost-prohibitive exercise.
8. Information requested from the respondents covered all aspects of the stipulated terms
of reference for the report. Specifically, we tracked information on the following:

- Skill and education level
- Structure of the firms
- Ownership details
- Size of the firms
- Type of vehicles
- Level of automation
- Employment details
- Firm expansion
- Estimates of price, cost, profit margin,
and volume for both passenger and
freight services
- Time estimates
- Share of revenue from various services
- Regulatory framework
- Competition in the industry
- Asset information
- Availability of capital and financing
- Use of credit
- Investments
- Banking and accounting procedures
- Constraints and drivers of growth
- Road infrastructure
- Role of the government
- Zoning restrictions
- Rent control
- Contractual arrangements
- Payment arrangements
- Property rights
- Law and order
- Losses and dispute resolution

9. The quality of the data obtained from the above exercise was fairly weak. This is
common for most transport surveys of this nature in Pakistan. The fact that an overwhelming
majority of the road transport sector forms part of the informal economy prompts transporters
to avoid providing insights into information relating to prices, costs, and revenues. While we
managed to obtain enough information on governance and institutional concerns to conduct a

5 The sigma total is higher than the sample size since 12 respondents dealt both with passenger and freight
services.
Domestic Commerce In Pakistan: An Overview Of The Transport Sector
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 11
robust statistical analysis, the survey revealed little on the volume, costs, profit margins, and
revenues of individual enterprises. Since this information was critical for our analysis, we
ended up using an existing primary data set collected from transporters of coniferous timber
for 2004-05 and 2005-06. The data contains variables dealing with price, costs, and profit
margins for the major timber routes in the country. The sample size for the data set was 62,
which was representative of the timber industry in Pakistan. A total of 5 hubs of timber trade
in the country were surveyed. As with the data set collected specifically for the domestic
commerce exercise, respondents for the timber survey were selected through snowballing.
10. A statistical analysis was conducted on the primary data using the SPSS software.
Basic descriptive statistics for all variables included in the survey questionnaire and cross-
tabulations for several indicators were generated. The entire data set was treated at various
levels of aggregation. We used three base variables: passenger services, freight services
carrying agricultural goods, and freight services carrying all other (non-agricultural)
commodities.
6
Analysis was conducted for the aggregated national data, as well as at the
provincial level (for Punjab and Sindh only). These statistics have formed the basis for the
discussion of the road sub-sector in this document. We have tried to highlight variations
among our base variables and/or among provinces where appropriate.

2.2 Data Reliability

11. The actual response ratio is much lower than expected. A number of sensitive fields
in the questionnaires were left unanswered. Out of the total sample, NWFP and Balochistan
only contributed 9 and 6 responses respectively. While these results are included in the
aggregated data at the national level, provincial data generated to capture inter-province
variation was limited to Sindh and Punjab, where the respective number of observations were
34 and 50 respectively. Neither of the domestic commerce survey, nor the timber industry
data set distinguishes between various types of vehicles, a shortcoming that impacts most of
the quantitative estimations. Moreover, data on passengers does not generate any information
on for-hire and rental transport. The entire road passenger analysis is thus confined to
commercial services. Also, no information regarding tax regimes was obtained. In fact, we
had to drop tax related variables after the pre-test.
12. Data on prices, costs, and profit margins is always to be interpreted cautiously, given
the propensity of respondents to exaggerate costs and underestimate profits. Indeed, we have
recorded a number of instances of net losses, which clearly are a result of false responses.
Moreover, while we collected information for a total of 204 transport routes though the
domestic commerce survey, the number of observations and the extent of data for minor
routes were weak. We ended up dropping information for these routes. In the final analysis,
we have only included the major transport routes for commercial goods and passenger traffic
in the country. The final selection of routes is entirely a function of the extent of information
available for each one of the major routes.

2.3 Rail, Aviation, and Ports

13. Sections on the rail, aviation and ports sub-sectors primarily draw on secondary
literature. Information from key informant interviews was only utilized to substantiate
existing information and fill any gaps. Owing to the small number of interview respondents,
information from secondary literature was treated as sacrosanct wherever the two sources of
information tended to contradict each other. Interview respondents were selected purposively,

6 Any enterprise found to be carrying agricultural goods majority of times was considered an agricultural
transporter.
Survey Report on Domestic Commerce
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 12
using relevance of respondents to the required information as the selection criteria. The table
below details the number of interviews conducted for each sub-sector.

Table 2.2: Interview details for rail, aviation, and ports sub-sectors
# of interviews Location
Rail 8 Lahore, Islamabad
Aviation 3 Karachi
Ports 11 Karachi, Lahore


Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 13




Section 3
Transport Indices




14. Before this study, no indices of the transport sector existed in Pakistan. This is largely
a result of lack of required data to develop such indices. While overall output figures exist,
the per unit prices, operating revenues and expenditures, and value added figures are missing
for one or the other sub-sector. Data on road transport, which is the mainstay of the sector, is
the most scant. In some cases, while data exists, it is not disaggregated to the necessary level.
While we have managed to prepare an output index, only weights have been computed for the
value added and price indices since no time series data for value added and prices for
previous years is available.

3.1 Output index

15. We have used the Laspeyres fixed-weighted index to derive our results
7
. Three
separate indices have been generated: the total transport output index, the passenger output
index, and the freight output index. Relative weights for the index have been computed using
operating revenue estimates for passenger and freight services. Data was available for rail,
but had to be computed for road. The aviation sector has not been factored into the index.
While data on the operating revenue of the air sub-sector is available, but it does not
differentiate between domestic and international output. Data on price per unit, the other
necessary variable to calculate relative weights (in the absence of revenue information) is
altogether missing. Nonetheless, since aviations total share in the transport sector is less than
one percent, its omission should have no significant impact the final index.
16. To compute the weights for road, we calculated the price per passenger-km and ton-
km for passengers and freight services respectively from the primary data. Mean values for
number of passengers and tons were used to calculate the per unit price wherever such entries
were missing in the primary data. Then, using published output figures for each of the two
services, we arrived at their respective operating revenues (see annex 1 for an illustration of
the methodology used to compute per unit price estimates).
The formula for the Laspeyres index is as follows:

X
P Q
P Q
P Q
I
i i 0
0 0
0 1

=

=

= ( )
03 3 02 2 01 1
1
P Q P Q P Q
X
+ +

7 The Lapeyres index is frequently used for intermediate sectors of the economy. Pakistans CPI is also
calculated using this index.
Survey Report on Domestic Commerce
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 14

=
3
03
2
02
1
01
Q
X
P
Q
X
P
Q
X
P
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|


= ( )
3 3 2 2 1 1
Q W Q W Q W + +

where,

I= Index
P
0
= Base year price
Q
0
= Base year output
Q
1,
Q
2,
Q
3
= Outputs in other years
W
1,,
W
2,
W
3
= relative weights in the respective years

The relative weights computed for each sub-sector are provided below:

Box 1: Relative weights to compute output index
Road
Passenger 0.5101
Freight 0.4146
Rail
Passenger 0.0452
Freight 0.0301
Total 1.00

17. Using time series data on passenger and freight output for the road and rail sectors,
the following indices were generated. The base year was taken to be 2004-05
8
.

Table 3.1 Total, freight, and passenger indices

18. The transport output index has grown steadily
over the past decade. The total, freight and passenger indices track extremely closely with
each other. This points to the similar growth patterns of the passenger and freight services.
Overall growth rates for transport were consistently high in the late 1990s. The year 2000-01
saw a drastic decline. Since then, growth has picked up gradually. Yet, the rate of increase in
the transport index since 2000-01 is much lower than average growth in the late 1990s.

8 While it is not usual to consider the last year computed in an index as a base year, we did not have the
required data for any of the previous years.
Years Total
Output
Index
Passenger
Output
Index
Freight
Output
Index
1995-96 67.28 66.67 68.77
1996-97 71.16 70.60 72.55
1997-98 75.49 74.90 76.97
1998-99 80.36 79.76 81.84
1999-00 85.30 84.64 86.98
2000-01 90.33 89.66 92.02
2001-02 91.10 90.14 93.51
2002-03 93.45 92.96 94.68
2003-04 96.59 95.94 98.20
2004-05 100.00 100.00 100.00
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
1995/96 1996/97 1997/98 1998/99 1999/00 2000/01 2001/02 2002/03 2003/04 2004/05
Total Transportation Index Passenger Transportation Freight Transportation Index
Domestic Commerce In Pakistan: An Overview Of The Transport Sector
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 15
19. A very interesting relationship is witnessed between the output index and national
GDP growth. In the late 1990s, when GDP growth rates
had plummeted, the transport sectors output growth was at
its peak. The situation has reversed completely since 2000-
01, where GDP growth rates have accelerated but increases
in the transport index have slowed down. The relationship
points to a lag in the movement of the transport index in
comparison with GDP growth. An analysis of the GDP
growth trends since the late 1980s suggests an average lag
of 3-5 years. Two complete cycles can be identified in the
past two decades. Relatively high growth rates in the mid
to late- 1980s and early 1990s were reflected in the
transport index post-1993-94 (not shown in the index). The
slump in GDP growth from 1996-97 to 2000-01 does not
impact the transport index till 2001-02. Also interesting is
the fact that the duration of an economic upturn or downturn in the past two cycles has been
approximately the same as that of the upward and downward movements of transport output.

Figure 1: Plot of GDP growth against transport output index growth (%)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1996/97 1997/98 1998/99 1999/00 2000/01 2001/02 2002/03 2003/04 2004/05
Growth Rate GDP Growth


20. The trend in the increase in the output index can be used to predict future growth
patterns. We conduct a simple forecasting exercise for the transport sectors output index till
2009-10. Two estimates are provided, the first without considering the lag, and the second
with the lag factored in. Forecasts are made separately for the total, passenger and freight
indices. While a static average of the last three years has been taken to forecast growth of the
total and passenger indices (without lag), for the freight index, a moving average of the last
four years has been used to compensate for the fluctuation in the past trend. Our forecasts
suggest that passenger services are likely to grow at a faster pace than freight services. Such a
trend is already underway, as confirmed by our survey results. The majority of the enterprises
transporting both goods and passengers have witnessed an increased share of revenues
flowing from passenger services in the past three years. Owing to minor difference in per unit
prices between freight and passenger carriers (see discussion on prices in section 3), this
could reasonably be expected to be a result of increased passenger volumes.
21. The dotted line in the chart below represents the potential change in the forecasted
growth trends were the lag element factored in. It has only been depicted for the total
transport index. The higher forecast comes from our expectation of an upturn in the transport
sector within the next two years. This is borne out of the fact that national GDP growth rate
Table 3.2: Annual growth rates
of transport output index and
national GDP
(%)
Year
Output
Index
growth
GDP
growth
1996-97 5.8 1.7
1997-98 6.0 3.5
1998-99 6.4 4.2
1999-00 6.2 3.9
2000-01 5.9 2.0
2001-02 0.8 3.1
2002-03 2.6 4.7
2003-04 3.4 7.5
2004-05 3.5 8.6
Survey Report on Domestic Commerce
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 16
have been remarkably high since 2002-03. Given the average lag of 3-5 years, one should
witness an accelerated positive movement in the output index in the near future. The lagged
line has been included in the chart simply to indicate the higher growth trend. It has not been
calculated precisely. Time series data stretching back at least 5-6 complete economic cycles
is required to conduct such an analysis.

Figure 2: Forecast for output index movement
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
1
9
9
5
/
9
6
1
9
9
6
/
9
7
1
9
9
7
/
9
8
1
9
9
8
/
9
9
1
9
9
9
/
0
0
2
0
0
0
/
0
1
2
0
0
1
/
0
2
2
0
0
2
/
0
3
2
0
0
3
/
0
4
2
0
0
4
/
0
5
2
0
0
5
/
0
6
2
0
0
6
/
0
7
2
0
0
7
/
0
8
2
0
0
8
/
0
9
2
0
0
9
/
1
0
Total Transportation Index Passenger Transportation Index Freight Transportation Index


3.2 Weights for value added index

22. No value added index could be created owing to the lack of time series data on
operating revenues and costs for the transport sub-sectors. However, utilizing our sample
data, we have computed relative weights for the road sub-sector, using 2004-05 as the base
year. Both rail and aviation have been eliminated since cost estimates disaggregated by
passenger and freight services were not available. For road, total per annum revenue and
equivalent costs were calculated using per trip revenue and cost estimates and adjusting for
the number of trips conducted in a given year per route. The revenue and cost estimates (on a
per-km basis) were used to derive relative weights. These are provided in the table below:

Box 2: Relative weights for value added index
Road
Passenger 0.5285
Freight 0.4715
Total 1.00

23. As for the output index, the relative weight for passenger services comes out to be higher
than that for freight. However, the difference is quite small, suggesting comparable value added
potential of freight and passenger services.

3.3 Weights for price index

24. Only weights for the road sub-sector are generated to allow computation of a price index
in the future. Reasons to exclude rail and road, and for not being able to create an actual index are
Domestic Commerce In Pakistan: An Overview Of The Transport Sector
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 17
the same as those stated in the discussion on value added weights. For the price index, the per km
price for passenger and freight services is calculated using the sigma total of the price and
distance traveled in our sample. The variation in tonnage and passenger volumes has not been
considered owing to the lack of variation in our sample (with respect to unit passenger and freight
volume). Weights for the price index are reported below:

Box 3: Relative weights for price index
Road
Passenger 0.5379
Freight 0.4621
Total 1.00

25. The weights are higher for passenger services in this case as well. However, the
difference is even smaller than for the value added index. This is consistent with our per unit
price estimates for freight and passengers generated from the sample data (see section 3). These
have turned out to be similar.

3.4 Tackling scarcity of data in future attempts

26. The indices computed should be interpreted cautiously. Data sets have been combined,
and in places mean values have been used to fill missing data. Lack of variation in the load
factors of timber carriers (price and cost data has come from the timber industry data set) would
have also skewed the weights slightly, although the impact is likely to be small. Moreover, the
lack of accuracy of data on loaded weights, number of passengers, and the operating hours, might
also have raised the error percentage marginally.
27. Since the domestic commerce survey is planned to be an annual exercise, there is a need
to ensure that all relevant information is gathered annually. Nationally representative figures for
revenues, costs, per unit prices, tonnage, average number of passengers by vehicle type, and other
such variables needed for computing indices must be collected. A much larger data set should be
gathered, with a proportionate mix not only between freight and passenger services, but also
among the various sub-sectors within each service. It would be highly interesting to have a
detailed index that distinguishes among agricultural, industrial and other commodity carriers.
Passenger services could also be divided into inter-city and intra-city transport. Other such
disaggregations could be thought of. Collecting such information will allow for the formulation
of comprehensive time series data set over the years. Such data could also be used to generate
other indices such as tonnage, among others.
28. Data on rail and aviation is also incomplete. Aviation data must be differentiated by
domestic and international services. Currently, no such data exists for operating revenue and
costs. In fact, only Pakistan International Airlines Corporations (PIAC) statistics are readily
available, but those too are at an aggregated level. Moreover, there are no estimates for the per-
unit price for domestic aviation services in the country. The same is true for rail, although rail
services do provide operating revenues, prices and total output figures that are disaggregated for
freight and passengers. No information is available for equivalent disaggregated costs however.


Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt)
18




Section 4
Road transport




4.1 Output

29. Road transport constitutes the backbone of Pakistans transport system. The road sub-
sector comprises 96 percent of the total freight services and 90 percent of the total commercial
passenger services in the country9. The following table provides the overall ton-kms and
passenger-kms traveled by road over the past decade. The annual growth in output rates closely
approximate the increase in the total transport index discussed earlier, thus pointing to the
overbearing importance of road transport for the sector as a whole. The similar pattern of growth
for passenger and freight industries over the stated period is also obvious.

Table 4.1: Total passenger and freight output for road
Year Passenger traffic
(Million Passenger-km)
% change Freight
(Million Ton-km)
% change
1995-96 154,566 5.8 79,900 5.5
1996-97 163,751 5.9 84,345 5.6
1997-98 173,857 6.2 89,527 6.1
1998-99 185,236 6.5 95,246 6.4
1999-00 196,692 6.2 101,261 6.3
2000-01 208,370 5.9 107,085 5.7
2001-02 209,381 0.5 108,818 0.2
2002-03 215,872 3.1 110,172 1.2
2003-04 222,779 3.2 114,244 3.7
2004-05 232,191 4.2 116,327 1.8
Source: Government of Pakistan, Pakistan Economic Survey 2005-06.

4.2 Price, Cost, and profit margin estimates
4.2.1 Freight services

30. An analysis of the price statistics on commercial goods transport shows some interesting
features. The mean prices for the major transport routes highlight two facts worth noting. First,
there is a substantial difference between inward and outward rates. For example, the inward
movement from Karachi to Lahore costs PKR 57,000, while the mean outward charge for the
same route is PKR 27,500, an amount less than half of the inward costs. Second, such a
difference is only applicable to the port city of Karachi. Goods transported to other border towns
like Quetta, from where part of the trade between Pakistan and Afghanistan and the Afghan
Transit Trade (ATT) facility flows, does not experience such variations in transport charges. The
mean charges for Quetta-Lahore and Lahore-Quetta for instance, are almost the same. In absolute
terms, the per ton per km prices in Pakistan turn out to be extremely low.

9 Government of Pakistan, Pakistan Economic Survey 2005, 2006.
Domestic Commerce In Pakistan: An Overview Of The Transport Sector
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 19
Table 4.2: Freight prices for major routes
PKR
Routes Mean price Price/ton/km
Peshawar to Rawalpindi 7000.00 1.14
Peshawar to Lahore 8945.00 0.57
Peshawar to Karachi 18666.67 0.30
Peshawar to Quetta 22666.67 0.38
Lahore to Karachi 27500.00 0.58
Karachi to Lahore 57000.00 1.19
Lahore to Quetta 40000.00 0.90
Quetta to Lahore 41000.00 0.92
Karachi to Rawalpindi 58000.00 1.38
Source: Primary data analysis

31. It is important to mention that our results are somewhat lower than existing estimates. To
some extent, the difference could be attributed to our data set being specific to softwood
transport, where load factors on average are higher than other industries. Still, our estimates are
realistic for two-axle and three-axle rigid trucks, which constitute two thirds of the entire truck
industry. In order to confirm the accuracy of our findings, we conducted a simple verification
exercise in Rawalpindi, Lahore, and Jehlum, and found out estimates to be fairly precise for
trucks carrying weights between 35 and 50 tons.10
32. Transporter costs for goods per route are fairly low as well. What is interesting to note is
that even in the case of costs, there is a marked difference between inward and outward traffic
from and to Karachi. While counterintuitive, such a scenario is largely a result of the additional
costs associated with heavily-loaded vehicles traveling inward. As the majority of the outward
traffic moves with lower load factors, bribe costs, permit fees, overloading fines, and fuel costs
are lowered substantially. Among the various costs incurred on all routes mentioned, data
suggests that on average, fuel costs constitute a staggering 63.49% of the total costs incurred per
trip. This proportion has increased in recent years owing to the hike in fuel prices.

Table 4.3: Freight transporter costs for major routes
11

PKR
Routes Mean cost Cost/ton/km
Peshawar to Rawalpindi 4500.00 0.73
Peshawar to Lahore 6990.00 0.43
Peshawar to Karachi 16000.00 0.25
Peshawar to Quetta 18333.33 0.30
Karachi to Lahore 43333.33 0.91
Quetta to Lahore 18000.00 0.40
Karachi to Rawalpindi 40000.00 0.69
Source: Primary data analysis


10 We simply contacted a handful of transport services in the three cities to get price quotes for the routes
included in this analysis. The cities were not selected through any sampling procedure since our objective
was only to roughly confirm our estimates.
11 The routes mentioned here are less than those mentioned in table 4.2 (prices) since we could not acquire
complete information for all routes.
Survey Report on Domestic Commerce
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 20
Figure 3: Fuel costs relative to total cost (%)
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
Fuel costs Other costs

Source: Primary data analysis

33. Naturally, the gross profit margin reflects the trends in the prices and costs of freight
transport. Consequently, the profit margins on inward routes are relatively high. Margins on
relatively shorter routes such as Peshawar-Rawalpindi, and outward routes are substantially
lower. The profit/ton/km for outward routes is minimal. On the Peshawar-Karachi (outward)
route, the profit/ton/km is lower than the profit margin for the Karachi- Rawalpindi (inward)
route by a factor of 17.

Table 4.4: Profit margins estimates for freight carriers (PKR)
Routes Mean profit margin Profit/ton/km
Peshawar to Rawalpindi 2500.00 0.40
Peshawar to Lahore 1955.00 0.12
Peshawar to Karachi 2666.67 0.04
Peshawar to Quetta 4333.33 0.07
Karachi to Lahore 13666.67 0.29
Quetta to Lahore 23000 0.52
Karachi to Rawalpindi 18000 0.31
Source: Primary data analysis

4.2.2 Passengers

34. Passenger fares (prices) are fixed and do not vary between inward and outward traffic.
The per passenger fares reflected here are mean values for a variety of transport vehicles
12
.
However, as the data shows only buses with seating capacity of more than 30 were captured
in the sample. This is because most of the routes we have considered are above 400 kms in
distance and thus involved larger vehicles. The price/passenger/km estimates fall within the
lower and upper bounds of the price/ton/km for freight for the same routes. However, there is
less variation in per unit passenger fare estimates across routes than was witnessed for
freight.



12 While ideally one would have liked to see these differentiated by seating capacity of vehicles, we have not
managed to obtain information at such a disaggregated level.
Domestic Commerce In Pakistan: An Overview Of The Transport Sector
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 21
Table 4.5: Passenger fares for major routes (PKR)
Routes
Mean
Price/Passenger
Mean
Price/Passenger/Km
Karachi To Rawalpindi 1000 0.64
Karachi To Muzafarabad 1000 0.59
Peshawar To Lahore 250 0.57
Quetta To Karachi 500 0.70
Rawalpindi To Lahore 220 0.80
Rawlapindi To Peshawar 75 0.45
Source: Primary data analysis

35. Our cost estimates have clearly suffered from respondent bias, as at least two routes
are showing a net operating loss. The only reasonable estimates available are those for
Karachi-Rawalpindi, Karachi-Muzaffarabad, and Rawalpindi-Lahore. Per passenger costs
incurred by transporters as a percentage of the per passenger fares charged are much lower
for longer routes. Consequently, the longer routes have substantially higher per passenger
profit margins. This is reflected in the figures for profit margins/passenger/km.

Table 4.6: Passenger transport cost and profit margin estimates (PKR)
Costs

Profit Margins
Routes
Mean
Cost/Passenger Cost/Passenger/Km

Mean
Profit /Passenger
Profit
Margin/Passenger/Km
Karachi To Rawalpindi 515.83 0.33 484.127 0.31
Karachi To Muzafarabad 571.43 0.03 428.57 0.25
Peshawar To Lahore 273.81 0.63 -23.81 -0.05
Quetta To Karachi 714.29 1.00 -214.29 -0.30
Rawalpindi To Lahore 150.79 0.55 69.21 0.25
Rawalpindi To Peshawar 70.71 0.42 4.285714 0.03
Source: Primary data analysis

4.3 Time estimates

36. As is to be expected, the mean times taken for any given route are much lower for
passenger vehicles than for commercial goods carriers. The former is higher by a factor of
1.5-2 for most routes. The average speeds of passenger vehicles fall in the range of 55-71
km/h, although the estimate for the Karachi-Rawalpindi route seems somewhat exaggerated
given the poor condition of the roads in Sindh. Speeds of freight carriers average between 28
and 40 km/h. In absolute terms, these are extremely low. Our findings conform with existing
estimates which point to Pakistans transportation times over long distances to be twice as
long as the equivalent times in Europe or East Asia
13
. Average speeds for freight carriers in
Pakistan are lower by a factor of 2 to3 than in Europe, where speeds approximate 80-90
km/h
14
. The Karachi-Rawalpindi route registers the highest average speeds for goods
transport as well. This is despite the fact that traffic density on the N-5, the major transport

13 World Bank, Unlocking Pakistans Potential, Presentation on the Indus Trade Corridor, 2005.
14 World Bank, Pakistan Transport Sector: Overview,
<http://web.worldbank.org/WEBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/SOUTHASIAEXT/EXTSARREGTOPTRAN
SPORT/0,,contentMDK:20699058~menuPK:869060~pagePK:34004173~piPK:34003707~theSitePK:57959
8,00.html> (accessed on 16 August, 2006).
Survey Report on Domestic Commerce
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 22
link between Punjab and Sindh, is one of the highest in the country
15
. This anomaly begs
further investigation.

Table 4.7: Estimates of times taken for transportation
Passenger
Goods
Routes Distance
Mean
time/route
(hours)
Average
speed
(km/h)

Mean time /route
(hours)
Average speed
(km/h)
Karachi To Rawalpindi 1567 22 71.23
38.67 40.53
Karachi To Muzafarabad 1709 27 63.30

Rawalpindi To Lahore 275 5 55.00

Rawalpindi To Peshawar 167 3 55.67
5.75 29.04
Peshawar To Lahore 436 7.5 58.13

Lahore to Karachi 1292
45 28.71
Lahore to Peshawar 436
11.25 38.76
Source: Primary data analysis

4.4 Characteristics of the Road Sub-sector
4.4.1 Road Network and Administration

37. Currently, Pakistans road network is 258,340 km in length. Approximately 165,762
km are of the high-type variety and the remaining 92, 578 km are of low-type variety
16
.
Nearly 60 percent of the network is paved
17
. There are 14 National Highways (8,600 km), 5
motorways (767 km), and 2 Strategic Roads (207 km)
18
. The motorways and highways
comprise only 3 percent of the total road network. However, 80 percent of the commercial
traffic is dependent on them
19
. The 1,760 km Karachi-Lahore-Peshawar (M9/N5) serves as
the main domestic artery.
20
With regard to inter-city transport, the road section between
Rawalpindi and Lahore along N-5 has the heaviest traffic.

Table 4.8: Transport density estimates (2005)
National Highway Code Road
Section
Traffic volume
(No. of
Vehicles)
Increase
2005/1995
(%)
Composition (%)
Car Bus Truck
N-5
Peshawar-Rawalpindi 12,827 1.31 39.1 25.2 35.7
Rawalpindi-Lahore 17,287 1.56 47.7 17.9 37.4
Lahore-Multan 8,080 1.01 28.6 16.1 55.3
Multan-Sukkur 6,814 0.75 9.8 9.6 80.6
Sukkur-Hyderabad 7,332 N.A. 19.6 12.0 68.4
N-25
Hub-Khuzdar 1,733 1.17 16.1 21.2 62.7
Khuzdar-Quetta 3,813 1.32 21.3 26.3 52.4

Continued

15 Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), National Transport Research Centre and Ministry of
Communications Government of Pakistan, Pakistan Transport Plan Study in the Islamic Republic of
Pakistan. Final Report, Nippon Koei Co., Ltd. Almec Corporation, 2006.
16 Government of Pakistan, Pakistan Economic Survey 2005-06.
17 Japan International Cooperation Agency, 2006.
18 Ibid.
19 Government of Pakistan, Pakistan Economic Survey 2005-06.
20 Asian Development Bank, Proposed Multitranche Financing Facility and Loan to Islamic Republic of
Pakistan: National Highway Development Sector Investment Program, Report and recommendations of the
President to the Board of Directors, Project No. 37559.
Domestic Commerce In Pakistan: An Overview Of The Transport Sector
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 23
National Highway Code Road
Section
Traffic volume
(No. of
Vehicles)
Increase
2005/1995
(%)
Composition (%)
Car Bus Truck
N-35
Hasanabdal-Abbotabad 8,112 1.46 44.7 34.0 21.3
N-40
Lakpass-Noshki 916 1.66 18.7 27.0 54.4
N-50
D.I.Khan-Zhob 238 6.46 22.7 23.9 53.4
N-65
Hacobabad-Sibi 2,997 1.03 14.7 21.1 64.2
N-70
D.G. Khan-Loralai 1,392 1.31 11.7 17.8 70.4
N-55
Peshawar-D.G.Khan 7,452 1.36 33.4 31.7 34.9
D.G. Khan- Jacobabad 1,924 1.09 11.7 23.5 64.8
Jacobabad-Hyderabad 1,353 0.49 30.6 39.5 29.9
Source: Japan International Cooperation Agency, 2006.

4.4.2. Structure of the Road Sub-sector

38. Large numbers of individual owners providing for hire and reward services
dominate the trucking industry. Survey results depict that the vast majority of businesses are
organized as sole proprietorships. Partnerships, while less prevalent, are a more favored mode
of organization, especially of enterprises that transport non-agriculture commodities. Most
partnerships consist of enterprises being run by two individuals with a few businesses having
as many as four to five partners. Modalities for sharing of profits vary between distributing
profits according to size of investment of each partner and dividing gains equally. Majority of
the firms opt for the former. The mean percentage share of the biggest partner comes out to
be 32 percent. Property rights do not appear to be a problem. Ninety-three percent of the
respondents stated that the ownership of their vehicles was clearly defined.

Figure 4: Type of Ownership in the truck industry
85%
1%
11%
2%1%
Proprietorship(sole/one owner) 1 Partner 2 Partners 4 Partners 5 Partners

Source: Primary data analysis.

Survey Report on Domestic Commerce
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 24
39. Majority of the businesses are small,
21
employing less than 10 employees on average.
Yet, vast majority of firms employ full-time paid staff. Only 8 percent of businesses surveyed
had hired part-time personnel. None of these were large firms. An interesting revelation is the
relatively low number of family workers in transport enterprises, a highly unusual situation
for an industry that is predominantly informal in nature. The few family workers that are
present are crowded in small enterprises transporting freight. Passenger services tend not to
have family workers.

Figure 5: Relative size of firms in the road industry
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
Small Medium Large

Source: Primary data analysis

Table 4.9: Type of workers in the transport industry (%)
Small Medium Large
Full Time 51.1 90.5 100.0
Part Time 7.6 9.5
Full time family workers 30.5
Part time family workers 10.7
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0
Source: Primary data analysis

40. Firms in the road sub-sector have yet to fully embrace automation in their day-to-day
functioning. Hardly any enterprises currently use either a website or e-mail to interact with clients
and suppliers. A very small proportion of the firms use a computer regularly as part of their work.
This is interesting given the relatively high level of education of transport owners (see section on
owners previous experience and skill level). It points to the fact that the make-up of the road
industry does not incentivize automated services in any way. Arguably efficiency gains are
comprised due to lack of automation.
41. There is also a significant gap between business services required by a firm and the actual
services being used. Engineering, legal, marketing and insurance services were cited as being
highly sought after. While enterprises largely fulfill their engineering and to an extent, legal
needs, marketing, insurance and accounting requirements largely go unentertained. Less than a
quarter of the firms develop an annual financial statement to summarize the operations of the
establishment. Companies engaged in transporting passengers are relatively more particular in
preparing financial statements. Punjab based enterprises turn out to be more organized than firms
in Sindh, as the per firm usage of such services is much higher in the province.




21 Small=<10 employees; Medium= >10<25employees; Large= >25 employees
Domestic Commerce In Pakistan: An Overview Of The Transport Sector
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 25
Table 4.10: Gap between business services required and used
Needed
(% of respondents saying yes)
Used
(% of respondents saying yes)
Engineering Services 63.4% 61.5
Legal Services 51.2% 41.0
Marketing Services 43.9% 26.8
Insurance Services 43.9% 20.5
Accounting Services 22.0% 5.1
Management
consultants
19.5% 12.8
Information
Technology Services
2.4% 0
Source: Primary data analysis

42. Most transporters have no marketing mechanism to speak of. Word of mouth is by far the
most predominant marketing tool used by the transporters. Only a few businesses use marketing
agents. Majority of these are passenger services. As for the clients, most of them usually end up
contacting the concerned transporter directly. Use of agents or transport addas(hubs) is not as
common. This could be a result of a client being more comfortable with a previously tried
transporter, or a way to avoid the small fee transport agents change for acting as middlemen.
Responses were categorical in pointing to the absence of any organized database through which
particular transporters could be accessed. However, many respondents maintained that large
companies have an advantage due to a greater human and financial capacity. On an optimistic
note, most enterprises are conscious of the need to streamline the communication modalities by
developing standard operating procedures for the industry.
43. Interestingly, the role of the local transport associations turns out to be greater than
expected. Almost three-fourths of the firms included in the survey were found to be members of
transport associations. A higher proportion of Punjab based enterprises tend to be members of
transport associations than their counterparts in Sindh. Transporters of agricultural commodities
are more active in associations in their area of operation as compared with transporters of non-
agricultural goods and passenger services.
44. The largely traditional patterns of organization of the transport industry are obvious from
the above discussion. Such an industrial structure results in the lack of standardization of the
quality of road transportation services. Existing literature suggests that clients in general receive a
level of service commensurate with the amount they are willing to pay. Shippers of low-value
goods are more price sensitive and depend on the less reliable services of the spot market. Clients
shipping higher value goods usually tend to have formal arrangements
22
.

4.4.3 Composition of the Freight Market

45. As mentioned, road transport caters to 96 percent of freight traffic. The private sector is
the dominant player and handles 95 percent of the total freight
23
. Ballast, gravel, stone, cement,
fruit, fertilizers and wheat are the most important commodities in terms of tons transported by
trucks
24
. The transport volume of fruit is the highest in terms of ton-kms
25
. The importance of
basic manufactures and general merchandise has steadily increased over the years.


22 World Bank, Pakistan-Transport Competitiveness in Pakistan: Analytical Underpinning for National Trade
Corridor Improvement Program, Energy and Infrastructure Operations Unit, South Asia Region, 2006.
23 Asian Development Bank, Proposed Multitranche, 2005.
24 Japan International Cooperation Agency, 2006.
25 Ibid.
Survey Report on Domestic Commerce
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 26
Figure 6: Share of road freight trips by commodity type (%)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Agriculture, Food
& Animal
Mining &
Quarrying
Raw Materials &
Bulk
Manufactures
Fuel & Lubricants Basic
Manufactures &
General
Merchandise
1982 (NTRC-65) 1990 (NTRC-155) 1998 (NHA-1998)

Source: World Bank, Transport Competitiveness, 2006.

46. Despite the limited availability of refrigerated vehicles, perishable goods such as
fruits, vegetables, meat, eggs, and milk, among others are transported over long distances by
road
26
. Yet, the countrys true potential to trade fresh foods is severely undermined due to the
lack of an adequate temperature controlled transport system. The existence of specialized
haulage, customized to meet specific market requirements, while existent, only caters to a
miniscule percentage of consignments at the very high-end of the value ladder
27
. According
to survey findings, the incidence of loss or damage to perishable items is fairly high. The
majority of respondents declared that 10 percent of their consignments ended up having such
problems. Key reasons cited for the losses, in order of importance, were long travel times due
to poor transport infrastructure, poor packaging, unhygienic carrying conditions, and
inadequate facilities (temperature control, etc.). The concern about packaging is exaggerated
in the case of Punjab, as compared with Sindh.

Figure 7: Reasons for Damage to Perishable items
10%
17%
34%
39%
Inadequate infrastructure Unhygienic conditions
Long travel times due to poor transport Poor packaging

Source: Primary data analysis

47. Lack of prevalence of insurance practices exacerbates the problems of transport
related losses in general. The industry lacks both cargo insurance and consequential third

26 Japan International Cooperation Agency, 2006.
27 World Bank, Transport Competitiveness, 2006.
Domestic Commerce In Pakistan: An Overview Of The Transport Sector
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 27
party liability insurance
28
. Our survey points to a mere 10 percent of clients who have some
form of insurance coverage. Coverage is normally obtained through brokers or freight
forwarders. The option of holding the trucker responsible for damage/loss does not exist.
Consequently, shippers push for the need for freight transport operators to be registered as it
would assist in allowing carrier responsibility for cargo loss/damage and render them less
dependent on the brokers
29
. Interestingly, we found that in cases where insurance coverage
was obtained and a claim filed, no major problems in settling claims were experienced. In the
event of a dispute, the vast majority of enterprises utilize an informal resolution mechanism
or look towards the dispute resolution mechanism of the local transport associations. Only 12
percent of companies considered lawsuits as a viable means of settling their disputes.

Figure 8: Preference among available dispute settlement mechanisms
12%
41%
47%
Law suit Transport association has dispute
An informal mechanism is operational

Source: Primary data analysis

4.4.4. Financing and Contractual Arrangements

48. Cash is the predominant mode of payment in the road transport industry. Only 33
percent of the enterprises buy their inputs on credit. The majority of transporters even buy
vehicles either solely on cash payment or through some combination of cash and credit. Very
few companies were found to have purchased vehicles solely on credit. Companies based in
Sindh typically purchase more of their inputs on credit as compared with Punjab based
businesses. Likewise, companies that transport passengers purchase significantly more of
their inputs on credit compared with enterprises transporting commercial goods. As for the
payment modalities related to transporting consignments, the use of cash is equally
predominant. Nearly 85 percent of the respondents suggested that transport deals are paid for
in cash. A number of enterprises, which do conclude transport deals on credit, reported
problems with clearing credit dues. Majority of businesses usually have to wait for an
extended period of time to clear credit accounts.

Table 4.11: Mode of payment of transport deals
Percent
Cash 86.6
Credit 11.3
Other 2.1
Source: Primary data analysis


28 Ibid.
29 Ibid.
Survey Report on Domestic Commerce
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 28
Table 4.12: Average time to have credit cleared?
# of Days Percent
1 thru 8 40.0
10 thru 18 22.2
20 thru 30 26.7
45 thru 60 11.1
Total 100.0
Source: Primary data analysis

49. As for arrangements to transport goods, various forms of contractual modes are
functional in the industry.
30
Companies based in Punjab typically engage in contract
arrangements more often Sindh based enterprises. Almost 50 percent of contracts are simply
statements written on plain paper and signed by both parties. Other contract forms include
receipts, arrangements written on stamp papers and signed by both parties, witnesses included
in the contract, bilty, and verbal agreements in the presence of witnesses. In addition, a
small minority of firms still operate without any contract arrangements what so ever. The
latter is usually confined to arrangements between clients and transporters with an established
professional relationship. In cases where no contract exists, the transaction is certified by
paying in advance, or based on a system of honor where a mutual verbal understanding holds
sacrosanct status.
50. Most transporters are enthusiastic about the ability of contracts to protect them from
being cheated or to allow them to challenge any dispute through the legal system. Other risk
mitigating factors focus mostly on informal social linkages between actors within the sector.
These include obtaining references before trading with a client and holding agents
responsible for ensuring payments. Transporters tend to rely heavily on the reputation of
clients.

Table 4.13: Respondent views on Various Contractual Statements
Strongly
agree
Agree Disagree Strongly
Disagree
Must rely on the reputation of those
I enter into agreement with
49.5% 40.7% 9.9%
A contract will protect me from
being cheated
24.2% 56.0% 19.8%
The legal system will uphold my
contract and property rights in
business disputes
12.1% 58.2% 27.5% 2.2%
People from other
community/biradari groups are
more likely to cheat me
6.6% 31.9% 52.7% 8.8%
People from other cities are more
likely to cheat me.
8.9% 26.7% 54.4% 10.0%
Source: Primary data analysis

4.5 Determinants of Growth in the Road Sector

51. According to the survey results, 96 percent of transport enterprises observed an
expansion/improvement in their business over the last year. A greater proportion of passenger
services reported to have expanded. Forty-four percent of the large enterprises in the transport
industry have branches in more than one location with most operating in either the same
town/city or in a different town/city of the same province. Within the past twelve months, 26
percent of enterprises invested in their companies, a reasonably high figure for a largely

30 Responses received on survey questions relating to contractual arrangements focused on freight only.
Passenger services are thus not addressed in this discussion.
Domestic Commerce In Pakistan: An Overview Of The Transport Sector
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 29
disorganized sector. The confidence in the sector and the potential for further growth is
reflected in the fact that 70 percent of enterprises are operating at full capacity. Clearly, a
number of push factors must be at play to ensure the remarkable growth in the road sub-
sector. Our analysis points to infrastructure development and a competitive environment as
key drivers of growth. Certain aspects of these drivers however, can also act as constraints in
some cases.
52. Quite to the contrary, empirical results also point to the presence of several constraints
that have prevented the sector from reaching its full potential. All respondents pointed to the
presence of major hindrances to growth in the sector. The most important constraints
highlighted include the taxation and regulation system (licensing, permits, etc), law and
order, lack of access to finance, quality of public services (electricity, communications), and
corruption. Others that are obvious from literature are the low education/skill levels of
enterprise managers and miscellaneous governance concerns. In the discussion below, we
discuss the positive and negative determinants of growth, and the role each one plays in the
road sub-sector. We only focus on factors for which information was either generated through
the domestic commerce survey or sufficient knowledge could be borrowed from existing
literature.

Figure 9: Key Constraints to Growth
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
Taxation and
regulation
systems
Quality of
public
services
Lack of
access to
finance
Lack of clear
regulations
for property
rights
Corruption Law and
order
situation

4.5.1 Infrastructure Issues

53. Pakistans road infrastructure development has been remarkable in some ways. The ever
expanding road network and the relatively better infrastructural conditions, as compared with rail
have played a significant role in the rapid increase of road traffic. Pakistans Normalized Road
Index
31
of 415 is amongst the highest in the world
32
. One positive major development has been
the dualization of a significant proportion of the national highway network, which has facilitated
freight movement tremendously.


31 The Normalized Road Index attempts to gauge the adequacy of the stock of paved roads in a country at a
given level of development. Normalizing variables consist of population, population density, per capita
income, urbanization and regional characteristics. The Index has been developed by the World Bank and is
reported in the World Development Indicators.
32 World Bank, Pakistan Transport Sector Assistance Strategy Note, Report No. 24354-PAK, Energy and
Infrastructure Unit, 2002.
Survey Report on Domestic Commerce
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 30
54. Road infrastructure in the rural areas, which is key to ensuring farm-to-market access, has
improved significantly as well. In absolute terms, rural road expansion, averaging over 2,000 km
annually in the last two decades, depicts that Pakistan has made significant progress in connecting
rural areas with the rest of the country
33
. A cross-country comparison of rural roads accessibility
ranks Pakistan favorably.

Table 4.14: Cross-country comparison of rural accessibility
Country Rural Access Indicator (%) Year
Bangladesh 37 2000
Ethiopia 27 1998
India 69 2001
Indonesia 94 2003
Nepal 14 1995
Pakistan 80 2002
Vietnam 73 1997
Yemen 50 1998
Source: Essakali, 2005.
Note: A higher percentage reflects greater rural accessibility

55. The 2001-02 Pakistan Integrated Household Survey (PIHS) shows that 85 percent of
the rural population has access to all-weather motorable roads, while 91 percent of the
population has motorable access.
34
Paved access however, is only available to one third of
rural population. Out of the four provinces, Punjab has the highest access rate
35
. Seasonal
inaccessibility is not a significant constraint for most parts of Pakistan either. The extreme
roughness of driving over rocky terrain and the challenges of driving through sand however,
raise inaccessibility and add to time and cost estimates. One other concern is that provincial
disparities notwithstanding, the nearest transport service, on average, lies 8.2 km away from a
village
36
.

Table 4.15: Transport Access and Service Availability in Rural Pakistan.
Proportion of
rural population
with all-weather
motorable
access

(%)
Proportion of
rural
population
with
motorable
access
(%)
Proportion of
rural
population
with paved
access

(%)
Proportion of
rural population
with bus/wagon
stop within
village

(%)
Average distance to
bus/wagon stop for
rural population
without stops within
village

(km)
Punjab 91 (92) 95 (95) 76 (78) 66 (66) 3.8
Sindh 84 (85) 86 (86) 63 (63) 83 (83) 4.1
NWFP 80 (82) 86 (88) 68 (70) 62 (63) 5.7
Balochistan 72 (64) 86 (84) 27 (23) 74 (69) 30.9
Other regions 57 (58) 84 (80) 31 (29) 69 (73) 4.9
Pakistan 85 (81) 91 (89) 68 (62) 69 (70) 8.2
Source. Federal Bureau of Statistics, PIHS 2001-02. Numbers in () show data for communities or villages
instead of population.

56. Despite the reasonably optimistic outlook, one cannot be oblivious to the need to
further enhance rural-urban connectivity. The overbearing importance of adequate rural
transport infrastructure is evident from its correlation with access to health and education
services.


33 M.D. Essakali, Rural Access and Mobility in Pakistan: A Policy Note, Transport Note No. TRN-28, The
World Bank, Washington, DC, 2005.
34 Federal Bureau of Statistics, Government of Pakistan, Pakistan Integrated Household Survey 2001-02,
Statistics Division, 2002.
35 Ibid.
36 Ibid.
Domestic Commerce In Pakistan: An Overview Of The Transport Sector
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 31
Table 4.16: Selected Human Development Indicators and Road Access (%)
Indicator Villages with all-weather
motorable roads
Villages without all-
weather motorable roads
Girls Net Primary School Enrollment Rate (NER) 41 27
Bovs Net Primarv School Enrollment Rate (NER) 56 49
Females Literacy Rate (10 years and above) 23 13
Males Literacy Rate (10 years and above) 53 44
Immunization Coveraqe 54 46
Contraceptive Prevalence Rate 19 12
Pre-natal consultation 28 14
Births assisted by skilled attendant 58 39
Births at home 85 91
Post-natal consultation 7 5
Source: Essakali, 2005.

57. While quantitative expansion is being undertaken aggressively, the added liabilities
stemming out of increased maintenance requirements have not kept up with the rate of
expansion. Several highway projects have been undertaken without a corresponding rise in
maintenance expenditures. As a result, significant backlog of maintenance work has caused a
loss of highway assets and has necessitated major rehabilitation or new construction. It is
estimated that 50 percent of the National Highway Authoritys current network requires
major rehabilitation, a task that will cost PKR 35 billion
37
. A welcome development in this
regard is the recent shift in the focus of the road development strategy from increasing the
network to expanding the capacity and enhancing the quality of the current network.
58. Lack of adequate maintenance of road infrastructure causes tremendous losses in
terms of time and monetary costs. Interestingly, our empirical findings suggest that freight
carriers view the state of road infrastructure more favorably than passenger carriers, with
most goods carriers terming the road infrastructure as good or fair. The relatively negative
perception of the passengers could be attributed to the respondents who manage intra-town
travel services only. They have rightly pointed to the poorer conditions of intra-town
infrastructure as compared with inter-city highways. Poorer conditions are accentuated within
small rural towns. Notwithstanding, almost all respondents (both freight and passengers)
suggested that maintenance problems did add to the carrying cost for enterprises. Average
time lost for non-agriculture goods carriers is highest at 4.7 hours per trip. The equivalent
time losses for agricultural goods and passenger services are 4.2 and 3 hours per trip
respectively. These figures do not reveal much except to establish significant time losses
since trips are not specified in length. Given the relatively high mean loss times however,
one could safely assume that these represent long-range distances.


37 World Bank, Highways Rehabilitation Project, Project Appraisal Document, Report No. 27281-PAK Energy
and Infrastructure Sector Unit, 2005.
Survey Report on Domestic Commerce
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 32
Figure 10: Perception of state of the road network (% of respondents)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
Excellent Good Fair Poor
Passenger Non-Agriculture Agriculture

Figure 11: Average time lost due to condition of roads (hours/trip)
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
Passenger Non-Agriculture Agriculture

59. Losses in terms of time and costs are exacerbated by the aging trucking fleet in the
country. The restrictive industrial and import policies relevant to the road transport sector
have impeded the modernization of the trucking industry. Although local production benefits
have accrued from such restrictions, they have ended up undermining the potential for
transfer of new technology and modernization of the fleet.
38
Currently, load capacities of
trucks are increased multifold by modifying truck bodies and axle weights in factories in
Pakistan. Moreover, a common complaint of shippers is the periodic shortages in the
availability of trucks, which is partly a result of increased demand, but partly of the
frequently breakdown of vehicles. The import of used trucks, even 2-axle and 3-axle trucks,
albeit with age and/or other restrictions, is an urgent need.
39
Interestingly, the situation is
quite the opposite with regard to passenger services, where the bus fleet, especially that
hauling longer distances has been modernized in the past few years.


38 World Bank, Transport Competitiveness, 2006.
39 Ibid.
Domestic Commerce In Pakistan: An Overview Of The Transport Sector
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 33
4.5.2 Competition

60. Pakistans road transport sector is one of the most competitive service sectors in the
economy. The trucking industry faces minimal entry barriers, as is evident from the
extremely large number of existing operators and frequent new entrants. More than 25
percent of the companies surveyed were established in the last five years. The age of an
additional 25 percent of the firms was less than ten years. The vast majority of businesses
have been established from scratch, with only a minor proportion either being inherited or
bought as a running business.
61. Majority of the competition for transport enterprises comes from both small and large
private-owned transport companies. On average, enterprises transporting goods have to deal
with more than 25 competitors in their area of operation. Competition for inter-city passenger
services of comparable quality is less severe. Competition levels are reportedly greater in
Punjab as compared with Sindh. The National Logistics Cell (NLC)
40
is the only public
sector company in the road transport sub-sector and enjoys preferential treatment from the
government, at least on ATT products, despite its poor services and relatively higher rates
41
.
Notwithstanding, it is a minor player in the market, accounting only for about 5 percent of the
total intra-country freight volume
42
.
62. Although barriers to entry are minimal in absolute terms, minor irritants include large
capital requirements, corruption, and government tariffs. In Sindh, the level of required
capital was reported to be an especially important concern, perhaps because an extremely
high proportion of the provinces enterprises are small and are thus capital constrained. A
few companies surveyed stated that personal contacts in the industry were necessary to enter.
Even fewer reported that the transport mafia played a role in restricting new firms from
joining the business. However, such rare experiences (the percentage of respondents
suggesting this was very small) could be discounted in the macro picture.

4.5.3 Regulatory Framework

63. Survey respondents cited regulatory systems and taxation as one of the most
important constraints to growth. The problem is more exacerbated in Sindh than in Punjab.
Firms transporting agricultural commodities are particularly affected by the poor regulatory
systems. Lack of standard operating procedures is one major regulatory issue that authorities
have failed to address. This in large part is a result of the fact that a significant number of
enterprises in the transport sector are not formally registered. Unregistered companies claim
that they are unaware of any requirement to register. The lack of government effort to
formulate and implement a concerted regulation drive is thus evident. Other survey responses
point to the relatively high registration and license fees as reasons for not registering. Yet
others pointed to the fact that there was no incentive or fear of reprisal with regard to
registration. A few enterprises indicated numerous administrative procedures and high tax
rates as reasons for not registering.


40 The NLC was created for emergency transport of wheat and fertilizer in 1978.
41 World Bank, Transport Competitiveness, 2006.
42 World Bank, Pakistan Transport Sector Assistance, 2002.
Survey Report on Domestic Commerce
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 34
Figure 12: Reasons for not registering a transport enterprise (% of respondents)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Not Required Registration and
license fee are too high
Need to go through too
many administrative
procedures
Tax rates are too high No penalty if not
registered
Others
Business registered with Gov

64. The second major concern with regard to the regulatory framework is the dated
transport regulations. Regulations that remain most relevant to transport carriers are the
National Highway Safety Ordinance, the 2000 Road Safety Act, and till a few months back,
the 1865 Carriers Act. Underpinning most of the regulatory bottlenecks in the road transport
sub-sector are dated legislations. The Carriers Act 1865, which governed the carriage of
goods by roads in Pakistan till April 2006, was in dire need of reform. Liability ceilings had
remained fixed at PKR 100 per item
43
. Moreover, the Act did not include any incentive
structures designed to ensure conformance with laws and to enhance efficiency levels of
carriers. A draft law, modeled on the CMR Convention 1956 has been under consideration
for some time. The draft law seeks to introduce legislation that is particular to the current
requirements of road carriers and provides them sufficient protection with regard to definite
limits on their liabilities. The draft also pushes for the issuance of electronic documentation.
44

For now, Carriage of Goods by Roads (Liabilities) Act No. 21 has taken over from the 1865
Act
45
. However, for all practical purposes the regulations of the 1865 Act continue to
dominate the scene. The government, apart from having delayed updating of legislation has
persistently failed to widely disseminate information on changes in legislations and rules
governing the industry. Ideally, any changes should be conveyed to all registered enterprises
to ensure enhanced conformance levels and fair implementation practices.
65. Finally, the lack of regulation and failure to address issues of frequency of
distribution, operation, construction and transport operation on rural routes is also worrisome.
Even though the market naturally offers competitive rates and efficiency, not enough is being
done to regulate such measures. In some areas the provision of public transport is absent
altogether. Few vehicles are sensitive to the cultural needs of female travelers, and this affects
the decision of women to travel. Regulation to eliminate any gender bias is essential for a
greater contribution of women as clients of the road industry, as well as to the overall
economy.

43 Zahid Jamil and Shahid Jamil, Modernizing Pakistans Carriage of Goods Legislation, National Trade and
Transport Facilitation Committee, 2003. <http:// www.nttfc.org/proceed03/proc03-jamil.htm>.
44 Ibid.
45 ENHESA, Pakistan Monitoring Reports, 2007.
<http://www.enhesa.com/enhesa/en/global/country.asp?CountryCode=PK> (accessed on 20 December,
2006).
Domestic Commerce In Pakistan: An Overview Of The Transport Sector
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 35
4.5.4 Governance Issues

66. A major governance bottleneck that permeates every sector of Pakistans economy is
the disconnect between policies envisioned on paper and their implementation in practice.
The road industry is no exception. For instance, road safety protocols are completely ignored.
In 1992, Pakistans road fatality rate stood at 18.6 fatalities per 1,000 vehicles, reflecting the
highest rate in Asia
46
. Economic losses due to lack of safety measures are estimated at over 2
percent of GDP
47
. Forty-three percent of rear axle trucks regularly indulge in exceeding the
12- ton legal axle-load limit mandated by the Road Safety Act 2000. Two-axle trucks, which
constitute over 50 percent of truck traffic, have a higher relative frequency of overloading.
48

Local truck manufacturers produce wider and elevated truck bodies in order for truck owners
to be able to overload and consequently minimize haulage costs. The tires of overloaded
trucks are also over-inflated. Primary adverse effects of overloading include loss of transport
time for trucks having to be off road for repairs and overloading fines. The National Highway
and Motorway Police, while being mandated to enforce axle load control to prevent
commercial vehicles from overloading, lack retention powers and tend to evade participation
in enforcement issues in which retention and/or legal proceedings appear to be involved.

Box 4: Interaction of road carriers with public sector representatives
Businesses in the transport sector typically have to deal with the National Highway Authority (NHA)
and representatives from the local governments. Provincial governments hardly interact with
transport firms. Enterprises transporting commodities have greater interaction with the NHA and
motorway police while those transporting passengers interact more frequently with local government
officials. This could be a result of intra-town travel activities of passenger carriers. For goods
carriers, interaction with NHA and motorway policy is mostly due to overloading concerns or vehicle
breakdowns.
Source: Primary data analysis

67. The transport industry, for its part is equally guilty of not engaging the relevant
authorities constructively in order to redress the institutional bottlenecks that cause poor
governance practices. Since the industry erroneously perceives lax implementation of laws to
be in its favor, many enterprises overlook the potential losses due to such laxity and the
macro level impact on the industry in terms of efficiency losses and thus higher costs for
operators.
68. For the most part, transport unions although active, are not effective. There is a high
propensity among transport unions, especially passenger carrier unions, to observe strikes to
soften the governments stance on any particular issue. This often results in temporary
compromises, but at an exorbitant cost to the economy in terms of stalled economic activities.
Fortunately, strikes do not last long. The mean time per strike, calculated from the survey
responses, was less than a week in duration. In Sindh, the mean strike length is less than three
days. In any case, the countrys trade associations have failed to develop successful
institutional relations with the government, which would present a formal channel for
influencing policies and potentially decreasing trade and transportation facilitation
constraints
49
.


46 Asian Development Bank, Technical Assistance for Regional Initiatives in Road Safety, Manila.
47 Ibid.
48 For a discussion on overloading of trucks see, Japan International Cooperation Agency, 2006.
49 World Bank, Trade and Transport Facilitation Project, 2001.
Survey Report on Domestic Commerce
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 36
4.5.5 Access to finance

69. The requisite start-up capital for majority of the firms surveyed fell between PKR
10,000-900,000. Larger enterprises required capital as high as PKR 5-10 million. Enterprises
transporting goods generally have a lower start-up cost requirement than passenger carriers.

Table 4.17: Start-up capital requirements for road transport enterprises
PKR Percent
10000 thru 200000 31.1
200000 thru 900000 28.9
900000 thru 1700000 16.7
1700000 thru 5000000 11.1
5000000 thru 10000000 12.2
Source: Primary data analysis

70. Most transport entities require loans to raise resources for the requisite start-up
capital. Currently, access to formal bank loans for commercial road operators is minimal.
Although about half of all the enterprises surveyed maintained a bank account for their
business, only 22 percent had an overdraft facility or line of credit available. No Sindh-based
company reported to have either of the two facilities. Enterprises transporting agricultural
commodities have the least access to such services. Small enterprises are especially
constrained. Conditions on formal loans such as the need for a guarantor, lack of collateral,
bureaucratic banking procedures, and high interest rates, short duration of loans, and high
costs of application act as additional deterrents to accessing formal loans. Such deterrents
have led transport companies not to consider formal loans as a viable option. Survey
responses suggest that majority of companies do not even consider taking loans from the
formal sector. Regardless, the few companies that do receive formal credit do not necessarily
receive the entire loan amount requested. Moreover, these companies have to bear high
interest payment costs on formal loans. Mean per annum interests payments from the sample
data amounted to PKR 20,000, with the maximum record suggesting an amount as high as
PKR 28,000.

Table 4.18: Major Problems in accessing credit (% of respondents)
Passenger Non-Agriculture Agriculture
Guarantor 52.4 48.0 52.6
Bank
procedures
23.8 24.0 26.3
Collateral 9.5 20.0 15.8
Other 14.3 8.0 5.3
Source: Primary data analysis

71. By and large, informal avenues such as borrowing funds from friends or family tend
to be preferred. Over 70 percent of the survey respondents had borrowed informally during
2005. The majority of these loans were intended to expand existing enterprises. Only 20
percent of the companies took loans to actually startup a new enterprise. Non-agricultural
freight transporters are an exception, as most of them borrowed for startup capital.

Table 4.19: Reasons for acquiring informal loan
Purpose of loan Percent
Startup a new
enterprise
20.0
Expand existing
enterprise
70.0
Working capital 10.0
Source: Primary data analysis
Domestic Commerce In Pakistan: An Overview Of The Transport Sector
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 37
4.5.6 Travel restrictions due to zoning and law and order situation

72. It is rather peculiar to note that official regulations themselves undermine the potential
gains from the road network expansion and other related investment in transport
infrastructure by imposing artificial restrictions
50
on movement. Travel routes are restricted
for transporters both within urban towns and on inter-city routes, amounting to both monetary
and time losses. The average additional costs incurred due to restrictions are higher for inter-
city route restrictions. Mean additional costs in Punjab are much higher than in Sindh.
Transporters of non-agricultural goods face the greatest number of restrictions in urban towns
followed by transporters of agricultural goods. However, additional costs because of the
restrictions were reported to be higher on average for agricultural commodity transporters.
With regard to constrained movement in inter-city routes, transporters of both agricultural
and non-agricultural goods faced many more restrictions than those for passenger services.
73. Like travel routes, permissible times for traveling are also restricted in both urban
towns and inter-city routes. Only goods transporters face such restrictions. These hindrances,
on average, cause about 17 hours to be lost per carrier per month. This estimate needs to be
treated cautiously given the variability in the type of service, routes traveled and the internal
variation in the data. Transporters in Punjab lose significantly greater time on average than
transporters in Sindh.
74. The above restrictions are partly warranted as a means to reduce urban city traffic
congestion and prevent accidents. However, in recent years, as Pakistans law and order
situation has deteriorated in terms of a backlash of anti-terrorism policies, security checks,
curfews, and route closures have become excessively frequent. The majority of the
respondents suggested that such artificial restrictions have caused additional time losses.
Realistically, any end to these practices is unlikely until the law and order situation improves.
The short-term solution lies in devising better plans to better manage restrictive periods,
perhaps by planning better for sensitive movements and increasing operational efficiency in
terms of time spent on physical inspections during security checks.

4.5.7 Owners Prior Experience & Skill Level

75. Most existing literature thus far has portrayed education and skill levels of owners of
transport enterprises to be low.
51
While we find this to be true for the most part, our findings
are somewhat more optimistic with regard to the existence of management capacity among
owners, and also in terms of education levels of at least half the owners. Admittedly, the story
is highly pessimistic with regard to the actual drivers and conductors.
76. Survey results suggest that owners typically have several years of experience prior to
establishing or acquiring a business in the transport sector. Almost 90 percent of respondents
claimed to have greater than 4 years of experience in the industry before purchasing or
establishing their enterprises. Many had more than 8 years experience. Owners of companies
based in Punjab typically had greater prior experience in the sector compared with Sindh
based companies.
77. Management and technical skills related to the enterprise also existed. However, these
are learned primarily from relatives or friends, by working as an employee in the industry, or
through self-teaching. Formal education and training in the field is practically non-existent,

50 One ambiguity in this section is the type of restrictions being referred to. Survey responses do not
distinguish between various forms of travel restrictions, and thus these need to be taken in the broadest
sense.
51 World Bank, Transport Competitiveness, 2006.
Survey Report on Domestic Commerce
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 38
with an extreme minority of owners having learned through this medium. Therefore, while
skills may be present, the quality of skills could be expected to be fairly low.

Table 4.20: Medium of learning management and technical skills
Percent
Formal Education/Training (Technical Colleges, etc) 1.1
Working as an employee 34.4
From relatives/friends 36.6
Self-taught (TV, book, radio, newspaper etc) 22.6
Association/Group teaching 5.4
Source: Primary data analysis

78. Perhaps the most interesting finding is the high level of education among 55 percent
of the owners. Over 35 percent of owners surveyed had completed their secondary education
and 19.2 percent had undergone post-secondary schooling. This still leaves a substantial 45
percent who have not gone beyond elementary education. Owners of freight-carrying entities,
especially those who were previously employees in the industry have significantly lower
mean education levels. Those who are uneducated or under-educated do acknowledge that
lack of education is a constraint with regard to: (i) developing marketing strategies; (ii) level
of understanding of tasks assigned; (iii) in adapting to new regulations; and (iv) ensuring
documentary conformance. In addition, despite the owners level of education, shortage of
both skilled and unskilled labor (drivers, conductors, etc.) is a constraint to growth.
Furthermore, lack of training institutes for drivers is also believed to hinder the development
of the industry. Companies transporting freight feel more constrained by the lack of training
institutes for drivers than those providing passenger services.

Table 4.21: Level of education of enterprise owners
Level of education Percent
Uneducated 8.1
Primary 21.2
Elementary 16.2
Secondary 35.4
Post-secondary 19.2
Source: Primary data analysis

Figure 13: Relative importance of constraints due to lack of education (% of respondents)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Documentary
conformance
Level of
understanding of
tasks assigned
Difficulty in adapting
to new regulations
Difficulty in
developing
marketing strategies

Source: Primary data analysis

Domestic Commerce In Pakistan: An Overview Of The Transport Sector
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 39
4.6 Enhancing efficiency of road transport

79. Given the road sub-sectors overwhelming importance in the transport industry,
policy measures that manage to correct current constraints would impact the overall economy
tremendously. The incentive for policy makers to ensure well-crafted, and practically
implementable corrective measures is thus obvious. We are not in a position to provide
detailed suggestions on the modalities of various aspects that need revision. Our
recommendations flow directly out of the primary and secondary analysis conducted above.
Most of these are broad, and simply highlight the major aspects, which ought to be the focus
of official policies.
80. For the industry as a whole, a supply chain management approach with an intermodal
transport system attaining optimal productivity, and with each of its segments adapting their
operations to one another should be adopted
52
. There is considerable scope for revision of the
regulatory framework directing the sector. The new road transport legislation seeks to address
many of the bottlenecks highlighted in the preceding discussion. Implementation of the
legislation should be strengthened with utmost urgency. There is also a need for the
authorities to ensure wide dissemination of any changes in the regulatory framework. This
could be done through distribution of leaflets/booklets sent directly to offices of transport
agencies or distributed during Transport Association and Chamber of Commerce meetings.
81. More important with regard to transport legislations is the need to tackle the perpetual
dilemma of the policy-implementation disconnect. While the transport sector still lacks an
exemplary policy, a number of other sectors in the economy have managed to produce
noteworthy promulgations. The irony is that none of them actually manage to impact on
ground circumstances, largely due to lax implementation. No quick fix solutions to this
dilemma can be provided. However, a strong political will combined with a transparent
regulatory framework could gradually lead to enhanced efficiency levels.
82. Moreover, measured steps should be undertaken to integrate trucking into the formal
economy. Currently, the governments approach does not seem to recognize trucking as an
industry by itself. The shear volume of road freight traffic carried by trucks warrants such
recognition. In order to enhance functional efficiency, a revision of the current restrictive
industrial and import policies for vehicles and auto parts is in order. The Government of
Pakistan (GoP) applies excessive customs duties on Complete Built Units and Completely
Knocked Down kits. Moreover, import of second-hand trucks into the country is not allowed.
Not only does the import policy need to be relaxed, but the assembly plants for domestic
trucks need to be modernized. A simultaneous approach on both fronts is required.
83. One way of bringing the industry into the formal economy is by mandating a carrier
registration policy. Through this process, the road sub-sectors services could be standardized
with relative ease. The governments ability to ensure quality control would also be
strengthened through such a process. Collection of up-to-date data to feed into future policies
is another advantage of the sector shift to the formal economy. This said, realistically, a
registration drive would have to provide sufficient incentives to the transport entities to
register themselves. An incentive mechanism where benefits from registering would
outweigh the costs would be essential for successful implementation of a registration plan.
84. The change in the structure of the industry from a large number of small-scale
enterprises to well-organized large entities competing against one another requires attention
to soft management issues such as automation, marketing, and availability of a well trained
labor force. The government could follow-up the registration drive by creating a national
database of freight and passenger services. Under an integrated domestic commerce structure,

52 Peter Faust, Trade and Transport Facilitation: Global Issues and Highlights, UNCTAD.
Survey Report on Domestic Commerce
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 40
clients of the transport industry could be incentivized to utilize automated services to interact
with transporters. Transport firms could also be provided incentives to automate services,
perhaps by subsidizing their transition. The relatively high level of education of transport
owners should make such a transition simple on the technical front. Meanwhile, the non-
government sector could take the lead in setting up driver training centers, where customer
relations trainings are introduced at affordable costs. Alternatively, this task could be placed
under the Trade and Transportation Facilitation Program (TTFP), which has been
instrumental in conducting trainings for freight forwarders in the past.
85. Road industrys growth is severely hampered by lack of access to formal sector credit.
A World Bank report has outlined concrete steps that can be taken to redress the situation in
this regard: (i) developing a Truck Leasing Concept with banks; (ii) establishing a revolving
National Guarantee Fund to give incentives to decrease interest to banks; and (iii) developing
a fund to buy and scrap old but operational two-axle trucks in order to provide truckers with
down payments for newer vehicles
53
. All of these are pertinent. In addition, given the high
incidence of loss to goods in transit, the effective role of the insurance industry by developing
cargo insurance, third party insurance, and collision insurance into an industrial norm needs
to be increased.
86. Finally, one cannot help mention the need for further development of the road
infrastructure. To be fair, the government has been investing heavily in infrastructure
development projects. That problems still exist is simply a function of the astronomical
increase in the pressure on road transport, a trend that is likely to accelerate as per our
forecasted estimates (see section 3.1). While government efforts need to continue, it is
unlikely that current infrastructural problems will be resolved over the short run.


53 World Bank, Trade Competitiveness, 2006.

Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 41





Section 5
Railways



87. Pakistan Railways (PR) is a subordinate department of the Ministry of Railways. It is
governed by the Railway Act of 1890. In 1997, GoP announced its intention to privatize
PR
54
. The plan failed to materialize. Subsequently, in 2004, the Pakistan Railways
Corporation (PRC) was created. The rationale was to grant the entity sufficient independence
to operate and allow it to effectively compete with other modes of transport. Such
independence has not been forthcoming in reality.

5.1 The PR network

88. The PR network consists of 7,791 route-km, 7,346 kms of which are of broad gauge
while the remaining 445 kms are of metre gauge
55
. There are 625 stations with 1,043 kms of
total double-track sections and 285 kms of electrified sections
56
. Since 1982, no new routes
have been constructed. The Main Line connects the five major stations of Karachi, Multan,
Lahore, Rawalpindi, and Peshawar. Based on their role and degree of significance, the
network is ranked into six categorizes of lines.

Table 5.1: Classification of PR lines (2004-05)
Classification Route-kms
Primary A 2,124 km
Primary B 2,622 km
Secondary 1,185 km
Tertiary 1,416 km
Metre Gauge 439 km
Narrow Gauge (abolished) ---
Source: Pakistan Railways Year Book 2004-05.

89. The core railway, comprising the main north-south route and the strategic link to
Quetta, comprises one third of the total network. However, it supports 75 percent of the total
trains and over 85 percent of freight traffic
57
.


54 Visit Pakistan Railways official website for background information, available at <http://www.pakrail.com>.
55 Ministry of Railways, 2005.
56 Ibid.
57 World Bank, Transport Competitiveness, 2006.
Survey Report on Domestic Commerce
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 42
Table 5.2: Pakistan Railways: Core and Non-Commercial Networks
Percentage of Network Percentage of Trains per day
Route-km Track-km Passenger Freight Total
Core 33 41 73 86 76
Non-commercial 67 59 27 14 24
Source: Pakistan Railways Year Book 2004-05.

90. The network has 520 diesel locomotives, 23 electric locomotives and 14 steam
locomotives
58
. The latter are no longer used in daily services. Sixty-eight percent of the total
locomotives are over-age and require overhaul/replacement
59
. In 2004-05, there were 21,556
freight wagons, including 10,491 covered wagons, 5,526 open wagons and 5,216 special type
wagons.
60
Recently, 130 flat wagons were purchased from China for container transport. The
total number of passenger coaches is 1,865.
61


5.2 Share in the market

91. Rail accounts for less than 10 percent of the total passenger traffic in the country.
62

The number of railway passenger-kms began to increase due to motorization at the end of the
1970s, only to decline again in the 1990s. Passenger-kms have followed a similar trend since
the 1990s. During the late-1990s, PRs passenger output was registering low or negative
growths. Since 2000-01, the service has witnessed quite a remarkable turnaround. In the past
five years, average growth in passenger-kms has been over 5.5 percent per annum
63
. In 2004-
05, the average transport density was 8,500 passengers per day. On routes where daily
passenger trains are run, the average transport density stood at 10,600 passengers per day.

Table 5.3: Passenger volume revenue and fare
Year No. of passengers
(million)
Total Passenger Kms
(million)
Average No. of Kms
Traveled per Passenger
1950-1955 average
1955-1960 average
1960-1965 average
1965-1970 average
1970-1975 average
1975-1980 average
1980-1985 average
1985-1990 average
1990-91
1991-92
1992-93
1993-94
1994-95
1995-96
78.9
102.7
126.3
130.5
134.1
145.7
113.5
82.3
84.9
73.3
59.0
61.7
66.5
73.7
6,778.5
8,064.0
9,533.6
10,025.2
10,792.2
15,112.0
17,402.6
18,483.2
19,963.7
18,158.0
17,082.3
16,385.1
17,555.4
18,904.8
85.9
78.5
75.5
76.9
80.2
103.7
155.3
224.3
235.2
247.7
289.3
265.5
264.1
256.7
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
68.8
64.9
65.0
67.5
68.9
69.0
19,114.4
18,773.8
18,979.8
18,495.3
19,589.7
20,782.9
277.8
289.4
292.0
273.9
284.4
301.1

58 Ministry of Railways, 2005.
59 World Bank, Pakistan Transport Sector Assistance, 2002.
60 Six hundred and twenty nine departmental wagons and 328 brake-vans are not included in these figures.
Japan International Cooperation Agency, 2006.
61 Japan International Cooperation Agency, 2006.
62 World Bank, Pakistan: Transport at a Glance, The South Asia Energy and Infrastructure Operations Unit,
South Asia Region, January 2005.
63 Ministry of Railways, 2005.
Domestic Commerce In Pakistan: An Overview Of The Transport Sector
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 43
Year No. of passengers
(million)
Total Passenger Kms
(million)
Average No. of Kms
Traveled per Passenger
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
72.4
75.7
78.1
22,305.6
23,045.1
24,237.7
308.1
304.4
310.0
Source: Pakistan Railways Year Book 2004-05.

92. In the freight business, rail has an even lower and stagnant market share. Out of the
total transport output of approximately 123 billion ton-kms in the countrys transport sector,
64

rail accounts for a mere 5 billion ton-kms
65
. As a whole, over the last 50 years, PR has lost its
modal share of freight by 73 percent
66
. The trend in freight output has been similar to
passenger output. After registering negative growth rates in the late-1990s, the number of
ton-kms has increased in the last five years at an average of more than 8 percent per annum
67
.
Yet, current figures reflect a much-lower growth trajectory from the peak years in the 1960s
and 1980s. Even the current meager market share is largely maintained courtesy of legal
regulations mandating certain public entities to utilize PR.
68
Moreover, if freight traffic were
to be confined to just the core network (currently it is also carried out on the non-core
network), freight would be decreased by another 24 percent
69
.

Table 5.4: Pakistan Railways: Freight Data
Year Tons carried
(Thousands)
Ton-kms
(Million)
Average Kms
Carried by a Ton
1950-1955 average 9,244 4377.9 477.0
1955-1960 average 11703 5479.8 468.2
1960-1965 average 14156 7212.7 514.4
1965-1970 average 14619 7899.9 550.8
1970-1975 average 12715 7906.7 626.3
1975-1980 average 13367 8598.5 665.3
1980-1985 average 11185 7379.1 666.2
1985-1990 average 10960 7942.6 732.2
1990/91 7717 5708.6 742.3
1991/2 7560 5961.6 792.4
1992/3 7769 6180.3 798.8
1993/4 8036 5938.8 741.7
1994/95 7356 5661.0 772.8
1995/96 6854 5077.4 742.3
1996/97 6380 4607.0 727.1
1997/98 5977 4447.3 745.8
1998/99 5448 3969.5 730.6
1999/00 4770 3753.5 759.3
2000/01 5894 4519.5 771.0
2001/02 5866 4572.7 782.6
2002/03 6180 4819.8 779.8
2003/04 5140 4796.3 781.2
2004/05 5410 5013.5 782.1
Source: Pakistan Railways Year Book 2004-05.





64 This figure is for 2004-05.
65 Government of Pakistan, Pakistan Economic Survey 2005-06, 2006.
66 Asian Development Bank, Technical Assistance for Transport Policy Note, TAR: 38028, 2004.
67 Government of Pakistan, Pakistan Economic Survey 2005-06, 2006.
68 World Bank, The Indus Trade, 2005.
69 World Bank, Transport Competitiveness, 2006.
Survey Report on Domestic Commerce
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 44
5.2.1 Value added in the rail sub-sector

93. As is clear from the above discussion, passenger traffic constitutes the bulk of PRs
operations. Yet, it only accounts for 56 percent of total revenue
70
. Unit passenger revenue is
significantly less than average per unit freight revenue. Freight charges cannot be slashed
substantially as freight revenue cross-subsidizes passenger fares. Moreover, the revenue
generated by the small core commercial network is used to support the non-commercial
network, which is twice its length
71
. Both passengers and freight cover their direct train-
related operating costs and produce a surplus. Core freight transport produces a surplus
towards access and infrastructure costs. Moreover, even freight on the non-core network
nearly covers its long-run direct costs. Other non-core services operate at a loss.
Notwithstanding, both core and non-core networks run a huge deficit if the long-term train
and track depreciation costs are included
72
.

Table 5.5: Pakistan Railways: Network Costs FY2004 (PKR million)
Core Non-core
Revenue 10,123 2,663
Train costs 7,579 2,970
Direct short-run surplus 2,544 -307
Access costs 1,489 1,265
Network short-run surplus 1,105 -1,572
Train depreciation 2,455 1,281
Track depreciation 1,720 618
Network long-run surplus -3,070 -3,471
Source: World Bank, Transport Competitiveness, 2006.

94. PRs freight fare is calculated on a commercial basis for each commodity, accounting
for volume, weight, form (type of packing), method of loading, and susceptibility to transport
losses. PRs annual freight per wagon output stands at a dismal 200
73
. By and large, freight
rates are at an advantage in comparison to our estimated rates for road transport. Existing
literature points to rail as being especially cost-effective in terms of long-haul containerized
cargo. Notwithstanding, the PRs share is still minimal because of the propensity on the part
of the clients to pay higher prices for more efficient services to transport containers. The
following table provides the basic rate scales.

Table 5.6: Pakistan Railways Basic Rate Scale for Freight Transport
Distance (km) Rate (PKR per ton per km)
1-250 0.37
250-300 0.28
300-500 0.18
501 and above 0.16
Source : Pakistan Railways Rate Lists

5.2.3 Commodities carried

95. Major commodities carried by Pakistan Railways include petroleum and other non-
dangerous hydrocarbon oils (18.1 percent), chemical manures (9.9 percent) and railway
materials and stores (17.4 percent)
74
. Perhaps the biggest reason for the steep decline in rails

70 Ibid.
71 Ibid.
72 Ibid.
73 World Bank, Pakistan Transport Sector Assistance, 2002.
74 Japan International Cooperation Agency.
Domestic Commerce In Pakistan: An Overview Of The Transport Sector
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 45
importance as a freight carrier is the loss of oil transport as a major commodity. Prior to the
construction of the Karachi-Mahmood Kot oil pipeline, rail was the single biggest transporter
of oil, with transport loads averaging 8-9 freight trains per day
75
. While the volume has
reduced to one fourth, the railway freight service has never reoriented itself to the loss of oil
business. Likewise, the growth in ATT activity, which provided significant business to PR,
has also slowed down. This is partly due to trade flows being diverted to Iranian facilities due
to cumbersome procedures at Karachi
76
but more so because of a shift from rail to road as the
preferred mode of transport of ATT goods. The NLC now gets priority on this front.
77


Table 5.7: Commodity Volume Carried
Name of Commodities Freight Carried
(Tons)
Ton-Km

Kms
Iron and Steel Division A includes
angle, axles, sheets, girders etc
8 6306 788
Sugar 72 56634 787
Paddy and Rice 41 32147 784
Cement 51 39977 784
Oil Division D includes vacuum refined
edible oil
40 31366 784
Gypsum 23 17972 781
Oil Seeds 201 157031 781
Petroleum and other hydrocarbon oils
non-dangerous i.e., having flashing point
at above 76 Fahrenheit
1111 867812 781
Coal and Coke for the Public 362 282715 781
Chemical manures (Fertilizers) 609 475451 781
Fire wood 64 49651 776
Ballast and Stone 25 19259 770
Machinery, other than electrical 4 2791 698
Other grains and pulses 4 2713 678
Sugarcane 2 1306 653
Timber 1 470 470
Live-stock 1 429 429
Salt 132 36647 278
Miscellaneous 2069 1686558 815
Total 4820 3767235 782
Departmental Commodities
Coal, Coke and Patent fuel for Railways
(including H.S.D. and furnace oil)
253 195120 771
Railway Material and Stores 1067 833914 782
Total 1320 1029034 780
Sigma Total 6140 4796269 781
Source: Pakistan Railways cargo documentation

96. The above table presents an interesting picture with regard to PRs importance in
carrying agricultural produce. The overall share of agricultural commodities in Railways
freight is about 50 tons, which comes to less than 1 percent of the total. Livestocks share in
the total freight traffic is also minimal. Fertilizers however account for 9.9 percent of the total
freight carried. Thus, while rails importance for transport of agricultural outputs in minimal,
it does contribute more substantially to agricultural inputs. Rails unimportant role in
transporting agricultural produce is not surprising given the services inability to handle

75 Key informant interview.
76 Shaheen Rafi Khan, et al. Quantifying Informal Trade between Pakistan and India, Research Report,
Sustainable Development Policy Institute, 2006.
77 World Bank, Transport Competitiveness, 2006.
Survey Report on Domestic Commerce
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 46
perishable items. Railway does not have any specialized containers to carry such goods and
given the frequent delays, clients often prefer road to carry such goods despite the lack of
temperature-controlled road transport. The few perishable items carried by PR are mainly
transported in passenger trains.

5.3 Constraints to growth

97. A discussion on the key factors behind PRs dismal performance can be couched in
the theoretical debate on the inefficiency of public sector functioning. The bureaucratic
inertia linked with large public sector organizations is pervasive in the case of PR. The
organizations management culture is non-commercial and thus functional efficiency has
always been a low priority. Like most other mega-organizations in Pakistans public sector,
PR suffers from tremendous political interference both in deployment of personnel and in
day-to-day management. Moreover, PRs senior management has no incentives, or authority
to inculcate corporate governance practices in the entity. An excessively cumbersome
operational set-up and lopsided priorities have led to sub-par outcomes.
98. Lack of a principal focus on commercial viability has meant that PR has primarily
remained a passenger railway services. Internally, the management views PR as a public
service, which seeks to provide subsidized transport to citizens.
78
The fact that Pakistan lacks
a fixed operation diagram for freight trains is thus not surprising. Freight trains are operated
in intervals between the running of passenger trains, which are prioritized. The former are
often forced to stop and wait for the passing and exchanging of passenger trains. Moreover,
freight services receive the less reliable locomotives and lose their locomotives if passenger
locomotives fail, an occurrence that takes place three times daily on average
79
.
99. Moreover, PRs infrastructure and rolling stock have become aged and decrepit. The
majority of freight wagons are extremely old and perform poorly. Some wagons are
restrained to operation speeds of less than 55 km/hr.
80
Locomotives are also outdated.
Moreover, the snailish pace of freight trains reduces the locomotive utilization ratios
tremendously. A total of 14,570 bridges are utilized as part of the network. The bridges were
built more than a century ago and require rehabilitation
81
. In addition, the signaling system is
insufficient for the present operation and safety needs because of a lack of a back-up system.
The lane capacity also remains small despite the double tracks. Train speeds are restricted to
15 km/hr in large station yards. Moreover, a single-track section of 245 km (Khaniwal-
Raiwind) is still on the main corridor causing reduced speeds and frequent delays due to the
need to exchange tracks.
100. Infrastructural problems point to the presence of an ad hoc and unsustainable financial
structure. Indeed, the 1990s observed no investments in infrastructure except for the
procurement of locomotives. This trend has finally reversed in the recent past with efforts
underway to dualize the entire track. Track strengthening and rehabilitation is also being
undertaken in order to enhance operational speeds and minimize maintenance costs.
82

Notwithstanding, the fact that PR is in poor financial health
83
and that according to some
informal estimates, 25 new locomotives are needed to capture merely 1 percent additional
market share of freight traffic, costs of reviving rails share in the transport sector are

78 This was clear from all discussions during key informant interviews with PR officials.
79 World Bank, Transport Competitiveness, 2006.
80 Japan International Cooperation Agency, 2006.
81 Ibid.
82 This is being done as part of the Rehabilitation and Improvement of Tracks (2001-2006) project.
83 The GoP has to pay a substantial amount of annual subsidy simply to keep PR operations afloat. Even the
much reduced subsidy figure for 2005 stood at PKR 3.9 billion. This was less than half of the sanctioned
subsidy amount of PKR 9.1 billion.
Domestic Commerce In Pakistan: An Overview Of The Transport Sector
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 47
unserviceable
84
. In order to effect meaningful positive change, the revenue and passenger
subsidy structures would have to be overhauled.
101. A direct outcome of these shortcomings and perhaps the most significant constraint
for PR is the inability to provide guarantees in terms of time needed for consignments to
arrive at the destination. While time bound deliveries are always important for production and
retail industries, given the increasing volume and pace of economic activity in the country,
the need for transport services to reorient themselves to the market demand has been further
exacerbated. Unfortunately, given the bureaucratic inertia and cumbersome regulations
inflicting PR, the service has been unable to transform itself to enhance efficiency. The
depleted infrastructure and rolling stock, and the priority accorded to passenger traffic does
not allow for time bound deliveries. Currently, the actual transport time of conventional
wagons from Karachi to Lahore is 60 hours (as compared with 45 hours for road), reflecting
the long running and waiting periods
85
. The existing conventional wagons take 2.5 times
longer than locomotives
86
. Moreover, delays, especially in freight trains are routine.
87

Consequently, despite an effort to ensure timeliness, including a fixed timetable for container
and parcel trains, delays are commonplace.

5.3.1 The governance of PR freight

102. Admittedly road and rail transport are incomparable in some ways given that the road
carriers provide door to door service, which not only reduces labor costs but also the number
of handlings per consignments. Under such an inherently compromised position, railway
services around the world often tend to offset the disadvantage by employing an aggressive
marketing strategy and developing attractive cost packages for clients. Unfortunately, neither
is present in the case of PR. Individual officers in PR have no authority to negotiate
concessionary rates to attract business. Rate lists are fixed and have to be applied uniformly
across the board.
103. An inherent advantage that an organized rail service may have over road transport is
the absence of handling mishaps. Unfortunately, the incidence of pilferage in PR is reportedly
high. Leakages in loosely packed items like wheat and other edibles are usual. Also, since the
responsibility of packaging is the clients/agents, the loss can almost always be blamed on
poor packaging. Another common occurrence is switching of items like live animals whose
description on the delivery receipt (which is the only document to prove ownership of a
consignment) cannot be tailored beyond a point. Thus, a switch cannot be proven.
104. One positive element of the PR freight business is that the service does provide for an
inbuilt compensation guarantee in case any loss is proven. Compensation issues are handled
through a Complaints Department. However, the efficiency of this department is poor.
Customers often complain of the rigid rules under which compensation is allowed as well as
the indifferent attitude of the staff towards claimants. No formal dispute resolution
mechanism exists in PR.
105. Finally, PR has managed to put itself in an advantageous position with regard to level
of automation. Although the services internal accounting and management procedures are
still manual, and highly disorganized, from the domestic commerce point of view, a recent
welcome development has been the introduction of customer tracking services for container

84 This estimate is based on an informal internal PR calculation. It was provided to us during one of the
interviews.
85 Japan International Cooperation Agency, 2006.
86 Ibid.
87 Dedicated freight trains (maal garis) only travel once they have been filled to full capacity, which makes
timeliness a function of demand for use of these trains. Moreover, containers are often queued and
nepotism frequently needs to be employed to get containers ahead in the queue.
Survey Report on Domestic Commerce
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 48
transport, which helps keep passengers up-to-date with the delivery status of their
consignments.

5.3.2 Lack of a competitive environment

106. The PR is a monopoly. Being the only rail service in the country, no competition is
faced from within the sector. Lack of any compulsion to orient the service with market
realities is thus obvious. Admittedly, in the last decade, PR has made a number of moves to
allow private sector involvement in the business. However, contrary to what most recent
literature suggests, these moves do not amount to an attempt to enhance competition. Instead,
private sector involvement is being sought to outsource a number of unprofitable segments of
the rail freight business. While this may imply competition among various entities in the
private sector that invest in the particular activity, the ownership remains solely with the PR.
Nonetheless, such attempts are still welcome as they carry the potential to transform PRs
freight services into an efficient industry. The outcome of course depends on the level of
commitment and sincerity from the PR management in implementing the drive towards
private sector involvement. Thus far, the agenda remains narrow and is often kept suitably
vague. The bureaucratic inertia seems to be at play, implying that moves to open up the
management system to outside actors are only being pursued hesitantly.
107. The most significant private sector role is currently witnessed in the dedicated parcel
service where luggage vans are sub-contracted to freight forwarders.
88
The system was
initiated in 1999. In their capacity as contractors, freight forwarders are free to solicit clients
and fix their own rates. PR only acts as a carrier, with all other tasks including
documentation, loading/unloading and delivery having been outsourced to the contractors.
The system, while increasing the volume of parcels and providing direct short-run surpluses
in terms of revenue, is running at a long-run deficit. The system is not very profitable for the
contractors either. Moreover, bureaucratic red-tape continues to induce inefficiencies.
Contractors face a number of bureaucratic hurdles in dealing with the concerned PR
departments. Although the incidence of disputes over claims or mishandling of contractors
freight are low, contractors are often treated menially and must accept such treatment or use
personal contacts to expedite the payment clearance processes.
89

108. Other commendable steps to involve the private sector include an expression of
interest in involving private sector entities to run the freight business. While the scope and
specific nature of such an offer remains unclear, the fact is that PR has realized the urgent
need to use private sector efficiency and expertise to become more competitive. Already,
negotiations are underway with three major private sector investors to outsource an allowance
of one freight train with a carrying capacity of 1440 tons every day.
90
In addition, private dry
ports are being developed and private sector involvement is being sought on some existing
dry ports like the one in Lahore.

5.4 Building on the strengths to enhance competitiveness

109. Pakistans topography, spatial distribution and demand for transport services present
an ideal opportunity for rail to become a major player in the freight transport industry. PR is
especially suited for long-haul containerized cargo. Given that literature already points to
PRs competitive advantage in terms of costs in containerized cargo shipments, and that its

88 World Bank, Transport Competitiveness, 2006.
89 Interview with PR contractor and official from the accounts department.
90 Information about this development has not been made public yet. We have learnt of such a possibility
through our key informant interviews.
Domestic Commerce In Pakistan: An Overview Of The Transport Sector
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 49
scope for cost reduction is much higher than that of the road sector, PRs problem seems to
be one of functional efficiency rather than any inherent barriers to being competitive.
110. One positive element of PR transport at present, which unfortunately ends up making
it uncompetitive in the industry is its strict enforcement of overloading limits. The largest
3,000 HP locomotives and new high performance freight wagons with full loading are
allowed a maximum axle load of 22.86 tons.
91
Other lines are permitted an axle load of 17.27
tons or less
92
. Weigh stations are available which remain functional and barring exceptions,
gross overloading is not permitted. While this provides an advantage to the road sector, where
overloading is commonplace, it also implies that road fares could rise under stricter
enforcement regulations, thus allowing PR to become more cost competitive.
111. The potential for private investment to flow in is facilitated by the presence of
financing facilities. Unlike the road transport sector, where the majority of operators have
low or absent credit lines, private investors interested in rail operations in Pakistan all have
ready access to substantial amount of credit. The real hurdle thus is not the availability or
access to credit, but the lack of commitment from PR and the existing poor state of the rail
sub-sector, which makes mega-investment unattractive, except under excessively
concessionary terms. The latter is virtually impossible given the fear of public scrutiny and
the likely political fall out.
112. While such advantages for the PR exist, in order to realize these, a concerted effort
has to be made to overhaul various aspects of the establishments functioning. The foremost
concern is the need to develop the political will to transform PR into a corporate unit in
reality. Until and unless bureaucratic hurdles are eliminated, enhanced efficiency is unlikely
to result. Bureaucratic hurdles in themselves lead to poor governance structures, added costs,
and poor customer service, all of which tend to take business away to other more efficient
alternatives.
113. On a broader level, literature on railway services across the world is unanimous in
highlighting the fact that profitable railways almost inevitably generate bulk of their revenues
from freight traffic. Therefore, all existing recommendations for improving the state of PR
suggest prioritization of the freight traffic.
93
While that may be theoretically attractive, the
fact is that PR cannot afford to focus on its own profitability ahead of passenger welfare
unless a political decision to do so is made at the highest level. Political compulsions to
maintain affordable passenger fares are likely to force the scope of PRs choices to remain
limited to ones falling within the existing paradigm. Notwithstanding, PR could seek to
improve its efficiency within the existing paradigm by involving the private sector even more
aggressively. While a number of arrangements could be envisioned, the most realistic is to
divert freight business to the private sector while retaining the management and operation of
trains within the public sector. This would not only ensure more aggressive marketing among
various contractors, but could also enhance efficiency levels. PR is already cognizant of the
need to move in this direction and has contemplated outsourcing the marketing of its
container service.
94

114. The private sector could also be involved in extending rails delivery network to allow
for door-to-door service. A contracted out arrangement with road carriers could allow for
consignments transported by rail to be delivered to the customers final destination. However,
the increased cost and the higher number of handlings would still be an issue.
115. Notwithstanding the above, it is important to note that PRs ultimate test is its ability
to compete with the road sector. In that regard, even allowing the private sector to act as

91 Japan International Cooperation Agency, 2006.
92 Ibid.
93 World Bank, Transport Competitiveness, 2006.
94 Ibid.
Survey Report on Domestic Commerce
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 50
managers of the freight business is unlikely to bear dividends unless the infrastructural
bottlenecks and the issue of redefining priorities are resolved. Indeed, there is substantial
scope for reducing operating costs by replacing traditional operating systems and removing
many of the bureaucratic management hurdles. However, these measures are unlikely to have
a consequential impact unless major investments are made in upgrading locomotives, rolling
stock, motive power, as well as train tracks and signaling. Automatically, this raises the
concern about the substantial financial implications of fulfilling such a need. In this light,
some reports have suggested that PR could allow private ownership of rolling stock or even
trains. Others point to the possibility of joint ventures or partial or complete concessioning of
the freight business. While there is some private sector interest in investment in rolling stock,
or contracting individual freight services (as is already being done), freight concessions are
unlikely to be taken up given the high risk factor involved.
95

116. Apart from the options of various degrees of outsourcing, there could be scope for
institutional separation of the passenger and freight business,both having their own
locomotives, rolling stock and staff.
96
Moreover, a commercial rail corridor could be
established with relative ease given that main line infrastructure for freight transport already
exists. While a separation of freight and passenger services will allow a dedicated group of
officers to focus on improving freight business, again, until freight is accorded equality with
the passenger service, the attendant benefits of such a division will not be realized. In any
case, such a division is under consideration as part of the National Trade Corridor policy
framework.
117. Upgradation and a reorientation of priorities is urgently needed for rail to be able to
increase speeds of trains, enhance utilization ratios, reduce shipment times, inject reliability
and predictability into its business, and in turn revamp governance structures to allow for
more customer satisfaction. All of these are required to allow rail freight business to regain
some of its lost market share. The challenge is to ensure such improvement without raising
rail fares significantly but without increasing dependence on the GoP.


95 Ibid.
96 Ibid.

Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 51





Section 6
Aviation




118. The aviation industry is unique in that the pace of transportation offered by it cannot
be matched by any other sub-sector. Therefore, it is not entirely comparable to either rail or
road. Regardless, a number of the issues discussed with regard to the other two sub-sectors
also remain relevant to the aviation industry.

6.1 Aviation Network and Administration

119. Pakistan has 36 operational airports, of which 6 are international, 19 are domestic and
11 are feeder.
97
Not all airports are open to civilian (passenger or cargo) use. Airport control
falls in four categories: (i) airports used only by the Air Force, (ii) airports administered by
the Air Force but used by both the Air Force and Civil Aviation, (iii) airports administered by
the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) but used by both the Air Force and civil aviation, and
(iv) airports used by civil aviation only.
120. Overall, aviation constitutes a miniscule share of the transport sector. In 2004-05, 6.94
million passengers traveled domestically by air out of which 0.08 million were transit
passengers.
98
A total of 1.76 billion passenger-kms were flown. In addition, a mere 116,202
tons of cargo and 10,412 tons of mail were hauled.
99
A total of 36.94 million ton-kms were
performed.
100
These low volumes are despite the steady increase in air cargo traffic over the
years, save a minor decline during the 1990s.

Table 6.1: Domestic Air Traffic of Passengers and Freight of Pakistan International
Airlines
101

Year Passenger-kilometers
(million)
Freight Ton-kilometers
102

(million)
1994-95 2312.36 35.45
1995-96 2006.40 35.19
1996-97 2031.54 35.07
1997-98 2056.67 34.95
1998-99 1916.20 33.23
Continued

97 World Bank, Pakistan Transport Sector: Overview,
<http://web.worldbank.org/WEBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/SOUTHASIAEXT>
98 Federal Bureau of Statistics, Statistical Year Book, 2006.
99 Civil Aviation Authority, Government of Pakistan. Civil Aviation Statistics of Pakistan 1972-2005 ( Karachi:
MIS Branch, Civil Aviation Authority Headquarters, 2006).
100 Ibid.
101 This table only depicts information about the Pakistan International Airlines (PIA). However, given PIAs
virtual monopoly over the sector, these are fairly representative of the aviation industry.
102 We include both freight and mail volumes in these figures
Survey Report on Domestic Commerce
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 52
Year Passenger-kilometers
(million)
Freight Ton-kilometers
102

(million)
1999-00 1936.53 31.07
2000-01 1960.36 33.22
2001-02 1554.98 34.50
2002-03 1651.54 38.33
2003-04 1769.31 36.94
Source: Federal Bureau of Statistics, Statistical Yearbook 2005.

121. The principal utility of aviation is to carry consignments that must reach their
destination in a quick, time-bound manner. Perishable items are thus often transported
through the aviation sector, although international shipment of perishable items is more
significant than domestic transport. Aviation is also a major carrier of courier mail.
103


122. Pakistan domestic legislation on aviation is opaque, confused and complex
104
. An
amended version of the Carriage by Air Act 1934 governs domestic air carriage. The present
legislation is embodied in two SRO notifications (SRO 295(k) 62 and SRO 1033 (K) 67),
both of which are not accessible to the public
105
. A draft of a new legislation- the National
Aviation Policy 2006- has been prepared. It introduces modern air carriage concepts and
seeks to eliminate the key bottlenecks created by the previous legislations. It proposes to
bring domestic legislation in line with international best practices.

6.2 Freight and passenger handling

123. The aviation industrys passenger and freight administration is conducted in two distinct
loops. The CAAs regulatory framework applies directly to the various air operators, but only
indirectly affects the end clients. The second loop constitutes the direct interaction between the
operators and the clients. While the first loop is bureaucratic, the latter has proven to be rather
efficient.
124. The CAA has traditionally been dominated by the Air Force. Retired Air Force officers
often fill key posts in the Authority. Therefore, officials who are not trained in the field of civil
aviation often end up running the affairs of the Authority. A common misconception is that Air
Force officers are suited to CAA postings given their background in defense aviation. In reality,
the two fields are quite distinct and ought to be managed in diametrically opposed ways. Consider
that defense aviations ultimate objective is to eliminate its competitors, while civil aviation must
encourage competition and ensure that all stakeholders are duly accommodated in order to
maximize benefits for the end client. Another anomaly lies in the fact that CAA falls under the
Ministry of Defense (MOD), and not the Ministry of Communications, which would be the
natural parent establishment for an aviation service. Given the virtual absence of expertise of
MOD on civil aviation, the Ministry has been unable to play any constructive role in helping the
progress of the aviation sub-sector. Under the proposed National Aviation Policy (2006), the
Ministry of Communications has already suggested making the CAA independent of the MOD.
125. In light of the above, it is hardly surprising that much of the problems faced by the
aviation sector with regard to transportation lie in the interaction between the CAA and aviation
operators, be they passenger or cargo services. On paper, a partial Open Skies Policy applies
106

and entry barriers to joining the Pakistani industry are minimal. However, bureaucratic

103 In 2004-05, 4,070 million tons passed all airports in the country.
104 Jamil and Jamil, 2003.
105 Ibid.
106 The policy is based on allowing access to Pakistani skies but on a reciprocal basis wherever possible. Visit
Civil Aviation Authoritys official website for details on the policy, available at <http://caapakistan.com>.
Domestic Commerce In Pakistan: An Overview Of The Transport Sector
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 53
procedures and highly discretionary powers vested in officials at key decision-making posts in the
CAA and MOD have deterred operators from making the industry truly competitive. Moreover,
the licensing fee for operators to enter the Pakistani market is exorbitantly high and thus keeps
small to medium scale investors away. Admittedly, such an entry barrier is a result of a deliberate
reversal of the policy of the 1990s where low capital requirements allowed a number of sub-par
airlines to become operational. While this is understandable, such a restrictive policy should be
compensated by facilitating any investors willing to enter the market under the currently
stipulated conditions. More importantly, a level playing field must be provided to all operators.
Currently, PIAC, a public sector entity, remains a near monopoly. Despite the operation of
private airlines like Air Blue, and previously others like Hajvery and Bhoja, the GoPs subsidies
and other concessions to PIAC have never allowed fair competition. PIAC has been a loss
making public sector entity, but like the PR it has been kept afloat through regular GoP
assistance.
107
Moreover, given the government ownership, PIA can often get away without
fulfilling various financial requirements, thus putting other operators at a disadvantage. PIA
currently owes a substantial sum of money to CAA in arrears against parking and landing
charges.
108
In the final outcome, the aviation industry comprises of a small number of operators,
none of them remotely competitive with PIAC.
126. Notwithstanding the above, the second, and arguably more important aspect of the
aviation industry in terms of our discussion- interaction with passenger and cargo clients- is
conducted rather efficiently. Air passenger and cargo transport is a transaction between the
operators and clients. There negligible contact of the public sector regulator (CAA) with the end
clients. Clients either deal with private services (e.g. mail), or in the case of cargo with operators
or their contractors, who are again private sector entities. Given that carriers apart from PIAC are
not public sector entities, most of them have managed to inculcate corporate governance practices
in their functioning. Even PIAs customer service has improved tremendously in the recent past.
One major advantage of the airline industry is that the entire sub-sector is automated on a global
scale and thus is naturally better able to maintain records, provide real time information, and track
both freight and passenger status. Notwithstanding, some recent research undertakings still
contend that the times involved in completion of various business processes at the airports are
unduly long
109
.
127. By and large, domestic flight delays, especially on main arteries are not excessive.
Majority of the freight is carried on passenger aircraft, except a limited number of cargo flights
utilizing Shaheen Cargo services or aircraft belonging to various courier services. Any cargo
orders are basically negotiated directly with the operators whose fares are deregulated, yet highly
competitive.
128. The only operational concern in the aviation industry is with regard to handling of
consignments at the airport, largely stemming from the lack of modern cargo scanning equipment
capable of detecting explosives. Given the security concerns in Pakistan, any cargo that is not
scanned or physically checked is required to be detained at the airport for a 24-hour cooling
period, thus undermining the very objective of speedy delivery
110
. However, this concern is
specific to items, which could be damaged by a thorough physical examination. Another capacity
constraint is a lack of suitable lockers with strong rooms at Karachi, Lahore and Peshawar
airports for keeping gems and jewelry and other valuable items, which are usually not transferred

107 Like PR, GoP has to bail out PIA from time to time in order to allow it to stay afloat. In the past three years,
GoP has paid PKR 5.18 billion directly out of the federal budget (explicit liabilities).
108 The exact amount of arrears is not easily obtainable, but we were told during one interview that the arrears
run into hundred of millions rupees.
109 S.I.A Zaidi and J. Mansoor, Study on Creation/Improvement of Cargo Handling Facilities at Airports in
Pakistan, Ministry of Commerce, Government of Pakistan, 2006.
110 Ibid.
Survey Report on Domestic Commerce
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 54
through rail or road. The need for such lockers is mandated under international civil aviation
regulations.
111

129. All aviation operators are mandated by law to have comprehensive insurance. Courier
mail is usually insured by the courier service. The incidence of losses/pilferage is extremely low.
Moreover, while no dispute resolution mechanism exists, a clearly defined compensation package
is detailed, which is often easy to claim.
112

130. Perhaps the biggest disadvantage of the aviation sector is its high costs as compared with
the other sub-sectors. While most of these costs are unavoidable, given the naturally high
operating and fuel costs of the aviation industry, the industrys regulatory framework does play a
role in exacerbating them. Pakistan has one of the highest landing and parking charges in the
world (see tables 32 and 33). Operators have to pay a specific amount on a per ton basis for every
outbound aircraft at any airport in the country.
113
Taxes on passenger fares are also extremely
high, and climbing. Having said that, admittedly, even a revamping of the regulatory structure
would not impact costs significantly enough to bring them at par with other competing sub-
sectors. In essence, this implies that while the aviation industry is unmatched in terms of speed
and thus ought to be the preferred mode of transport for certain specific items, where time can be
compromised, clients would inevitably prefer road or rail. In other words, since high costs are an
unavoidable aspect inherent in the nature of the industry itself, the scenario is unlikely to change.
This also explains the negligible freight market share of the aviation industry.

Table 6.2: Aircraft Landing Charges at Various Airports in Pakistan
( PKR per ton)
Year Non-international flights
Weight of Aircraft (Tons)
Not exceeding 1
Ton
Exceeding 1 Ton
But not 20 Tons
Exceeding 20 Tons
1990 15.00

* 12.00
** 10.00
* 62.00
** 52.00
1998

15.00

* 12.00
** 10.00
* 62.00
** 52.00
2002

1.50

* 1.20
** 1.00
* 6.20
** 5.20
2003

15.00

* 12.00
** 10.00
* 62.00
** 52.00
Source: Civil Aviation Statistics of Pakistan 1972-2005
Note: * Using International Airports
** Using Domestic Airports

Table 6.3: Aircraft Housing Charges at Various Airports in Pakistan
(PKR per ton)
Date of
Effectiveness
Location Domestic flights
Weight of Aircraft
Not exceeding 1 Ton Exceeding 1 Ton
But not 20 Tons
Exceeding 20 Tons
1990 Karachi
Islamabad
Lahore
All others
10.00
10.00
10.00
9.00
10.00
10.00
10.00
9.00
36.00
36.00
36.00
27.00
1998 Karachi 9.00 9.00 27.00
2002

Karachi
Islamabad
Lahore
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
3.60
3.60
3.60

111 Ibid.
112 Key informant interview.
113 Ibid.
Domestic Commerce In Pakistan: An Overview Of The Transport Sector
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 55
Date of
Effectiveness
Location Domestic flights
Weight of Aircraft
Not exceeding 1 Ton Exceeding 1 Ton
But not 20 Tons
Exceeding 20 Tons
All others 0.90 0.90 2.70
2003

Karachi
Islamabad
Lahore
All others
10.00
10.00
10.00
9.00
10.00
10.00
10.00
9.00
36.00
36.00
36.00
27.00
Source: Civil Aviation Statistics of Pakistan 1972-2005.

131. As far as passengers are concerned, aviation is again the preferred mode of travel for
time-constrained passengers, especially those traveling relatively longer distances. High costs
remain a factor, but here time savings far outweigh the additional costs for those who are able
to afford it. As economic activity in the country increases, and wealth levels rise, more and
more people are likely to prefer air to other modes of travel. However, the future volume is
dependent on a number of factors, most importantly the trend in airline tariffs, which in turn
is a function of a combination of operating costs, fuel being the most significant.

6.3 The way forward
132. Most of the aviation industrys shortcomings stem from a highly bureaucratic and
discretionary regulatory authority, which has discouraged the industry from developing
into a truly competitive one. There is a need to allow civil aviation experts to take up key
decision-making positions in CAA, and to depute experts in MOD (presuming that
strategic concerns will not allow aviation to be brought under any other ministry in
reality) to deal with civil aviation in the country. Such a development may allow better
use of the existing liberal policy to allow new passenger and cargo operators to enter the
market. The need is to implement this policy in practice by facilitating investors
interested in the sector. One important concern in this regard is PIACs near monopoly,
which ought to be eliminated by creating a level playing field. Pakistans aviation sector
could gain tremendously by making use of modern air cargo services.
114
The government
must realize its stake in terms of increased revenues were the number of aviation sector
operators and clients to increase. CAA could provide incentives to existing operators to
market aggressively, especially to attract more freight business in the commodities where
the aviation industry has an inherent advantage. Some of the gains from increased freight
volumes however, ought to be compromised by lowering the tax rates for the industry.
133. On another note, the tendency in Pakistan to build mega-airports in major cities
must be reviewed. Currently, a new airport is being built in Islamabad. While such
infrastructure development projects are key, the costs involved and the return on
investment needs to be studied extremely carefully before committing to such initiatives.
Perhaps more emphasis should be laid on equipping existing airports with modern
equipment for scanning and other services. Efficiency gains are sure to turn out to be
more important than modern buildings over the long run.


114 Raven, J. 2003. Trade Facilitation and Competitiveness for Pakistan. <www.nttfc.org/proceed03/proc03-
raven.htm>.

Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 56





Section 7
Ports




7.1 Port administration, makeup and network

134. Port management is usually left out of the discussion when strictly dealing with the
transport sector. It is normally considered under the purview of trade and transport facilitation. In
reality however, it is impossible to reflect upon the transport sectors impact on commerce
without dealing with the entry (for imports) and exit points (for exports) for the countrys external
trade. Efficiency of trade flows and that of the transport sector are complementary. For instance,
an extremely efficient port clearance process for imports is inconsequential if sufficient transport
facilities for onward shipment are unavailable. Similarly, much of the efficiency gains of inland
transport will be compromised if port management is inefficient and causes delays. In this light,
we shed some light on the state of management at Pakistani ports.
135. Pakistans 1,100 km long coastline opens to the Arabian Sea.
115
Karachi Port and Port
Qasim are the two major international ports. Other ports are relatively insignificant.
116
Both are
located in the coastal city of Karachi. Containerized cargo is dealt with in four container
terminals. The Ministry of Ports and Shipping administers ports and shipping in Pakistan. The
entire ports sub-sector consists of autonomous bodies under the control of the Director General of
Ports and Shipping. Management at major ports is heavily influenced by Naval presence. Naval
officers are often posted to manage the ports. Similar to the aviation industry, this suggests that
port managers are people who might be well acquainted with naval issues but not with the
international competitive environment confronting commercial ports.
136. Port Qasim is operating as a landlord port, primarily serving the steel, petroleum, and
chemical industries.
117
Karachi Port Trust (KPT) is also making progress towards converting
itself into a landlord port. The total cargo volume handled by the two ports in 2003-04 was 43.26
million tons.
118
At the Karachi port, the total port traffic increased from 20.5 million tons in 1991-
1992 to 27.5 million tons in 2003-04
119
. Imports were worth 21.6 million, accounting for 78.5%
of total traffic
120
. The total port traffic at Port Qasim rapidly increased from 7.2 million tons in
1991-92 to 15.6 million tons in 2003-04, representing an annual growth rate of 6.7%. In 2003-04,
imports accounted for 11.7 million tons, thus constituting 74.7% of total traffic
121
. In 2003-04,

115 Japan International Cooperation Agency, 2006.
116 Minor ports include Jiwani, Gwadar, Pasni, Kalmar, Ormara, Sonmiani, Nargar Parkar and Keti Bunder.
117 Visit the official website of Port Qasim, available at < http://www.portqasim.org.pk/projects.htm>.
118 Japan International Cooperation Agency, 2006.
119 Federal Bureau of Statistics, Statistical Bulletin, 2006.
120 Ibid.
121 Ibid.
Domestic Commerce In Pakistan: An Overview Of The Transport Sector
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 57
1.2 million 20 ft. containers passed through the two ports. Nearly, 1.0 million twenty feet
equivalent units (TEUs) (80.9%) of these were full container movements
122
.

Table 7.1: Cargo handled at Karachi Port and Port Qasim
(Thousand tons)
Year Karachi port Port Qasim Total
1994-95 23205 9199 32404
1995-96 23580 9648 33228
1996-97 23475 10585 34060
1997-98 22685 13250 35935
1998-99 24055 11743 35798
1999-00 23426 12764 36190
2000-01 25952 12110 38062
2001-02 26692 13226 39918
2002-03 25387 15816 41203
2003-04 27596 15669 43265
Source: Federal Bureau of Statistics, Pakistan Statistical Yearbook 2005.

7.2 Costs
137. Both the KPT as well as Port Qasim Authority (PQA) run on excessive profits. PQA, for
example, accumulated a net financial surplus amounting to PKR 1.08 billion at the end of FY
2003-04.
123
Contrary to common logic, high port surpluses are a negative factor in terms of their
impact on state of commerce in a country. This is because a high surplus (especially operating
surplus) in most cases would suggest high port costs, which are eventually born by the traders.
124

Indeed, this is the case with Pakistans main ports.
138. Port entry costs on average are 5-9 times higher than other countries in the region. For
instance, vessel call charges in Pakistan are USD 30,000, in Jebel Ali in Dubai they are USD
6,700
125
. Total container handling charges at Karachi ports specialized terminals are also
substantial (see table 7.2).
126
Part of this is a result of the shipping lines imposing several
additional charges including, in some cases, a shipping surcharge Also, a terminal handling
charge is effectively charged twice, levied first by the shipping line and then duplicated at the
container terminals.
127


Table 7.2: Port Tariffs at KPT and Port Qasim
128

Unit KPT
Revised in Sept. 2004
PQA
Revised in May 2005
Pilotage USD/GRT 0.15 0.13
Haulage and Towage
Mooring fee
Berthage Fee
USD/tug/act
USD/ GRT
USD/ GRT
485
0.05
0.08
485
0.04
0.08
For first 24 hours Past 24 hours
Port dues USD/ GRT 0.40 0.32
Wharfage Import Export Import Export
Break Bulk PKR/ton 70.00 35.00 44.00 31.00

122 Japan International Cooperation Agency, 2006.
123 World Bank, Trade Competitiveness, 2006.
124 Ibid.
125 World Bank, Pakistan Transport Sector: Overview,
<http://web.worldbank.org/WEBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/SOUTHASIAEXT>
126 Bulk cargo handling charges are low but this makes up a minority of the total consignments passing through the
two ports. Two thirds of total dry cargo (in tonnage terms) passing through Karachi is containerized.
127 A number of berths on both ports are now privatized and their charges deregulated. Therefore, the actual costs
depend on the agent company used for a particular consignment.
128 Since a number of port services are privatized, rates wary between private firms. Rates listed here are combined
from various sources.
Survey Report on Domestic Commerce
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 58
Dry Bulk Cargo
Wheat
Coal
Crude, diesel, kerosene oil, Fuel
Edible oil
Molasses
Tractor, tracked vehicle, etc
Motor vehicle
Tyre, tyre scrap, accessories
Food grain, fertilizer etc
Food grain, flour and seed
Fertilizer, rock phosphates ecl. Cow dung
PKR/ton
PKR/ton
PKR/ton
PKR/1000litre
PKR/1000kg
PKR/1000kg
PKR/CBM
PKR/CBM
PKR/ton
PKR/ton
PKR/ton
PKR/ton
54.00
21.00
44.00
30.00
35.00
18.00
256.00
316.00
316.00
25.00
40.00
21.00
40.00
30.00
35.00
18.00
126.00
158.00
158.00
25.00


34.00
25.00
31.00
11.00
218.00
275.00
275.00
21.00
21.00
14.00


34.00
25.00
31.00
15.00
68.00
83.00
275.00
17.00
17.00
14.00
Container


LCL Container (s)
PKR/ton x 2
Size 20 ft
PKR
70.00 35.00 620.00 620.00
FCL Container (s)
PKR/ft
Size 40 ft
PKR
90.00 35.00 1240.00 1240.00
Empty container (s)
PKR/ft
Over size 40 ft
PKR/ft
40.00 40.00 34.00 34.00
Destuffing charges PKR 20 ft
container
40 ft
container

500.00 1000.00
Demurrage PKR/Ton
First 15
days
(after
free
period)
Next
25
days
(after
free
period)
There
after till
cleara
nce
(after
free
period)


28.00 50.00 70.00

Source: Japan International Cooperation Agency, 2006.

139. The high costs are despite the fact that there is significant private sector involvement at
the ports. At KPT, operations are completely deregulated at the berths. Clients could potentially
deal directly with private service providers for final delivery without having to personally interact
with the port authorities. At KPT for example, a number of private companies have leased berths
and function as quick cargo movers, something that KPT had failed to do in the past.
Privatization has meant increased efficiency in terms of port handling. Competition is enhanced
by the fact that there are no rent controls applied to these private companies, and apart from
container charges, which are more or less fixed, each company has its own rate structure, which
can vary substantially.
129
By and large, however, costs still compare unfavorably with other
regional ports.

7.3 Port Clearance times

140. Private sector involvement has ensured that the ship-shore handling speeds at Karachi are
in line with those at efficient international ports for all categories of cargocontainers, bulk
cargoes and general cargo. Containers are handled at over 25 moves per crane per berth hour,
bulk cargoes are handled at approximately 3,000-9,000 tons per ship day (depending on the
commodity handled), and general cargos turnover rate is 2,500 tons per ship day.
130
At Port
Qasim, handling speeds for containers are around 22-24 moves per crane per berth hour; and
handling speeds for non-container cargoes are also in line with standards at efficient ports
elsewhere
131
.

129 Much of this discussion draws upon key informant interviews.
130 World Bank, Transport Competitiveness, 2006.
131 Ibid.
Domestic Commerce In Pakistan: An Overview Of The Transport Sector
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 59
141. One exception to the above is the KPT controlled berth (not outsourced). Items handled at
the KPT berth include loose cargo. The most important commodities handled include general
cargo, fertilizer, rice, phosphate, coal, steel and scrap, among others.
132
At the KPT berth,
handling speeds are much slower than the berths managed by private companies. Moreover,
consignments are handled rather carelessly. A major factor often overlooked in handling of loose
cargo is the significant environmental impact caused by careless handling of items such as coal.
A simple visit to the KPT vicinity for example exposes one to the blackened coal dumps,
highlighting the environmental hazards associated with coal handling at KPT.
142. Further improvement in ship-shore turnaround times, port traffic, and productivity is
possible if some existing infrastructural bottlenecks are removed. Port Qasim does not yet have
specialized dry bulk handling facilities. There is also a restriction on night navigation at Port
Qasim due to lack of adequate navigation facilities. Currently, only vessels of 202 meters overall
length (LOA) can be accommodated during the night on a request basis. Moreover, the ports
limited draught (9-12) keeps the latest and most efficient ships from calling.
133
Underutilization
of capacity is another concern that is most evident in the case of KPT. Two berths at the Karachi
port were not used for cargo handling throughout 2003-04, despite the limited available space
within the existing port area
134
. This adds to the mooring time of the dry bulk carriers.

7.3.1 Customs clearance:

143. Despite the efficient ship-shore handling, overall container dwell times in ports stand at
11 days on average. These times are four times those in developed countries, and three times the
average in East Asia
135
. The major factor behind excessive times is the tardy customs clearance
process, which suffers from tremendous operational bottlenecks. A recent World Bank report has
estimated customs clearance times as being 4-5 days, when the entire process can actually be
completed within one day
136
. Therefore, much of the gains from speedy ship-shore handling are
lost.
144. The customs procedures remain bureaucratic despite some level of automation. Although
the examination procedure is extremely thorough, the entire rationale is undermined given the
high incidence of informal payments- commonly called speed payments, which are used to
hasten the clearance process. A previous landmark study on Indo-Pak trade confirms our finding.
It reported that the single biggest complaint from traders they interviewed was with regards to
customs procedures.
137
An overwhelming majority of formal traders in the study interviewed
complained that bribes were demanded to expedite formal consignments. Were a bribe not paid,
customs officials retaliated by slowing down the clearing process.
138
Notwithstanding, there is an
interesting dynamic to the practice of rent seeking. The arrangement only assists in expediting the
clearance of legal consignments for the most part. Often, under declared or illegal consignments
are stopped and dealt with strictly, a fact one would not necessarily relate to cases where corrupt
practices are rampant.
145. Though, in our interviews, we were repeatedly told of the customs official facilitating
agents, this seemed to be directly correlated with the personal understanding and rent payments
between the agent and the customs officers rather than professional efficiency of the department.
Indeed, rent-seeking practices are not limited to customs officials. Clearance/forwarding agents

132 KPT customs documentation.
133 World Bank, The Indus Trade, 2005.
134 Japan International Cooperation Agency, 2006.
135 World Bank, Pakistan Transport Sector: Overview,
<http://web.worldbank.org/WEBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/SOUTHASIAEXT>
136 Clearance times in some of the most efficient ports like Singapore are 1.25 hours.
137 Shaheen Rafi Khan, et al., 2006.
138 Ibid.
Survey Report on Domestic Commerce
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 60
used by clients to fulfill customs formalities on their behalf often collude with customs officials.
Since clearance agents must be licensed and their level of efficiency is largely a function of
personal contacts, the market entry barriers are high. This implies that agents can overcharge and
in turn cut deals with customs officials for personal gains.
139

146. Notwithstanding, significant efforts have been made to eliminate corruption from customs
procedures. The scope of the efforts suggests sincerity on the part of the authorities.
Unfortunately however, much of the efforts have not produced desired objectives, courtesy of the
weak governance environment that underpins the entire management structure. The most
significant move has been to introduce automated customs clearance procedures both in a quest to
reduce clearance times as well as remove human influence. Much of the documentation
requirements have been made uniform and have been brought in line with international protocols.
Where the automated system has worked as envisioned, consignment clearance times have come
down astronomically.
140
However, the system is only functional in part at the moment and multi-
layered human interaction with various custom tiers still remains.
141
Our discussions have
revealed that the computerized systems are fraught with technical glitches. Commonly cited
complaints include frequent breakdowns of the system, slow responses to the online GD
application, a highly cumbersome process to remove any entry errors into the computer software,
and the like.
142
There is an urgent need to pay attention to the lingering technical glitches.
Moreover, attention must also be paid to capacity building of the clearance agents/forwarders and
even customs officials who are not adept at using automated systems. Ideally, the system ought
be expanded to dry ports up country. The ultimate goal ought to be to move clearance procedures
away from the ports/borders.

Box 5: Major constraints at land borders
Development of seamless gateways is becoming more difficult since the border remains the point at
which governments can most easily collect taxes and duties, enforce trade treaties, certify that goods
meet specific health, safety, and environmental standards, and interdict trade in contraband
143
.
Difficulties at the land borders are aggravated by requirements for back-to-back exchanges of cargo,
narrow and congested access roads, agencies with overlapping jurisdictions and enforcement
activities, poor communication/coordination with functionaries on the other side of the border, lack of
financial and testing facilities at the border, and insufficient infrastructure for inspection and protection
of cargo
144
. None of the upcountry dry ports or borders have automated clearance procedures. All
experience high corruption levels.

147. The incidence of demurrage at the ports is reportedly not so high, a welcome change from
what was reported in a number of previous studies.
145
Much of the demurrage is believed to be a
consequence of a genuine documentary or declaratory problem with the consignment, or
uncleared arrears, rather than an intentional delay by the customs authorities. Port Qasim has
instituted a demurrage waiver clause, which can be provided if relevant officers deem that the
delay was not caused due to any fault of the client. Low incidence of demurrage is also partly a
result of the liberal free storage periods at the ports.

Table 7.3: Free storage periods at KPT and Port Qasim

139 We were told during our interviews that such occurrences are fairly common.
140 The fastest clearance times witnessed during a recent survey was three hours. World Bank, Transport
Competitiveness, 2006.
141 For example, the goods declaration form is now filed online.
142 Key informant interviews.
143 World Bank, South Asia Regional Integration and Growth .
144 Ibid.
145 During a study on Indo-Pak informal trade that the author was part of, almost all interviews revealed that
demurrage was a major hurdle in trade as the excessive amount reduced the profit margins substantially. In
a few cases, high demurrage costs were even cited as one of the reasons for low formal trade volume.
Khan et al., 2006.
Domestic Commerce In Pakistan: An Overview Of The Transport Sector
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 61
No. of free days
KPT (from the arrival date of cargo)
Port Qasim (from the date of KRODM-IGM)
8 calendar days
8 calendar days
DG cargo 4 calendar days
All sort of motor vehicles 3 calendar days
Source: Ministry of Ports and Shipping, Government of Pakistan.

148. While there is tremendous inefficiency in the entire process, clients often tend to shy
away from challenging such practices. A major reason for such an attitude is that while a
substantial amount of money is siphoned away informally in absolute terms, relative to the
consignment value, the informally expended resources for port clearance are extremely small.
Below, the broad estimates of disaggregated informal costs incurred during port clearance are
listed.

Table 7.4: Estimates of informal costs associated with custom clearance
PKR
Cost per container (Imports) Cost per container (Exports)
Custom examiner report 300 Examination officer 300
Bribe to Appraiser 200 Appraiser 200
Bribe to Principal appraiser 300 Principal Appraiser 300
Miscellaneous informal
charges
2000 per container Miscellaneous informal
charges
2000
Clearance agents
(overcharge)
0-18,000
Total 2,800-20,800 Total 2,800
Source: Khan et al., 2006.

7.4 Potential avenues for improvement

149. The main need with regard to port management is to instill a more commercial approach
in management and operations decisions. The ports have made progress in modernizing internal
procedures, at least at the ship-shore handling level. Now there is a need to work towards creating
robust down-stream linkages to integrate the entire commerce supply chain. Currently, while
freight forwarders handle all incoming consignments, there are very few that provide integrated
services.
150. There is a significant cushion for reduction of port related costs. Cost reduction could be
achieved not only by reducing tariffs, but also by enhancing efficiency of port handling. Potential
gains in this regard could come from improving the utilization ratios of the berths, especially at
KPT. Infrastructure improvements could also enhance cost efficiency. There is a need to provide
specialized dry bulk handling facilities, removing the limited draught capacity, and providing
night navigation facilities at Port Qasim, among others.
151. The most important concern in the short-run is to remove the glitches in the automation of
the customs procedures and to extend the system to upcountry dry ports. Eventually, one could
envision clearance processes being taken away from the ports to the clients end destinations.
Moreover, there is also a need to introduce an Electronic Data Interchange system. Currently, the
automated portion of services at both ports covers only management of vessels but does not cover
other management tasks such as operation at conventional and container terminals
146
. With
regard to statistics, the present system covers only vessel statistics but these are not compiled
periodically or systematically. This is another aspect that needs attention.


146 Japan International Cooperation Agency, 2006

Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 62




Section 8
Major Government Initiatives




152. The government remains cognizant of the multifaceted problems confronting the
transport sector. The irony is that majority of macro level initiatives undertaken by the
government often end up remaining mere visions. The lack of on ground impact is clear from
the fact that as many as 80 percent of our survey respondents said they were not aware of any
major public sector initiatives to improve the functioning of the transport sector.
153. In this section, we do not go into details of the specific projects being undertaken by
the government. Instead, we point to various management related developments, which
theoretically carry the potential of impacting the transport sector favorably in the medium
term. The point being made is that there is no dearth of government attention on the transport
sector. However, contrasting much of the discussion in the preceding sections with the
positive outlook of the facts presented below clearly underscores the vision (policy)-
implementation disconnect afflicting the Pakistans transport sector. Literature is silent on
ways to redress this problem, except suggesting broad possibilities such as the need to
institute political will and commitment.
154. Notwithstanding the fact that no updated policy has been implemented in the sector as
a whole, GoP has undertaken many attempts to articulate a comprehensive transport policy
that encompasses all sub-sectors. Under a transport sector development initiative (TSDI)
sponsored by the World Bank, major stakeholder consultations were undertaken. The
findings of the TSDI were shared with Ministry of Commerce (MOC) to help in formulating
a national transport policy. The TSDI recommendations included (i) development of an
enabling policy framework that incorporates the perspectives of the three key
stakeholdersthe government both as service provider and regulator, the private sector, and
users, (ii) establishment of a national transport policy board, (iii) creation of a unified
Ministry of Transport that encompasses all sub-sectors, (iv) policy reforms and incentives to
encourage the private sector, (v) development of human resources in the sector; and (vi)
enforcement of existing legislation on safety standards, environment, etc. The National
Transport Research Center (NTRC) under MoC was assigned the responsibility to use the
TSDI findings in developing a comprehensive transport policy. However, given the lack of
capacity, NTRC was unable to develop a draft policy document acceptable to GoP
147
.
155. A significant new initiative being undertaken by GoP is the National Trade Corridor.
The strategic framework for the National Trade Corridor Implementation Program has been
developed with the aim of reducing the cost of doing business by bringing the trade and
transport logistics chain in the country up to international standards
148
. The National Trade
and Transport Facilitation Committee (NTTFC) has been established to serve as a platform of
interaction between the public and private sectors on trade logistics issues. The institutional

147 Asian Development Bank, Transport Policy Note, 2004.
148 Government of Pakistan, Annual Plan 2006-07 , 2006.
Domestic Commerce In Pakistan: An Overview Of The Transport Sector
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 63
setup, structure and source of funding for the NTTFC are weak and the Committee needs
further strengthening
149
. Already, the Committee appears to have made progress with regard
to developing and improving the goods declaration form and transport clearance
documents
150
. In addition, a minimum standard of professional qualifications and standard
training conditions for freight forwarders has been developed. Also, the acts for the carriage
of goods by road and air have been reviewed. However, as mentioned in the text, much still
remains to be done to remove the confusion in domestic legislation.
156. The policy framework for the National Trade Corridor incorporates several key
reforms in the railway sector as well. It has been broadly endorsed by the Prime Minister.
Reforms relevant to trade facilitation include preparing a Business Plan and Marketing
Strategy, changing the present departmental structure and governance, and separating core
and non-core, and passenger and freight services.
157. Other measures undertaken by GoP in the recent past include the approval of a revised
National Aviation Policy, implementation of the World Bank funded TTFP, and
implementation of the national Khushal Pakistan program, which sought to improve rural
transport access at the district level
151
. The TTFPs primary objective was to develop a
public/private sector collaborative institutional framework to develop and support the first
phase of the countrys medium-term trade and transport facilitation program. The latter
intended to modernize the traditional procedures, including information flows, documentation
and related legislation
152
. TTFP successfully achieved some of its targets such as introducing
a new uniform Goods Declaration, which can serve as the basis for a single administrative
document, introduction of new professional standards and a training program for freight
forwarders, and initiation of a process to formulate new transport legislation for carriage of
goods by air, sea and road. However, TTFP did not achieve all of its objectives because it
tried to do too much, too quickly, and with inadequate resources
153
.
158. In addition, a National Highway Safety Ordinance has been enacted. The purpose of
the Ordinance is to present the legal foundation for developing the Highway and Motorway
Police Force
154
. The Ordinance includes revised legal axle road limits for commercial
vehicles and presents the legal framework for axle load enforcement
155
. The NHA is also in
the process of developing a National Highway Development Plan, which concentrates on
strengthening existing assets and providing linkages from the main road system to isolated
areas and sub-regional border crossings
156
. GoP has articulated a clear development priority
for highways and has commenced a multi-year PKR 35 billion National Highway
Improvement Program
157
. Moreover, a road fund account has been established which will be
utilized to allocate significant financing for the road network conservation.
159. A National Transport Master Plan Study was recently completed. The study provides
a comprehensive overview of the transport sector and outlines the way forward. The first
phase of the study was supposed completed by March 2006 and focused on the collection of
transport statistics. There are also two public research and analytical organizations that work
on the transport sector in Pakistan and periodically give assistance to public: the NTRC and
the National Institute of Transport (NIT). However, both lack objectivity and need to liaison
with the private sector on a regular basis in order to provide valuable inputs to policy makers.

149 World Bank, Transport Competitiveness, 2006.
150 Asian Development Bank, Multitranche Financing Facility, 2005.
151 World Bank, Highways Rehabilitation Project, 2003.
152 World Bank, Trade and Transport Facilitation Project, 2001.
153 Raven, 2001.
154 World Bank, Pakistan Transport Sector: Overview,
<http://web.worldbank.org/WEBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/SOUTHASIAEXT>.
155 Asian Development Bank, Multitranche Financing Facility, 2005.
156 Ibid.
157 World Bank, Highways Rehabilitation Project, 2003.
Survey Report on Domestic Commerce
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 64
160. In 2005, the GoP adopted the Medium Term Development Framework (MTDF),
which aims to raise expenditures on infrastructure, (including transport) to approximately 4
percent of GDP by 2009-10
158
. Several factors formed the basis for the increase in funding.
They include optimal employment of the present capacity with priority on restoring and
upgrading transport infrastructure, careful and cost-efficient investments in economically
feasible new roads, development/improvement of the road network to assist trade growth,
development of innovative funding mechanisms and improvement of private sector
participation, precedence to road maintenance and safety, effective control of overloading on
roads, and improvement of capacity of road sub-sector agencies
159
.


158 World Bank, Pakistan Transport Sector: Overview,
<http://web.worldbank.org/WEBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/SOUTHASIAEXT>.
159 Planning Commission, Government of Pakistan, Medium Term Development Framework 2005-2010, 2005.

Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 65




Section 9
Conclusion




161. Given that the ultimate objective of this study is to inform policy makers of the role
played by the transport sector in domestic commerce, one underlying fact needs to be
understood. While the road, rail and aviation industries are competitors, maximum gains will
be realized not by altering the market share of one sub-sector vis--vis the other, but by
ensuring that each sub-sector attains the primary market share in commodities it is most
efficient at transporting. Arguably, an overall competitive environment among the three
services would potentially lower costs and enhance efficiency of the entire sector. However,
each service by its very nature has an inherent advantage in performing certain functions.
Ideally, policy makers ought to focus on devising incentives for each service to capitalize on
its respective comparative advantage. For instance, rail is most cost effective in transporting
containerized cargo over long distances. Aviation is most suited to dealing with perishable
items and courier mail. It also has an unmatchable advantage in carrying time-constrained
passengers. Road transports advantage lies in the minimum number of handlings, door-to-
door delivery, and the ability to carry loose/bulk cargo. At present, the utility of such
segregation among services is not realized, and given the dismal state of the rail and aviation
sectors, it remains academic. The foremost task should be to remove the inefficiencies within
the three sub-sectors.
162. The discussion in the preceding sections points to three major factors that determine
the degree of efficiency in each sub-sector. Perhaps the biggest constraint afflicting the rail
and aviation sectors is the perverse governance protocols. Both industries are influenced by
bureaucratic functioning and remain politicized in terms of appointments of officials. The
impact is reflected in the performance of both industries. According to a World Bank report,
Rail carries such a small proportion of freight that, objectively, closure would hardly matter
to the national economy. Rail .is not an economic necessity
160
. There is little hope
for a turn around in the service under current bureaucratic governance procedures. The first
step for PR is to gather the political will to overhaul the very approach of the service. Only
then can measures such as involving the private sector, improving infrastructure, and the like
result in efficiency gains.
163. Like rail, there is considerable room for improvements in the aviation sectors
governance protocol. While client dealing is fairly efficient, the sub-sector is managed by a
highly bureaucratic, and often unprofessionally managed body, the CAA. There is an urgent
need to inject the spirit of competitiveness into CAA official ranks, with the hope that it will
allow a more competitive environment to follow in the whole sector. Unless civilian aviation
experts are allowed to take charge of the functioning of the sub-sector, much needed
measures such as lowering market entry barriers and removing PIAs privileged position are
unlikely to materialize.

160 World Bank, Transport Competitiveness, 2006.
Survey Report on Domestic Commerce
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 66
164. The second major determinant of performance is the degree of competition in the sub-
sector. The present situation in the road and the port sub-sectors contrasts sharply with that of
rail and air. While the latter two remain monopolized, the road industry is completely de-
regulated and maintains minimal entry barriers. Despite being highly disorganized and
providing unstandardized services, the industry has managed to attract bulk of the transport
traffic. The gains from private sector competition are obvious from the remarkable turn
around in the performance of the ports, especially the outsourced berths at KPT. Granted, the
quest for competition has to be approached realistically, ensuring that basic citizen needs
(cheap modes of transport) are not compromised. Regardless, state monopolies in no way
provide a viable alternate to a competitive environment.
165. Finally, the transport sector is no exception to the all-pervasive problem of the policy-
implementation disconnect across Pakistan. First, the presence of up-to-date and dynamic
legislation is a necessity. The transport sector suffers from highly dated legislations, which
have little meaning under the present scenario. While new policies/rules are being
contemplated for virtually all sub-sectors, implementation of such legislations continues to be
delayed resulting in persistent efficiency losses in the sector. Despite a number of exemplary
macro level initiatives by the government, hardly anything has materialized in concrete terms.
Moreover, transport legislations such as those for the road industry fail to influence
functioning due to lax implementation.
166. The interplay of the three factors: bureaucratic governance, degree of competition and
implementation performance end up determining the output of the transport sub-sectors. The
divergent scenarios with regard to these factors in each sub-sector have led to equally
disparate performance outcomes. The road sector has grown phenomenally. Its competitive
environment has been complemented by aggressive road infrastructure development.
Notwithstanding, significant challenges remain in transforming the road sector into an
organized industry. Currently, the sub-sector is organized along traditional lines. Moreover,
there are tremendous bottlenecks in terms of regulatory frameworks, lack of access to credit,
zoning restrictions, and other governance concerns. In the final outcome, the functioning of
the sector remains inefficient, implying significant potential for additional time and cost
savings.
167. Until recently, PR did not respond to the competition from the road sector. It
continued to operate the entire network although the rationale for several lines no longer
exists, persistently attempted to cross-subsidize passengers for freight and the non-core
network from the core network, offered the traditional pattern of supply-driven services, and
failed to induce cost efficiencies into its operations
161
. Significant measures such as
improving delivery times, reliability, information tracking, among others are still required to
improve the quality of freight services. The current situation on these counts is dismal. The
inefficient rail operations are forcing a larger than usual percentage of low-value commodity
freight onto trucks. Rail freight is now primarily confined to areas where rail is protected by
regulation
162
. While some contend that this should prompt authorities to focus solely on the
road sector, the fact is that outright supremacy for road has negative spin-off effects on the
economy. The exceptionally high share of road transport in movement of commercial freight
costs the economy PKR 60-90 billion annually in extra fuel usage and subsidies on diesel.
Moreover, an extra PKR 30 billion per year is spent on additional road user costs
163
.
168. The aviation sector is unique in that its speed of delivery cannot be matched by any
other sector. However, the downside of its operations is the significantly higher costs as
compared with road and rail. While some of these cost are artificial, induced as a result of the

161 Ibid.
162 Ibid.
163 World Bank, The Indus Trade, 2005.
Domestic Commerce In Pakistan: An Overview Of The Transport Sector
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 67
high license fees for operators, and high landing and housing charges for aircraft, reduction in
these will still not allow the industry to become price competitive. The optimal utility of the
sector with regard to domestic commerce could be realized by gearing it to specialize in
transporting perishable items, courier mail, and high-end passengers.

Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 69
Annex 1



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Survey Report on Domestic Commerce
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 72
Annex 2



Notional illustration of computation of weights for output index
164


Step 1: Calculation of price/passenger-km

N Routes Fare/Passenger

(PKR)
Passenger/Trip Trip/Year Revenue/Year
(3 x4 x 5)
(PKR)
Passenger/Year Km/Route Km/Year
(5 x 8)
Total
passenger-
kms
(7 x 9)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1 Rawalpindi To Peshawar 80 42 1095 3679200 45990 167 182865 8409961350
2 Rawalpindi To Peshawar 70 35 1095 2682750 38325 167 182865 7008301125
3 Karachi To Rawalpindi 1000 40 365 14600000 14600 1567 571955 8350543000
4 Karachi To Rawalpindi 1000 37 365 13505000 13505 1567 571955 7724252275
5 Karachi To Rawalpindi 1000 37 365 13505000 13505 1567 571955 7724252275
6 Karachi To Muzafarabad 1000 35 365 12775000 12775 1709 623785 7698853375
7 Peshawar To Lahore 250 42 730 7665000 30660 436 318280 9758464800
8 Peshawar To Lahore 250 40 730 7300000 29200 436 318280 9293776000
9 Quetta To Karachi 500 35 365 6387500 12775 715 260975 3333955625
10 Quetta To Karachi 500 35 365 6387500 12775 715 260975 3333955625
11 Rawalpindi To Lahore 200 36 1095 7884000 39420 275 301125 11870347500
12 Rawalpindi To Lahore 170 36 1095 6701400 39420 275 301125 11870347500
n Rawalpinid To Lahore 290 42 730 8891400 30660 275 200750 6154995000

y y
y
u
K P
R
P

=
where,

P
u
= Price per passenger kilometer for the road passenger service
R
y
= Revenue per year for each respondent included in our sample data
P
y
= Total passengers per year based on our sample data
K
y
= Total kilometers traveled in a year based on our sample data

Step 2: Calculating operating revenue of road passenger services at the national scale

R
rdp
= O
rdp
x P
u


where,

R
rdp =
National level revenue for road passenger services

O
rdp =
National output for road passenger services


Step 3: Calculating relative weights

In order to generate relative weights, national operating revenue for road freight services is calculated using an
identical methodology. National revenues for rail passenger and freight services are available in published data.

Say,
R
rdf
= National revenue for road freight service
R
rlp
= National revenue for rail passenger service
R
rlf
= National revenue for rail freight service
W
rdp
= relative weight for road passenger service
W
rdf
= relative weight for road freight service
W
rlp
= relative weight for rail passenger service
W
rlf
= relative weight for rail freight service
X= R
rdp
+

R
rdf
+

R
rlp
+

R
rlf




164 Weights for value added and price indices have been computed similarly, but using different proxies (see
section 3.2 and 3.3).
Domestic Commerce In Pakistan: An Overview Of The Transport Sector
Innovative Development Strategies (Pvt) 73
Relative weights for each service equal:
X
R
W
rdp
rdp
=

X
R
W
rdf
rdf
=

X
R
W
rlp
rlp
=

X
R
W
rlf
rlf
=

Existing data sets used to compute output index

1. Output of the road sub-sector (passenger-kms and ton-kms)
Pakistan Economic Survey 2005-06

2. Output of the rail sub-sector (passenger-kms and ton-kms)
Pakistan Railways Year Book 2004-05; Pakistan Statistical Year Book 2005

3. Operating revenue of the rail sub sector
Pakistan Railways Year Book 2004-05

Note: All other required information was generated from the primary survey data