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Exploring technology option

Main idea of this chapter

The use of media and technology is just another teaching decision
Principle 4 teaching repertoire : the teacher understands and uses a variety of instructional
strategies to encourage students developments of critical thinking, problem solving, and
performance skills
Principle 6 COMMUNICATION : the teacher uses knowlaedge of effective verbal, non verbal
and media communication techniques to foster active inquiry, collaboration, and supportive
instruction in the classroom.
Principle 7 PRE- UNIT THINKING ; the teacher plans instruction based on knowladge of
subject matter, students, the community, and curriculum goals.
Principle Assesment : the teacher understands and uses formal and informal assessment
strategies to evaluate and ensure the continuous intellectual, social, and physical
development of the leaner.
What are you views on technology, and what are your technology skills?
What do you know about technology standards?
How do i make choices about technology in my teachng
DA23 : Technology Skills
DA24 : Universal Design For Learning (UDL)
DA25 : Technology In Instructional Events
DA26 : Teaching And Technology Options In Your Lessonss

This chapter first asks you to record your views of technology and perceptions of your
curriculum integration skills and technology toll skills. This chapter introduces technology
standards for students and teachers. Teaching with technology involves looking at how
technology can support learning outcomes, including learning levels (taxonomies),
understanding, and special needs. This chapter also examines how technology can be
integrated across most teaching by using the idea of instructional events and then in
severrai teaching models. The sequence for chapter 7 is visualized in figure 7.1

In the pevious chapter of section III, weasked these questions in the teaching decision cycle :
Chapter 4 : determining learning outcomes : what is to be learned ?
Chapter 5 : exploring assessment options : how do you know if your students learned
these outcomes ?
Chapter 6 ? exploring teaching options ? how will you assist students to learn?
This chapter explores technology options (figure 7.2 ) and asks two questions ; how can
media technology help students to learn : and how can media technology decisions help
you reexamine your previous decisions ?

Technology Definitions Lerning levels technology direct
Views ISTE Understanding use across instruction
NETS special needs the nine Discussion
Students instructional Cooperative
Technology events learning
Skills NETS rethingking
Teacher teaching desision

View of
Usi In
Teacher decision cycle : technology questions

How will technology help students to learn ?
This chapter is based on several important ideas :
IDEA 1: the purpose of media and technology is to help students learn. Choice of media and
technology must support learning outcomes.
IDEA 2 : media and technology choice are teaching decisions. This means that your choice of media
and technology must assist you in your teaching
IDEA 3 : instructional technology literacy involves both computer skills and curriculum integration
What will
students learn ?

How will you know if
students learned ?

How will you assist
students to learn

How will technology help
students learn ?

How will technology
use help you
assessment, and
IDEA 4 : media and technology provide learning experience that otherwise might not be possible.
This idea suggests that you should environments and technology for opportunities to create new
learning environments that previously have not existed.
IDEA 5 : reviewing new technologies helps you rethink the previous teaching decisions.
Implications of these ideas are summarized in figure 7.3
FIGURE 7.3 retionale and implications of technology use.
Retionale for using technology Implications
Technology support learning outcomes Your technology choice must be based on
learning outcomes for curriculum, units, and
Technology is teaching decision Technology use is not an addon feature in
teaching, nor should it be implemented based on
administrative directives. Media and technology
options range from chalkto computers
Technology literacy involves both skills and
integration experiences.
One must know tools and how to use tools in the
classroom to support student learning.
Technology creates unique conditions for
Technology can create new : environments for
learning inside and outside the classroom.
Technology possibilities merit reexmination of
Technology can change your teaching to help
students learn.

Your views about technology influence your attitudes toward technology and motivations to use it.
As in the previous chapters on assessment and tecahing, consider your viees about technology and
record them on paper.

Task Rtionale the firs step in considering tchnology in your classroom is to examine your
views on media and technology
Task Guidelines please respond in writing to the following questions:
1. Describe a memorable students exprience you had with instructional
2. Describe technology use in your teching. If none, describe what you
have observed in your cooperating teacher or in the school where you
are working
3. What your reactions to the use of media and technology in the
classroom, and what are these reactions based on ?
4. How does (did) your teacher education program model media and
technology use?
Reflectivity this entire design activity is a reflective exercise, so here is on more
reflective question : whats have you learned about yourself as a
teacherfrom thinking about technology use?
As the term literacy is increasingly seen as more than the ability to read and write, instructional
technology (IT) lieteracy is more than knowing how to use computer
software. How to use a software tool is a first step (tool use), but the more
important competency is knowing how to use the software tool to help
students learn (integration . musch of teacher professional development
ininstructional echnology is learning how to use the tool. For many teacher,
this is a place to start ; howover,less support is given to teacher on how to
use these tools in teaching.
A first step in becoming IT literate requires self-assessing what you already know. The following
design activity prompts you to self assess your knowledge , skills, and
experiences in technology in two ways : (1) curriculum integration skills, or
how you have used media and technology in the classroom, and (2) specific
skills with technology tools.

Tsk Rationale Devoloping IT literacy requires firs acknowledging what you know about media
and technology for educational use. This is the curriculum integration experience
you have. A second type of technology skills is tool use.
Task Guidelines use the chart to record your skill experience and areas youd like to learn more

Curriculum integration skills Technology Tool Use
What experiences have you had in
using media and technology in your
What media and technology tools do
you use ? characterize your expertise
level ( novice, intermediate, expert)

What curriculum integration skills
would you like to develop
What tools would you like to know how
to use and why?

Reflectivit y what challenges did you experience in completing this activity paticularly, the
differences in the two categories of technology skills?
Instructional media and technology
Media and technoogy become instructional media and instructional technology when they carry
messages with an instructional purpose ( smaldino, russell, Heinich, & Moldenda,
2005). In practice, computers, specialized, software, personal digital assistant
(PDAs), and the internet are viewed as instructional technologies. When
aducators use the term technology, they mean instructional technology and
,more narrowly, the use computers and the internet. Media and technologies
that have successfully been used in schools are usally left6 undiscussed. Examples
include chalk and black board, physical objects, maps, book, construction paper,
and 35-mm slides. The over head transparency for axample, is probably one of
the most reliable instructional technologies developed.
Educational technology and instructional technology
Educational technology and instructional technology are terms used interchangeably in educational
circles (seels &Richey, 1994). The American Educational communications and technology (AECT)
organization conducts an ongoing process to define the field and these differences. The term
educational technologyy is viewed as the broader term encompassing and communaction
technologies. Instructional technology is viewed as a subset of educational technology. The 1994
definition of instructional technology is the theory and practice of design, development, utilization,
management and evaluation of processes and resources for learning. Consult the AECT website (
www.aect.org) periodically for an update on this definition.

The international society of technology in education (ISTE) focuses on the use technology in K-12
education and teacher education. ISTE sponsors a conference for public school in instructional
technology, The National Education Computing Conference (NECC) . along with educators, education
associations, businessess and private foundation, ISTE developed the National Education Tachnology
Standards (NETS) for students , teachers, and administrators (ISTE,2002). Ana initial set Technology
Foundation Standards for Students in prekindergarten through twelfth grade has been released, and
additional standards will be released over time ( see www.iste/.org) . Most of the state departments
of education in the United States have adopted, adapted, or referenced the NETS standards.
The NETS standards for students include six categories that address technology competencies.
Specific learning outcomes are listed for each category in figure 7.4. for example, one learning
outcome under standards 3, technology productivity tools, has students using technology gtools to
enhance learning, increase productivity, and promote creativity. This learning outcome could
conceivably cover many learning activities, but the goal provides a means to document students
learning, productivity, and / or creativity.
1. Basic operations and concepts
Students demonstrate a sound understanding of technollogy systems
Students are proficients in the use of technology
2. Social, Ethical, and Human Issues
Students understand the ethical, cultural, and societal issues related to technology
Students practice responsible use of technology systems, information, and software.
Students develop positive attitudes toward technology uses that support lifelong learning,
collaboration, personal puruits, and productivity
3. Technology productivity tools
Students use technology tools to enhance learning, increase productivity, and promote
Students use productivity tools to collaborate in constructing technology- enhanced
models, prepare publications, and produce other creative works.
4. Technology communication tools
Students use telecommunications to cillaborate, publish , and interact with peers, experts,
and other audiences
Students use a variety of media and formats to communicate information and ideas
effectively to multiple audiences.
5. Technology research tools
Students use technology to locate, evaluate, and collect information from a variety of
Students use technology tools to process data and report results.
Students evaluate and select new information resources and technological innovations
based on the appropriateness for specific tasks.
6. technology problem- solving and decision making tools
Students use technology resources for solving problems and making informed decisions.
Students employ technology in the development of strategies for solving problems in the
real world.

The second learning outcome in standard 3 has has students using productivity tools to collaborate
in constructing technology enhanced models, prepare publications, and produce other creative
works. Storybooks might be constructed out of stories written by students acroos acountry school
system, a state, or several countrries. Online posted stories with hyperlink to picture, email, and
resource are students works that could not have been constructed without hypermedia and teh