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Revised Edition (2

nd
Edition)
of
Manual on Traffic Control Devices
The revision of the Manual on Traffic Control Devices was
carried out by the National Road Safety Secretariat at the
request of the then Ministry of Transport and Highways
with the participation of the Consultants. During the
process of revision of the Manual, views were sought from:
The Road Development Authority
The Motor Traffic Department
The Colombo Municipal Council
The Police Department (Traffic Division)
The Road Construction and Development Company
Others
Based on such interactions, suitable amendments were
incorporated.
Note: This manual is guide only and for the legal aspects it has to be
read in conjunction with The Motor Traffic Act Regulation 2006
(Signs, Signals, Symbols and Road markings) which publication is
awaiting for the Ministry of Transport approval.
It shall be noted that the Traffic sign and Road marking numbering
system developed for this manual is entirely different to the numbering
system developed in the gazette The Motor Traffic Act, Regulation
2006. The reference number for Traffic signs and Road markings to be,
in accordance with the gazette of the Motor Traffic Act, Regulation
2006.
Preface
Starting from about 1992, the Road Development Authority (RDA) had been focussing
attention on the need for a manual of Traffic Signs and Markings, and some draft
proposals had been made. Consequently the first Manual on Traffic Control Devices was
published in 1997, which was in conformity with the stipulations given in the Vienna
Convention.
In 1999, however, the National Road Safety Secretariat (NRSS) was requested by the then
Ministry of Transport & Highways to carry out a revision to the above Manual, in
particular reference to the proposed Expressways.
The original Manual had been prepared in two parts: Part 1, depicting Traffic Signs, Road
Markings and Traffic Signals and Part II, depicting Traffic Control Devices for Road
works. In the revision of the Manual, the same distinction was maintained in order that the
importance of traffic control during road works is emphasised. Difference, however, is
that, they are published as two separate books in the revised Manual.
During the process of revision, whilst maintaining the original sequence of presentation,
amendments and additions were made to the text and also to the diagrams as needed. As
regards the Expressways, a series of new additions were made to the Traffic Signs that are
specially applicable to them. Also, variations were made to key dimensions of the signs as
applicable to expressways. In the revised version, conformity with the provisions of the
revised Vienna Convention of 1995, was ensured.
Enquiries regarding the revised Manual on Traffic Control Devices may be made direct to
the RDA.
Planning Division
Road Development Authority
Ministry of Highways & Road Development
9th Floor
Sethsiripaya
Battaramulla.
Revised August 2007
Contents
PART I TRAFFIC SIGNS AND ROAD MARKINGS
1.0 GENERAL .................................................................................................................................... 1
1.1 BASIS FOR TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES ......................................................................................... 1
1.2 FUNCTIONS OF TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES ................................................................................... 1
1.3 TYPES OF TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES .......................................................................................... 1
1.4 PROPER USE OF TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES .................................................................................. 2
1.5 STANDARDISATION ANDUNIFORMITY OF TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES ............................................ 2
1.6 LEGAL ASPECTS ........................................................................................................................... 3
2.0 TRAFFIC SIGNS .......................................................................................................................... 5
2.1 CLASSIFICATION ........................................................................................................................... 5
2.2 DANGERWARNINGSIGNS ............................................................................................................. 5
2.3 REGULATORY SIGNS ................................................................................................................... 16
2.4 INFORMATIVE SIGNS ................................................................................................................... 29
2.5 ADDITIONAL PANELS FOR USE WITH SIGNS ..................................................................................... 5
2.6 INSTALLATION OF TRAFFIC SIGNS.................................................................................................. 7
3.0 ROAD MARKINGS..................................................................................................................... 13
3.1CLASSIFICATION OF ROADMARKINGS ANDDETAILEDDESCRIPTION .............................................. 13
3.2ROADMARKINGMATERIALS ....................................................................................................... 37
3.3 REFLECTORISATION OF MARKINGS .............................................................................................. 38
4.0 TRAFFIC LIGHT SIGNALS ...................................................................................................... 39
4.1LIGHT SIGNALS FOR VEHICULAR TRAFFIC .................................................................................... 39
4.2LIGHT SIGNALS FOR PEDESTRIANS ............................................................................................... 41
5.0 MISCELLANEOUS TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES ............................................................ 43
5.1 BARRICADE BOARD .................................................................................................................... 43
5.2DIRECTION BOARD FOR ROADDEVIATION .................................................................................... 43
5.3CHEVRONMARKERS ................................................................................................................... 44
5.4SIDE OBSTACLE MARKERS ........................................................................................................... 45
5.5TRAFFIC CONE ............................................................................................................................ 45
5.6LIGHTINGDEVICES ..................................................................................................................... 46
5.7 FLAGS ........................................................................................................................................ 46
5.8ROADSIDE DELINEATORS ............................................................................................................. 47
5.9STOP ANDGO SIGN. ..................................................................................................................... 48
5.10NOPARKINGGUARDPOSTS. ...................................................................................................... 49
6.0 MAINTENANCE OF TRAFFIC SIGNS & MARKINGS .......................................................... 50
6.1GENERAL .................................................................................................................................... 50
6.2 ROUTINE MAINTENANCE ACTIVITIES ........................................................................................... 52
6.3 PERIODICMAINTENANCE ACTIVITIES .......................................................................................... 54
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1.0 GENERAL
1.1 Basis for Traffic Control Devices
The regulations publish in the Government Gazette (Extraordinary) No. 444/ 19 dated 13.03.87
under Section 237 along with Section 164 of the Motor Traffic Act is the basis for providing
Traffic Control Devices. These regulations were gazetted to amend the existing Traffic Signs and
to incorporate International Traffic Signs agreed upon for adoption at the UN Conference on
Road Traffic held in Vienna on the 8
th
November 1968. Sri Lanka is a Signatory to the
convention for adoption of international Traffic Signs.
The Traffic Control Devices that are being adopted in Sri Lanka are those that were agreed upon
at the Convention for adoption in the Asian Region.
1.2 Functions of Traffic Control Devices
The main function of Traffic Control Devices is to guide the road user and thereby improve
safety and efficiency of the highways. Traffic Control Devices should always be used to enhance
the orderly and safe movement of motorised, non-motorised and pedestrian traffic. They should
not be allowed to be obscured by any other attachments such as that for advertisement.
1.3 Types of Traffic Control Devices
Traffic Control Devices normally consist of Traffic Signs, Road Markings and Traffic Signals. For
special circumstances Traffic Control Devices such as Barricade Boards, Traffic Cones and
Lighting Devices are used.
(a) Traffic Signs
Traffic Signs are provided alongside the road, as follows:
beside the shoulder / footwalk; or
if the lateral clearance is limited, on the shoulder/ footwalk; or
on the centre median; or
as overhead signs placed across the road.
Traffic Signs are provided to warn, regulate and direct the motorists to their destinations and
enhance safety of non-motorised traffic including pedestrians. Traffic Signs consist of Symbols,
Words, and Numerals. Use of symbols in traffic signs is resorted to, as messages transmitted
through them are easily understood by the road user.
(b) Road Markings and Road Studs
Road Markings essentially consist of continuous lines, broken lines, letters and symbols. These
may be applied on the road surface in different arrangements to convey distinct messages to the
road user. These markings may be either of road paint or of thermoplastic material. Reflective
studs are also used along with road markings, to better effect, both during the day and during the
night.
High contrast is necessary for road markings to command maximum attention of the motorists.
As the road surface is generally black in colour, white and yellow are chosen as the colours of the
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road markings to provide high contrast. To assure attention of the road markings, a minimum
lateral dimension of 100 mm for any longitudinal line is specified. Transverse lines need to be
wider due to perspective effect.
Markings normally convey a simple clear-cut message to a driver so that he is able to understand
it readily, and respond quickly.
(c) Traffic Cones, Barricade Boards and Direction Boards
Traffic Cones, Barricade Boards and Direction Boards are traffic control devices used to regulate
and stream line the flow of traffic and to divert the flow of traffic on special occasions. These
devices are used to regulate traffic during road works and during trenching of roads for providing
services. Direction Boards may also be used as permanent devices for traffic control at, for
example, sharp bends and road narrowing.
(d) Traffic Signals including Pedestrian Signals & Flashing Red and Amber Lights
Traffic Signals are traffic control devices used at road intersections for the control of traffic.
Pedestrian Signals are used to assist pedestrians to cross the road with safety. Pedestrian Signals
provide for a pedestrian phase, on demand or automatically, and the pedestrians have the right of
way during the pedestrian phase.
1.4 Proper use of Traffic Control Devices
Traffic Control Devices should be used only where warranted after careful study and field
investigations. Every traffic control device provided should convey some useful warning or
information to the road users. If traffic control devices are used in excess of what is actually
needed, there is a tendency for them to loose their effectiveness and credibility. In general traffic
control devices are required to conform to traffic regulations that have been gazetted.
1.5 Standardisation and Uniformity of Traffic Control Devices
Traffic control devices shall be provided in a uniform manner and shall be displayed only for the
specific purpose prescribed for it, in this manual. Uniformity of application of traffic control
devices is very important and it is essential that similar conditions shall be provided with the same
type of control devices. Although guidelines are given in this manual for the uniform application
of traffic control devices, field investigation and Engineering judgement are essential in their
application.
All traffic signs are standardised according to shape, size and colour.
All road markings are standardised according to shape, colour and size (length, width, gap length)
of markings.
All Traffic Cones and Barricade Boards are also standardised according to shape, size and colour.
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1.6 Legal Aspects
The legal responsibility for making regulations for the provision of Traffic Control Devices lies
with the Minister of Transport in accordance with the Section 237 of the Motor Traffic Act
(Chapter 203) as amended by the Act No. 21 of 1981. No regulation made by the Minister under
this Act will have legal effect until it has been approved by the Parliament and notification of
such approval is published in the Gazette.
1.6.1 Authority for Providing Traffic Control Device
There are number of authorities having jurisdiction and are entrusted with the responsibility of
providing Traffic Control Devices as given in Section 164 of the Motor Traffic Act (Chapter 203)
and as amended by Act No. 21 of 1981.
According to Section 164, the following persons and Authorities shall have the jurisdiction to
provide Traffic Control Devices.
(a) Police Officer not below the rank of the Assistant Superintendent of Police, for the purpose
of any temporary regulation of traffic.
(b) Local Authority of any area in the case of a road in charge of that Local Authority.
(c) Road Development Authority in the case of roads coming within the purview of the
Authority.
(d) Sri Lanka Central Transport Board or a Regional Transport Board in concurrence with the
Road Development Authority or the Local Authority and the Police for the purpose of
indicating:
(1) Place set apart for the parking of omnibuses belonging to such Boards.
(2) Places of Bus Stops for omnibuses belonging to the Boards.
In the case of a road falling within the purview of the Road Development Authority, the
Executive Engineer in charge of the Division or Project Engineer in charge of a project is
entrusted with the responsibility of providing Traffic Control Devices.
Any Traffic Sign provided for the purpose of regulating the movement of traffic or indicating the
route to be followed by traffic or for the purpose of prohibiting, restricting or regulating traffic
over any road or section of road should bear the official designation of the Competent Authority
on the reverse side of the sign. This shall be immediately preceded by the words "By Order of".
Section 164 (4) of the Motor Traffic Act states that "In any prosecution for a contravention of
subsection (3), every traffic sign or notice erected, exhibited or provided on or so as to be visible
from, any highway shall, unless the contrary is proved bedeemed to have been duly erected or
exhibited under subsection (1).
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1.6.2 Authority for Providing or Restricting Parking of Motor Vehicles
According to the Section 166 (1) of the Motor Traffic Act the authority for prohibiting,
restricting or regulating parking of motor vehicles or indicating any place set apart for parking of
vehicles on any highway or part of a highway in any urban area, lies with the local authority for
that area. According to this provision if it becomes necessary to restrict or prohibit parking of
vehicles in any urban area, the officers of the Road Development Authority should do so only
with the approval of the Urban Development Authority; and, "By order of" that local authority
has to be notified.
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2.0 TRAFFIC SIGNS
2.1 Classification
The Traffic Signs are classified as;
(a) Danger Warning Signs
(b) Regulatory Signs
(c) Informative Signs
The different types of Traffic Signs are described in detail in the following sections;
2.2 Danger Warning Signs
Danger Warning Signs are used to warn traffic ahead of an existing or potential hazardous
condition of a road. They shall be placed well ahead of the hazardous condition warned of, so
that the motorists are alerted sufficiently in advance to enable them to be prepared to take
appropriate action, in the face of the hazardous condition.
Warning signs are of great assistance to the motorists and help improve safety of the road system.
In exceptional situations Danger Warning Signs may be repeated to effectively alert the driver
who could have missed the first warning sign. In certain situations, such as unprotected railway
crossings and sharp curves on long straight sections of road, the distance between the sign and
the hazard may be shown by attaching an additional panel to the traffic sign. Such a panel should
also be used if the distance between the sign and the hazard does not conform to Chapter 2.6.1.1,
Table 12.
Details of these signs, which are standardised according to shape, size and colour, are given
below.
2.2.1Left Bend ahead This sign is used to warn motorists of a left bend where road
geometry requires a reduction of speed as compared to the adjoining
sections of the road.
2.2.2 Right Bend ahead This sign is used to warn motorists of a right bend where road
geometry requires a reduction of speed as compared to the adjoining
sections of the road.
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2.2.3 Double Bend Left
ahead
This sign is used to warn motorists of a double bend or succession of
bends, the first one to the left and where road geometry requires a
reduction of speeds as compared to the adjoining sections of the road.
2.2.4 Double Bend Right
ahead
This sign is used to warn motorists of a double bend or succession of
bends, the first one to the right and where road geometry requires a
reduction of speeds as compared to the adjoining sections of the road.
2.2.5 Hair pin Bend Left
ahead
This sign is used to warn motorists of a sharp bend to the left
whereby the direction of travel along the road is reversed.
2.2.6 Hair pin Bend
Right ahead
This sign is used to warn motorists of a sharp bend to the right
whereby the direction of travel along the road is reversed.
2.2.7 Dual carriageway
starts ahead
This sign is used to warn motorists of the start of a dual carriageway
separated by a centre median.
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2.2.8 Dual carriageway
ends ahead
This sign is used to warn motorists of road narrowing from a dual
carriageway road to a single carriageway road.
2.2.9 Road Narrows on
both sides ahead
This sign is used to warn motorists of a narrowing of the road.
The sign should be used only if the width of the carriageway is
decreased substantially or if the decrease means that vehicles cannot
pass each other.
2.2.10 Road Narrows on
the left side ahead
This sign is used to warn motorists of a narrowing of the left side of
the road.
The sign should be used only if the width of the carriageway is
decreased substantially or if the decrease means that vehicles cannot
pass each other.
2.2.11Road Narrows on
the right side ahead
This sign is used to warn motorists of a narrowing of the right side of
the road.
The sign should be used only if the width of the carriageway is
decreased substantially or if the decrease means that vehicles cannot
pass each other.
2.2.12 Cross roads ahead This sign is used to warn motorists of an intersection of two cross
roads.
The relative importance of the intersecting roads may be shown by
varying the widths. The sign may be modified according to layout of
the crossing roads.
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2.2.13 Staggered
junction with first side
road to left ahead
This sign is used to warn motorists on a major road of a staggered
junction with two minor roads intersecting the major road, the first
side road being towards the left and the second to the right.
2.2.14 Staggered
junction with first side
road to right ahead
This sign is used to warn motorists on a major road of a staggered
junction with two minor roads intersecting the major road, the first
side road being towards the right and the second to the left.
2.2.15 T-Junction ahead This sign is used to warn motorists of an T-junction and is placed on
the road that form the stem of the "T.
The relative importance of the intersecting roads may be shown by
different widths.
2.2.16 Y - Junction ahead This sign is used to warn motorists of an Y - Junction and is placed
on the road that forms the stem of "Y".
The relative importance of the intersecting roads may be shown by
different widths.
2.2.17 Traffic from Left
merges ahead
This sign is used to warn motorists on a major road, of a side road on
the left, which merges or meets with the major road. The shape of
the symbol may be altered to depict the layout of the intersection.
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2.2.18 Traffic from Right
merges ahead
This sign is used to warn motorists on a major road of a side road on
the right, which merges or meets with the major road. The shape of
the symbol may be altered to depict the layout of the intersection.
2.2.19 Side Road From
Left Intersects at Right
Angles Ahead
2.2.20 Side Road From
Right Intersects at Right
Angles Ahead
2.2.21 Narrow Bridge
ahead
This sign is used to warn motorists of a narrow bridge or culvert, and
that there is a narrowing of road width towards the bridge or the
culvert.
2.2.22 Two-way Traffic
ahead
This sign is used to warn motorists of a section of road, temporarily
or permanently, carrying two-way traffic on the same carriageway. The
sign should be used only when the previous section was a one-way
road or if the road design may give the motorists the impression of
being a one-way carriageway.
The sign should be placed at the beginning of the section and
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repeated along the section as frequently as may be necessary.
2.2.23 Stop ahead This sign is used on the approach to an intersection controlled by a
STOP sign where the STOP sign is not visible from sufficient
distance to enable the motorists to bring the vehicles to a stop at the
STOP sign.
2.2.24 Give way ahead This sign is used on the approach to a 'GIVE WAY' sign where the
'GIVE WAY' sign is not visible from a sufficient distance to enable
the motorists to bring their vehicles to a stop at the 'GIVE WAY'
sign.
2.2.25 Roundabout
ahead
This sign is used on the approach to a roundabout where the
'COMPULSORY ROUNDABOUT' mandatory sign is not visible
from a sufficient distance for the motorists to stop at the 'GIVE
WAY' markings. The sign should always be used ahead of
roundabouts located outside built up areas.
2.2.26 Light Signals
ahead
This sign is used on the approach to a light signal where it is not
visible from a sufficient distance.
2.2.27 Dangerous
Descent ahead
This sign is used in advance of a sharp downhill gradient where the
length and intensity of the grade require motorists to take special
precautions.
The sign should be used when the gradient is as follows:
5 % for a descent more than 1,000 m in length
6 % for a descent more than 600 m in length
7 % for a descent more than 300 m in length
8 % for a descent more than 250 m in length
9 % for a descent more than 150 m in length
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Also less severe grades may require a warning sign if the roadside is
especially dangerous due to steep side slopes, absence of guard-rails,
etc. (see also sign 2.2.43 Dangerous slopes)
If the warning applies to a descent of some considerable length, the
distance should be indicated on an additional panel.
2.2.28 Dangerous Ascent
ahead
This sign is used in advance of a steep gradient to warn motorists to
be prepared to make the climb.
The sign should be used when the gradient is as follows:
5 % for an ascent more than 1,000 m in length
6 % for an ascent more than 600 m in length
7 % for an ascent more than 300 m in length
8 % for an ascent more than 250 m in length
9 % for an ascent more than 150 m in length
Also less severe grades may require a warning sign if the roadside is
especially dangerous due to steep side slopes, absence of guard-rails,
etc. (see also sign 2.2.43 Dangerous slopes)
If the warning applies to an ascent of some considerable length, the
distance should be indicated on an additional panel.
2.2.29 Slippery Road
ahead
This sign is used to warn motorists of a road section, which becomes
slippery and hazardous when wet.
The sign may also be used at roadwork areas if it is suspected that the
road is slippery, such as in places of newly laid asphalt concrete
surfaces.
2.2.30 Loose Gravel
ahead
This sign is used to warn motorists of a road section with loose
aggregate/ gravel on the carriageway.
The sign may be used in conjunction with surface treatments where
there is loose chips remaining on the road. The sign may also be used
on other places of occurrence of loose aggregate/ gravel.
2.2.31Falling Rocks
ahead
This sign is used to warn motorists of a road section, which is
subjected to rock falls onto the roadway.
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2.2.32 Pedestrian
Crossing ahead
This sign is used to warn motorists of a pedestrian crossing where the
existence of the pedestrian crossing is not apparent or where the travel
speeds are higher than the normal.
2.2.33 Children ahead This sign is used to warn motorists of places frequented by children,
such as exits from schools or playgrounds.
The warning may be combined with a low speed limit in order to
increase the safety for the children.
When used at schools, an additional panel with the text School
should be affixed to the sign.
2.2.34 Blind people
crossing Ahead
This sign is used to warn motorists of places where blind people
frequently cross the road, at a pedestrian crossing.
Two signs shall normally be erected, one close to the crossing and in
conjunction with the "Pedestrian Crossing ahead" sign. The other
shall be erected at double the distance and provided with a
supplementary plate displaying the distance.
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2.2.35 Road works ahead This sign is used to warn motorists of a road section subject to road
works. The sign shall always be used when road works are carried out
on the road.
The sign should normally be erected at both approaches to the road
section, subject to road works, and on both sides of the road.
If the length of the road works is more than 1,000 m, then the length
should be indicated on an additional panel.
Since road works always increase the accident risk to the public, the
placement and the condition of the signs are very important. The
signs should always be placed in the best position for good visibility,
even at night. They should never be obstructed by other items such as
houses, trees, other signs etc.
Road signs and other traffic control devices used at road works are
often exposed to dust and dirt. As such extra care shall be taken to
assure that the signs are kept clean and in good condition. If the
retroreflective sheeting is damaged, the sign shall be replaced.
2.2.36 Level Crossing
with gates ahead
This sign should always be used to warn motorists of railway level
crossings provided with gates.
2.2.37 Unprotected
Level crossing ahead
This sign should always be used to warn motorists of unprotected
level crossings.
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2.2.38 Bus Lane ahead This sign is used to warn motorists of a road section where there is a
separate lane exclusively for the use of buses.
2.2.39 Cycle Lane ahead This sign is used to warn motorists of a road section where there is a
separate lane exclusively for the use of bicycles.
2.2.40 Cyclist crossing
ahead
This sign is used to warn motorists of a road section where cyclists
cross the road at cyclist crossings or where a cycle lane ends and the
cyclists are entering the carriageway.
2.2.41Cattle or other
animals may cross the
road ahead
This sign is used to warn motorists of a road section where cattle or
any other animals are frequently on the road.
2.2.42 Road ahead on a
quay
This sign is used to warn motorists of a road section, which ends
abruptly in a quay or a ferry.
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2.2.43 Dangerous Side
Slopes Ahead
This sign is used to warn motorists of a narrow road section where
the side slopes are dangerously steep and without guardrails, or any
other protection.
2.2.44 Road Humps
ahead
This sign is used to warn motorists of a road section where humps
have been deliberately formed to reduce vehicle speed.
2.2.45 Uneven Road
ahead
This sign is used to warn motorists of a road section where the
carriageway is dangerously uneven.
2.2.46 Level crossing
2.2.47 Level crossing
comprising two or more
tracks
This sign is used to indicate a level crossing. The sign shall be placed
in the immediate vicinity of a level crossing to indicate the location of
the railway tracks.
Normally the sign shall be placed horizontally as shown in the figure,
but if sufficient space is not available, the sign may be placed
vertically.
If the railway line comprises more than one track the sign 2.2.45 shall
be used.
Normally the sign shall be placed horizontally as shown in the figure,
but if sufficient space is not available, the sign may be placed
vertically.
The shape, size and colour of the danger warning signs are as given in Table 1.
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Table 1
Details of Danger Warning Signs
No. of Sign Shape of Sign Key dimension of Sign (mm) Colour of Components of Signs
Length of aside Width of
Border
Symbol Background Border
Small
(S)
Normal
(N)
Large
(L)
Narrow
streets
and low
speed
built up
areas
Within
and
outside
built up
areas
Express-
ways and
similar
highways
2.2.1to 2.2.43
excluding 2.2.24
Square with
one diagonal
vertical
400 600 900 S= 10
N = 10
L = 15
Black Yellow Black
2.2.24 Square with
one diagonal
vertical
400 600 900 S= 10
N = 10
L = 15
Top circle red.
Mid circle
amber.
Bottom circle
green.
The balance
portion black
Yellow Black
2.2.44 Symmetrical
cross with
pointed arms
- 1200 - 50 - White Red
2.2.45 Symmetrical
cross with
pointed arms
and one v-
shaped arm
beneath the
cross
- 1200 - 50 - White Red
2.3 Regulatory Signs
Regulatory signs are signs informing the road users of compulsory restrictions that apply to a
given place of a road, or on a given section of road, or for a given road; disregard of which is
punishable as violation of traffic laws. Regulatory signs are subdivided into 4 types.
(a) Prohibitory signs
(b) Restrictive signs
(c) Mandatory signs
(d) Priority signs
All Regulatory signs are standardised according to shape, size and colour.
2.3.1 Prohibitory Signs
Prohibitory Signs are those Regulatory Signs that give definite orders which prohibit motorists
from making particular manoeuvres, such as 'No Entry', 'No Left Turn', 'No Right Turn'.
The Prohibitory Signs shall be placed at the point where prohibition applies.
17
Details of these signs are given below.
2.3.1.1No Entry This sign is used to convey to the motorists a prohibition that exists for
vehicular traffic to enter a particular road.
2.3.1.2 No Left Turn This sign is used at an intersection, to convey to the motorists a
prohibition that exists for vehicles to turn left at the intersection.
2.3.1.3 No Right Turn This sign is used at an intersection, to convey to the motorists a
prohibition that exists for vehicles to turn right at the intersection.
2.3.1.4 No U-turn This sign is used at an intersection or on a road section between
intersections, to convey to the motorists of a prohibition that exists for
making U-turns.
2.3.1.5 No Overtaking This sign is used at a road section, to convey to the motorists of a
prohibition that exists for overtaking of power-driven vehicles other
than two-wheeled mopeds and two-wheeled motor cycles without
sidecar.
2.3.1.6 End of No
Overtaking
This sign is used to convey to the motorists of the end of a prohibition
of overtaking.
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2.3.1.7 No Overtaking
by Goods Vehicles
This sign is used at a road section to convey to the motorists of a
prohibition for goods vehicles having a permissible maximum mass
exceeding 3.5 tons that exists for overtaking of power-driven vehicles
other than two-wheeled mopeds and two-wheeled motor cycles without
side car.
2.3.1.8 End of No
Overtaking by Goods
Vehicles
This sign is used to convey to the motorists of the end of a prohibition
of overtaking for goods vehicles.
2.3.1.9 No Horning This sign is used to convey to the motorists of a prohibition that exists
for sounding the horn at a particular location or in a particular section
of the road.
2.3.1.10 Road closed
for all vehicles
This sign is used to convey to the road users of a prohibition that exists
for all types of vehicles to enter a particular road.
2.3.1.11Road closed
for Motor vehicles
This sign is used to convey to the motorists of a prohibition that exists
for all motor vehicles to enter a particular road.
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2.3.1.12 Road closed
for Buses
This sign is used to convey to the motorists of a prohibition that exists
for buses to enter a particular road.
2.3.1.13 Road closed
for Lorries
This sign is used to convey to the motorists of a prohibition that exists
for all lorries to enter a particular road.
2.3.1.14 Road closed
for Articulated vehicles
This sign is used to convey to the motorists of a prohibition that exists
for all articulated vehicles to enter a particular road.
2.3.1.15 Road Closed
for Power Driven
Agricultural Vehicles
This sign is used to convey to the motorists of a prohibition that exists
for power driven agricultural vehicles to enter a particular road. The
prohibition applies to all types of power driven agricultural vehicles
2.3.1.16 Road closed
for Hand Tractors
This sign is used to convey to the motorists of a prohibition that exists
for all hand tractorsto enter a particular road.
20
2.3.1.17 Road Closed
for Three-Wheelers
This sign is used to convey to the motorists of a prohibition that exists
for three-wheelers to enter a particular road.
2.3.1.18 Road Closed
for Motor Cycles
This sign is used to convey to the motorists of a prohibition that exists
for motor cycle drivers to enter a particular road.
2.3.1.19 Road Closed
for Cycles
This sign is used to convey to the road users of a prohibition that exists
for cyclists to enter a particular road.
2.3.1.20 Road Closed
for Animal-drawn
Vehicles
This sign is used to convey to the road users of a prohibition that exists
for animal drawn vehicles to enter a particular road.
2.3.1.21Road Closed
for Hand carts
This sign is used to convey to the road users of a prohibition that exists
for handcarts to enter a particular road.
21
2.3.1.22 Road closed for
pedestrians
This sign is used to convey to the road users of a prohibition that exists
for pedestrians to enter a particular road.
2.3.1.23 No Parking
This sign is used to convey to the motorists of a prohibition that exists
for parking of vehicles on the road. Additional panels shall be
provided to inform the time period over which the prohibition applies.
The direction in which the prohibition applies can be indicated using
additional panels with arrows.
2.3.1.24 No Parking and
Standing
This sign is used to convey to the motorists of a prohibition that exists
for parking and standing, thus even for pick up or set down persons or
loading and unloading of goods.
2.3.1.25 No Parking on
Odd days
This sign is used to convey to the motorists of a prohibition that exists
for parking of vehicles on odd number days of the month, where such
days are reckoned from the dates in the calendar. Exemptions to this
may be made on Sundays as per decisions made by the relevant Local
Authority.
2.3.1.26 No Parking on
Even days
This sign is used to convey to the motorists of a prohibition that exists
for parking of vehicles on even number days of the month, where such
days are reckoned from the dates in the calendar. Exemptions to this
may be made on Sundays as per decisions made by the relevant Local
Authority.
22
Table 2
Details of Prohibitory Signs
No. of Sign Shape of Sign Key dimension of Sign (mm) Colour of Components of Signs
Outer Diameter Width of
border
Width of
oblique
band/ bar
Symbols,
letters,
numerals
Back-
ground
Border Oblique
band
Small
(S)
Normal
(N)
Large
(L)
Narrow
streets
and low
speed
built up
areas
Within
and
outside
built up
areas
Express-
ways and
similar
highways
2.3.1.1to
2.3.1.22
excluding
2.3.1.5to
2.3.1.8and
2.3.1.10
Circular 400 600 900
S=50
N=60
L=75
S=40
N=50
L=60
Black White Red Red
2.3.1.5and
2.3.1.7
Circular 400 600 900
S=50
N=60
L=75
Black /
Red
White Red
2.3.1.6and
2.3..1.8
Circular 400 600 900
S=50
N=60
L=75
S=4 of 15
N=4 of 20
L=4 of 30
Grey White Black
2.3.1.10 Circular 400 600 900
S=50
N=60
L=75
White Red
2.3.1.23to
2.3.1.24
Circular 400 600 900
S=50
N=60
L=75
S=40
N=50
L=60
Blue Red Red
2.3.1.25to
2.3.1.26
Circular 400 600 900
S=50
N=60
L=75
S=40
N=50
L=60
White Blue Red Red
2.3.2 Restrictive Signs
Restrictive Signs are those Regulatory Signs used to restrict the speeds, heights, widths and
weights of vehicles on a particular road or at a given place or section of road.
The numerical values given in the signs below are for illustrative purposes and the actual
numerical values should be inserted according to the restrictions to be imposed.
Details of these signs are given below.
2.3.2.1Width Limit This sign is used to convey to the motorists of a width restriction that
exists for vehicles exceeding the width indicated on the sign. The width
restriction could be applied at narrow bridges or culverts or on narrow
23
sections of road.
2.3.2.2 Height Limit This sign is used to convey to the motorists of a height restriction that
exists for vehicles exceeding the height indicated on the sign.
2.3.2.3 Weight Limit
5 T
This sign is used to convey to the motorists of a weight restriction that
exists for vehicles exceeding the gross vehicle weight indicated on the
sign.
2.3.2.4 Weight Limit on
one axle
This sign is used to convey to the motorists of a weight restriction that
exists for vehicles having axle loads greater than the weight indicated
on the sign.
2.3.2.5 Speed Limit
50
This sign is used to convey to the motorists of a speed restriction for
all vehicles in accordance with the speed indicated on the sign.
2.3.2.6 End of Speed
Limit
This sign is used to convey to the motorists of the end of the speed
restriction in force.
24
Table 3
Details of Restrictive Signs
No. of Sign Shape of Sign Key dimension of Sign (mm) Colour of Components of Signs
Outer Diameter Width of
border
Width of
oblique
band/ bar
Symbols,
letters,
numerals
Back-
ground
Border Oblique
band
Small
(S)
Normal
(N)
Large
(L)
Narrow
streets
and low
speed
built up
areas
Within
and
outside
built up
areas
Express-
ways and
similar
highways
2.3.2.1to
2.3.2.5
Circular 400 600 900
S=50
N=60
L=75
Black White Red
2.3.2.6 Circular 400 600 900
S= 4 of 15
N = 4 of 20
L = 4 of 30
Grey White Black
2.3.3 Mandatory Signs
Mandatory Signs are Regulatory Signs the stipulations of which the drivers must obey.
Details of these signs are given below.
Direction to be followed:
2.3.3.1Left Turn This sign is used to convey to the drivers of a compulsory left turn and
that all vehicular traffic must turn left. This sign is placed at or near
the intersection.
2.3.3.2 Right Turn This sign is used to convey to the drivers of a compulsory right turn
25
and that all vehicular traffic must turn right. This sign is placed at or
near the intersection.
2.3.3.3 Straight This sign is used to convey to the drivers of a compulsory straight-
ahead movement and that all vehicular traffic must go straight ahead.
This sign is placed at or near the intersection.
2.3.3.4 Left Turn ahead This sign is used to convey to the drivers that all vehicular traffic must
turn left at the intersection ahead.
2.3.3.5 Right Turn ahead This sign is used to convey to the drivers that all vehicular traffic must
turn right at the intersection ahead.
2.3.3.6 Pass this side,
Left side
This sign is used to convey to the drivers that all vehicular traffic shall
pass on the left side, as indicated by the arrow on the sign.
26
2.3.3.7 Pass this side,
Right side
This sign is used to convey to the drivers that all vehicular traffic shall
pass on the right side, as indicated by the arrow on the sign.
2.3.3.8 Pass This way on
either side
This sign is used to convey to the drivers that all vehicular traffic shall
pass on either side, as indicated by the arrows on the sign.
2.3.3.9 Compulsory
Roundabout
This sign is used to convey to the drivers that all vehicular traffic must
travel around the roundabout in a clockwise manner.
Vehicles entering the junction must give priority to vehicles from the
right at the Give Way marking or if the road marking is not visible at
the road junction, prior to entering the roundabout.
The sign shall always be combined with the sign 2.3.4.1. (Give Way
sign) at the entrance to roundabouts. The two signs shall be mounted
on the same post, with the Give Way sign on top and the Compulsory
Roundabout sign below.
Table 4
Details of Mandatory Signs
No. of Sign Shape of Sign Key dimension of Sign (mm) Colour of Components of Signs
Outer Diameter Width of
border
Width of
oblique
band/ bar
Symbols,
letters,
numerals
Back-
ground
Border Oblique
band
Small
(S)
Normal
(N)
Large
(L)
Narrow
streets
and low
speed
built up
areas
Within
and
outside
built up
areas
Express-
ways and
similar
roads
27
2.3.3.1to
2.3.3.8
Circular 400 600 900
S=50
N=60
L=75
Black White Red
2.3.4 Priority Signs
Priority Signs convey to the drivers the priority that they shall give to other vehicles or the
priority that they enjoy over the otherdrivers, depending on the following:
(a) Drivers on a minor road giving priority todrivers on a major road.
(b) Drivers on a major road enjoying priority over those on the minor road.
(c) Directional priority on a section of road or across a bridge.
Further, the STOP sign used on a minor road could be used to convey to thedrivers the priority
given to rail borne vehicles at a railway crossing, particularly where there are no safety devices
such as gates or signals.
Details of these signs are given below.
2.3.4.1Give Way This sign is used on the minor road of a priority intersection to notify
drivers on the minor road that they must give way to vehicular traffic
on the major road before entering it. This sign is also used at
roundabouts to notify drivers entering the roundabout that they must
give way to vehicular traffic in the roundabout. When used at
roundabouts the sign is combined with the mandatory sign 2.3.3.8
Compulsory Roundabout. The Give Way sign is then placed above the
Compulsory Roundabout sign on the same post.
This sign is placed in the immediate vicinity of the place where the
vehicle is required to give way, along with the Give Way road marking.
The Give Way sign implies that no vehicle shall proceed past the Give
Way line close to the major road or the roundabout if a vehicle is
approaching on the major road or in the roundabout.
The shape, size and colour of the sign are as given in the Table 5A.
2.3.4.2 Stop This sign is used to notify all drivers of a 'STOP' controlled priority
intersection that vehicular traffic on the minor road must stop and give
priority to the vehicular traffic on the major road. This sign is also
used at intersections where vehicular traffic on all approaches has an
obligation to stop and give way to vehicular traffic in the intersection
before entering the intersection. Such use of stop signs is limited to
intersections with low speeds, low traffic volumes and similar
distribution of traffic on all approaches to the intersection.
This sign is placed in the immediate vicinity of the place where the
vehicles are required to stop, along with the corresponding road
28
markings.
The shape, size and colour of the sign are as given in the Table 5a.
2.3.4.3 Priority Road This sign is used to notify the drivers that they are travelling on a
major road, and that vehicles on the minor roads are obliged to give
priority to them. The shape, size and colour of the sign are as given in
the Table 5b.
2.3.4.4 End of Priority
Road
This sign is used to notify the drivers, the end of priority road. The
shape, size and colour of the sign are as given in the Table 5b.
2.3.4.5 Priority for on-
coming traffic
This sign is used to notify the drivers that they are entering a section of
a road or approaching a narrow bridge where priority shall be given to
on-coming vehicular traffic. The shape, size and colour of the sign are
as given in Table 5a.
2.3.4.6 Priority over on
coming traffic
This sign is used to notify the drivers that they are entering a section of
road or approaching a narrow bridge where they have priority over on-
coming vehicles. The shape, size and colour of the sign are as given in
Table 5a.
Table 5a
Details of Priority Signs
No. of Sign Shape of Sign Key dimension of Sign (mm) Colour of Components of Signs
Outer Dimensions Width of
border
Width of
oblique
band/ ba
r
Symbols,
letters,
numerals
Back-
ground
Border Oblique
band
Small
(S)
Normal
(N)
Large
(L)
29
Narrow
streets
and low
speed
built up
areas
Within
and
outside
built up
areas
At places
where
extra
emphasis
is required
2.3.4.1 Equilateral
triangle having
one side
horizontal and
the opposite
vertex below it.
Length of
side =
600
Length of
side =
900
Length of
side =
1200
S= 50
N = 75
L = 100
White Red
2.3.4.2 Regular
octagonal with
two sides
horizontal
Height =
600
Height =
900
Height =
1200
S= 30
N = 40
L = 55
White Red White
2.3.4.5 Circular 400 600 On
express-
ways and
similar =
900
S=50
N=60
L=75
Left arrow
red,
Right
arrow
black
White Red
2.3.4.6 Rectangle 400 x 370 600 x 550 On
express-
ways and
similar 900
x 825
Left arrow
white,
Right
arrow red
Blue
Table 5b
Details of Priority Signs
No. of Sign Shape of Sign Key dimension of Sign (mm) Colour of Components of Signs
Length of one side Width of
black border
/ white rim
Width of
median
band
Rim Back-
ground
Border Median
band
Small
(S)
Normal
(N)
Large
(L)
Narrow
streets
and low
speed
built up
areas
Within
and
outside
built up
areas
Express-
ways and
similar
roads
2.3.4.3 Square with one
diagonal vertical
400 600 900
S= 15 / 40
N = 25 / 50
L = 35 / 75
White Yellow Black
2.3.4.4 Square with one
diagonal vertical
400 600 900
S= 15 / 40
N = 25 / 50
L = 35 / 75
S= 80
N = 120
L = 180
White Yellow Black Black
2.4 Informative Signs
Informative Signs convey to the road users, useful information to guide them to their
destinations. Informative signs are subdivided into the following 10 categories, namely:
1. Advance Direction Signs
2. Direction Signs
30
3. Overhead Mounted Direction signs
4. Direction signs for expressways
5. Direction symbols
6. Place Identification Signs
7. Confirmatory Signs
8. Special Regulation Signs
9. Route Number Signs
10. Service Facilities Signs
All Informative Signs are standardised according to shape, size and colour.
2.4.1 Advance Direction Signs
Advance Direction Signs are placed on the approaches to an intersection to give information on
the important destinations, indicating the distances to such destinations, which could be reached
after passing though the intersection. These signs enable the motorists to decide in advance of
reaching the intersection as to which road shall be used to get to their destination.
The place names indicated on these signs should be the names of the more important towns that
are easily recognised by the motorists. These names should be written in Sinhala, Tamil, and
English to enable all motorists to recognise them. The generally recommended letter height is 75
mm to 150 mm.
On overhead mounted signs a letter height of 200 mm or 300 mm may be used.
There are 2 distinct types of Advance Direction Signs, namely:
(a) Map Type
(b) Stack Type
(a) Map Type
Map Type Signs indicate the layout of the intersection with arrowheads pointing towards each
destination.
Typical layouts of this type of sign for a 4-way and 3-way intersection are shown below.
2.4.1.1(a) Map Type sign
2.4.1.1(b) Map Type sign
(b) Stack Type Signs
31
Stack Type Signs do not give the layout of the intersection. They give the directions and the
corresponding destinations stacked one below the other. The sign shall indicate the directions in
the following order from top to bottom;
Straight on
Left
Right
A typical layout of a stack type sign for a intersection is shown below.
2.4.1.2(a) Stack Type sign 2.4.1.2(b) Stack Type sign
The rows required is depend on the far end destination and the immediate next significant
important town name.
This type of sign has the advantage of reducing the size of the signboard as compared with the
Map Type sign, although the motorist is not able to visualise the layout of the intersection from a
distance.
Since Advanced Direction Signs are used to give information on important destinations, they
shall be placed ahead of intersections of routes leading to important towns and other
destinations.
Table 6
Details of Advance Direction Signs
No. of
Sign
Shape of
Sign
Key Dimensions of sign
(mm)
Colour of Components of sign Size of letters
(mm)
Size of Numerals
(mm)
Dimen-
sion
Width of
border
Symbols,
letters,
numerals
Back-
ground
Border Mini-
mum
size
Maxi-
mum
size
Mini-
mum
size
Maxi-
mum
size
2.4.1.1to
2.4.1.2
Rectangle Variable 30 mm White Green Black 75 150 75 150
2.4.2 Direction Signs
These signs are used at intersections to direct the motorists to destinations of special importance.
The direction of the destination is indicated by the arrowhead.
Two variations of this type of sign are shown below. Details of these signs are given in Table 7.
32
2.4.2.1(a) Flag Type sign 2.4.2.1(b) Flag Type sign with a
direction symbol
2.4.3 Overhead Mounted Direction signs
On road and street sections with two or more lanes in the same direction, sometimes overhead
mounted direction signs are required. Such signs may be mounted on gantries across the roadway
or on cantilevers from the sides.
Overhead signs may be either of Map Type (2.4.3.1) or Lane Assignment type (2.4.3.2).
The recommended letter height is 200 mm or 300 mm.
Note: The Stack Type signs are normally not recommended for Overhead Mounted signs.
2.4.3.1Overhead mounted Map Type signs.
Overhead mounted Map Type signs may be used as Advance Direction signs when the available
space beside the road is limited or when extra visibility of the signs are required. The example
below shows an overhead Map Type sign in advance of an intersection with a roundabout.
2.4.3.1Map Type sign
2.4.3.2 Lane Assignment signs.
Lane Assignment signs are used to give information of the destinations pertaining to the different
lanes in a multi-lane intersection or interchange.
Lane Assignment signs shall always be mounted above the carriageway. The number of arrows on
the sign shall be consistent with the number of lanes.
33
The arrows on the signboard shall, as far as possible, be located over the centre of the lane that
each arrow refers to, or shall at least be within the lane limits marked by road markings. Also, the
arrows shall be pointing downwards, except for exiting lanes where the arrows shall be pointing
upwards and be leaning towards the direction of the exit.
Decisions about the use of overhead signs should be based on the following criteria:
Three or more approaching lanes
High traffic volumes
Complex interchange design
Restricted sight distances
High speed traffic
Large percentage of trucks
Insufficient space for ground mounted signs
The existence of one or more of these conditions does not automatically justify the use of
overhead signs. An engineering study must be carried out at each separate location to judge the
need and also to see if some other measures could reduce the need for overhead signs.
The example below shows a Lane Assignment sign for Expressways (with the background in blue
colour). If used on other road categories than Expressways, the colour of the sign shall be white
background with black symbols and text, or green background with white symbols and text.
2.4.3.2 Lane Assignment signs
2.4.4 Direction signs for Expressways
2.4.4.1 Advance Direction Signs
Map type sign
Map type signs shall be used on Expressways to indicate
the destinations straight on and the destination of the
exit. The exit arrow shall indicate the direction and the
angle of the exit. The sign shall be erected at a minimum
of 250 m in advance of the exit.
The sign shall be of blue background with white text,
symbol and border.
The recommended letter height is 175 mm.
34
2.4.4.2 Advance Direction Signs
Map type sign, at the diverge taper.
This sign is used on Expressways at the beginning of the
diverging taper of an exit ramp.
This sign shall indicate the destinations of the exit only.
The sign shall be of blue background with white text,
symbol and border.
The recommended letter height is 175 mm.
2.4.4.3 Confirmatory Sign This sign is used on Expressways to give information to
the motorists on the major towns and their distances that
lie ahead of them on the route on which they travel.
Confirmatory signs used on Expressways shall be blue
with white text and border.
2.4.4.4 Exit Direction Sign This sign is used to convey to the motorists the location
and direction of an Expressway exit ramp. The colour of
the sign is blue with white text and arrow and border.
The Exit Direction Sign shall be mounted on the nose at
the diverge.
2.4.5 Direction symbols
2.4.5.1Airport This sign is used to indicate the direction to an airport. The airport
symbol may be inscribed on other Direction Signs and if appropriate,
with the name of the airport.
The sign may also be erected as a single sign with a direction arrow on
an additional panel.
2.4.5.2 Truck This sign is used to indicate a recommended route for trucks. The
symbol may be inscribed in other Direction Signs or erected as a single
sign with a direction arrow on an additional panel.
35
2.4.5.3 Bus This sign is used to indicate a recommended route for buses. The
symbol may be inscribed in other Direction Signs or erected as a single
sign with a direction arrow on an additional panel.
2.4.5.4 Ferry service This sign is used to indicate the direction to a ferry service. The
symbol may be inscribed in other Direction Signs or erected as a single
sign with a direction arrow on an additional panel.
If the symbol is inscribed in some other Direction Sign the destination
given could either be the landing place of the ferryboat or the name of
the harbour.
2.4.6 Place Identification Signs
Place Identification signs are used to show the boundary between two administrative districts or
the name of a built-up area. These signs are also used to show the end of a boundary limit or the
end of a built-up area.
The sign 2.4.6.1 is used to inform the road users that they are entering a major town or a built-up
area.
The sign 2.4.6.2 is used to inform the road users that they are leaving a major town or a built-up
area.
Details of these signs are given in Table 7.
2.4.6.1. Place Identification
sign, Entrance
2.4.6.2. Place Identification
sign, Exit
36
2.4.7 Confirmatory Signs
This sign is used to give information to the road users on the major towns, and their distances
that lie ahead of them, on the route on which they travel.
Details of this sign are given in Table 7.
2.4.7.1Confirmatory sign
Table 7
Details of Direction, Place identification & Confirmatory Signs
No. of
Sign
Shape of
Sign
Key Dimensions of sign
(mm)
Colour of Components of sign Size of letters
(mm)
Size of
Numerals
(mm)
Dimen
-sion
Width
of
border
Width
of
oblique
band
Symbols
letters
numerals
Back-
ground
Border Obli
que
band
Mini-
mum
size
Maxi-
mum
size
Mini-
mum
size
Maxi-
mum
size
2.4.2 Rectang-
ular with
one end
pointed
Vari-
able
30 - Black White Black - 75 100 75 100
2.4.3.1 Rectangle Vari-
able
50 - White Green White -
--
-
175
--
175
300 -
- 300
175
--
175
300
--
300
2.4.3.2 Rectangle Vari-
able
50 - White Green White - 175
--
175
300 -
- 300
175
--
175
300
--
300
2.4.4.1 Rectangle Vari-
able
40 - White Blue White - 150 200 150 200
2.4.4.2 Rectangle Vari-
able
40 - White Blue White - 150 200 150 200
2.4.4.3 Rectangle Vari-
able
40 - White Blue White - 150 200 150 200
2.4.4.4 Rectangle 2400 x
1200
40 - White Blue White - 400 400 - -
2.4.5.1

2.4.5.4
Rectangle 480 x
410
30 - Black White Black - - - - -
2.4.6.1 Rectangle Vari-
able
40 - White Green White - 75 100 - -
2.4.6.2 Rectangle Vari-
able
40 100 White Green White Red 75 100 - -
2.4.7.1 Rectangle Vari-
able
30 - White Green White - 75 100 75 100
37
2.4.8 Special Regulation Signs
The Special Regulation Signs are used to give information about traffic arrangements that
normally implies traffic regulations given in the road traffic legislation.
Special Regulation Signs are given below.
2.4.8.1 Pedestrian
Crossing
This sign is used at a pedestrian crossing where pedestrians have
priority over vehicular traffic. Pedestrian crossings are demarcated by
broad road markings placed parallel to the road. Vehicular traffic is
required to stop and give way to the pedestrians crossing the road.
2.4.8.2 One Way This sign is used to confirm that the motorists are on a one way road.
The flow of vehicles on this road shall be in the direction of the arrow.
2.4.8.3 Hospital
This sign is used to inform to the road users that there is a hospital in
the vicinity of the sign. It is implied that the hospital is open 24 hours
a day for use in an emergency.
The sign may also be used to indicate the direction to a hospital. An
additional panel with an arrow should then be affixed below the sign.
The sign symbol can also be displayed on an Advance Direction sign
or a Direction sign. In such cases the name of the hospital may be
indicated together with the symbol.
2.4.8.4 Parking This sign is used to inform the drivers that there is a place for parking
of vehicles.
An additional panel may show the direction of the parking place.
2.4.8.4.1. Handicapped
persons
This sign is intended for use to indicate a parking space reserved for
handicapped persons. The sign shall be used as a supplementary plate
to sign 2.4.8.4 Parking.
38
2.4.8.5 Bus Stop
2.4.8.5(a) 2.4.8.5(b)
Either of these two signs is used to locate a bus stop.
Note:
Sri Lanka Central Transport Board or a Regional
Transport Board and the Police should always be
consulted prior to the installation of such sign.
2.4.8.6 Bus only lane
begins or continues
This sign is used to inform the motorist that there is a lane reserved
exclusively for the use of buses.
2.4.8.7 Bus only Lane
ends
This sign is used to inform the motorist of the end of a bus only lane.
2.4.8.8 Cycle lane begins
or continues
This sign is used to inform the motorist that there is a lane for the use
of cyclists. Pedestrians are allowed to use the lane if no separate
pedestrian lane or sidewalk is provided.
2.4.8.9 Cycle lane ends This sign is used to inform the motorist of the end of a cycle lane.
39
2.4.8.10 Cycle and
Pedestrian lane begins or
continues
This sign is used to inform the road users of a lane for the common
use of cyclists and pedestrians.
2.4.8.11Cycle and
pedestrian lane ends
This sign is used to inform the road users of the end of a cycle cum
pedestrian lane.
2.4.8.12 Street for
Pedestrians only
This sign is used to inform the road users of a street or a section of a
street that is for the use of pedestrians only.
2.4.8.13 Pedestrian
Underpass
This sign is used to inform the pedestrians of a pedestrian o underpass.
2.4.8.12 2.4.8.13
Pedestrian Overpass
This sign is used to inform the pedestrians of a pedestrian overpass.
40
2.4.8.15 Expressway This sign is used to convey to the road users of the beginning of an
Expressway, where special rules are to be observed, as applicable.
2.4.8.17 End of
Expressway
This sign is used to convey to the road users of the end of an
expressway.
2.4.8.18 Direction Sign for
Slow Moving Road Users
This sign is used to inform slow moving road users the alternate
way to choose, when a road section ahead is not allowed for
them to enter.
1
Table 8
Details of Special Regulation Signs
No. of
sign
Shape of
sign
Shape
of inset
Key dimension of sign (mm) Colour of components of sign
Outer
dimen-
sion
Length
of a
side of
inset
Width
of
border
Width
of
obliqu
e band
Symbol
Letters
Inset Back-
ground
Border Oblique
band
2.4.8.1 Square Upright
equi-
lateral
triangle
with
one
side
hori-
zontal
600 480 - - Black White Blue - -
2.4.8.2 Square - 450 - - - White Blue - -
2.4.8.3 Square - 600 - - - Cross-Red
Bed-White
- Blue - -
2.4.8.4 Square - 450 - - - White - Blue - -
2.4.8.4.1 Square - 450 - - - White - Blue - -
2.4.8.5(a) Rectangle Square 500 x
600
300 x
300
- - Black White Blue - -
2.4.8.5(b) Rectangle - 300 x
240
- 10 - Black - White Black -
2.4.8.6 Rectangle - 750 x
825
- - - White - Blue - -
2.4.8.7 Rectangle - 750 x
825
- - 100 White - Blue - Red
2.4.8.8
and
2.4.8.10
Rectangle - 400 x
600
- - - White - Blue - -
2.4.8.9
and
2.4.8.11
Rectangle - 400 x
600
- - 100 White - Blue - Red
2.4.8. 12 Rectangle - 435 x
600
- - - White - Blue - -
2.4.8. 13 Rectangle - 435 x
600
- - 100 White - Blue - Red
2.4.8.14 Rectangle - 400 x
600
- - - With - Blue - -
2.4.8.15 Square - 600 - - - White - Blue - -
2.4.8. 16 Rectangle - 600 x
900 or
900 x
1200
- 15
or
20
- White - Blue White -
2.4.8. 17 Rectangle - 600 x
800 or
900 x
1200
15
or
20
100
or
150
White - Blue White Red
2.4.8. 18 Rectangle - 1500 x
650
- 20 - Black - White Black -
2
2.4.9 Route Number Signs
These signs are used to indicate the road numbers.
The route number signs may be posted solely or as a symbol included in other Informative signs.
On Expressways and A Class highways the route number should be indicated at all major
interchanges/ intersections and, as repeated information, at approximately each 10 km. On B
Class highways route number signs should appear at approximately each 20 km if the length
exceeds 20 km.
2.4.9.1Route number
sign for Expressways
This sign is used on Expressways.
The background of the sign is blue, and the legend and the border are
white.
2.4.9.2 Route number
sign for A class
highways
This sign is used on A class highways.
The background of the sign is white, and the legend and the border are
black.
2.4.9.3 Route number
sign for B class
highways
This sign is used on B class highways.
The background of the sign is white, and the legend and the border are
black.
2.4.9.4 Route Number
Sign for Provincial Roads
3
Table 9
Details of Route Number Signs
No. of
Sign
Shape of
Sign
Key Dimensions of sign (mm) Colour of Components of sign Size of Letters
(mm)
Size of Numerals
(mm)
Dimension Width
of
border
Letters
and
numerals
Back-
ground
Border Mini-
mum
size
Maxi-
mum
size
Mini-
mum
size
Maxi-
mum
size
2.4.9.1 Rectangle
Height = 350 or
450
Width = Variable
15 White Blue White 200 300 200 300
2.4.9.2 Rectangle
Height = 250 or
350
Width = Variable
10 White Green White 100 200 100 200
2.4.9.3 Rectangle
Height = 225 or
350
Width = Variable
10 White Green White 75 200 75 200
2.4.10 Service Facilities Signs
2.4.10.1Public Telephone This sign is used to indicate to the motorists the location of a public
telephone.
If the telephone is equipped with emergency calling facilities, the
letters SOS may be indicated in white colour on the blue background
below the symbol or on an additional panel.
The symbol may be inscribed in Direction signs or in Advance
Direction signs, indicating the direction to a public telephone.
2.4.10.2 Information This sign is used to indicate the location of a place where information,
useful for the road users, may be obtained.
The sign may be used at information boards as well as at manned
information places.
The symbol may be inscribed in Direction signs or in Advance
Direction signs, indicating the direction to an information place.
2.4.10.3 Industrial Area This sign is used to indicate the location of an industrial area.
The symbol may be inscribed in Direction signs or in Advance
Direction signs, indicating the direction to an industrial area.
2.4.10.4 Restaurant This sign is used to indicate the location of a restaurant or the
direction to a restaurant.
The symbol may be inscribed in Direction signs or in Advance
Direction signs, indicating the direction to the restaurant.
4
2.4.10.5 Refreshments or
cafeteria
This sign is used to indicate the location of, or the direction to, a caf
or similar place where only refreshments or light meals are served.
The symbol may be inscribed in Direction signs or in Advance
Direction signs, indicating the direction to the caf.
2.4.10.6 Hotel This sign is used to indicate the location of a hotel or the direction to a
hotel.
The symbol may be inscribed in Direction signs or in Advance
Direction signs, indicating the direction to the hotel.
2.4.10.7 Filling Station This sign is used to indicate the location of a fuel filling station or the
direction to a fuel filling station.
The symbol may be inscribed in Direction signs or in Advance
Direction signs, indicating the direction to the filling station.
2.4.10.8 Breakdown
Service
This sign is used to indicate the location of a vehicle workshop or the
direction to a vehicle workshop.
The symbol may be inscribed in Direction signs or in Advance
Direction signs, indicating the direction to the workshop.
Table 10
Details of Service Facilities Signs
No. of
sign
Shape
of sign
Shape
of inset
Key dimension of sign (mm) Key dimension of sign (mm) Colour of components of sign
Outer
dimen-
sion
Length
of aside
of inset
Width
of
border
Outer
dimen-
sion
Length
of aside
of inset
Width
of
border
Symbol Inset Border
2.4.10.1-
2.4.10.10
Square Square 600 x
600
400 100 400 x
400
250 75 Black White Blue
5
2.5 Additional panels for use with signs
Additional panels used with erected traffic signs are given below. The colour of the panels shall
conform to the colour of the sign it is supplementing.
Additional panels with text only may be used to indicate exceptions from prohibitions or to give
additional information. Example on such a panel is given below (Additional panel 2.5.10)
Additional panels other than those specified in this Manual may be used after written approval
from the Ministry of Highways
2.5.1Distance to a Hazard This panel is used to indicate the distance from the
sign to the beginning of a dangerous section of a road
or of a zone.
2.5.2 Distance to a Regulation This panel is used to indicate the distance from the
sign to the beginning of a regulation.
2.5.3 Distance to an Information
2.5.4 Length of a Hazard This panel indicates the length of the dangerous
section of a road or of a zone.
2.5.5 Length of a Regulation This panel indicates the length of a regulation
indicated with a Regulatory sign.
2.5.6 Length of an Information
2.5.7 Direction of Regulation This panel is fixed to the parking prohibition sign or
the parking and standing prohibition sign to indicate
where the prohibition starts.
The panel shall be placed parallel to the axis of the
road.
6
2.5.8 Direction of Regulation This panel is fixed to the parking prohibition sign or
the parking and standing prohibition sign repeating
the prohibition.
The panel shall be placed parallel to the axis of the
road.
2.5.9 End of Regulation This panel is fixed to the parking prohibition sign or
the parking and standing prohibition sign where the
prohibition ends.
The panel shall be placed parallel to the axis of the
road.
2.5.10 Direction to a Hazard on an
Intersecting Road
This panel is used as supplementing information
regarding a hazard on an intersecting road where the
distance from the intersection to the hazard is too
short for an adequate location of the warning sign on
the intersecting road.
2.5.11Limitation of Parking
Prohibition or Parking and Standing
Prohibition
This panel is fixed to Regulatory signs 2.3.1.23 or
2.3.1.24 to indicate the time during which a Parking
prohibition or Parking and Standing prohibition
applies and the direction or directions of the
prohibition.
When indicating the start of a prohibition the arrow
shall be pointing to the right only and when indicating
the end of a prohibition the arrow shall be pointing to
the left.
The panel shall be placed parallel to the axis of the
road.
2.5.12 Exception from Regulation This panel is fixed to a Prohibitory sign to indicate
exception from the prohibition. The text on the panel
may vary depending on the exception.
2.5.13 School (warning) This panel is fixed to the Danger Warning sign 2.2.
Children ahead, when the warning applies to a road
section at a school.
2.5.14 School (regulation) This panel is fixed to a regulatory sign that indicate a
regulation on a road section at a school, for instance
Speed Limit or No Horning.
7
2.5.15 SOS This panel may be fixed to the sign 2.4.10.1 Public
Telephone to indicate that the telephone can be used
for emergency calls.
Table 11
Details of Additional Panels
No. of
Panel
Shape of
Panel
Key Dimensions of panel
(mm)
Colour of Components of panel Size of Letters
(mm)
Size of Numerals
(mm)
Dimension Width
of
border
Letters
and
numerals
Back-
ground
Border Mini-
mum
size
Maxi-
mum
size
Mini-
mum
size
Maxi-
mum
size
2.5.1 Rectangle
Varies
15 Black Yellow Black 60 80 70 90
2.5.2 Rectangle
Varies
15 Black White Red 60 80 70 90
2.5.3 Rectangle
Varies
15 Black Yellow Black 60 80 70 90
2.5.4 Rectangle
Varies
15 Black White Red 60 80 70 90
2.5.5 Rectangle
Height = 310
Width = 600
15 Black White Red - - - -
2.5.6 Rectangle
Height = 310
Width = 780
15 Black White Red - - - -
2.5.7 Rectangle
Height = 310
Width = 600
15 Black White Red - - - -
2.5.8 Rectangle
Height = 450
Width = 450
15 Black Yellow Black - - - -
2.5.9 Rectangle
Height = 570
Width = 1050
15 Black White Red 60 80 70 90
2.5.10 Rectangle
Varies
15 Black White Red 60 80 70 90
2.5.11 Rectangle
Height = 220
Width = 490
15 Black Yellow Black 60 80 - -
2.5.12 Rectangle
Height = 220
Width = 490
15 Black White Red 60 80 - -
2.5.13 Rectangle
Height = 220
Width = 600
15 White Blue White 80 80 - -
2.6 Installation of Traffic Signs
2.6.1 Positioning of Traffic Signs (General)
Traffic signs are generally placed on the left-hand side of the road facing traffic, but they may be
placed on the centre median or on the traffic islands when it is considered more advantageous
and less hazardous to place them centrally along the road. In rare instances, traffic signs may be
placed on the right hand side of the road, such as on one way roads.
Overhead signs are provided on wide roads with high travel speeds, such as expressways, since
the traffic signs placed on the side of the road may not be visible to the motorists and may even
be hazardous. In general, overhead signs should be considered only on roads with more than
two lanes in one direction and carrying heavy volumes of traffic.
8
All signs except additional panels to "No Parking" and "No Parking and Standing" signs,
indicating the directions or end of the regulations, shall be erected facing traffic approximately at
right angles to the direction of traffic.
Where mirror reflection from a sign is encountered, to such a degree that the legibility of the sign
is affected, the sign shall be turned by an angel of about 3
o
to 5
o
away from the road. In general,
the sign faces should be vertical but on grades, the sign faces may be tilted forward or backward
as required to improve the visibility of the sign.
Sign posts and their foundations shall be constructed in such a manner so as to hold the signs
rigidly in position, and to resist swaying due to the action of wind.
The smaller signs, such as warning Signs and Regulatory signs, shall be mounted on one post but
the larger information signs shall to be mounted on two or more posts. It is recommended that
any sign wider than 1.25 m in width or having an area greater than 1.0 m
2
be mounted on at least
two posts.
Traffic signs should not be placed too close to the edge of the road since this will cause
interference with the drivers using the full width of the available roadway as well as they being
hazardous to Vehicular Traffic. It is recommended that the nearest edge of a traffic sign should
be at least 1.25 m from the edge of the travelled way. If the road is provided with shoulders or
pedestrian footwalk the lateral clearance to large informative signs should be at least 1.0 m.
Smaller signs should be placed at the edge of the shoulder/ footwalk. (Fig. 2.1)
21/2DIA G.I. PIPE
FOOT WALK / (ORSHOULDERS)
M
O
U
N
T
IN
G
H
E
IG
H
T
LATERAL CLEARANCE
EDGE OF CARRIAGEWAY
EDGE OF FOOTWALK/SHOULDER FOOT WALK / (OR SHOULDERS)
EDGE OF CARRIAGEWAY
EDGE OF FOOTWALK/SHOULDER
Fig. 2.1
2.6.1.1 Positioning of Danger Warning Signs
The correct positioning of Warning Signs is very important since these signs are provided,
especially to warn motorists of hazardous situations that lie ahead of them. The positioning of a
sign should be such that after the motorist sees the sign he should have adequate time to perceive
and react to the sign and reduce speed of the vehicle to negotiate the hazardous situation.
Normally the distance from a sign to the hazard is determined by the travel speed and the
perception reaction time of the drivers and the braking time.
Table 12 indicates the recommended visibility distances and the distance from the sign to the
hazard for varying travel speeds.
9
Table 12
Siting details of Warning Signs
Travel Speed (km/ h) Clear visibility
distance (m)
Distance from sign to
hazard (m)
30
40
50
60
80
60
60
60
60
75
45
45
60
100
180
Although the above distances are given as a guide the signs should be placed in the best location
to suit the environment by making the necessary minor adjustments.
The Signs should also be placed such that there is clear visibility of the signs to oncoming traffic
in order that the drivers will have sufficient time to read and understand the signs.
2.6.1.2 Positioning of Regulatory Signs
All regulatory signs shall be placed at the locations where the regulation is to be operative.
The following signs may be repeated if necessary and the intermediate signs of all these 4 signs
shall be placed parallel to the edge of carriageway with panels fixed below the signs indicating the
direction and/ or the distance.
2.3.1.23 "No Parking"
2.3.1.24 "No Parking and Standing"
2.3.1.25 "No Parking on odd days"
2.3.1.26 "No Parking on even days"
The "End of speed limit" sign shall be fixed at the location where the speed restriction is no
longer in effect.
2.6.1.3 Positioning of informative Signs
Advance Direction signs
Advance Direction signs shall be placed ahead of the intersection and the distance of the sign
from the intersection shall normally be equal to or more than the distance of the Warning Signs
from the hazard given in Table 12, in order to ensure clear visibility of these signs.
Direction Signs
Direction signs shall be placed close to the intersection and that the arrowhead of the sign shall
clearly indicate the direction of the place in reference.
Place Identification signs
Place Identification sign shall be placed at the beginning of the town or the built - up area in
reference. The sign 2.4.6.2 - Place Identification sign, Exit shall be placed at the end of the
town or the built - up area.
10
Other signs useful for drivers
The Pedestrian Crossing Information signs shall be placed at the pedestrian crossing on both
sides of the road, to face the on - coming vehicles in both directions.
2.6.2 Mounting Heights
Traffic signs shall be so erected that the mounting height is such that the motorists approaching
the sign can conveniently read and understand the sign. Based on the above, preferably traffic
signs are to be erected such that the mounting height to the lowest edge of the sign is between
1000 mm and 1500 mm above the level of the road pavement. However if the traffic signs are to
be erected on pedestrian footwalks or on road shoulders then the mounting height shall be
increased to enable the pedestrians to go underneath the sign. For such situations recommended
height of the lowest edge of the sign above the level of the road shoulder or footwalk is 2100
mm. Where supplementary plates are used along with the sign, the above-recommended height
shall be to the lowest edge of the plate. When overhead signs are provided the lowest edge of
the sign shall be 5.0 m above the level of the road pavement, in order that all vehicles could pass
through unhindered.
2.6.3 Background of Signs
The visibility of Traffic signs shall not be obscured by shrubs and overgrown bushes. Also they
shall not be obscured by overhanging branches of trees.
2.6.4 Illumination and Reflectorisation of Signs
All signs that are required to convey their messages during hours of darkness shall be visible to
the motorists after dark. This is achieved either by illumination or reflectorisation of signs.
Illumination or reflectorisation of signs is essential on roads where much of the traffic moves
after dark or where accident rate is high during hours of darkness.
2.6.4.1 Illumination of Signs
Illumination of traffic signs could be effected by an attached or independently mounted light
source designed to direct uniform illumination of the entire face of the sign. Illumination of
signs shall be such that same sign colours shall be visible by night and day. Illumination of signs
could also be effected by erecting them suitably under streetlights where this is practicable.
2.6.4.2 Reflectorisation of Signs
Reflectorisation of traffic signs could be effected by reflectorising either the symbol or the
background or both, depending on the sign design and local conditions. In the case of Warning
signs having a black symbol, a black border and a yellow background, the background of the sign
should be reflectorised. In the case of informative signs the white background of the signs
should be reflectorised. Regulatory signs which consist of a white background, a red border and
black symbols the background and the border should be reflectorised.
11
Coefficient of Retroreflection.
The minimum initial coefficient of retroreflection R' (cd
.
lx
-1 .
m
-2
) of retroreflective signs when
measured in accordance with the procedure specified in CIE54, using CIE
(*)
standard illuminant
A, shall conform to tables 13 and 14, as appropriate. (
(*)
INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION
ON ILLUMINATION, CIE Central Bureau, Kegelgasse 27, A-1030 Wien, Austria)
The coefficient of retroreflection (R') of all printed colours, except white, shall be not less than
70 % of the values in tables 13 and 14 for Class 1 (C1) and Class 2 (C2) signs respectively.
TABLE 13. COEFFICIENT OF RETROREFLECTION R': C1.
Unit: cd
.
lx
-1.
m
-2
Geometry of
measurement
Colour
1 White Yellow Red Green Blue Brown Orange Grey
12' +5
+30
+40
70
30
10
50
22
7
14.5
6
2
9
3.5
1.5
4
1.7
0.5
1
0.3
#
25
10
6
42
18
6
20' +5
+30
+40
50
24
9
35
16
6
10
4
1.8
7
3
1.2
2
1
#
0.6
0.2
#
20
8
2.2
30
14.4
5.4
2 +5
+30
+40
5
2.5
1.5
3
1.5
1.0
1
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.3
0.2
#
#
#
#
#
#
1.2
0.5
#
3
1.5
0.9
indicates Observation angle
1 indicates Entrance angle
# indicates Value greater than zero but not significant or applicable
TABLE 14. COEFFICIENT OF RETROREFLECTION R': C2.
Unit: cd
.
lx
-1.
m
-2
Geometry of
measurement
Colour
1 White Yellow Red Green Blue Brown Orange Grey
12' +5
+30
+40
250
150
110
170
100
70
45
25
15
45
25
12
20
11
8
12
8.5
5
100
60
29
125
75
55
20' +5
+30
+40
180
100
95
120
70
60
25
14
13
21
12
11
14
8
7
8
5
3
65
40
20
90
50
47
2 +5
+30
+40
5
2.5
1.5
3
1.5
1.0
1
0.4
0.3
0.5
0.3
0.2
0.2
#
#
0.2
#
#
1.5
1
#
2.5
1.2
0.7
indicates Observation angle
1 indicates Entrance angle
# indicates Value greater than zero but not significant or applicable
Chromaticity and luminance factors.
Retroreflective materials for road signs and other traffic control devices shall be of colour specified in
table 4 and 5. The tables indicate the chromaticity limits when tested against the CIE standard light source
D65, measure geometry 45/ 0.
12
TABLE 15. CHROMATICITY AND LUMINANCE FACTORS CLASS C1MATERIAL
Colour Limit 1 Limit 2 Limit 3 Limit 4 Luminance
factor

x y x y x y x y
White 0.355 0.355 0.305 0.305 0.285 0.325 0.335 0.375 > 0.35
Yellow 0.545 0.454 0.487 0.423 0.427 0.483 0.465 0.534 > 0.27
Red 0.735 0.265 0.674 0.236 0.569 0.341 0.655 0.345 > 0.03
Green 0.007 0.703 0.248 0.409 0.177 0.362 0.026 0.399 > 0.03
Blue 0.078 0.171 0.150 0.220 0.210 0.160 0.137 0.038 > 0.01
Brown 0.455 0.397 0.523 0.429 0.479 0.373 0.558 0.394 > 0.03
Orange 0.610 0.390 0.535 0.375 0.506 0.404 0.570 0.429 > 0.14
Grey 0.350 0.360 0.300 0.310 0.285 0.325 0.335 0.375 > 0.12
TABLE 16. CHROMATICITY AND LUMINANCE FACTORS CLASS C2 MATERIAL
Colour Limit 1 Limit 2 Limit 3 Limit 4 Luminance
factor

x y x y x y x y
White 0.305 0.315 0.335 0.345 0.325 0.355 0.295 0.325 > 0.35
Yellow 0.494 0.505 0.470 0.480 0.493 0.457 0.522 0.477 > 0.27
Red 0.735 0.265 0.700 0.250 0.610 0.340 0.660 0.340 > 0.05
Green 0.110 0.415 0.150 0.415 0.150 0.455 0.110 0.455 > 0.04
Blue 0.130 0.086 0.160 0.086 0.160 0.120 0.130 0.120 > 0.01
Brown 0.455 0.397 0.523 0.429 0.479 0.373 0.558 0.394 > 0.03
Orange 0.610 0.390 0.535 0.375 0.506 0.404 0.570 0.429 > 0.14
Grey 0.305 0.315 0.335 0.345 0.325 0.355 0.295 0.325 > 0.12
TABLE 17. CHOICE OF REFLECTIVE MATERIALS ON PERMANENT ROAD SIGNS
Type of Road Sign Placemen
t
Environment
No road lighting or low standard road
lighting and no disturbing lights in the
road vicinity
Road lighting of good standard
and/ or disturbing lights in the
road vicinity
Expressway Other roads Expressway Other
roads
Stop, Give Way Ground C2 (Give Way on
entrance ramps)
C2 C2 (Give Way on
entrance ramps)
C2
Mandatory sign; Pass This
Side placed in the middle
of the road
Ground - C2 - C2
Pedestrian Crossing Ground - C2 - C2
Informative signs Ground C2 C1 C2 C1
Overhead C2* C2 C2* C2
All other signs Ground C2 C1 C2 C2
Overhead C2* C1 C2* C2
*) These signs may require separate illumination in certain environment. As an alternative to separate
illumination so called Microprismatic (C3) reflective material may be considered.
13
Signs with different types of reflective materials should not be used on the same road section and
especially not on the same post.
3.0 ROAD MARKINGS
3.1 Classification of Road Markings and Detailed Description
Road markings can be classified as follows:-
(a) Transverse markings, which are at right angles to the centre line of the road surface.
(b) Longitudinal markings which are parallel to the centre line of the road.
(c) Markings for pedestrian crossings
(d) Worded markings, Arrows and Box junctions
(e) Bus or cycle lane markings
(f) Parking bays
The character of longitudinal lines is such that while the broken lines are permissive in nature, the
continuous lines are restrictive. Double lines indicate maximum restrictions.
The colour prescribed for all markings is white except the following markings: -
( a ) Pedestrian crossings
( b ) Parking restriction, edge line
( c ) Box junctions
The colour prescribed for these markings is yellow.
3.1.1 Transverse Markings
Transverse markings can be sub-divided as follows:-
TM 1 Stop line at "STOP" signs or at
Light Signals.
TM 2 "Give Way" line at Give Way
signs and at Roundabouts
14
TM 3 Give Way line at Pedestrian
Crossings
3.1.1.1 Stop line at Light Signals
Stop line at light signals indicate the limit beyond which a driver should not advance when
required to stop, by the signals.
Location of these lines at a signalised intersection shall be normally at 1 m before the near side
signal or shall be adjusted according to the site conditions.
15
Fig. 3.1 Stop Line at Light Signals
3.1.1.2 Stop Line at "STOP" Signs
Stop line at STOP signs consists of a continuous line of width 200 mm or 300 mm. The stop
line indicates the position where all traffic on the minor road must stop before entering the
major road. This marking is to be used in conjunction with the "STOP" sign.
The line should normally be at about 0.5 m in advance of the continuation of the carriageway
edge line of the major road where an edge line is marked. If no edge line is marked the stop line
should be marked about 0.5 m in advance of the edge of the major road.
16
Fig. 3.2 Stop Line at STOP Sign
3.1.1.3 "Give Way" Line at a "Give Way" Sign
Give Way line consists of a broken line of width 200 mm or 300 mm as shown in Fig. 3.3. The
length of each marking and the gap length between markings shall be 600 mm and 300 mm
respectively. This line indicates the position beyond which no vehicle should proceed to enter a
major road, in such a manner or at such a time, to cause danger to traffic on the major road or to
create a speed reduction or deviation of vehicles on the major road.
Give way lines are permitted where the stopping of vehicle on the minor road is required only
when a vehicle is approaching along the major road. Situations such as low traffic volumes (ADT
600 or less) on both major and minor roads and adequate sight distances at the intersections,
warrant Give Way lines instead of Stop lines.
The line should normally be about 0.5 m in advance of the continuation of the carriageway edge
line of the major road where an edge line is marked. If no edge line is marked the stop line
should be marked about 0.5 m in advance of the edge of the major road.
On two way minor roads the marking normally extends to the centre of carriageway of the minor
road. On one way roads the marking should be carried right across the carriageway.
17
Fig. 3.3 GIVE WAY markings at GIVE WAY sign
3.1.1.4 Give Way markings at Roundabouts
This Give Way line is placed on all approaches to a roundabout. These markings are usually
placed across the entries to a roundabout approximately following the inscribed circle of the
roundabout. This could ensure maximum visibility on each approach at the give way line. The
marking indicates the position at or beyond which the vehicle crossing such a marking should
give way to a vehicle approaching from the right. The marking should extend the central
Deflection Island to the side kerb at each entry
Give Way Marking
Fig 3.4 Give way marking at Roundabouts.
18
3.1.2 Longitudinal Markings
Longitudinal markings can be subdivided as follows:-
Centre line markings
Centre line markings with reflective studs
Lane Markings
Warning Markings
Single continuous line
Double continuous line
Edge lines
3.1.2.1 Centre Line Markings
These markings are used to divide 2-lane roads into lanes of opposing traffic and are placed at or
about the geometric centre line of the road surface. Any vehicle should keep to the left of such a
marking and may cross it only for the purpose of turning right or for overtaking a vehicle going
ahead. The minimum width of road where a centre-line marking shall be provided is 6.0 m.
LM 1 Centre Line Marking
3.1.2.2 Centre Line Marking with Reflective Studs
This marking is basically similar to the centre line markings in placement, function, width and
mark length. However, the gap length is increased to double the gap length of the normal centre
line markings and a reflective stud is placed at the centre of the gap to particularly enhance the
night time visibility. These markings may be adopted along arterial routes and sections of other
roads, where there is a high volume of traffic during the night.
The reflectors of the studs shall be white in keeping with the colour of the line, except where
they occur together with yellow lines, particularly at pedestrian crossings.
LM 2 Centre Line Marking
with Reflective Studs
19
LM 3 Centre Line
Marking with
Reflective Studs
for high speed
highways.
The spacing
between the studs is
15 metres.
LM 4 Warning Marking
with Reflective
Studs.
The spacing
between the studs is
12 metres.
LM 5 Combination of a
broken line and a
continuous line
with Reflective
Studs.
The spacing
between the studs is
6 metres. The studs
should be placed
between the lines
LM 6 Combination of
two continuous
lines with
Reflective Studs
The spacing
between the studs is
4-6 metres. The
studs should be
placed between the
lines
3.1.2.3 Lane markings
This marking provides for the division of the road surface into traffic lanes. These markings are
provided on roads, which could be divided into 4 or more traffic lanes with or without a centre
median. All vehicles must keep to the centre of the area indicated by the lane markings. The lane
markings on the right hand side shall be crossed only for the purpose of overtaking another
vehicle.
LM 7 Broken Lane Line
20
LM 8 Continuous Lane
Line at approaches to
inter-sections
3.1.2.4 Warning Markings
These markings indicate a warning to the motorists of an impending hazard and cautions the
driver not to straddle it unless he considers it safe to do so. These broken lines have a mark
length as twice as long as the gap length. The length of sections of road so marked could
normally vary between 20 m and 80 m.
LM 9 Warning Marking
A Warning Marking may be used as a centre line on a two-way road where overtaking is
hazardous but yet allowed. Such a regulation may be appropriate on a road section where
there is a large portion of slow moving vehicles, for instance tractors in an agricultural area.
The markings are to be used on such roads at bends or crests where the visibility falls below
the values given in the Table 18 below.
Table 18
Visibility distance requiring Warning Markings
Assigned speed (km/ h) 50 60 70 85 100
Visibility distance (m) 145 175 205 255 290
The warning markings could also be used to warn drivers of road intersections, at priority
intersections controlled by 'STOP' and 'Give Way' signs, at approaches to roundabouts and at
intersections controlled by traffic signals.
On straight sections of road, warning lines are recommended when the traffic volume from the
side road exceeds 100 veh/ hr. In such situations, the centre line as well as the lane line should be
changed to a warning line.
21
Fig 3.5 Application of Warning Markings at a signalised intersection
3.1.2.5 Single Continuous Centre Line
The Single continuous centre line indicates a mandatory requirement to traffic that they cannot
cross this line except for turning right. This marking is used on sections of roads where the sight
distance is poor or where the width of the road platform is such that accidents are caused by
vehicles trying to overtake slower moving vehicles. As this marking is used to deter such
dangerous encroachments on to the opposing lane, it should be preceded and ended by warning
markings for a length of 20 m at least.
Fig. 3.6 Single Continuous Line
Combination of Centre lines.
Combination of lines for Centre lines is provided to prohibit overtaking. They shall consist of
combinations of a broken line and a continuous line or a combination of two continuous lines.
In the case of the combination of a broken line and a continuous line, the continuous line shall
be on the side prohibiting overtaking. The combination of double continuous lines is used when
overtaking is prohibited on both sides.
Combination of lines should be used only on paved roads where the width is 6.0 m or more.
22
LM 10 Combination of a
broken centre line and
a continuous line
LM 11 Double continuous
centre lines
Criteria for the application of Continuous Centre lines.
Generally Continuous Centre lines are used where it is necessary to prohibit the use of the part
of the carriageway reserved for oncoming traffic, at places where the range of vision is restricted
(hill crest, bends, etc.) or on sections where the carriageway is narrow or has some other
peculiarity.
Restrictions should be imposed on sections where the range of vision is less than a certain
minimum range of vision (S), by means of a continuous line laid out in accordance with diagrams
below.
The value to be adopted for S varies with road conditions. Fig. 3.7 and 3.8 show the design of the
lines at a hillcrest with a restricted range of vision. Fig. 3.9 and 3.10 show the position of the lines
for the same case on a horizontal bend with restricted range of vision.
(Thedefinition of rangeof vision is thedistanceat which an object 1 mabovethesurfaceof thecarriageway can be
seen by an observer on theroad whoseeyeis also1 mabovethecarriageway.)
The choice of range of vision to be used in determining the sections on which a continuous line
is or is not desirable, and the choice of the length of the line, is bound to be a compromise. The
Table 19 gives the recommended value of S for various approach speeds:
Table 19
Visibility distance for Prohibitory Markings
Assigned speed (km/ h.) 50 60 70 85 100
Visibility distance S (m) 90 105 125 155 185
23
S
S
1
.
0

m
1
.
0

m
Fig. 3.7. Measuring of the range of vision (S) on a vertical bend.
The range of vision/ visibility distance (S) is insufficient from both directions for the
motorists to see over the crest. Thus the continuous lines overlap.
1
.
0

m
1
.
0

m
S
S
Fig. 3.8. Measuring of the range of vision (S) on a vertical bend.
The range of vision/ visibility distance (S) is sufficient from both directions for the
motorists to see over the crest. Thus the continuous lines do not overlap.
24
S
S
Fig. 3.9. Measuring of the range of vision (S) on a horizontal bend.
The range of vision/ visibility distance (S) is insufficient from both directions for the
motorists to see beyond the bend. Thus the continuous lines overlap.
S
S
Fig. 3.10. Measuring of the range of vision (S) on a horizontal bend.
The range of vision/ visibility distance (S) is sufficient from both directions for the
motorists to see beyond the bend. Thus the continuous lines do not overlap.
25
3.1.2.6 Edge Lines
These lines demarcate the edge of road carriageway at a bend, embankments with narrow
shoulders or at any other location where the edge line will help motorists to drive within the
carriageway. The edge line markings are needed mostly on roads without kerbs, and particularly
along narrow winding roads where accidents are caused by vehicles going off the road.
All roads with paved shoulders shall have Edge Line Markings indicating the border between the
carriageway and the shoulder.
On roads with four or more lanes and with raised centre median, Edge Lines shall be applied
along the centre median.
LM 12
Edge Line. Normal width
of the line is 100 mm. On
expressways and similar
highways the width of the
line may be 150 mm.
3.1.2.7 Yellow Carriageway Markings for Parking Restrictions
LM 13
Markings for No
Parking
A continuous line marked with a separation of 150 mm from the road carriageway edge and of
colour yellow indicates the limit of No Parking Zone. Parking of vehicles on that side for the
length indicated is prohibited.
Fig. 3.11 Typical example on the use of No Parking Line
26
LM 14 Markings for No
Standing and Parking
Two continuous lines marked with a separation of 100 mm from the road carriageway edge and
100 mm in between the lines of colour yellow indicates the limit of No Standing and Parking
Zone. Standing and Parking of vehicles on that side for the length indicated is prohibited.
Fig. 3.12 Typical example on the use of No Standing and Parking Line
3.1.3 Pedestrian Crossing Markings
The essential road markings to be provided at a pedestrian crossing are as follows:
(a) Yellow stripes
(b) Give - way lines
(c) Broken lines to indicate a signalised pedestrian crossing (Pelican crossing)
(d) Stop lines at signalised pedestrian crossings (Pelican crossings)
In addition to the above, road studs and zig-zag markings may be provided at important
pedestrian crossings and these should be considered as optional.
The length of the yellow stripes should be not less than 2400 mm and be not more than 5000
mm. The width of the stripes, and the gaps between, should be not less than 500 mm and be not
more than 700 mm. The length of a Pedestrian Crossing depends on the Pedestrian Demand and
the width of the stripes depends on the width of crossing. Recommended lengths and widths of
stripes to be used at Pedestrian Crossings are given in Table 20.
Fire Station or
Police Station etc.
27
Table 20
Recommended lengths and widths of stripes to at Pedestrian Crossings
Length of the Yellow Stripes
(mm)
Width of the Yellow Stripes and
the gaps between (mm)
2400
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
500
530
550
600
650
700
The lower values of 2400 mm length and 500 mm width should be used on narrow roads with
low pedestrian volumes and upper values of 5000 mm length and 700 mm width should be used
on wider roads with high pedestrian volume.
The two yellow stripes adjacent to the kerb/ shoulders on both sides of the road shall be located
not less than 500 mm nor more than 700 mm from the kerb/ shoulders.
Give way lines shall be yellow in colour and shall consist of a single broken line comprising 600
mm markings with 300 mm gaps. The width of the markings shall be 200 300 mm. Give way
lines shall be marked on each half of the carriageway and at the side of approaching traffic (see
Fig 3.13 and 3.14), at distances of 1000 mm from the yellow stripes.
28
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31
Zig-zag Lines
The Zig-zag lines are yellow in colour. The length of a zig-zag line is standardised at 2 m with
gaps of 150 mm. The width of the marking is 100 mm. These zig-zag lines have to be laid at
suitable angles within a width limit of 500 mm.
The zig-zag markings can be laid only if a minimum length of 3.75 m is available and can be
extended up to a length of 18.6 m. The details of zig-zag markings are given in Table 21.
Table 21
Details of zig-zag markings
Available length for the
zig-zag markings (m)
No. of equal length zig-
zag markings
3.75 = < 5.50
5.50 = < 750
7.50 = < 10.00
10.00 = < 12.00
12.00 = < 14.00
14.00 = < 16.50
16.50 = < 18.60
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
If the carriageway width is less than 6.0 m and consequently, no centre line is marked 2 zigzag
lines shall be provided on both sides of the road.
Where the carriageway width is more than 6.0 m, additional zigzag lines shall be provided along
the side centre of the road.
If a pedestrian crossing is situated on the approach or exit of an intersection the markings should
not be extended towards the intersection.
3.1.4 Other Important Markings
3.1.4.1Worded Markings
Worded marking are provided on the road surface to give advisory messages or to give definite
orders that the motorists have to obey. The important worded markings are given below - (All
dimensions are in millimetres)
32
OM 1 Turn left marking
This marking indicates that traffic in that particular
lane must turn left.
OM 2 Turn right marking
This marking indicates that traffic in that particular
lane must turn right.
OM 3 "Ahead Only" marking
This marking indicates that traffic in that particular
lane must proceed in the direction of the arrow only.
OM 4 "Stop" marking
The word "Stop" must always be accompanied by
the transverse continuous Stop line and the Stop
sign. The word should be placed behind the Stop
line at a distance of approximately 500 mm from the
Stop line.
OM 5 "Slow" marking
The word "Slow" indicates a potential danger the
need to proceed cautiously. This marking gives
advance warning to the drivers and may be placed on
approaches to intersections.
33
OM 6
6
7
5
1
2
0
0
Pedestrian Crossing Ahead marking.
This marking indicates that there is a Pedestrian
Crossing ahead. The marking should be located at a
distance not less than 20 metres and not more than
50 metres ahead of the pedestrian crossing.
The marking should only be used where there is a
specific need to emphasise the information given by
road signs and pedestrian crossing markings.
3.1.4.2 Lane Indication Arrows
These generally show the direction a driver must follow and provide advance indication of the
correct lane to take when approaching an intersection or an interchange. In general, two arrows
are used in sequence to enhance the message. At intersections, the arrow nearest to the
intersection would be placed about 15 m from the stop line. The second one would be about a
further 30 m in advance of the first arrow. At interchanges, the arrow nearest the exit ramp, the
first arrow, would be placed about 100 m from the start of the deceleration lane or, in the case of
a direct ramp, 100 m from the start of the ramp. The second arrow would be placed about a
further 100 m in advance of the first arrow.
Arrows may be combined, but not more than two directions shall be shown on any of them. The
lateral spacing between the arrows will depend on lane widths.
At intersections however, combination of straight ahead, left turn and right turn may
depend on the relative traffic volumes and site conditions. If there is a heavy right turn
movement, the straight ahead and left turn arrows may be combined.
OM 7a Lane Indicating Arrows
for Intersections
OM 7b Lane Indicating Arrows
for Interchanges
3.1.4.3 Box Junction
Box junction is a yellow marking to indicate an area within a junction where any vehicle must not
remain stationary, except for those vehicles waiting to turn right. This marking is of the form of a
box enclosing yellow diagonal lines. Box markings are an aid to traffic flow at junctions where
vehicles backing up could cause excessive congestion of the junction.
Junctions where box markings should be placed, normally have the following characteristics:
34
(a) Controlled by signals
(b) Heavy traffic flows on both opposing arms of the junctions
(c) Entrances to and exits from the junction opposite to each other
(d) At least two lanes on the major road
(e) Road carriageway beyond the junction free from obstruction
(f) High proportion of right turning traffic
The road marking shall be marked as follows:
The boundary of the box is marked initially. This is followed by the two diagonal lines joining the
opposite comers of the box. Lines are then marked parallel to each diagonal to form
crosshatched markings. The lines are 150 mm wide each, and the diagonal lines are 2000 mm
apart. The box may vary from 3000 to 30000 mm maximum. Up to 10% of the length of any side
may be cut away to accommodate the corner kerbs. All lines shall be in yellow.
OM 8
Box
Junctions
3.1.4.4 Bus and Cycle Lane Markings
OM 9 Bus Markings
This road marking is prescribed for use in lanes
reserved for buses without physical separation and
should be used in conjunction with the sign 2.4.8.6
"Bus Only Lane Begins or Continue". These
markings are normally placed at intervals of 150 m
apart and indicate a lane reserved for public
transport.
OM 10 Cycle Lane marking
This lane marking indicates a lane reserved for
cyclists. Similar spacing of markings as for bus lanes
is recommended.
35
OM 11 Cyclists crossing
This road marking indicates a location where
cyclists cross or enter a road carriageway.
This marking is informatory and does not
confer any priority on cyclists.
3.1.4.5 Parking Bays
Two types of parking bays are recommended
(1) Parallel parking bays - (OM12)
(2) Angled parking bays - (OM13)
However, it is to be noted that except for parallel parking, a separate parking lane is essential for
effective operation of any other parking bays.
Markings for parallel parking consist of double broken terminal lines and single broken transverse
lines between individual spaces. Demarcation of the width of the space should be made by a
single line, parallel to the road, at the end of each transverse line. The angled parking should have
similar line arrangements.
OM 12. Parallel Parking
36
OM 13. Angled Parking
3.1.5 Treatment of Channelisation Islands and Pedestrian Refuges
The immediate approaches to Channelising Islands and centre medians must be given
prominence by marking them with chevron or diagonal hatched markings. Both types of
markings are bounded by broken lines. The main aim of providing these markings is to warn and
channelise motorists away from the islands and the centre medians and to prevent vehicles from
running over them.
3.1.5.1Diagonal Hatched Markings
These markings are intended to be applied on the approaches to a centre median or to an island
refuge on a two-way road. These markings indicate an area that a driver should not enter.
The angle of hatching should be 45
0
to the centre line of the road and so arranged to deter and
deflect the drivers away from the island or median.
The length of road marked with such hatching should be at least 20 m.
OM 14
Diagonal
Hatched
Marking
37
3.1.5.2 Chevron Markings
These markings are used to deflect the drivers from the nose of a channelising island where a
traffic stream divides and continues to move in the same direction. The chevron markings are
provided in such a manner so as to deflect traffic in adjoining streams.
The length of road marked with such markings should be at least 20 m.
OM 15
Chevron
Markings
3.2 Road Marking Materials
The specifications for the road marking materials are prescribed in the "Standard Specifications"
currently used by the Road Development Authority of Sri Lanka, under subheading of Road
Markings.
The material for road markings would generally be one of the following, or a combination of
these:
Non-reflectorised road marking paint
Reflectorised road marking paint
Non-reflectorised thermoplastic material
Reflectorised thermoplastic material
Reflecting road studs.
It is important that all types of road markings should be skid resistant during wet weather.
To enhance the reflectorisation of the surface of markings ballotini (small, reasonably spherical,
glass beads) should be added. These may be added to the road marking paint surfaces or to the
thermoplastic material prior to application or after application, as the case may be. Quantities of
ballotini that should be added are given in the "Standard Specifications" and also in BS3262:1976.
The life of the markings is proportional to the level of traffic on the road. Accordingly the
markings should be applied periodically. Experience has shown that road marking paint has
service lives less than 6 months under conditions of heavy traffic, whereas thermoplastic material
could have a service lives in excess of a year under similar traffic conditions. Pools of muddy
water, dust and sand contribute to the deterioration and masking of the markings. Partly
obliterated markings do not convey the required message. Hence, care should be exercised to
prevent water pools, dust and sand from obliterating the markings.
38
3.3 Reflectorisation of Markings
If road markings are to be effective during hours of darkness, they should be visible to the
motorists after dark. Normal road markings provided with non-reflectorised road marking paint
or non-reflectorised thermoplastic material are not clearly visible during hours of darkness.
However, road markings provided with reflectorised road marking paint or thermoplastic material
are visible during hours of darkness, particularly when the lights from the headlamps fall on the
road surface. The effect of reflectorisation is reduced to a great extent when the markings are
wet.
39
4.0 TRAFFIC LIGHT SIGNALS
Traffic Light Signals are devices, which are used for the control and direction of vehicles and
pedestrians at:
Road intersections
Level Crossings
Places of road works
Pedestrian crossings
Traffic Light Signals shall be of the size, colour and type specified below:
4.1 Light Signals for Vehicular Traffic
Light Signals for Vehicular Traffic shall comprise of 3 lenses Red, Amber and Green arranged
vertically and adjacent to each other with the Red lamp being fixed at the uppermost position,
followed by the Amber and the Green.
The centres of adjacent lenses shall not be less than 305 mm nor more than 360 mm.
The diameter of each lamp shall not be less than 193 mm nor more than 220 mm.
The centre of the Amber lens shall be fixed at a height not less than 2.4 m or more than 4.0 m if
signals are placed at the centre of the road or at the edge of the road. If the signals are placed
over the carriageway, height shall not be more than 9 m or less than 6 m.
The sequence of traffic light signals is shown below:
Red A red light means that traffic shall not
proceed; vehicles shall not pass the stop line
or, if there is no stop line, shall not pass
beyond the line of the signal or, if the signal is
placed in the middle or on the opposite side of
an intersection, shall not enter the intersection
or move on to a pedestrian crossing at the
intersection.
Red and
Amber
An amber light, which appear at the same time
as the red light shall mean that the signal is
about to change, but shall not affect the
prohibition of passing indicated by the red
light.
40
Green
A green light means that traffic may proceed;
however, a green light for controlling traffic at
an intersection shall not authorise drivers to
proceed if traffic is so congested in the
direction in which they are about to proceed
and that if they entered the intersection they
would probably not have cleared it by the next
change of phase.
Amber An amber light, which appears alone shall
mean that no vehicle may pass the stop line or
beyond the line of the signal unless it is so
close to the stop line or signal when the light
appears that it cannot safely be stopped before
passing the stop line or beyond the line of the
signal.
The red, amber and green lights may be replaced by arrows of the same colour on a black
background. When lit up, these arrows have the same significance as the lights, but the
prohibition or authorisation is restricted to the direction or directions indicated by the arrow or
arrows. Arrows signifying that traffic may or may not proceed straight ahead shall point upwards.
Additional
Green Arrow
Where a signal includes one or more
additional green lights showing one or more
arrows, the lighting of such additional arrow
or arrows shall, no matter what phase the
three-colour system may be in at the time,
mean that traffic may proceed in the direction
or directions indicated by the arrow or arrows;
it shall also mean that, when vehicles are in a
lane reserved for traffic in the direction
indicated by the arrow or the direction such
traffic is required to take, their drivers must
proceed in the direction indicated if by
stopping they would obstruct the movement
of vehicles behind them in the same lane,
provided always that vehicles in the traffic
stream they are joining must be allowed to
pass and that pedestrians must not be
endangered.
Flashing
Amber
A single amber flashing light shall mean that
drivers may proceed but shall do so with
particular care.
Amber flashing light may be used in place of a
three-colour system at times when traffic is
light, particularly in the nights.
Lane Signals.
41
Where green or red lights are placed above traffic lanes shown by longitudinal markings on a
carriageway having more than two lanes, the red light shall mean that traffic may not proceed
along the lane over which it is placed and the green light shall mean that traffic may so proceed.
The red light thus placed shall be in the form of two inclined crossed bars and the green light in
the form of an arrow pointing downwards.
Red A red light means that traffic shall not proceed
along the lane over which the signal is placed.
If the signal over any adjoining lane is
showing green light, drivers may change to
that lane.
Green A green light means that traffic may proceed
along the lane over which the signal is placed.
Emergency Vehicles.
Vehicles used for emergency purposes such as the Fire brigade, Ambulance or Police are
exempted form the Light Signal regulations.
4.2 Light Signals for Pedestrians
Light signals for pedestrians shall comprise the following:
A light signal to display a symbol of standing pedestrian as a Red signal
A light signal to display a symbol of a walking pedestrian as a Green signal
These two signals shall be placed so that they face the pedestrian crossing the road and not the
oncoming traffic. These light signals shall be arranged vertically with the Red signal being affixed
at the top and the Green being at the bottom.
The minimum vertical clearances from the carriageway shall not be less than 2.1 m nor more than
2.6 m.
The pedestrian signals shall have the following meaning:
42
Red
A red light shall mean that pedestrians may
not enter the carriageway.
Green
A green light shall mean that pedestrians may
cross.
Flashing
Green
A flashing green shall mean that the signal is
about to turn to Red.
Pedestrians may not cross, but those already
on the carriageway may continue to the other
side when the flashing green light appears.
A flashing green light shall mean that the period during which pedestrians may cross the
carriageway is about to end and the red light is about to appear.
Light signals for pedestrians may be supplemented by audible or tactile signals at pedestrian
crossings to facilitate crossings of the carriageway by blind pedestrians.
The pedestrian shall obtain the right of way to cross the road, by pressing the button on the push
button controller fixed to signal post. Prior to the Green light appears for pedestrians, the signals
for vehicular traffic shall turn to Red. When the flashingGreen light appears for pedestrians, they
should stop crossing the road as the signals for vehicular traffic are about to turn Green and the
signals for pedestrians are about to turn to Red.
43
5.0 MISCELLANEOUS TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES
5.1 Barricade Board
Barricade Boards are used to demarcate the section of roadway closed for traffic when road
works are in progress. A typical barricade board is shown in Fig 5.1.
The details of using a barricade board during road works are given in part II of the Manual on
Traffic Control Devices.
Fig. 5.1 Barricade Board for use at Road Works.
5.2 Direction Board for Road Deviation
Permanent use.
Direction board may be used permanently to indicate the direction of road deviation at sharp
curves. In such cases the Direction Board shall be white with red arrows.
Fig 5.2 Direction Board for permanent use at sharp bends.
Fig. 5.3 Example on permanent use of Direction Boards.
44
Temporary use at Road Works.
Direction board may be used temporarily at Road Works to indicate the direction of road
deviation. In such cases the Direction Board shall be black with yellow arrows.
Fig. 5.4 Direction Board for use at Road Works.
The following table indicates the dimensions of the Barricade Boards and the Direction boards.
Dimensions are in mm.
L B S
Normal size 900 300 150
Large size 1800 400 200
5.3 Chevron Markers
The Chevron Markers may be used along the outer edge of long and hazardous bends to improve
the visibility of the road alignment and provide better guidance to the drivers. The Chevron
Markers should be angled towards the traffic all along the bend. That means special care must be
given to the erection of each marker to ensure it will have the correct angle towards the traffic.
The Chevron Markers should be doubled at each position and directed towards both directions
of traffic. Figure 5.5 and 5.6 below shows the design of the Chevron Marker and a typical
example of the use of the markers.
Fig. 5.5 Chevron Marker Fig. 5.6 Example on use of Chevron Markers
45
5.4 Side Obstacle Markers
Side Obstacle Markers may be used to mark points where the carriageway narrows in a way
that is not clearly visible to the drivers.
The Side Obstacle Markers shall always be erected so that the bars are sloping down towards
the carriageway. Thus markers on the left hand side shall have bars sloping down from the left
hand side of the marker, and markers on the right hand side shall have bars sloping down
from the right hand side of the marker. Figure 5.7 and 5.8 below shows the design of the Side
Obstacle Marker and a typical example of the use of the markers.
Fig 5.7 Side Obstacle Markers Fig 5.8 Example on use of Side Obstacle Markers
5.5 Traffic Cone
The Traffic cone is a traffic control device used to demarcate temporarily the path that the
vehicles shall follow when necessitated by traffic congestion or due to road work being in
progress.
The details of a Traffic Cone are given in Fig 5.9 and its use during road works is given in part II
of this manual.
Fig 5.9 Traffic Cone
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5.6 Lighting Devices
In place where road works are in progress, the motorists are exposed to hazardous situations
during the night unless adequate lighting is provided. The lighting provided shall be such that the
motorists could clearly see the hazardous situation from a sufficient distance so that they could
take precautionary action to overcome the situation. The most commonly used light devices for
lighting up road works are:
( i ) Lanterns
( ii ) Flashers
( iii ) Electric Lamps
Yellow/ Amber coloured battery operated flashers are very effective for lighting up road works at
night.
5.7 Flags
Where road works are in progress the narrowing of road carriageway may permit only single file
traffic and it may become necessary to provide for control of traffic at the two ends. This is
particularly so, if the section is long and the volume of traffic is high. Manual control of traffic
could be effected by two workmen carrying red and green flags at the two ends and permit only
traffic in one direction at a time.
In the alternative, traffic control could be effected by the use of temporary traffic signals at the
two ends of the narrowed section.
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5.8 Roadside Delineators
General.
Roadside delineators are light retro-reflecting devices mounted in series at the side of the roadway
to indicate the roadway alignment. Delineators are effective aids for night driving and considered
as guidance devices rather than warning devices. Delineators may be used on long continuous
sections of highway or through short stretches where there are changes in horizontal alignment,
particularly where the alignment might be confusing or at pavement width transitions.
Design.
Delineators shall consist of reflector units capable of clearly reflecting light under normal
atmospheric conditions from a distance of at least 200 m when illuminated by the upper beam of
standard automobile lights.
The delineators may be designed to be mounted either on guard-rails or on special delineator
posts.
Delineator posts should be white and may have a black section at the upper part. The posts may
be of plastic or wood.
The reflective elements shall be white and consist of either High Intensity reflective sheeting or
prismatic reflectors.
Reflective elements for delineators mounted on guard-rails shall have an area of minimum 50
cm
2
. Reflective elements for delineators mounted on posts shall have an area of minimum 70
cm
2
.
Placement and Spacing
Delineator posts, if used, shall have the top of the reflector unit about 1.20 m above the near
roadway edge. Delineators shall be placed not less than 1.0 m or not more than 2.0 m outside the
outer edge of the shoulder, or if appropriate, in the line of the guard-rail. Delineators mounted
on guard-rails may be placed at a height less than 1.2 m.
When mounted on posts, delineators should be erected on both sides of the roadway.
Delineators should be placed at a constant distance from the edge of the roadway. However,
where a guard-rail or other obstruction intrudes into the space between the pavement edge and
the extension of the line of delineators, the delineators should be in line with, or inside the
innermost edge of the obstruction.
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Normally, delineators should be spaced 60 m to 100 m. When normal uniform spacing is
interrupted by driveways, cross-roads, or similar, interrupted delineators falling within such areas
may be moved in either direction, a distance not exceeding one-quarter of the normal spacing.
Delineators still falling within such areas should be eliminated. On expressways and similar roads
a normal delineator spacing is 100 m.
Spacing should be adjusted on approaches and throughout horizontal bends so that several
delineators are always visible to the driver. The table below shows suggested maximum spacing
for delineators at horizontal bends.
Radius of curve (m) Spacing (m)
15
50
75
100
125
150
175
200
250
275
300
6
10
12
15
17
20
20
22
24
25
27
Suggestedmaximumspacingfor delineators at bends.
5.9 Stop and Go sign.
The Stop and Go sign may be used by Traffic Wardens to direct traffic at schools. The Stop and
Go sign may also be used to direct traffic at road work areas.
The Stop Side of the sign shall be red
with a white band and the text STOP.
All road users are obliged to stop and
wait as long as the Stop side is directed
towards the traffic.
The Go Side of the sign shall be green
with a white band and the text GO.
Road users may proceed when the Go
side is directed towards the traffic.
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5.10 No Parking Guard Posts.
No Parking Guard Posts may be used inside built up areas to emphasise a Parking Prohibition.
The No Parking Guard Posts may only be used where a Parking Prohibition is indicated by the
No Parking road sign or where parking is prohibited by the general rules in the Motor Traffic
Act.
The No Parking Guard Posts shall be painted in yellow and black colour. The uppermost part of
the post should be yellow and the lower part black.
The No Parking Guard Posts should always be located so that the posts do not constitute road
safety hazards or hindrances to pedestrian and cyclists.
Fig 5.10 Typical example on the use of No Parking Guard Posts
to indicate the general Parking Prohibition at a T-junction.
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6.0 MAINTENANCE OF TRAFFIC SIGNS & MARKINGS
6.1 General
The task of maintenance and repair of traffic signs comprise;
- Inspection of all traffic signs
- Execution of maintenance activities
Maintenance activities could be categorised into;
- Routine maintenance
- Periodic maintenance
6.1.1 Aim
The ultimate aim of proper maintenance of traffic signs is to make them serve the purpose for
which they are installed, effectively and at all times. To attain this, traffic signs must always be;
- in a good condition
- correctly located
- properly mounted and fixed
- with unobstructed visibility
6.1.2 Maintenance Activities
Routine maintenance activities normally executed are;
- clearing of signs
- repairing of signs
- repainting of signs
- cutting and pruning vegetation in the vicinity.
Periodic maintenance activities normally executed are;
- restoring road markings
- replacing signs
6.1.3 Inspection
Inventory
In order to facilitate inspection of traffic signs and markings, an inventory of traffic signs is very
necessary. An inventory of traffic signs shows,
- different types of traffic signs and markings
- the location of each traffic sign and marking.
It could be the form of line diagram or tabulations. The inventory is very useful when;
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- checking whether a sign or marking is missing
- a road sign or marking is to be replaced at its correct location
6.1.4 Field Inspection
Number of inspections for periodic maintenance to be carried out annually;
- at least twice, desirable thrice
- one in the night
Take very brief notes of condition and damages observed in traffic signs and markings. Traffic
signs should be inspected preferably on foot; road markings may be inspected while travelling in a
vehicle.
6.1.5 Check list for Inspection
Check that;
- all traffic signs are in their proper location
- all traffic signs are facing in the correct direction and properly oriented
- all sign plates are firmly fixed to the posts.
- all traffic signs are visible and not obscured or hidden by vegetation and other obstructions
- all supporting posts are firmly founded and not loose.
Observe:
- damage of traffic signs due to accident
- flaking or faded paint
- cracked foundations and loose supports of traffic signs
- poor reflecting surfaces or signs in the night
- tilted traffic sign posts and loosely fixed sign plates
- wear of road markings especially at curves.
6.1.6 Defects and Deficiencies
Defects and deficiencies found in traffic signs should be detected early and remedied promptly by
proper maintenance and repair. To properly remedy the defects and deficiencies, it is important
to know their causes, which also help in the future to take measures where possible to reduce the
maintenance needs. Table 22 gives the type of common defects, their causes and the
recommended maintenance activities needed.
Table 22
Defects, Causes and Maintenance Needed
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Type of defect/ deficiency Cause Maintenance activity
needed
1. The traffic sign is dirty/ dusty During dry weather dust raised by
vehicles, during wet weather mud
and grit splashed by vehicles and may
also be due to air pollution
Cleaning
2. The traffic sign is partially defaced,
obliterated by pasting bills, notices
Vandalism Cleaning
3. Painted surface is faded/ flaking off Weathering, ageing Repainting
4. Components of a traffic sign (bolts,
fixtures etc.) removed
Vandalism Repairing at the site
(replacing missing items)
5. A sign post is broken/ the sign is
demolished
Accident Repairing in the
Workshop
6. The traffic signs and other traffic
control devices are not visible
Vegetation has grown impairing
visibility
Cutting and pruning
vegetation
7. The traffic sign is disfigured and
badly obliterated
Vandalism Replacing sign
8. The traffic sign is damaged beyond
repair
Traffic accident Replacing sign
9. The road markings are worn out Traffic action and weathering Restoring or repainting
road markings
Results of neglected maintenance are generally;
- Traffic signs and markings become ineffective and cease to serve their intended purpose
- Danger to road users increases, probability of occurrence of accidents increases
- Discredit to the organisation
6.2 Routine Maintenance Activities
6.2.1 Cleaning
This activity includes cleaning signs, reflectors, and sign posts for retaining their effectiveness,
and consideration shall be given to the following:
- frequency of cleaning signs depends on the environment, siting and materials used
- wash the surface using a cloth or soft bristle brush, water and detergent solution. Take care
not to scratch the surface
- particular care should be taken when cleaning retro reflective sign faces. Use a light detergent
and plenty of clean water without grits
- after washing out the dirt remove all traces of detergent with a cloth and by rinsing in clean
water
- clean the back of the sign with water and cloth
- use kerosene initially to clean out signs contaminated with bitumen or oil and then wash
down with water
- Clean at least twice a year.
6.2.2 Painting
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This activity includes painting or repainting of signs and supporting posts of sign plates.
Painting of the front face of a traffic sign is a specialised job that has to be carried out according
to a given specification and under controlled conditions, in a workshop/ paintshop.
(a) General Directions
Surfaces and areas to be painted or repainted should be cleaned free of rust, dirt and other
extraneous matter, and consideration shall be given to the following.
- Only clean soft brushes or rollers are to be used
- Painting should be done only during dry weather and only on dry surfaces
- Paints must be thoroughly mixed according to manufacture's instructions. If thinner is to be
used, due precautions against fire shall be taken
- Cover components or portions of surface that should not receive a coat of paint applied to
the rest of the surface
- If the rear face of a sign was to be repainted, the following also should be painted/ repainted
clearly on it using a stencil:
"BY ORDER OF THE ROAD
DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY"
(b) Directions for repainting Steel Surfaces
- Use a wire brush to remove all loose material from flaky paint surfaces
- clean area to be repainted using cloth and water and allow the surface to dry thoroughly
- apply a prime coat evenly to the area after it has been dried thoroughly
- apply the finishing coat evenly after allowing the prime coat dry.
(c) Directions for repainting Timber Surfaces
- Wire brush the surface to remove any loose paint
- clean the surface of dust and other extraneous matter using cloth and water and allow surface
to dry thoroughly
- apply a prime coat evenly to the area to be repainted, after the surface is dried thoroughly
- apply one finishing coat of specified colour evenly after the prime coat is dried.
6.2.3 Directions for repairing signs at the site
(a) Correcting badly oriented and or tilted signposts (planted without a concrete base)
- Excavate around the embedded part of the post wide enough to enable a tamper to be used
for compaction and deep enough to loosen the post
- move post to upright position and re-orient it. Check with plumb for orientation (the sign
face should be at an angle of about 90
0
-95
0
to the direction of on coming traffic)
- backfill soil and compact in layers keeping the post firmly held in correct position (if
necessary with temporary stakes).
(b) Replacing of bolts and nuts
- The bolts and nuts or screws, along with the necessary washers shall be of GI
- check and correct (if necessary) alignment of drilled holes before threading bolts or screws
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- prior to tightening of the bolts and screws, a little oil or grease shall be applied.
(c) Setting posts (planted without a concrete base) deeper for extra stability
- Sign posts, without concrete bases, shall be buried to at least 1/ 3 the full length of the post,
to ensure stability.
6.2.4 Directions for repairing signs in the Workshop
- A sign which cannot be repaired at the site shall be dismantled from the post and taken to
the workshop (or paintshop) for repairs. And then transported back to the site and re-
assembled. All nuts and bolts and screws removed in the process shall be replaced (using
additional ones for any missing ones)
- a sign that had been posted with a reflective sheeting, needing repairs due to stripping off
part of the sheeting, may be repaired by sticking on a piece or pieces of retroreflective
sheeting carefully cut and of the correct colour(s), according to the design of the sign.
However, this is best done in a workshop.
6.2.5 Cutting and Pruning of vegetation
This is a routine road maintenance activity that has been dealt with elsewhere. The important
points to bear in mind are:
- Vegetation should be cut and pruned to enable the sign to become visible to vehicles and be
understood at the clear visibility distance.
- however, as conditions vary from site to site, this distance of clear visibility will vary
accordingly. Also, it is a function of the approaching speed of the vehicles.
6.3 Periodic Maintenance Activities
6.3.1 Restoring or repainting Road Markings
This work includes restoring worn or obliterated road markings. The common types of road
markings that have to be repainted frequently are:
1. Centre Line and Lane Line
2. Pedestrian crossing
3. Transverse "STOP" and "GIVE WAY" lines
As these maintenance activities are carried out within the carriageway of a road, it is imperative
that proper safety measures are adopted before any road marking operation is commenced; and
the following adhered to:
- the obliterated sections of road markings is previously indicated
- ensure that the road surface is dry prior to carrying out road markings
- use a stiff brush to clean any existing road marking which has to be removed
- the road surface is kept clean and free from dust and other contamination
- use a Stencil for painting any road marking
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- set the stencil and adjust correctly. Thoroughly mix the paint and apply uniformly. Avoid
applying a too thick coat that tends to crack on drying
- avoid spilling any paint on the carriageway. If a spill occurs, clean the surface immediately
- do not allow traffic to run over painted markings before the paint is terrific dry, that is do not
remove traffic cones and other signs before paint is dry even though the paint work is over
- at all times exercise vigilance to ensure safety. Ensure that traffic cones, signs and other
devices are correctly spaced and located. Re-set knocked over traffic cones without delay
- with the progress of work move forward the flagmen and the traffic signs, when the paint has
dried over a sufficiently long section of road
- organise and execute the work so that by the time cones, traffic signs etc., have to be
removed, the last painted markings is terrific dry.
- road lane marking using mechanical equipment will require same preliminary work and safety
measures to be adopted as given in the Manual on Traffic Control Devices, Part II. However,
as progress of work will be much faster, temporary signs and safety devices will require to be
moved forward at a faster rate. Also there is the need to adhere to manufacture's instructions
in carrying out the field operations and maintenance of the machine.
6.3.2 Replacing Signs
- remove damaged sign, its supporting post and foundation block
- trim sides of foundation pit vertical. The minimum size of foundation for a single standard
sign could be taken as 30 cm x 30 cm wide and 50 cm deep. However, this would vary with
site conditions
- assemble new sign on new post
- mix 1:3:6 (40 mm) dry mix concrete
- erect new post (with sign) in the foundation pit, centre it, provide temporary stakes to the
post, adjust it to plumb, adjust its alignment and orientation, and lay and compact the
concrete in the pit.
_____________________________________________
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