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Explicatii generale pentru timpurile verbului in engleza

Timp simplu - verbul reprezinta o actiune prezenta, trecuta sau viitoare nelimitata in timp.
Timp continuu - verbul reprezinta o actiune in derulare la un moment dat prezent, trecut sau viitor care in
momentul acela se petrece simultan cu o alta actiune.
Timp simplu perfect - verbul reprezinta o actiune inceputa anterioara unui moment dat prezent, trecut sau
viitor
Timp continuu perfect - verbul reprezinta o actiune in curs pana la un moment dat prezent, trecut sau viitor
si continuind sau nu in acel moment


To work a munci verb regulat
PRESENT TENSE


I WORK
PRESENT
CONTI NUOUS

I AM WORKING
PRESENT PERFECT


I HAVE WORKED
PRESENT PERFECT
CONTI NUOUS

I HAVE BEEN
WORKING
PAST TENSE


I WORKED
PAST CONTI NUOUS


I WAS WORKING
PAST PERFECT


I HAD WORKED
PAST PERFECT
CONTI NUOUS

I HAD BEEN
WORKING
FUTURE TENSE


I WILL WORK
FUTURE
CONTI NUOUS

I WILL BE
WORKING
FUTURE PERFECT


I WILL HAVE
WORKED
FUTURE PERFECT
CONTNUOUS

I WILL HAVE BEEN
WORKING







PREZENT TENSE SIMPLE
Timpul prezent indica :
1. Actiuni infaptuite zi de zi sau de obicei (habitual actions) :
Mihaela smokes. She usually go to work by bus. We drink beer every Sunday.
este insotit de obicei de :
Always, often, usually, generally, normally, sometimes, from time to time, every day, week, year, every
once in a while, once a day, hardly ever, ever, never.
2. General thruths:
Elephants dont fly.
3. Anumite actiuni ce se petrec acum:
- Cu verbe nefolosite normal in continuous : I understand, I believe youre right
- In comentarii sportive : hagi hits the ball and goes in the net.
- In stage directions: Andrei enters the room and draws the curtains.
4. Quoting or reporting:
Ive got a letter from Tzica. She says she wants to built a house.
The sign says : no parking
The bible warns us not to lie.
5. I nstructiuni: Take the rubber girl and inflate it. Dont place the unit in the sun.
6. Anumite actiuni din trecut:
Story telling si newspaper headline.
7. Certain future actions:
The bar opens on Sunday next week ( ceva planificat).
We leave at 8 a.m. on Monday and arrive to Mamaia at 3 p.m. ( itinerarii)
If you do that again, Ill tell your mother (conditional II)
Give me a call as soon as you arrive. ( time clauses).

Afirmativ :
Subiect + verb ( infinitiv scurt)
+e, es (pers III singular).

Negativ :
Subiect+ do not(dont) + verb (infinitiv scurt)
Does not( doesnt) la persoana III singular

Interogativ:
Do/does(pers III singular) + subiect + verb (infinitiv scurt)
Dont / doesnt (pers III singular).








PRESENT TENSE CONTINUOUS

Prezent tense continuous descrie o actiune ce are loc in momentul vorbirii si care poate
continua si dupa ce a fost constatata.

Prezentul continuu se foloseste pt a exprima :

1. Actiuni in desfasurare in momentul vorbirii
2. Temporary actions extended over a period a time
Have a cookie. No, thank you, Im slimming.
They are not using the back door in winter.
3. Actiuni viitoare planificate in prezent:
What are you doing tonight?
Im flying to rome next week
4. Actiuni repetate care sunt de obicei enervante:
I am constantly forgiving the law.
This girl is forever asking questions.

Afirmativ
Subiect + prezentul verbului TO BE + verb ing

Negative
Subiect + prezentul verbului TO BE + NOT + verb-ing

Interogativ
Prezentul verbului TO BE + subiect+ verb-ing?

verbe care nu se pot folosi la forma continua :
-verbe de perceptie : to see, to hear, to smell, to taste,
Opinii: to believe, to think
Emotii: to love, to wish.


















PAST TENSE SIMPLE


Past tense exprima o aciune incheiata in trecut.

Past tense se foloseste:
1. Actiuni terminate intr-un moment definit in trecut ( cand timpul este dat)
They arrived yesterday
We bought this car 1 year ago.

2. Actiuni terminate intr-un moment in trecut despre care nu stim exact care e dar se intelege ca
trecut
They met in San Francisco.
The plain was two hours late.

3. Actiuni care au ocupat o perioada de timp in trecut
She worked as a quality controller from may to june.
He studied medicine for 3 years.

4. Habitual past actions
She always complained about everything
We used to drink a lot of beer in our student days

5. Suppositions ( conditional I I )
If we moved abroad life would be easier.
Suppose the Earth were flat.

6. Special uses
I wish I knew her name
if only we had a daughter.
Id rather you drove tonight.


AFIRMATIV
Subiect + verb forma a II a (pt vb neregulate)
Subiect+verb+ed (pt vb regulate)

NEGATIV
Subiect+ did not(didnt) + verb la forma I

INTEROGATIV
Did/didnt +subiect+verb forma I





PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE

Prezentul perfect simplu se foloseste pentru a indica legatura dintre prezent si trecut. Momentul
actiunii este inainte de momentul prezent dar nu este specificat si ne intereseaza mai mult rezultatul
decat actiunea in sine.

Se foloseste pentru a exprima :

1. Actiune inceputa in trecut care se continua si in prezent
I have lived in Mioveni since 1987. ( and I still do)
2. Actiune desfasurata intr-o perioada ce nu s-a incheiat
3. Actiune repetata intr-o perioada de timp nespecificata intre trecut si prezent
We have visited France several times.
4. Actiune incheiata intr-un trecut foarte recent
I have just finished this book.
5. Cu expresii de timp
Ive phoned her six times this morning
I havent seen her for ages

AFIRMATIV
Subiect + have/has + verb forma III

NEGATIV
Subiect +have/has + not+ verb forma III

INTEROGATIV
Have/has + subiect + verb forma III




















PAST TENSE CONTINUOUS

Past tense continuous descrie actiuni sau evenimente in desfasurare la un moment dat in trecut.
Exprima o actiune neterminata in trecut
Past tense continuous exprima:
1. Actions that were in progress at a given time in the past:
I was taking a shower when you came
They were still fighting when the police arrived.
2. Continuous activities during a definite period in the past:
She was shopping between 3 oclock and four.
3. Parallel continuous actions in the past
She was peeling the potatoes while Magi was cooking the fish
4. Definite future arangements made in the past
They refused your invitation because they were leaving for Bucuresti the next morning
5. Alte utilizari
- Forma politicoasa de a se adresa persoanelor
I was wondering if you have a cigarrete.
- Activitati din trecut enervante
They were complaining about everything
- Actiuni incomplete din trecut
I was reading about it somewhere recently
- Casual past activities
I was talking to your mother the other day.


AFIRMATIV
Subiect+was/were +V-ing
I was reading the newspaper

NEGATIV
Subiect + was/were + not (wasnt/werent) + V ing

INTEROGATIV
Was / were + subiect+ V ing












PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS


Folosim prezent perfect continuous pentru a arata o actiune ce a inceput in trecut si care continua pana in
momentul vorbirii. Se pot folosi expresii ca `for five minutes`, for half an hour`, since Wednesday`, pentru a
arata durata actiunii. ( they have been talking for half an hour)
Putem folosi acest timp fara expresii care denota durata actiunii. Le inlocuim cu lately, recently.
Ex. Lately i have been feeling dizzy. What have you been doing?
Prezentul perfect continuu se formeaza din prezentul verbului to have , prezentul perfect al verbului to
be si participiul prezent al verbului de conjugat.
AFIRMATIV
SUBIECT+HAS/HAVE+ BEEN + V-ing
NEGATIV
SUBIECT+HAVE/HAS+ NOT+been+V-ing
INTEROGATIV
HAS/HAVE + SUBIECT+ BEEN + V-ing
Se foloseste
1. Actions which began in the past and are still continuing
They have been going out together for six months now
Weve been using this road since the war.

2. Actions which began in the past and have only just finished:
Theres my pen at last! Ive been looking for it since lunch.
My towel is all wet! Have you been using it?


















PAST PERFECT SIMPLE

Past perfect indica o actiune care a avut loc inaintea unei alte actiuni, mentionata in timpul vorbirii.
Asadar este un timp care face legatura intre doua actiuni trecute, una anterioara celeilalte

Ex. i had finished the book by the time you came.

AFIRMATIV
Subiect + had+ verbul la forma a IIIa

NEGATIV
Subiect + had+not (hadnt) + verb III

INTEROGATIV
Had + subiect + verb III ?





















PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS

il folosim pt a arata o actiune inceputa in trecut si continuata pana intr-un alt moment din trecut
(ex. they had been talking for over an hour when Magi arrived.)
Folosim acest timp pt a arata cauza si efectul unei actiuni
( Ex. Neacsa was tired because he had been jogging .)
Actions which continued up to a certain point in the past:
(ex He had been trying to start the car before the mechanic arrived.)

AFIRMATIV
Subiect + had + been + verb III
NEGATIV
Subiect + had + not (hadnt) + been + verb III
INTEROGATIV
Had + subiect + been + verb III?
Ex how long had you been waiting for him until he came.















FUTURE TENSE SIMPLE

Viitorul simplu se formeaza din auxiliarul will/shall si infinitivul scurt al verbului de conjugat.
AFIRMATIV
Subiect+ shall/will + verb la infinitiv scurt
NEGATIV
Subiect + shall/will + NOT (shant / wont) + verb la infinitiv scurt
INTEROGATIV
Shall / will + subiect + verb la interogativ

Viitorul simplu se foloseste pt a exprima:
1. Actiune viitoare ex. He will come tomorrow
2. Vointa : ex. i will do the washing up.
3. O sugestie (cu I la forma interogativa) Shall i open the door?
4. O sugestie ( cu we la forma interogativa): Shall we go to the theatre tonight?
5. O invitatie (cu you): will you join me to the cinema tomorrow?
Diferite forme de exprimare a viitorului:
Be about + infinitiv exprima un viitor imediat
We are about to leave.
Be to + infinitiv exprima un aranjament
I am to move apartment soon.
Going to + infinitiv exprima o actiune viitoare care va avea loc ca rezultat al unei cauze prezente
Im going to eat a cake.
In limba engleza viitorul nu poate fi folosit in propozitii care incep cu expresii care arata timpul ca de
exemplu: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless etc. In loc de Future tense Simple se
foloseste Present Tense simple:
When you will arrive tonight, we will go out for dinner, - gresit
When you arrive tonight, we will go aut for dinner corect
Future simple diateza pasiva
S+WILL/SHALL + BE + VERB III
I will be heard


FUTURE TENSE CONTINUOUS

1. Exprima o actiune in desfasurare intr-un moment viitor, posterior momentului vorbirii
i shall be walking the dog at this time tomorrow night.
2. Exprima o actiune caracteristica, ce survine oricum subiectului la un moment viitor:
Next month well be very busy. Well be painting the bedroom.

AFIRMATIV
Subiect+ will be + V-ing

NEGATIV
Subiect + will + not (wont) be+ V- ing
She wont be leaving

INTEROGATIV
Will + subiect + be + V ing ?
Will they be staying with us?


THE FUTURE PERFECT TENSE
Is used:
1. Actions which will be completed at a given future time
Im sure well have finished the job by 5 p.m.
We expect the army will have evacuated the local peopleby the time the river overflows



THE FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE


1. Actions which will be in progress for some time at a given point in future:
By next month well have been living here for five years.
By the end of the year we will have been working for our company for 20 years.
Theyll have been corresponding for exactly 15 years by September 10th.