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United S ta tes Pa tent [ 1 9 1

F is c h el l et a l .
US OO569 55 1 6A
5, 69 5, 51 6
D ec . 9 , 1 9 9 7
[ 1 1 ] Pa tent Number:
[ 4 5] D a te o f Pa tent:
[ 54 ] LONGITUD INALLY ELONGATING
BALLOON EXPAND ABLE S TENT
[ 7 5] Inv ento rs : R o bert E. F is c h el l , D a y to n, M d. ;
D a v id R . F is c h el l , F a ir H a v en, N. J . ;
Tim A. F is c h el l , Na s h v il l e, Tenn.
[ 7 3 ] As s ig nee: Is o S tent, Inc , Bel mo nt, C a l if .
[ 2 1 ] Ap p l . No . : 60 4 , 68 2
[ 2 2 ] F il ed: F eb. 2 1 , 1 9 9 6
[ 51 ] Int. C l . 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A61 M 2 9 /0 0
[ 52 ] US . C l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 6/1 9 4 ; 60 6/1 9 8
[ 58 ] F iel d o f S ea rc h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 6/1 9 8 , 1 9 1 ,
60 6/1 9 4 , 1 9 7 , 1 9 5, 2 0 0 ; 62 3 /1 , 1 2
[ 56] R ef erenc es C ited
U. S . PATENT D OC UM ENTS
5, 3 4 2 , 3 4 8 8 /1 9 9 4 Ka p l a n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 6/1 9 8
5, 3 54 , 3 0 8 1 0 /1 9 9 4 S imo n et a 1 . .
5, 4 2 1 , 9 55 6/1 9 9 5 La u et a l .
Prima ry Ex a miner- M ic h a el Buiz
As s is ta nt Ex a miner- Kev in Truo ng
5
a s ea :
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[ 57 ] ABS TR AC T
Th e p res ent inv entio n is des ig ned to o v erc o me s ev era l
dis a dv a nta g es o f p rio r a rt ba l l o o n ex p a nda bl e s tents .
S p ec i? c a l l y , th e Butter? y Ex p a nda bl e To H o ney c o mb
(BETH ) s tent des c ribed h erein c o ns is ts o f a c o l l ec tio n o f
c irc umf erentia l (o r v ertic a l ) a rc s truc tures a nd dia g o na l
s truts . Th es e a rc s a nd s truts f o rm a butter? y s h a p e bef o re th e
s tent is ex p a nded a nd a h ex a g o na l , h o ney c o mb ty p e o f
s truc ture is c rea ted wh en th e s tent is f ul l y ex p a nded. Until
th e no mina l s tent dia meter is rea c h ed, th e dep l o y ed l eng th o f
th e s tent is a c tua l l y l o ng er th a n th e no n- dep l o y ed l eng th . At
th e no mina l f ul l y - dep l o y ed dia meter, th e dep l o y ed s tent is
ex a c tl y th e s a me l eng th a s th e no n- dep l o y ed l eng th . Th is
c h a ra c teris tic p ro v ides better a s s ura nc e o f c o mp l etel y c o v
ering a dil a ted s teno s is a s c o mp a red to a s tent th a t s h o rtens
in l eng th wh en dep l o y ed a s is ty p ic a l o f a l l p rio r a rt ba l l o o n
ex p a nda bl e s tents . F urth ermo re, bec a us e a t l ea s t o ne q ua rter
o f th e ex p a nded s tent s c irc umf erenc e c o ns is t o f v ertic a l
a rc s th a t a re a rc s o f a c irc l e, th ey p ro v ide th e BETH s tent
with imp ro v ed ra dia l rig idity . '
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LONGITUD INALLY ELONGATING
BALLOON EXPAND ABLE S TENT
F IELD OF US E
Th e p res ent inv entio n is a n ex p a nda bl e s tent ins erta bl e
into a v es s el o f a h uma n bo dy f o r th e p urp o s e o f c rea ting a nd
ma inta ining th e p a tenc y o f th a t v es s el .
BAC KGR OUND OF TH E INV ENTION
In US . Pa t. No . 4 , 7 3 9 , 7 62 , J . C . Pa l ma z des c ribes a
ba l l o o n ex p a nda bl e s tent th a t is a t its g rea tes t l eng th in its
no n- dep l o y ed s ta te a nd bec o mes p ro g res s iv el y s h o rter a s it
is ex p a nded to p ro g res s iv el y g rea ter dia meters . Th is s tent
s h o rtening c a n res ul t in inc o mp l ete c o v era g e o f a dil a ted
s teno s is . F urth ermo re, th e Pa l ma z s tent is q uite ra dia l l y
el a s tic wh ic h h a s been s h o wn to c a us e a t l ea s t 1 0 % ra dia l
rec o il a f ter ba l l o o n ex p a ns io n in a n a rtery due to th e a c ute
el a s tic rec o il o f th e a rtery .
S UM M AR Y OF TH E INV ENTION
Th e p res ent inv entio n is des ig ned to o v erc o me s ev era l
dis a dv a nta g es o f p rio r a rt ba l l o o n ex p a nda bl e s tents .
S p ec i? c a l l y , th e Butter? y Ex p a nda bl e To H o ney c o mb
(BETH ) s tent des c ribed h erein c o ns is ts o f a c o l l ec tio n o f
c irc umf erentia l (o r v ertic a l ) a rc s truc tures a nd dia g o na l
s truts . Th es e a rc s a nd s truts f o rm a butter? y s h a p e bef o re th e
s tent is ex p a nded a nd a h ex a g o na l , h o ney c o mb ty p e o f
s truc ture is c rea ted wh en th e s tent is f ul l y ex p a nded. Until
th e no mina l s tent dia meter is rea c h ed, th e dep l o y ed l eng th o f
th e s tent is a c tua l l y l o ng er th a n th e no n- dep l o y ed l eng th . At
th e no mina l f ul l y - dep l o y ed dia meter, th e dep l o y ed s tent is
ex a c tl y th e s a me l eng th a s th e no n- dep l o y edv l eng th . Th is
c h a ra c teris tic p ro v ides better a s s ura nc e o f c o mp l etel y c o v
ering a dil a ted s teno s is a s c o mp a red to a s tent th a t s h o rtens
in l eng th wh en dep l o y ed a s is ty p ic a l o f a l l p rio r a rt ba l l o o n
ex p a nda bl e s tents . F urth ermo re, bec a us e a t l ea s t o ne q ua rter
o f th e ex p a nded s tent s c irc umf erenc e c o ns is t o f v ertic a l
a rc s th a t a re a rc s o f a c irc l e, th ey p ro v ide th e BETH s tent
with imp ro v ed ra dia l rig idity .
Th us it is a n o bj ec t o f th is inv entio n to p ro v ide a ba l l o o n
ex p a nda bl e s tent th a t inc rea s es in its l eng th a s it is ex p a nded
ra dia l l y o utwa rd.
Ano th er o bj ec t o f th is inv entio n is to p ro v ide a ba l l o o n
ex p a nda bl e s tent with imp ro v ed ra dia l rig idity .
Th es e a nd o th er imp o rta nt o bj ec ts a nd a dv a nta g es o f th is
inv entio n wil l bec o me a p p a rent f ro m th e deta il ed des c rip
tio n o f th e inv entio n a nd th e a s s o c ia ted dra wing s p ro v ided
h erein.
BR IEF D ES C R IPTION OF TH E D R AWINGS
F IG. 1 il l us tra tes th e no n- dep l o y ed BETH s tent a s it
wo ul d a p p ea r if it were ro bed o ut ? a t to f o rm a
2 - dimens io na l s truc ture.
F IG. 2 is a n enl a rg ed v iew o f a l imited p o rtio n o f th e ? a t,
Z - dimens io na l no n- dep l o y ed s truc ture.
F IG. 3 il l us tra tes th e BETH s tent a s it wo ul d a p p ea r a f ter
dep l o y ment if it were ro l l ed o ut ? a t to f o rm a 2 - dimens io na l
s truc ture.
F IG. 4 is a g ra p h th a t c o mp a res th e l o ng itudina l l eng th
ening o f th e BETH s tent a s c o mp a red to th e Pa l ma z s tent
des c ribed in U. S . p a tent S er. No . 4 , 7 3 9 , 7 62 .
D ETAILED D ES C R IPTION OF TH E
INV ENTION
F IG. 1 il l us tra tes a BETH s tent 1 0 h a v ing a no n- dep l o y ed
l eng th " L" a nd a no n- dep l o y ed c irc umf erenc e " C . Of
1 0
2 0
2 5
3 0
3 5
4 5
50
55
65
2
c o urs e, it s h o ul d be unders to o d th a t th e s tent 1 0 is in f a c t in
th e f o rm o f a c y l inder (no t s h o wn) wh o s e l eng th is L a nd
wh o s e dia meter is " D wh ere C = 1 tD . F IG. 1 il l us tra tes th e
a p p ea ra nc e o f th e s urf a c e o f th e s tent 1 0 if it were c ut
l o ng itudina l l y a nd th en o ut ro l l ed ? a t into a 2 - dimens io na l
s truc ture.
F IG. 2 is a n enl a rg ed p o rtio n o f o ne s ec tio n o f th e
no n- dep l o y ed BETH s tent 1 0 s h o wn a s a 2 - dimens io na l
s truc ture. F ro m bo th F IGS . 1 a nd 2 we s ee th a t th e s tent 1 0
c o ns is ts o f c irc umf erentia l (o r v ertic a l ) a rc s 1 2 , a nd dia g o na l
s truts 1 4 a nd c urv ed s ec tio ns 1 8 wh ic h c o l l ec tiv el y h a v e th e
g enera l f o rm o f a butter? y p rio r to being ba l l o o n ex p a nded.
Th e end a rc s 1 6 h a v e a s l ig h tl y di? ' erent s h a p e a s c o mp a red
to interio r a rc s 1 2 . Th e BETH s tent 1 0 wo ul d f o rm a c y l inder
wh en th e p o ints A, B a nd C a re c o nnec ted res p ec tiv el y to th e
p o ints A , B a nd C .
Th e c y l indric a l BETH s tent 1 0 c a n be p l a c ed a ro und a
ba l l o o n wh ic h ba l l o o n is l o c a ted a t th e dis ta l end p o rtio n o f
a ty p ic a l ba l l o o n a ng io p l a s ty c a th eter (no t s h o wn). Wh en th e
ba l l o o n is ex p a nded to h ig h p res s ures (ty p ic a l l y 6 to 1 8
a tmo s p h eres ), th e s tent 1 0 wil l ex p a nd ra dia l l y o ut to f o rm
th e s tent 1 0 a s il l us tra ted in F IG. 3 . Of c o urs e, F IG. 3
il l us tra tes th e c y l indric a l s tent 1 0 ' a s it wo ul d a p p ea r if it
were c ut l o ng itudina l l y a nd ro l l ed o ut ? a t into a
2 - dimens io na l s truc ture.
F IG. 3 il l us tra tes th a t th e dep l o y ed BE' I H s tent 1 0 ' h a s
bec o me a h o ney c o mb s truc ture th a t c o ns is ts o f a mul tip l ic ity
o f h ex a g o ns th a t a re j o ined to g eth er. Af ter ba l l o o n
ex p a ns io n, th e s h a p e o f th e a rc s 1 2 ' a re o nl y triv ia l l y
dif f erent f ro m th e a rc s 1 2 , a nd th e dia g o na l s truts 1 4 ' a re
es s entia l l y identic a l in s h a p e to th e dia g o na l s truts 1 4 , wh ic h
a rc s 1 2 a nd dia g o na l s truts 1 4 a re s h o wn in F IGS . 1 a nd 2 .
Th e c urv ed s ec tio ns 1 8 a re s tra ig h tened to be g enera l l y in
a l ig nment with th e dia g o na l s 1 4 ' a s s h o wn in F IG. 3 . Th e
a ng l e a t th a t l ies between th e a re 1 2 a nd th e dia g o na l s trut
1 4 o f F IG. 2 is c a l l ed th e " inters ec tio n a ng l e . F o r th e BETH
s tent des ig n to a c h iev e its o bj ec tiv e o f inc rea s ing in l eng th
with inc rea s ing dia meter, th e inters ec tio n a ng l e a t s h o ul d l ie
between 1 0 a nd 8 0 deg rees with 4 5 deg rees being a nea r
o p timum v a l ue. Wh en th e s tent 1 0 is ra dia l l y ex p a nded to
f o rm th e s tent 1 0 ' , th e a ng l e a t inc rea s es until it bec o mes th e
a ng l e o n a s s h o wn in F IG. 3 . As th e a ng l e o r inc rea s es , th e
l eng th o f th e dia g o na l s truts 1 4 a s p ro j ec ted in th e l o ng itu
dina l direc tio n inc rea s es th us c a us ing th e s tent 1 0 (o r 1 0 ' ) to
l eng th en a c c o rding l y . Until th e a ng l e 1 8 0 - 0 6 is l es s th a n th e
a ng l e o r, th e l eng th L' o f th e ex p a nded s tent 1 0 ' wil l be
g enera l l y g rea ter th a n th e no n- dep l o y ed l eng th L o f F IG. 1 .
F o r ex a mp l e, if (1 :4 5 deg rees a nd o t' = 1 3 5 deg rees , th en th e
l eng th L= L' . H o wev er, f o r a ng l es o t' < 1 3 5 , th en L' > L, wh ic h
is a n imp o rta nt o bj ec tiv e o f th is s tent des ig n. Th e ma x imum
l eng th o f th e ex p a nded s tent 1 0 wil l o c c ur wh en 0 6:9 0
deg rees . At o t = 1 8 0 - o t, th e s tent 1 0 is a t its no mina l dia meter
wh ic h o c c urs wh en L= L' . If th e s tent 1 0 is f urth er ex p a nded
bey o nd its no mina l dia meter, it wil l s ta rt to s h o rten in l eng th
a s c o mp a red to its p re- dep l o y ed l eng th . S o me minimum
s h o rtening o f th e s tent 1 0 ' is a c c ep ta bl e th o ug h no t des ira bl e.
F IG. 4 is a p l o t s h o wing th e p erc ent c h a ng e in l eng th o f
th e BEI H s tent 1 0 c o mp a red to th e c h a ng e in th e l eng th o f
th e Pa l ma z s tent. F ro m th e c urv e f o r th e BETH s tent 1 0 , it
is c l ea r to s ee th a t L' is g rea ter th a n L f o r s tent dia meters up
to th e no mina l s tent dia meter o f 3 . 7 5 mm wh ic h l eng th ening
is a n imp o rta nt o bj ec tiv e o f th is inv entio n.
F IG. 3 s h o ws th a t th e dep l o y ed s tent 1 0 ' c o ns is ts o f a
mul tip l ic ity o f a rc s 1 2 ' a l l o f wh ic h a re in f a c t a rc s o f c irc l es
wh ic h , if c o mp l eted f o r 3 60 deg rees wo ul d ma x imiz e th e
s tent s ra dia l rig idity . Bec a us e th e dep l o y ed s tent 1 0 ' h a s a
l
5, 69 5, 51 6
3
mul tip l ic ity o f h ex a g o ns , it do es in f a c t p ro v ide a h o ney
c o mb ty p e o f s truc ture th a t ex h ibits a h ig h deg ree o f ra dia l
rig idity a s c o mp a red to ma ny o th er s tents s uc h a s th e Pa l ma z
s tent des c ribed in U. S . Pa t. No . 4 , 7 3 9 , 7 62 .
Al th o ug h th e a rc s 1 2 a nd dia g o na l s 1 4 c o ul d h a v e th e
s a me width , a s s h o wn in F IGS . 1 , 2 a nd 3 , imp ro v ed
l o ng itudina l ? ex ibil ity o f th e p re- dep l o y ed s tent 1 0 (a nd th e
dep l o y ed s tent 1 0 ' ) is a c h iev ed wh en th e width o f th e
dia g o na l s 1 4 is c o ns idera bl y s ma l l er th a n th e width o f th e
a rc s 1 2 . F o r ex a mp l e, th e width o f th e a rc s 1 2 wo ul d
ty p ic a l l y be twic e th e width o f th e dia g o na l s truts 1 4 . Wh a t
is mo s t imp o rta nt is th a t th e c urv ed s ec tio ns 1 8 o f F IG. 2 a re
na rro wer th a n th e a rc s 1 2 . It is env is io ned th a t th e dia g o na l
s truts 1 2 c o ul d be c o ns idera bl y wider a s c o mp a red to th e
c urv ed s ec tio ns 1 8 .
Ty p ic a l dimens io ns o f th e no n- dep l o y ed s tent 1 0 wo ul d
be between 1 a nd 3 mrnin dia meter a nd between 1 0 a nd 1 0 0
mm in l eng th . ' Iy p ic a l width o f a v ertic a l a re 1 2 wo ul d be
between 0 . 0 8 a nd 0 . 3 min. Ty p ic a l width o f a dia g o na l s trut
1 4 wo ul d be between 0 . 0 5 a nd 0 . 2 mm Ty p ic a l width o f a
c urv ed s ec tio n 1 8 wo ul d be between 0 . 0 4 a ns d 0 . 1 min.
Ty p ic a l ma teria l s f o r th e BEI H s tent wo ul d be s ta inl es s
s teel , tita nium, ta nta l um, Nitino l o r a ny o th er ma teria l
kno wn to be bio c o mp a ta bl e a nd h a v e th e a p p ro p ria te p h y s i
c a l c h a ra c teris tic s f o r f o rming a ba l l o o n ex p a nda is l e o r
s el f - ex p a nding s tent. It is f urth er env is io ned th a t BETH
s tent c o ul d be p l a ted with a ra dio p a q ue meta l s uc h a s g o l d
o r a n a nti- th ro mbo g enic c o a ting s uc h a s h ep a rin c o ul d be
a p p l ied. F urth ermo re, th e BEI H s tent is c o nc eiv ed to
inc l ude a ra dio is o to p e f o r th e p rev entio n o f neo intima l
h y p erp l a s ia a s des c ribed in U. S . Pa t. No . 5, 0 59 , 1 66, wh ic h
p a tent is inc l uded h erein by ref erenc e. Wh en us ed a s a
p l a tf o rm f o r a ra dio is o to p e, th e BETH s tent h a s two a dv a n
ta g es o v er p rio r a rt des ig ns . Th es e a re (1 ) th e reg ul a r
h ex a g o n s h a p e minimiz es do s e h o t s p o ts a nd (2 ) th e s teep
neg a tiv e s l o p e o f th e l eng th v s dia meter c urv e s h o wn in F IG.
4 c a us es a ra dio is o to p e BETH s tent to p ro v ide g rea ter
unif o rmity o f tis s ue do s e o v er a l a rg e ra ng e o f dia meters a s
c o mp a red to th e Pa l ma z - S c h a tz s tent.
Al th o ug h th e us e o f th e s tent is des c ribed with p a rtic ul a r
ref erenc e to imp l a nta tio n in a rteries , it s h o ul d be unders to o d
th a t th e BETH s tent is s uita bl e f o r imp l a nta tio n in a ny v es s el
o f th e h uma n bo dy th a t is a bl e to be s tented.
V a rio us o th er mo di? c a tio ns , a da p ta tio ns , a nd a l terna tiv e
des ig ns a re o f c o urs e p o s s ibl e in l ig h t o f th e a bo v e tea c h
ing s . Th eref o re, it s h o ul d be unders to o d a t th is time th a t
with in th e s c o p e o f th e a p p ended c l a ims , th e inv entio n ma y
be p ra c tic ed o th erwis e th a n a s s p ec i? c a l l y des c ribed h erein.
Wh a t is c l a imed is :
1 . A c y l indric a l s tent f o r p l a c ement in a v es s el o f a h uma n
bo dy , th e s tent h a v ing a l o ng itudina l a x is a nd a l s o h a v ing
c irc umf erentia l a rc s a nd dia g o na l s truts with th e inters ec tio n
a ng l e between th e c irc umf erentia l a rc s a nd th e dia g o na l
s truts being with in th e ra ng e o f 1 0 to 8 0 deg rees wh en th e
s tent is in its no n- dep l o y ed s ta te, th e dia g o na l s truts being
j o ined by c l n' v ed s ec tio ns to th e c irc umf erentia l a rc s wh ic h
c o l l ec tiv el y f o rm a c l o s ed p erimeter c el l , th e c l o s ed p erim
eter c el l h a v ing two p a ra l l el , c irc umf erentia l a rc s l o c a ted a t
1 0
1 5
2 0
2 5
3 0
50
55
4
th e l o ng itudina l ex tremities o f th e c l o s ed p erimeter c el l a nd
th e c irc umf erentia l a rc s l y ing g enera l l y p erp endic ul a r to th e
s tent s l o ng itudina l a x is .
2 . Th e s tent o f c l a im 1 wh erein th e width o f th e c irc um
f erentia l a rc s is g rea ter th a n th e width o f th e dia g o na l s truts .
3 . Th e s tent o f c l a im 1 wh erein th e s tent is f o rmed f ro m
s ta inl es s s teel .
4 . Th e s tent o f c l a im 1 wh erein th e s tent is f o rmed f ro m
ta nta l um.
5. Th e s tent o f c l a im 1 wh erein th e s tent is c o ns truc ted o f
a meta l th a t is c o a ted with a h ig h dens ity , ra dio p a q ue meta l .
6. Th e s tent o f c l a im 5 wh erein th e meta l is g o l d.
7 . Th e s tent o f c l a im 1 wh erein th e s tent is c o a ted with a n
a nti- th ro mbo g enic c o a ting .
8 . Th e s tent o f c l a im 1 wh erein th e s tent inc l udes a
ra dio is o to p e ma teria l to p rev ent neo intima l h y p erp l a s ia s ub
s eq uent to ba l l o o n a ng io p l a s ty .
9 . A c y l indric a l s tent f o r imp l a nta tio n into a v es s el o f a
h uma n bo dy , th e s tent being a da p ted to l eng th en l o ng itudi
na l l y a s its dia meter inc rea s es f ro m its no n- dep l o y ed
dia meter, th e s tent s truc ture to a c c o mp l is h l eng th ening
inc l uding a mul tip l ic ity o f c l o s ed p erimeter c el l s ea c h c el l
inc l uding with in its p erimeter a t l ea s t two dia g o na l s truts ,
wh ic h dia g o na l s truts inc rea s e th eir p ro j ec ted l eng th in th e
l o ng itudina l direc tio n a s th e s tent dia meter is inc rea s ed f ro m
its no n- dep l o y ed dia meter.
1 0 . Th e s tent o f c l a im 9 wh erein th e s tent is c o ns truc ted
o f a meta l th a t is c o a ted with a h ig h dens ity , ra dio p a q ue
meta l .
1 1 . Th e s tent o f c l a im 1 0 wh erein th e meta l is g o l d.
1 2 . Th e s tent o f c l a im 9 wh erein th e s tent is c o a ted with
a n a nti- th ro mbo g enic c o a ting .
1 3 . Th e s tent o f c l a im 9 wh erein th e s tent inc l udes a
ra dio is o to p e ma teria l to p rev ent neo intima l h y p erp l a s ia s ub
s eq uent to ba l l o o n a ng io p l a s ty .
1 4 . A s tent in th e f o rm o f a th in- wa l l ed c y l inder h a v ing a
l o ng itudina l a x is , th e s tent h a v ing a mul tip l ic ity o f h ex a g o
na l c el l s th a t f o rm a h o ney c o mb ty p e c y l indric a l s truc ture,
ea c h s ide o f ea c h h ex a g o na l c el l being a p p ro x ima tel y eq ua l
in l eng th to ev ery o th er s ide a nd ea c h h ex a g o na l c el l h a v ing
a ? rs t c irc umf erentia l a re l o c a ted a t o ne l o ng itudina l ex trem
ity o f th e h ex a g o na l c el l a nd a s ec o nd c irc umf erentia l a rc
l o c a ted a t th e o p p o s ite l o ng itudina l ex tremity o f th e h ex
a g o na l c el l , th e ? rs t a nd s ec o nd c irc umf erentia l a rc s being
g enera l l y p a ra l l el to ea c h o th er a nd ea c h c irc umf erentia l a re
l y ing g enera l l y p erp endic ul a r to th e s tent s l o ng itudina l a x is .
1 5. Th e s tent o f c l a im 1 4 wh erein th e width o f th e
c irc umf erentia l a rc s is g rea ter th a n th e width o f th e dia g o na l
s truts .
1 6. Th e s tent o f c l a im 1 4 wh erein th e s tent h a s c urv ed
s ec tio ns th a t j o in th e c irc umf erentia l a rc s to th e dia g o na l
s truts .
1 7 . Th e s tent o f c l a im 1 6 wh erein th e c urv ed s ec tio ns h a v e
a na rro wer width a s c o mp a red to th e dia g o na l s truts .
1 8 . Th e s tent o f c l a im 1 4 wh erein th e s tent inc l udes a
ra dio is o to p e ma teria l to p rev ent neo intirna l h y p erp l a s ia s ub
s eq uent to ba l l o o n a ng io p l a s ty .
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