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I

UNIVERSIry OF THE PHILIPPINES


COLLEGE OF LAW
PROPERTY
BY
PROF. EDUARDO A. LABITAG
DTFINITION.
Prope(y is a-rl economic concept, meaning a mass ot rhirgs
useful to human activily and which a:re necessa{/ to life, for which
reason they may be organized and distributed in one way or anotlter,
but, always lor t}Ie good of man. In order tiat a thing may be
considered as property,
it must have a) utility b) substantivity, i.e.,
an autonomous or separate existence c) appropriability or
su sceptibility to appropriation.
,4. Classification under the Civil Code
l. Immovable or Rcal
properry
- Art. 4ls
a. by nature 415,
{1)
& (8)
b. by incorporation (2), (3),
{7)
c. by destination -
{4},
(5), (6), (9)
d. by a:raloey 4t 5,
{1OJ
Movable or Personal Property - Arls.416-417
Cirses.. Dauao Salrliill u. Castillo, 61
phit.
709
Berh"enl<otur i.t. Cu Lrnjieng, 61
phil
663
Lopez v. Orosa, 103
phil.
98
.
Tumalctd u. Vicencb,4l SCRA 143
Associated h"surance u, IAa. 103
phil.
922
l,ldkati Leasing u. Weareqer, 122 SCRA 296
Ba. of Assessmeht Appeals v. Meraico,
"
10 scRA 63
Meralco Secur[tbs v_ Bd. of Assessment
'Appeats,
114 SCRA 260
Meralco u. Central Bd. of Assessfant
.
.Appeats,
114 SCRA 273
Caltex u_ Bd_ ol Assessn],rl]' AppeaLs,
1 14 SCRA 296
Beng-@t Corp. u- Central Bd.. o]tAsse.ssrnenf
Appeals, 21BSCRA271
.:
PROPERTY
Prof. Eduardo A, Labitag
2. impodance and Signilicance of Classifrcation
a. From point of view of:
i. Criminal Law
ii. Form of contracts involving rnovables or
immovables
iii. Prescription
iv. Venue
v. Taxation
vi. Double Sales under Art. 1544
vii, heference of Credits
vni. Causes ofAction to Recover
3. Differcnces between Real Rights and Personal Rights
B. By Ownerchip
1. Res Nullius
2. Public Dominion, (cf. Patrimonial) (Arts. 419, +20-422,421)
a. Property of Slate }ft.42O 422
i. For Public Use
ii. For Pubtc Seflrice
iii- For Development of National Wealti
Cdses:
La Bugal B'la@n Tibal AssrL u. Rd,,/rc's, G.R.
127882, Jan, 27, 2OO4
on RecarLsideration Dec. 1,2oo4, Jan- 27,.2004,
Feb. 1, 2oo5
Clauez o. Public Estates A tlLoitA,
384 SCRA 152
on Reconsideratian: Chauez r. L\lblic Estates
Adhoritg, G.R. No. 133250, Mag 6, 2O03.
Usero u. CA, G.R. No. 152115, Jan. 26, 2006
b. Property ofMunicipal Co.porations - Art. 424, par. 1
...
)
.
PROPERTY
'
Prof. Eduardo A Labitag
i. For Public Use including Public
woiks for Public Sen'ice
3. Pdvate
property
i. Patrimoniai Property oI State - Art. 424
ii. Patrimonial Prope..y_ of Municipa-l Corporatrons
- Art. 424
,
par . 2
ni. Private Properq/ of Pdvate Persons - Art. +25,
paf.2
Cdses.' Tantoco u. Mufticipal Council, +9 Phit. 52
Zamboanga del Narte u. Cita of
Z,Lambodnga, 22 SCF.A 1334
Salas u- Jarertcio, 46 SCIdA 743
Cebu u. Bercilles, 66 SCRA 481
MunicipalitlJ of Sa'n Miguel D. Fenande4
13O SCRA 56
Gouernmettt v- Cdb(lngis, 53 Phil. 112
ClDuez u PEA G.R. 133250, JulA 9, 2CO2
oft Motion
for
Recansideratiory MaA
6, 2003
4. Effect and Significance of Classilication of Property as
Properry of Public Dominion
a. Property is Outside tl.e Commerce of Man
b. Property Cannot be the Subject of Acquisitive
Prescription
c. Proper-ty Caxnot be Attached or Levied upon in
Execution
d. Prcpety Carlno! be Burdened with a Voluntary
Easement
c.
Other Classification
1. By their physical existence
a. Corporeal
b. Incorporeal
.t'
PROPERTY
Prof. Eduado A" Labitag
4
2. By their Autonomy of Dependence
a. Principal
b. Accessory
3. By their Subsistence After Use
a. Consumable - An. 418(11
b. Non-Consumable - Art. 418
Differentiated iiom Fungible or Non-fungible
c. Dereriorable or Non- deteriorable
4.
'
By Reason of their Susceptibility to Division
a. Divisible
b. Indivisible
5. By reason of Designation
a. Generic
b. Specific
6. Existence in Point of Time
a. Present
b. Future
7, Contents and Constifirtion
a. Singular
i. Simple
ii. Compound
b. Universal
8. SusceptibilitytoApf,ropriation
a. Non-appropriable
b. Appropriable
i. Akeady appropriated
ii. Not
Jret
Appropriated
9. Susceptibility to Comrnerce
a. Within t]le Commerce of Man
b- Outside the Comoerce of Man
PROPERTY
Prof. Eduardo A. Labitag
I] OWNERSHIP
5
A- Definitions.
Ownership - lt is independent dght of exclusive enjoJment
and control of a thing lor t}le purpose of deriving therefrom al1 the
all advantages required by the reasonable needs of the owner' (or
holder oI the right) and the promotion oI the general welfare, but
subject to tl-re restrictlons imposed by law arrd dghts of olhers.
{J.B.L.
Reyes)
Ownership is a relation in private law by virtue of which a
thing (or property right) pertairfng io one person is completely
subjected to his will in everj.tfring not prohibited by public law or
the concurrence with the rights of arothel.
{Scialoja)
B. Bundle of rights included in ownership Art. 429
Jus Utendi, Fruendi, Abutendi, Disponeftdi, Vindicandi,
lPossidendi)
C. otler Specific Rights Found in CifJ Code Arts. 42g, 43o, 437,
434,440
a. Right to Exclude; Self-Help; Doctrine of Self Help; Elements
AtL. 429
b. Right to Enclose or Fence - Art. 430
c. Right to Receive Just Compensation irr Case of
Expropiiation - Ari- 435
d. Right to Hidden Treasure - Arts.43A-439
e- Right to Accession - Art. 440
f- Right to Recover Possession arld'/or Ownership - Jus
V indicar,rii
i. Available Actions to Recover Possession/Ownership
Re: Imrnovable Property
- AccionReivindicatoria
- Accion Publiciaia
- Forcible Entry and
-
Ilnlau,'full)etainer
PROPERTY
Prof. Eduardo A Labitag
6
Cases:
Hilaio u. Saluador, G.R. No. 160384,
APril 29, 2OOS
Sein?agaftg,. CA, G.R No' 156360'
Jan. 14,2005
Santos u- AAon, G.R. No i37O13'
Ir'IaA 6, 2005
Ganillr D. CA, G.R. No. 150755i
Jltne 8, 2OAs
Ross Rica S@les C'enter u' SPs' ong,
GR. -.Vo 132197, Aug' 16,2005
?erdttd-Ialbrador
r.'. Buarin, G'R 165177' Aug st
'
zs, zoos
'" Rc: Movable Property
- Replevin
ii. Requisites for Recovery - Art 434
a- Identiff the
ProPertY
cdse: Seriia u. Cabatlefl), G.R' rt' D7382,
Aug. 17, 2OO4
b. Prove his tight of oqdrership - rety on strength of
his evidence not oi1 wealo:ress of defendant
Ari. 434)
Cq.sesj Perez o. Meftdozou GR. No' L22OO6,
JuIa 28, 1975
Dizon u. CA, G.R. No. 101929'
Jatu. 6, 1993
D. Lirnitations of Rea.l Right of Ownership
1. General Lirnitation
a. police
Power
b. taxation
c. eminent domain
PROPERTY
Prof, Eduardo A. Labitag
2. SpecilicLimitations
a. by law, e.g. lega.l servitudes
i. Limitation From Scattered provisions of
Civil Code
Arls. 43 l, 432
Arts.2191, 677 679,67O,64,9 & 652, 637, 676,
644,6a4 oA /
'
C.Isesj U.S. u. C.1usbA, 328
-tJ.S.
256;
66 Sup. Ct. 1062
,. Lut'Lod D. Meneses' il Phil. 128
ii. Latin Maxirn: Suc Utere Tuo flt Alienum Nar-
l,aedds - Ar7. 431
iii. Act in State of Necessity - Art. 432
b. by party tr.ansmittirrg proPerty, be it in a contract, or
last will or donation
c. by owner himself, e.8. voluntarj. servitude, mortgage,
pledge, lease
d. inherent lirnitations from conllict of rights adsing from
'
contigEity of proPertY
III, RIGHT OF ACCESSION
A- Concept - Art. 440
B. Ceneral Principles of Accession
1. Applicable to both accession discreta an accession continua
a. Accessory Follows ttre Pr-incipal
b. No one shall be unjustty enriched at ttre expense of
aJlother
2. Applicable to accession continua
PROPERTY
Prof. EduardoA. Labitag
a. Whatever is build, plantd or sown on tl1e land of
'
altother ar1d the improvemenis or repairs made
thereon, belong to the owner of the land, subject to
'
the provisions ofthe following articles (358)'
b. A11 Works, Sowing and Planting are Presumed made
by Owner and at His Expense, Unless contraly is
Proved.
c. Accessory Incorporated to Prhcipal such that it
cannot be, S+arated
.
without Injury to Work
. Constructed or Destructlon to Plantings, construction
or works - Art. 447
a.
gaa
Faith involves Liabiiity for Danages ard Other
' Dire Consequences
t '!.
6.
g"d
Faith of one Party Neutra-Iizes Bad Faitl. ol the
Other
-
Art. 453
3. Applicable to accession diacreta alone
a. Owrrership of Fruits - To Owler of Principal Thing
belongs tt'e natural, industrial arld civil FRUITS (Art. 441)
exceptrons:
i, Possession in Good Faith
ii- In Usufruct
iii. In Lease
iv. In Anticbresis
C. Obligations o{ Receiver of Fr-\rits to pay eapenses by 3rd pelson ln
production, gathering and preservation - Ar:t. 443
D. Kinds ofAccession
1. Accessio,:r Discreta (Fruits) - Art. 44O
a. Natural
b- Industrial
PROPERTY
Prof. Eduardo A- Labitag
9
c. Civil
r
cases.' Bdalvach 1.r.
Baclvach u.
Accession Continua
a. Over Immovables
Seiktt, 87 Phil. 117
TalisaA SilaA, 56 Phil. 117
Industiial - Buildine, Planting,
BPS in Bad Fait]1 - Art. 449, 45o' 451
i. Options OPen to Owner ofland
i
a. To acquire building,
Planting
ar1d sowing
BPS has right of ietention
posses$ol!
1. Artificial or
Sowing
Pps)
a- Orl'ner is Builder, Planter, sower
,
Using Materia.l of Anotbet Att' 447
- In Good Faith
- In Bad Faith
ffid
u.irrs t i" 6w-n uaterials -
$ff:,r.
..
BPS in Cood Faith
- Art.448
b. BPS Builds Plants or Sows
- retains
without paying rental
- not entitted to fruits;
his rights aie tl.e same
as an antichretic
creditor
b. To selt and to BP to lease
land S
- BP tnay refuse if v'-rlue
of lald coasiderable
more than bP unless
owner chooses to
PROPERTY
Prof. Eduardo A, Labitag
10
acquire bPS; then
forced lease by LO ard
BP
BPS in Bad Faith - Art.
449,450,451
ii- rights of Builder Planter Sower rn
bad faith
-
Art. 452, 443
- Landowner in bad laith
but ePS ;n goocl faith
-
M, 454, 447- reason ior
adverting to rule 447
BPS builds, plarts, sows on another's
land with materials owned by 3'd person
-
Art.455
Nota Bene: good faith does not exclude
negligelce, thus daJnages, negligent one
may be madg to pay darnages
-
A.t. 456
Cdses:
For Submissiort: Outline
pennutations and legal resulls oJ
brilder, planter, sou)er and oumer
these parties.
Bemordo u. Bota.lun, 66 Phil. 596
Ignacio u. Hilario, 76 Phil. 6Os
Sarrnieftta u. Agdna, 129 SCRA 122
Depru. u. Durnlao, 136 SCRA 475
,
Tecli@gas Phils. V, CA, 268 SCP"A 5
Ortiz u, KaAdnaL 92 SCRA 146
Geminiana u. CA' 259 SCRA 10
Pleasantuille Deu\ Corp. u. CA, 253 SCRA 10
Felices v. Iiole, G.R. No. 115814,
MaA 26, 1995
Spouses NuE)id u. CA, G.R. No. io536o,
MdA 25, 1993; G.R. No. 151815,
Jdn. 23, 2005
A/rs. 447-455. Take care to iftdicate the
ttLe good
faith
or batl
faith
bg lanrloLuner
ol iuteiclt;
(rlso
tle
^ptians
opea to ang of
2- Natural
PROPERTY
Prbf. Eduardo A. Labitag
11
d. Formction ol IslaJlds Ar:L.46l-465
see: PD 1067, Water Code
Reverse Accession
-
12O FC; 321 CC
J. Ovel Movables
a Autetion Alluuium Art.457
cdse: Reyrubti r't. CA, 132 SCRA 51+
Grdnd.e u CA, G.R. No- L17652'
Jufte 30, 1962
Meneses, Julli 14, 1995
b Al,'ulsion
Navar.o, 1997
c. Change oi Course oi River - Art. 461-463
C se: Baes u. CA,224 SC]aA 562
Binalag u. Manalo, G.R. No. 92161
a. Coniunctlon and Adjunction
i. Inclusion or Engraftment
ii. soldadur@ or soldering
a. Plunbohlra - different metals
h. Femtmirntio - salne metal
in. Tejido or Weavitr]g
iv. Escritura or writ:ng
v. Antura or
Painting
c. Commixtion and Confusion
Case: Sia,i Vdlleg Estates u. Lucasarl
G.R. No. t-7O46, Aug. 31, 1955
So:ntos o, Bemobe.. 54 Phil 19
c. Specification
12
PROPERTY
Prof. Eduardo A. Labitag
]V, OUILTING
OI. TITLE
. A. Differences Between Action to
Quiet
Title and Action:
- To Remove A Cloud
To Prevent a Cloud
B, Prescription of Action - Imprescriptible
if plaintiff is in possession;
if not, prescribes within period lor liling accion publiciana' accioll
rei\ind icaLoria
C..ses.' Oluiga u. CA, G R No' 104813,Oct 21'2993
' PirLgol u. CA, GR
'vo'
102909' Sept 6' 1993
'- C- Who are Entitled to bring Action? Rule 64 Sec l par' 2' Rules of
,
Oourt.
D. Notes:
1. There is a cloud on title to real property or al]y interest to
real property
{Art.
476)
2. plai;tift has legal or equitable title to or interest in the
subjecty'real ProPerty
3. Instrument record claim,
qtc. must be valid arld bilding on
its face but in truth arld in fact invalid, ineffective, voidable
or unenforceable
4.
plaintiff must retum beneflts received fiom defendant
Cdse: Tibng t-). Coun of Appeots. G R No I1t 14I,
h 6, 1998
5. Actions to quiet title are proceedings quasi i4 rem
Cese: Sps. Portie u Cislobol. G.R 15617l April 22,
2005
V. CO-OWNERSHIP
A, Definition
The right of common domirion wllich two o! more pelsons have 1n
a spiritual part (or ideal portion) or a tiing which is not physically
divided,
PROPERTY
Prof. Eduardo A Labitas
D. Diffe+ei,ces between
paltnerslip and co-olTrership.
t3
B. ChaJaclerisli, s
t.
1. There is piurality of owners, but only one r6al right of
ownership;
2.
'l]rre
recognition of ideal shares, defined but not physically
i.lentified.
3. Each co_owrler has absolute contiol over his ideal share;
4. Mutual respect arnong cd-owrrers in rega-rd to use enjolYnent
and preserwation of ttring as a whole
cd-se! Pardell u. BartolofiLe,23 PhiI.45o
C. Differences between co-ownership and
joint
tenancy.
cdse: G.ttcL@liarL v. Collector,6T Phil. 666
E. Sources of co ownershiP
a. Law, e.g., party walls, hedges and ditches; co-ownership ir1
hidden treasuie
i. Cohabitation (AIt. 147 & 148, Familv Code); Art.
- 90 on suppletory application of the principles of co-
ownership to ACP
ii. Purchase (Art. 1452)
in. Succession (lntestate: Art. 1078; Testate: Property is
given to rwo or more heirs)
iv. Donation (Art- 753; Article 573,2d pai.\
v. Char.e (,{fi.472)
Case: s;,ari Valleg Estcfie u. Lucasory stpra.
vi. Hidden treasure (Art. 348)
vn. Easement of partjr wa1l (Art. 658)
'viii.
Occupation
c,dse: Punzalan u. Boon Liat, 44 Phil. 320
.
ix. Condominium Law (Sec. 6{c) Rep- Act 4725}
cdse: Tuii Tolters Condominium Corporatiort
.
u. Coun of Appeals, G-R- No. 123552'
Feb. 27, 2003
PROPERTY
Prof. Eduardo A. Labitag
14
b. Contract
i, By agreement
{duration
of co-ovrnership, Art 494)
ii. Universal Partnership (Arts. 1778-1780)
iii. Associatlons and societies with sec.et articles
{Ar..
1775)
c. Succession
d- Chance (Commixtion, hidden treasure)
e. Occupation
(harvesting and frshing)
F. Rights of each co-owner as to thing owned in common:
a. To use the tli4g according io the purpose intended may be
altered by agreement, express or implied; provided:
i. it is without injury or prejudice to interest of co-
ownershiP ald;
ii. Without preventing the use of other co_owners, Ari
4a6
Cq.se: Pardell u- Bartoloile,23 Phil.45O
b. To share in the benefits in proportion to his interest,
provided the charges are bome by each in the same
proportion (Art. 485)
- Contrary stipulation in void
- presumption is that portions are equal unless
contrarjr is proved
c. Each co owrrer may bring an action in ejectment (Art. 487)
Cases: Resuena v. CA, C.R. No. 128333, March ?8. 2OOs
Acabal u. AcabdL G.R. No. 122904, Apnl 15, 2405
d. To compel other co-owner to contribute to expenses for
preservation of t]1e thtrg or fight owned in common and to
payment of taxes (Art. 4881
15
PROPERTY
Prof. EduardoA.
Labilag
Co-o\me/s
option
'Iot
to contribute
by waiving his
undivided inierest equal to amount
of contribudon
(exception: if waiver prejudicial to co-ow'nership)
Reouisites before repairs for preservalion may be mae
ol exppnses for embellshmenl
or improvement
may be
made (Art. 489)
EffecE of failure to notlry co-o['ners
To oppose any aci of alteiation; remedy of other co-o\
'rrers
re: acts of alteration (Art. 491)
1 Acts of alteration
i- Concept
-
any change i4iurious to the thing
oEned rn cornfl}orl r to the rights oI
other co-ow11ers or anY cha.nge
materia.l to the use, destination or
srate of t}ing which acr is in violation
of the express or tacit agreemerrt of
tlte co_owners
ii- Distinguished from acts of administration Art'
492
iii Effect of acts of alteratiofl and remedies of non-
'
consenting co_owier
f_
ea.ses.' Lauadia v. Cosm.e,72 Phil. 196
Melencio u. DA Tiao InA, 55 Phil. 100
Tuqson u. TlasoL BB Phit. 428
g. To exercise legal redemption - Atl. 1620, 1623
cases.' MonaTo u. CA, 222 SCRA 736
Verdod u. CA, 256 SCRA 593
Query:
Is lease of real
Property
owred in
colrlnon an act of alteratio4? Art.
647 in relatior to Art. 1878.t9J
a
To protest against acts of majority which are prejudiciat to
minority (Art. 492 par.3l
PROPERTY
Prof. Eduardo A. Labitag
h
G.
1.
16
To ask for partition - Arl- 494
Cdses: Ramirez u. Ramirez,2T SCRA 384
Agtil(t u. CA, G.R No 76351'
Oct. 26' 1993
Vda. de APe u. CA' G.R. No 133638'
APil 15' 2oos
Other cases where ght of legal redempticn
is giver'
-
Arts
1621, 1622
Cdses.' Hatili u. CA, G.R. No. 113539, March 12' 1998
Frcmcisco u. Boiser, G'R' No 137677,
MdA 31' 2OOO
Implications of co-owners right over his ideal share:
a. Co-owner has the right:
1. To share in fruirs and benefils
2. To alienate, mortgage or encumber ald dispose of his
ideat share - (but other co o'"lmers may exercise dght
of legal redemPtion)
3. To substitute a othel
person in the e4ioyment ot
thing
4. To renounce part of tris interest to reimburse
necessaly expenses incurred by another co-owner
(Art. 488)
b. Effect of tr:ansaction by eactr co-or1mer
Lt[ited to his share in ttre
partition
Transferee does not acquire an-v specific porion of
whole property until
Pa,rtition
Creditors of co-owners may intervene in partitibn or
attack the same if prejudicial
{Art.
499), except that
creditors ca$ot ask {or rescission even iI not notilled
in the absence of fraud
{Art.
497)
1t.
ll1.
Casesi Cal'uajal D. CA, 112 SCRA 237
Pamplofta u. Moreto, 96 SCP-4 775
PROPERTY
Prof- Eduardo A Labitag
17
Cdstro u. Atienza, 53 SCRA 264
Estoque u. Paimula, 24 SCRA 59
Diuersirted Credit u. Rosctdo,
26 SCRA 47A
PNB D. CA, 98 SCRA 207
H. Ruies on co-owrrership not applicabte to conjugal partrrership of
gains or absolute community of property.
I. Special rules on ownership ol differenl stories oI a house as
differentiated from provisions
of Condomirium (Act No- 4726)
1. Concept of Condomiiium
2. Essentiai requisites for Condominium
3. Important documents to consider in purchase of
condon J1ium unit:
a. maste, Lrr enabling deed
b. de, l"ra Lon ofrestdclions
c. artir les & byJaws oI condominjum corporaLion, if
appLcable
d. contract of sale
Related Laws: PD 957; RA 6552
3. Rights and Obligations of Condominium o\e.ner
C(,se: Sutset W1t Cottdomiftiurn D. Judge Canpos
G.R. No. 52361, Apit 27, 1981
J. Extinguishment of co-ownership
1. Total destruciion of thing
2- Merger of all interests ilr one person
3. Acquisitiveprescdption
a. By a third person
b- By one co-owner as agajnst the other co-owrrers
requisites and unequivocal acts of:
18
PROPERTY
Prof. Eduardo A" Labitag
4.
i. Unequivocal
acts of repudiation
of co-o"r'nership
t
lacts
amounting
to ouster of other co-owners)
known to otler co-owT}ers and shown by clear
and convincing
evidence
ii. Open arrd adverse
possession, not mere silent
possession for the requil:ed
period oI
c,<LraoI dinaS/ acquisjtive
prescnpLon
in. The presumplion is tllat possession by co ou'ner
is not adverse
c.rrse: Cqpitle u. De Gabary G'R No 146890'
June B, 2O04
Pertition or Division
a. Right to ask Ior partition at any time except:
t1.
When there is a sr.ipulauon agalnSL it lnol
ovei
ten years)
When condition of indivision
is imposed by
trans{eror (donor or testator)
not exceed 20
yeajs - Art. 494
When the legal nature of community
prevents
partition (partY wal1)
When partition is generally prohibited by law
Ie-s- absolute commr]niry
ot property
trfien
panidon would render t]-e thing
unserviceable
(but the thing may be sold and
co-owners divide the proceeds
[Art'
49+)
- Action for partitiofl will fail if acquisitive
prescliption has set in'
b.
d.
llfiect of Partition
Arts. 1091, 543, fO92 1093,4qc-5o1
fught of Creditors of lndividuzJ co-owl]ers A 497
Procedure for Partition - Rule 69 Rutes of Court
111.
PROPERTY
Prof. Eduardo A" Labitag
VI. POSSESSION
A. De{ioition and Con.epl (Ar1. 523, ci-;;
19
Possession is ti.e holdhg of a thhg or the enjoj.rnent oI a right,
whether by material cccupation or by the fact that the thing or the right
is subjected to the action of our will.
It is a real right independent of an.i apart ftom ownership i.e., the
right of possession
Uus
possessionis as distinguished fron the right to
possess
[iu
st possidend i]
A. Essenfual reqursrlP o, possession:
B. Differences betwecn a possession and occupatiou
C. Essential rcq.rrsrles o[ possession:
a. Holding or contol of a thing or right (corpus) consists of
,
either
;,
i. The material or physical holding or occupatlon either
ii. Exercise
qf a right
iii. Constructive possession (intention to possessis very
crucrcl)
cd.ses: Ro,mrs u- Director of Lands, 39 Phil. 175
Director us. CA, l3O SCRA 9
b. lntenrion to possess (aninus possidendl
D. Degrees of holding or possessfui
1. Iuere holding or possession rr'/itlrout title whatsoever al1d in
violation of the right of the owneri e.g. possession of a thief
or a usurPer ol land.
2. Possession with
juridical
tide but not that of ownership, e.g.
possession of tenant. depository agent, l,ailee Lrustee, lessee,
artichretic c.editor. This degree of possession will neve.
ripen into ful.l owlership as long as there is no repudiation
of concept under which properfy is held.
PROPERTY
Prof. Eduardo A- Labitag
20
3. Possession with
just
title or tide sufficient to transfer
ownership, but not from the true owner e g. possession of ar
vendee from vendor who
Pretends
to be the o'wner.
This degree of possession ripens into full ownership by lapse
of time
4. Possession with
just
title lrom the true o-*ner. The delivery
of possession tralsfers o'*,nership, and strictly speaking, is
the
jus possidendi.
E. Cases ofpossession:
1. Possession for oneself, oi possession exercised il one's owT r
name and possession in the nerne of another - (Art- 524)
2. Possession in the concept of an or'l'ner end possession in tl-te
concept of a holder with 1ie owrrership belonging to another
td
L. JzJl
3. Possessicn in good faith arld possessioq in bad faiti (Art.
s26)
Cdse: Pleosanluille Deu't. Corp. u. CA.253 SCRA I0
a. Mistake upon a doubtful or difficult question oflaw as
a basis of good faitl.
Case: Kasilag t. Roque, G.R. No.
a6623,
Dec. 7, 1939
F. What things or nghts may be possessed.
Onty things or rights susceptible of appropriation may be
the object ofpossession
{Art.
53O)
G. What may not be possessed by private persons
a- Rescnrtunuftes ;
b- Property of public domirrion
c. Right under discontinuous and/or non-appa.rent
easement
PROPERTY
Prof. Eduardo A. Labitag
21
H. Acquisition of Possession
Ways of acquirirlg possession
{Art,
531)
Material occupation of the thing
Subiection to the action of our will
By same
person;
eledrents of personal acquisition
By his legal representative; requisites
By his agent
By any person without any power whatsoever but
subject to ratification, without prejudice to proper
case of negotiorum gestio
{Arts.
2L44), 4L29,2150)
Qualiiediy,
minors ald incapacitated persons (Art.
s2s)
1.
The doctrine of construcdve possession
lncludes constructive delivery;
7. Traditia breui rnrafi)
{thing
already in
tlansferee's hands, e.g. uader a contract
of lease, then delivered uider a sale)
2. trarlitio
(nnstiilihtfi possessonum (thing
remails in transleror's hands, e.g. sale,
then retailed under a commodatum)
c. Ploper acts arrd legal formaliti.es - refers to the
acquisition of possession by suficient title,
interuiuos or fiLor7b causa, lucrative or onerous.
Exarnple: 1. lncludes traditio longa manu and
traditio simbotic.l, donations, succession (testate
on intestate), contracts,
judicial
writs of
possession, writ of execution of
judgments,
execution and registiation of public
instruoents.
Case: Banro Eswftol Filipino D. Peterso\ 7 Phit. 4O9
2. By whom may possession be acquked: (Arr. 532)
a.
b-
a.
b.
c.
1.
ii
e.
PROPERTY
Prot Eduardo A. Labitag
I.
3: What do not affect possession
{Arts.
537, 11 19)
b-
c-
Acts merely tolerated
Mo.asaet u. Mot'osael, C.R. No. 15430
I
92,
a.
b.
d.
4. Rules to solve conflict of possession (Art. 538)
General Frrle: Possessio cannot be recognized in t-wo
diferent personalities; except in cases of co-possession by
co-possessors without conflict clairrs or interest.
1!:r case of conllicting possession - preleaence is given to:
Cdse:
Sept. 30, 2OO4
Acts executed clardestinely and without the
knowledge oI the possessor
Acts by violence as long as possessor objects thereto
{i.e.
he fi1es a case} (Art. 536i
Ca-sesr Cua1.rcong u. Benedicto,3T Phil.78l
Astud{llo u. PHIIC, 73 SCRA 15
Peran u. CF\ 125 SCRA 79
Present possessor or actual possessor
If there are two or more possessors, the one longer in
possession
If dates of possession are the sarne, the one who
presents a title
If all co.ditions are equal, the t]ling shall be placed in
judicial
deposit pending determination. of possession
or owrrership through
proper proceedings
1-
Effects ofPossession
In general, every possessor has a dght to be respected in his
possession; if disturbed therein, possessor has right to be
protected protected i! or restoled to said possession (Art.
s39)
a. Actions to recover possession
summary proceedings - forcible entry and
unlalJlf.rl detainer. Plaintiff may ask for lrrit of
PROPERTY
Prof. Eduardo A. Labitag
23
pretminary mandatory injunction may be
asked.
Within L0 days from filing of complaint in
forcible entry (Art. 539)
Case: Yu u. Honrado, 99 SCRA 273
The same writ is available in unla&{ul
detainer actions upon appeal
lArt.
1674)
'
ii. AcciorT puliciona (based on superior right of
possession, not of ownership)
rri. Accion reiuidicdtoriQ (recovery of ownership),
.
including right to possess
1v. Action for replevin (possession or owrrership lor
movable propert5r)
b, La&'ful
possessor ca-n employee seu help
{Art.
429)
2. Entitlemenf to fruits
-
possessor iIl good faith/bad faith (Art.
544,549)
3. Reirnbursement for expenses
-
possessor in good faith/bad
faith
a. Liability {or loss or deterioration of properry by
possessor in bad faith.
{Art.
553; 552)
4. Possession of movable acquired in good (in concept of owner)
is equivale$t to tide
lArt.
559)
- Possessor has actual tit-le which is defeasible only by true
- One who has lost a movable or has been unla$fully
deprived lhereof may recover
jl
wihoul rei-(oburscmenl,
except if possesso, acquired it at a public sale.
J. Effect of possession in the concept of ol,Irer:
a. Possession may be lapsed of time ripen into fu1l ownership,
subject to certain exceptions
24
PROPERTY
Prof. Eduardo A. Labitag
t)
c.
d.
t
h.
i.
PresumptioA
of
just title and cannot be obliged to show or
prove il IAfl.
541): e-YcepLon
tArl.
I l31l
Possessol
may bring all a(trons necessaif/
1o'prolecr nls
possession except accion reivi'rdica
Ioria
Mav employ sell-help under Arr.429
;;*....;.
-mr,
,.t for ins' riprion of such real righr ol
possession in the registrf' of property
i{as right to the fruits and reimbursement
lor expenses
iassuming
he is a possessor -n
goo<i l'ith)
Upo., ,..i.r"ry o[ possession whl'h he has bFen unlau'fully
deprived may demand frui6 and danlages'
GJnerally,
he can do on t}Ie things
possessed everlrthing that
the law iutl.orDes os, rer to do until he is ousted by one who
has a betrPr righL.
Possession
in good faith and possession in ba<i faith
(Art'
s2q.
a) misla,ke upon a doubtftll oI duficult
quesuon ol law as
a basis of good faith. (An. 526'
par 3)'
K. Presumptions in fav-or of the possessor:
1. Of good faith until the contrary is proved
{Art
527)
2. Of contiluity of initiat good faitll in which possession was
comrnenced
or
possession in good faith does not lose this
charactei except in the case and from the moment
possessor
becaEe awate or is not urtawaie of improper or
r*'rongful
possession-
{Art.528)
Case: Card.ero 1). Cabrul, 122 SCRA 532
3. Of e4jo,'ment
of possession in the same character in which
po""J."iio.t *.. .iqrired until cootra'J/
is proved (Art 529)
4. Of non-interruption
of possession in favor of present
possessor who pro\,-es possessicn at a previous time untll
ihe contrary
is proved (Art. 554) Arts. l12o-1124J
5. Of continuous
possession or non_interruption
oI possession
of which he was wrongfully
deprived for all purposes
favorable to hirn
(Art. 561)
PROPERTY
Prof. Eduardo A. Labitag
25
6.
a.
b.
d.
Present possession presumed
to be the possession
at
previous
time & has coatinued to be so during intervening
time, unless proved
conLrary I t38
{2).
Other presumptions
.with
respect to specfic properties
oI
property
rights:
i. Of extension of possession
of real property to a1l
movables contained therein so long as it is not shov,,n
that they should be excluded; exceptions (Art. 426)
ii. Non-interruption
of possession
of hereditary pr:operB,
(Art. 533 & 1078)
in. Ofjust title in favor of possessor in concept of owrrer
(Art- 541; but see: Art_ 1141)
L Possession may be lost by:
Abandonment
Assignment, either onerous or gratuitous
Destiuction or total loss of thing or it goes out of comEerce
Possession by another; if possession has lasted longer than
one year; real right of possession not lost until after ten (10)
yeErrs
- subject to Art. 537 (acts merely tolerated, etc.)
Usufruct is a rea-l right, temporarjr in character that authorizes t}re
holder to enjoy a1l the advantages derived from a norlnal exploitation of
another's property,
accor.ding to its destination or purposer a'rld imposes and
ob)igation of restoring at t}re time specified, either tl]e. thing itself or its
equivalent.
VII. USUFRUCT
R
C.
D.
Concept - (Art. 562)
Historical considerations
Characteristics of Usufruct
Usufruct distinguished from lease; {rom servitude
Classes of Usufruct E.
PROPERry
Prof. Eduardo A" Labitag
26
l. By origin:
a. Volunta-ry
b. Legal - Art. 321 cc; Art. 226 Family Code
c. Mixed
2. By person eirjoying right of usufruct
a- Simple
b. Multiple
i. Siraultaieous
ii. Successive
Lirnil,ation on successive usukuct
lfu1'
756,863 & 869)
3 BY object of usufruct
a. Rights - (Art. 574)
b' Things
1. Noimal
2. Abnoimal, tregutar or quasi-usufruct
4. By the extent of the usufruct
a. As to rhe fruits
1. Total
2.. Partia.l (Art. 598)
b. As to object
i. . Siosu-tar
ii. Universa.l
(Art. 595)
- subject to provisions of Arts. 758 & 759
5. By tlte terms of
qsufruct (Art. 564)
a. Pure
b. Conditional
c. With a terrE
(Period)
F. Rights of Usufructuary
1. As to the thing and its fruit
PROPERTY
Prot Eduardo A Labitag
27
C<:.se; Fqbie u Dqaid 75 Phil'
536
.
c. Right to irarprove the thing (Art' 579)
2. Asio the legal right ofusuft-uct itself
a. Right to mortgage
right of usufruct (Art. 572)
a.
b.
Right to possess and enjoy ttre thing itself, its fruits
an(i accessions
- Fruit consist of natural, industrial a]]d civil
fruits
- As to hidden beasure, usufi"uctua4/ is
considered a stranger
(Art. 566; 436)
- Fr-uits pending at the beginnkrg of usufruct (Art-
s67)
- Civil fruits (Afl s. 569, 588)
Right to lease the thirre\Art. 572)
- Limitatioqs
- Liabitity of usufnrctua4r - lessor (Art. 590)
- Exceptions to right of leasing the thing
b. Rigbt to alienate the usufruct, except in purely
personal usufructs, or when title constituting it
Prohibits
the same.
C. Rights of the naked owner
l. At the beginning, during ard termination oI usukuct
(obligatioas of usufructuary at the beginning of usufruct)
2. During the usulruct:
a. Retains title to ttle thing or property
b. He may alienate the
ProPerty
Limitations
(Art. 581)
H. Obligations of Usuiructuary
28
PROPERTY
Prot. Eduardo A- Labitag
1. At the beginning of usufmct ot before exercising the
rrsufruct
A. to make inventorv
(Art. 583)
1. Requisites of inventcry
i lmmovables described
ii Movables appraised.
2. Exception to requirement
of inventory
i no one will be injured thereby
{Art
5B5)
ii tifle constitutiog
usuiruct
excused the
making of inventory
' :i"
*"r::Tl$"ns
usufruct alreadv mal<es
B. To give a-bond {or the faithful
performance of duties
as u sufructuary
1. No bond are required in the follov/ing:
i- No prejudice would result (Art 585)
ii- Usufruct is reserved by donqr (Art 584)
iii- Title constituting
usufruct excused
usufnrctualr
iv. Ifusufructuary
ta_kes possession under a
caucion
juratoria
2. Effect of filing a bond (Art 588)
3. Effect of failure to give bond (Art' 586' 599)
2. During the usukuct
a. To take care of t]le thing like a good father or a fainily
(An. 58c)
- Effect of failure to comply with obligation
(Art'
610)
b. To undertake ordinary repairs (Art 592)
- ConcePt of ordinarY rePairs
'
c- To notily owner of need to undertake extra-ordinary
repairs
(Art. 593)
PROPERTY
Prol,. Eduardo A. Labitag
I 1.
2.
29
1. Coflcept of extiaordina-ry repairs
2. Naked owner obliged to undertake them but
when made by owner, usufructuary
pays legal
interest on the anount v/hile usufi1lct lasts (Art-
594, par- 1)
3. Naked owne!.arlnoi tle compelled to unCerlak-e
eKra-ordinary repairs.
a. If indispensable and oqmer fajls to
underta.ke ex.taordinarlr repajrs may be
made by usufrucfuary; rePairs
.
usufi:uctuarJ/ right
{Art.
594, par. 2\
d. To pa1'for a!:lrrual chq4ges and taxes on tl-e fruits
f-
Co.se: Board of Assesstuent Appeak of Zarnboallga
delSrtr u. Samat Mining CofipanA, Inc.,
37 SCRA 734
To notify owner of aIry act detrimental to ownerstip
(Art. 601)
To shoulder the costs of Iitigation re usufruct
(Art'
602l
g- To alswer for fault or negligence of alienee, lessee, or
agent of usufructuarJ/
(tut. 590)
At t-l.e time termination of the usui-uct
To detver the tling in usutruct to tile oi&,]ler irr the cor1dition
in which he has received it, ater under-taking ordinary
repajrs.
- Exceplion: abnormal usulrucr
Special Cases of usu{ruct
1. Usulruct over a pension or
Penodical
income (Art- 570)
2. Usufruct of property owned irr common
(Art 582)
J
PROPERTY
Prof. Eduardo A. Labitag
30
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Usufruct of head of cattle
{Art.591)
Usufruct over vineyards and woodla]1ds (Arts. 575-576)
Usufruct on a right of action (Art. 57Bl
Usufruct on mo gaged property (AIt. 600)
Usufmct over an entire patrimony (Art. 598)
- Liability of usufruchrary for debts
Usufrxct over deteriorable property
{Art.
578)
{Isufrllct over consumable property
io.
quasi-usufruct)
Art.574)
K. Extinguishment. of usufruct
{Art.
603)
1- Dea*rofusufructuary
2.
3.
4.
Exception:
i.
i
unless a contrary intention clearly appeals
E
J}rra.tian
of period.or fulfilLment oi resolutory condition
d oI usufruct by person constitutmg the usuimct
cdses: Baluran L'. Nauarro,79 SCRA 309
NITA u. CA, Butaciot Garden CorP. u. Manila
Seedting Ba'l.k G.R. No. 148830, Apil 13' 2005
a. time that may elapse belole a third
Person
atta.ins a
certaifl age, eren if the latter dies before period expires
-
unless granted only in consideration of his existence
(Art.606)
Merger of rights of usufruct and naked o\rflership in one
person
Renunciation of usufruct
Limitations
I\4ust be express
If made in fraud of creditors, waiver may be
rescinded by them through action under Art.
1381.
5. Extinction or loss of propefq/
PROPERTY
Prof. Eduardo A. Labitag
b_
3'l
Il destroyed property is insured before the termination
ot Lhe usufruct
{Afl.
bo8)
1. When insurance premium paid by owner and
usufructuary
(Art. 6O8, Par. 1)
a. If o'wner rebuilds, usufruct subsists on
new building
b. If owner does not rebuild interest upon
insuralce
proceeds paid to usufruciuarj'
When the insurance taken by owner only
because usuf.uctuarlr refuses Art. 608, par. 2)
Owner entitled to insurance mofley
(no
interest paid to usufructuarjr)
If he does not rebuild, usufruct continues
over rernainirrg land a.nd/or owner may
pay interest on value of both (Art. 607)
If owner rebuilds, usufruct does not
continue on new building, but owner
must pay interest on value on land a-nd
o1d materials.
b.
3. When insurance taken by usufnrctuari/ only
depends on value of usufructuarJ/'s insurable
interest
{::rot
provided for in Civil Code)
a. Insurance proceeds to usufructuar,'
b. No obligation to rebuild
e. Usufruct continues on t}Ie land
d. Owner does not share in insurance
proceeds
If destroyed
propeity is not insured (Art. 607)
t- If buildir:g forms pan of an irrrmovable undcr
u su&uct
If owner does not rebuild, usulruct
continues over the lald and materials
If owner rebuilds, usufructua.rir must
allow owner to occupy t.l-e land and to
mal<e use of materials, but value of botll
t)
PROPERTY
Prof- Eduardo A. Labitag
6.
8.
32
and larld and materials.
Termination of right of
ferson
constituting the usufruct.
Prescription
Cases covered: If third parly acquires o&nership ot
ttring or property in usufruct or right of ownership lost
tlrough
prescription or right of usu{ruct not began l^,ithin
prescnptive period, or if there is a tacit abandonment or
non-user of tldng held in usufruct for required period.
What do not cause extinguishment of usufruct
a_
b.
Er,propriation of thing in usufruct (Art. 609)
Bad use of thing in usufmet (Art. 810)
Owner's righL
Usufruct over a building
{Art.
607, 608)
VIII. EASEMENT OR
SERVITUDES
A. Definition - Easements or real servitudes is a real right which
burdens a thing with a presentation consistlng of determinate servitLrdes for
the exclusive enjoJaarent of a person who is not its owner or of a tenement
belonging to anottrer, or, it is the real right over arl immovable by nature i.e.
land arrd buildings, by virtue of which the owner of ttle same has to abstain
from doing or to allow sornebody else to do something in his property for the
benefit of another thing/or person.
B. Essentialfeatlu:eof easements/realservitudes/praedialservitudes
L Il- is a real right, i.e., it gives an action in rem or real action
against rny possessor of servient estate.
2. It is a right enjoyed over another property
Uus
in re alrena)
-
i.e., it cannot exist in one's own property (nulti res sua
seruii.
3. It is a right constituted over an immovable by nature (Land
and buildings), not over movables.
PROPERTY
Prof. EduardoA. Labitag
4.
5.
6.
7.
B,
9.
10.
11.
C.
servient
Property
33
It limits t}le servient ol{trer's dght of ownership for tlte
benefit of the dominani esrate. Rrghl oI timiled use, but no
right to possess seruient estate. Being an abrlbrmal
Iimitation of ow:nership, it cannot be presumed.
It cleates a relatior between tenements
It cannot consist in requiring the owner of the servient
Fslate io do c;r act,
(s.rutus in
fcciendo
,-onsislere nequi4
unless t-he act is accessory to a praedial serwitude
{obligation
proptet reni
Generally,
.it
may consist rn the owner of the dominant
estate demanding that ihe o!Laer of the servient estate
refrairr from doing something (senntus in non
faciendo),
or
that the latter permit that sonethjng be done over the
(seruitus in paterulo\, but not i].r the iight to demand that the
owrrer of the sersient right to demand tllat the o'rner of the
seflrlent estale do sornrcthing
lseruitus
in
faciendo)
except if
such act is aJr accessory obtigation to a praedial servitude
(obligatfor. propter reni.
(Characteristics of easements) :
It is inherent or inseparable from eslate to which they
actively or passively belong (Art- 617)
Jr is intransmissible, i.e., rt cannot be alienarcd sepaJately
from t}Ie tenement afected, or benehted.
It is indMsible. (Art. 616)
Ii has peflratreflce, i.e., once it attaches, whether used or
not, it continues and may be used at anlrtirare.
Classilica'.ion of Servitudes
1. As,to recipient of benelits:
a Real or Praedial
PROPERTY
Prof. Eduardo A. Labitag
34
b. Persona]
(Art. 614
usufruet togetlter
) IBut
note that under Roman Law,
with usus tvTbitatio, aI].d o?erde
serrorum were classilied as personal servitudesl
2. As to course or origin:
a. l-egeJ, whether for public use or
private persons (Art. 634)
b. Voluntary
As to its exercise (Art. 615)
a. Continuous
b. Discontinuous
As indication of its existence
(A'rt- 615)
a. Appa;ent
b. Non_appa.rent
for the interest of
3.
4.
5.
D.
By the object or otiigation imposed
{Art
616)
a. Positive
b. Negative
(prescription start to run from seruice of
notarial
prohibition)
General ru1es relating to servitudes
1- No one ca'r have a servitude over his ov'n
prope*y (ru''lli res
sud serL'iq
2. A servihrde carlrlot consist iJl doing {seruials
in
faciendo
c/jnsisterc nequitl
There callnot be a servitude over another seivitude (Seruil s
senihrtes esse non
Potesq
4. A servitude must be exercised cifiter, i.e., in
burdensorne to the otner of the land.
5. A seruifude musl have a perpefual cause.
Modes of Acquiring Easements
a *aY 1ea"t
3.
E.
PROPERTY
Prof. Eduardo A. Labitag
35
Cdse: North Negros u. Hidalgo, 63 Phil. 664
By tiUe-juridical act which give rise to ttre servilltde,,e.g- law,
donations, contlacts or wills-
Ccse: Dumangas u. Bi.shop oJJaro,34 Phil.541
a. If
(asemenl
has becn acquircd but co proof of
existence of easement available, and easement is one
that cannot be acquiied by prescription - then
1. May be cured by deed of recognition by owner of
servient estate, or
2. By finaljudgment
&.r.
1
2_
3. Existence of arl apparent sign considered a title
wt.624)
i
Cdse: Arnor u. FkarentirTo, 74 Phil. 404
'
F-
By piescription
ca.se: Rowluillo u. Roco,
Rights and Obligations of Owners
Estates.-
63 Phil. 86
of Dominant arrd Sersieot
1. Right of owner of domfurant estate
To use the easement (tut. 626) and exercise all rights
necessar5r for the use of the (Art. 625)
To do at his expense, all necessarl/ works for the use
aird preservadon of the easement (Art. 627)
ln a riBht. of way. lo ask for change in vridth of
easement sufficient for needs of dominart estate (Art.
6s1)
cdse: De Lunat u. Encomacion
t_.
Obligations ofthe owner of Dominant Estate: 2
I
PROPERTY
Prof. Eduardo A. Labitag
a- To use the easement for ltnelit of immovable a]ld in
tl:e rrla.rrner originally established
{Art.
626}
b- To notify owner of ser-vient estate before making
repairs and to make repairs :in a manner least
inconvenient to senient estate (Art 627)
c. Not to alter easement cr render it more burdensome
(Art. 627)
Case: VdkJ-etdflL\ D. Norih Negros
,
48 Phil' 482
d. To contribute to expenses of works necessarjr lor use
and preservation of servitude,
if there are several
dominalt estates, uBless be renourrces his interest
(Art. 628)
3. Rights of owner of seflrieDt estate
a. To retain ownership arrd use ofhis property (Art 630)
b. To change tlle place ald maIlner of use the easement
(An 629, paL 2l
4. Obligations of the servient estate
a. Not to impair tlrc use of the easement
{Art.
628, par'
1)
b. To contribute
proportionately to expenses if he uses
the easement
l
n.62A,
Par'
2l
G. Modes of kioguishmeot of Easemelts:
1. Merger - must be absolute, pei'fect and deflnite, not merely
temporary.
2. By non-user for 10
Years
36
a. Computation of the period
PROPERTY
Prof. Eduardo A" Labilag
'37
(1) disconti.uous easements; counted from the day
they ceased to be used
\2j
contifluous easements: countdd from the day an
act adverse to the exercise took place.
b. The use by a co-owner of tie dominart estate bais
prescription witl' respect to the others. (Art. 633i
c. Ser-vitudcs nct
-ret
exercised cannot be extinguished
by non-user.
3. Extinguishment by impossibility of use
4. Expir.ation of tl'e term or fulfillment of resolutory condition
5. Renunciation of the owler of domina-rtt estate - must be
specific ciear, express (distioguis}ed fraqr non-usqr}
6. Redemption agreed upon between tl.e owners
7. Other causes not mentioned in Art. 631
a. Annulment or iescission of the Title aonstituting
t]le
easement
b. termination of the right of grartor
c abandonrnent of tfeiiervient estate
'
d- eminent domain
e. special cause for extinction of legal rights of way; iI
right of v/ay; if right of way 1o longer necessary
H. Irgal Easements
1. Law Goveming l,egal Easements -
a. For
public easements
PROPERTY
Prof. Eduardo A. Labitag
38
1) special laws arld .egirlalions relating thereto,
e.9., Pres. Decree 1067, P.D- 705
2l' by the provisions of Chapte. 2, Tit1e \4I, Book II t
New Civil Code
b. For private legal easements
1) by agreement of the interested parties whenever
the larv does not prohibit it and no injul, is
suffered by a third- person
2) by the provisions of Chapter 2, Tit-le VII Book II
2- Private Lega.l Easements provided for by the New Civil Code
a. those established for the use of water or easements
relating to waters (Art- 637-648)
1) Natural drainage ofwaters (Art. 637)
Cdse: Orqsiako u. Otlgsiaka
2) Easements on lands along riverbanks (Art. 638),
See Water Code
3) Abutment of a daln
{Art.
639)
4) Aqueduct(Art.642-646)
5) Drau/ing waters and watering animals (Alt. 640)
6) Stop lock or sluice gate (Art., 649)
b. The easement of right of way (Arts. 649-657)
Cdses:
Quben
u. CA, G.R. No. 112331, MaU 29, 1996
Dduid. Ctan u. CA" 268 SCRA 677
LLl Vsta Assn. v. CA, c.R. No.95252,
Sepl. 5, 1997
Vda, De Beltazar u. CA, 245 SCRA 333
Sps. de la Cntz u. RamiscaL G.R. No. 137882,
Feb. 4, 2OOs
c. The easement of party wall (Arts. 658-666)
d. The easement of light and view (An.667-673)
e. The easement of drainage of buildings
{Arts.
67a-676j
PROPERTY
Profi Eduardo A. Labitag
39
f. . The easement of distaice for certain constructions
ald plantings (Arts- 677-681)
g. The easement against nuisarces (Art. 682-683)
h. The easement of lateral arrd subjacent support
{Arts.
6A4-6A7)
Book IU - Different Modes of Acquiri.ng Ownership
1. MODE AND TITLE DIFFERENTIATED
Mode is llre specdic cause which produces domirion and
other ieal r-ights as a result of the co-existeflce of specia.l status of
things, capacity and intention of persons afld fulfillment of the
iequisites oi lav,.
Title is every
juddical
right which gives a means to the
acquisition of real rights but which in itselJ is insufficient.
2. MODES OF ACQUIRING OWNERSHIP
a. Origilal Modes - which produce the acquisition of ownership
independent of any pre-existing right oI another person,
hence, free lrom ani burdens ol encrlrarbrances.
i. occupatioa
ii. irtellectualcreation
b. Derivative Modes - based on a right previously beld by
another person, and therefore, subject to the same
characteristics
polveas,
burdens, etc. as when held by
previous owner.
1. Law - e.g. registration under Act 496; estoppel of title
undei Art- 7434 cc; marriage under absolute
community of property system; hidden treasure;
accession
{Art.
445); change in river's course (Ait.
{61}; accession continua over movables
{Art.
466);
Arts, 681, 1456 CC, and Art. 120 FC:
i- Donation
40
PROPERTY
Prof. Eduardo A. Labitag
Succession
Presctiplion
Tradition
Requisites:
Pre-existence
olright in estate of granior
Just causc ol utle for lc lransmission
Intention -
{of
both
grantot and gr?.ntee}
Capacily - Lo transmit aj1ci to acquire
An act
giving it outward form, physically,
symboticaly,
or legally.
Lesal Maximi
",ryon nudis poctis, sed traditione' dominio rerum
transkrentur"
(Not by mere aP,reement
'
bfl by delivery'
is oflnershiP trarlsferred)'
i
Kinds ofTradition:
':: '
:.
;
a. Real TladiLion -
b. Conskuctive Tradition
:
i. S)T nbotical delivery
ii- . Delivery of Pubtic lnstmme4t'-
}
iv. Tla.ditio BPA manu
\. Ttadiho Consfitufum Possessonum
vi.
Quasi-Tradition
vn. Traditioa bY operation oJ law
3. OCCUPATION
(1)
(2)
(3)
{4)
(s)
a.
b.
d.
e.
l.
Not applicable to ownership of a piece of land (Art. 7 1 4 CC)
Privilege to hunt arld fish regulated by special law (Art. 715)
Occupation of a swarm of bees or domesticated animals (Art'
716) - see also Art. 560
Pigeons and llsh
{Art.
717)
Hidden treasure (Att. 718) see also Ar:ts. 438-439
l,ost movables;
procedure after finding lost movables (Art'
779-720|
INTELLECTUAL CREATION - Intetlectual Property Code
PROPERTY
Prdf'Eduardo A Labitag
(Rep. Act No. a293)
Intellecrual Property tughls (lPR):
a. Copyrighl & relaled rights
b- Trademarks & service marks
c. Geographicindications
d- Industrial desi8ns
e- Patents
I Topographies of integrateC circuits
g- Rights of performers, producers of sbund recordings &
broadcasting orgs.
h ProtectionofurdisclosedinforEatioa
i. Laws repealed by t]le intellectua-l Properuy Code (Sec 239)
All Acts arld part of Acts iDconsistent
with lntelectual
Propel tv Code,
ParticuiarlY:
- Pres. Decree No. 49 - In Lel.lecrual Property Decree,
including PD 2aS as amended
- Rep. Act. No. 165, as amended - Patent Law
- Rep- AcL No. 166, as anended
-
Arts. 188 & 189 ofthe Revised Penal Code
DONATION
'
I. Nature of Donatron - A bilateral corrtract creating unilateral
obligations on donor's,
Palt'
. Requisiies of donation:
a. Consent and capacity of tire parties
b. Anit ltts donaidi (caus\
c. Delivery of thing donated
d. Form as
Prescribed
bY law
Note: There mus! be impoveristrment
(in fact) of donor's patrimony
and enrichment on
PaJt
of donee)
lII. Kinds of donatrons
1. As to its taking effect
a. Inter ui,os
{Ar-.s.729,73O'
731)
41
PROPERTY
Prof. Eduardo A. Labitag
b. Mortis causa
\,\rt.
728)
c. Proptet nuptias (Arts. 82, 87, Family Code)
2. As to cause or consideration:
a. simple
b. renumeraiory
c. onerous- (imposes a burderr inferior in to value
ProPcrtY
dona ledl
i. improper-burderl equai
ir1
vaiue to
Property
donated
i. sub-modo or modal - e.g. imposes a prestation
upon donee as to how property donaied will be
aPlied
{See:
Art. 882 C.C.)
iii. mixed donatioDs - negotiutrl fiixfur/L cltil
doft(ttione e.g. sale for price lower than value of
property
Cdse: Ingazo u. Court of Appeats, 287 SCRA 24
3 As to elfeccvity or exting.,*fr-"rrt
a. pure
b. conditional(Art.730,731J
i. effect of aJ} impossible condition
c. v/ith a term
4. Importance of classification
a. as to lorm
b. as to goverring rules
c. as to i&possible conditions - Art - 727
,
11-83
5. Char:acteristics ol a donation fltoras cousa
a. convey no tltle or ovnership before donor's death
b. before donor's death transfer is revocable.
c. transfer is void if donor survives donee,
6. Distinction between donation martis causa and donation
inter uiros.
1: a. what is irarportant is the
@
of transfer of owaership,
even
U
transfer of property donated may be subject to
a condition or a term.
PROPERTY
Prof;-Eduardo A. Labita g
b. importance of classfication - validit5r ald revocation of
donation.
cosesi Bonsato u. Court of Appedls, 95 Phil. 481
Gestopa D. Coutt of Appeals, 342 SCRA 1OS
A stia-Magat u. CA, G.R. No. 106755,
Feb. 1, 2OO2
IV. - Who Inay not give or receive dcnations - Art..735, 737,734,741,
742
V. Who may give or receive donations (Art' 736, 739
11027,
lo32l,
:"
74O,743' 744)
.'.i Cdses: Vitug u. Cottrt ofAppedls, 1B3SCRA755
I
' Henledes u. Court ol Appeals, 316 SCR4 347
Vl. Acceptance ol donauon
a. who may acceqt
lArt.
745,747)
b. time of acceptance of donation inter vivos
{Art-
746) -
donation morlis causa
Cd.se: Lagazo u. Court of Appeals, 287 SCRA 24
Vll. Form of donations
a. personal
ProPertY {Art.
748)
b. real property (Att. 749)
c. Rules in Art- 748 and 749 not applicable to
i. onerous donations
ii. modal dona$ons
in. rlorris c(Ir,sa donations
iv. donations propfer tutpfies
Ca.se: Sumipat u. Banga, G.R, No. 155810,
Aug. 13, 2OO4
VIII- what may be donated
1. AII present property, oi par-t thereof, of donor
a. provided he reserves, in futl omership o. usufruct,
sufhcient means for support of himself arrd all
43
PROPERTY
Prof. Eduardo A Labitag
IX-
44
relatives entitled to be supported by donor at time of
accePla,'li e lArl. 750)
Cc.se:
Calicdan u. Cendoha, G-R- No. l55O8O'
l'eb. 5. 2004
i.'
b. provideri that no person may give or receive by way of
donation, more than he may give or receive by will
lAIj'.
752\ a-lso, reselves propErty sulllcient to pay
clonor's debts contracted before donation, otherwise,
donation is in fraud of creditors,
(Arts. 759, 1387)
If donation exceed tfre disposable or free portion of tris estate,
donation is inofficious.
Exceptjons:
a. donations
provided for in marriage setdements
between iuture spouses (Art. a4, Farnily Code; Art'
130 C.C.) - not more tharl 1/5 ol present property'
b- donatrons
propter nuptlas by an ascendant consisting
of
jewelry,
furniture or clothing not to exceed 1/ 10 of
disposable
portion (Art. 1O7o)
2. what may not be donated
a. future
propetty - meaning of future property'
Alything which donor cannotdispose of at tie time of
donatiorr
(A.r-t. 751) exception: marriage settlements of
firture spouses only in event of death to extent laid
down iTl civil code re:testarnentaS/ succession (Art'
13O C.C.; Art. 84 Fanily Code)
Effeci of Donaticn
ln general
Cqse: Sllopper's Poradise Re.lltA u. Raque, G.R. No. 14B775,
Jan. 13, 2004
1. Dooee maydemand actual delivery of ttring donated.
2. dorrce is subrogated to rights of donor in t-I-e properly
donated
(Art. 754)
PROPERTY
Prof. Eduardo A Labltag
lAtt.
272; 7la3)
x. Revocation ard Reduction of Donations
3.
4.
5.
6.
Donor not obliged to warralt things donated, except
in onerous donations in which case donor is liable for
eviction up tCextent of burden
{Art.
754i
Donor is liable for eviction or hidden defects in case of
bad faith oo his part (Art. 754)
In donations
plgptPj-ltuplil, donor must release
property donated from mortgages and other
encumbra.nces, unless contrary has been stipulated
_
{Art.
131 C.C.)
a. Donations
propter nuptia's ol property subject to
encumbraltces are valid. Effect of foreclosure
{Art.
8s FC)
Donadons to several donees
joiatly - no right of
accretion, except;
a. Donor
provides otherwise
b. Donatlon to husband a'rd wife
johtly with right
of accretion 6us
accrescendi),
uriless doooi
provides otherwise (Art. 753)
Special provisions
t. nese*atioo by donor of power to dispose
iir!
whole or
in patt) or to encumber
property donated (Art- 755)
2. Donation of nal<ed owllership to one donee and
usufruct to anottrer
(Art. 756 CC)
3. Conventional
reversion in favor of doltor or other
person (Art' 757)
4. PaJrment of donor's debt - (ArL 758)
a. If expresslY sliPulated
-
1. donee to pay only detrts contracted before
the donation, unless specified otheiwise -
but in no case shall donee be responsible
for
debts exceeding
valaue of property
donated, unless clearlY intended'
b. If there is no stipulation - Donee alswerairle
only fot donor's debt only in case of doflation is
in fraud of creditors.
5. Illeal or impossible conditions
45
B.
PROPERTY
Prof. Eduardo A. Labitag
A. Revocation distinguished from reduction of donations'
I
B- Causes of Reduction/ Revocation
1. Inofficiousness of donation
iln
752,771,773; Art'
911 & 912 a-lso
goverr reduction
a.
Who rnaY ask for reduction
(772J
b. Rule applied ' .If
disposable
portion not
sulEeient to cover two or more donations
{Art-
7731
2. Subsequent birth, reappearance
of child or adoption
of minor bY donor
{Art
760)'
46
C. Revocation (onlY)
1. Ingratitude{.qrt.765)
a. Causes
b. Time to file action for revocation
(Art. 769)
c. who Eay frle (Art. 77o)
d- Efiect of revocation
i- On alienatiohs arrd mortgages
lArt.766;7671
Cases: F.duaie u, Court of APPeals,
253 SCRA 391
Noced.a v. Co rt of APPeaLs,
313 SCRA 5O4
.
2. Violation of condition
a. Presqiption of action
b. Transmissibili$ of action
Case: Yuto and Sotts v. Roman Catlalic Bishop
of San Pablo, G.R. No. 133705,
March3l,2OOs
PROPERTY
Prof.' Eduardo A Labitag
47
Effect of revocation or reductlon - (Art. 762, 764 par.
2,767)
Effect as to fruits
{Art.
768)
3.
4.
xt.
1.
Lease
General characteristics
{of
every lease)
i. temporary duration
ii. onerous
iii. price is fixed according to contr:act dulatron
Kinds of Leases
ltut.
1732-1763l.
Lease of Things
a. coocept - (Art' 1643)
b. consuEable things carinot be t]le
excepE (ArL 1645)
2.
4-
b.
c.
Lease of tldngs - rnovables end immovables
Lease of wod. or conkact of lahor (Arts. 77AO.fi 12|,
T,ease of services
i. household sewice
ii. coEtract for a piece ofwork
{ArG.
1713-I731)
iii. lease of services oi common camers
subject matter of lease,
i. consrunahle only for disptay or advertising
(lease ad pornpan et ostenlation-efii
ii.
goods are accessory to an industrial establishment,
e.g. coal in a factory
c. special characteristics oflease of things:
i. essential purpose is to trans,Eit the use 6,rd
enjo]rrnent of a thing
ii. consensual
iii. onerous
iv. price fixed in relation to penod of use or enjojment
v. temporarja
I
PROPERTY
Prof. Eduardo A- Labitaq
48
d- lease distinguished from sa1e, usufruct, commodatum
e.
period of lease - cannot be perpetual
i. definite period not more than 99 years
ii. indefinite period:
a. rural land (Art. 1682)
b. urban land
(Art. 1687)
f. assignment of lease
{Art.
1649)
g. sublease lArl.
t650)
i. ofHouse Rental Law
{R.A
877)
ii. obligation of sublessee to iessor
{Art
l651)
a. lb! rents
{Art.
1652)
h. Rights and obligations oflessor and lessee:
i. obligations of Iessor (Art. 1654, i661)
ii. obligations of lessee (Art. 1657
,
1662, 1663, 1665,
r 668. 1667)
iii. right of lessee to suspend pa5mrent of reotals
{Art.
1658)
C.,se: Ch a Tee Dee (Piofteer Enterprises u, CA,
' GR. No. 157568, MdA 18'2oo4
iv. right io ask for rescission (Art. 1659, 1660)
v. lessor not obliged to answer for mere act of trespass
bY a third
person (Art. 1664)
i. Grounds for ejectment of Lessee by Lessor (Art. 1673) (Note
the grourrds under the House Rental Law
Query.
Aie they
still effective?)
j.
zughi to ask foi wiit of pieliminary mar}datory injunctlon in
unlawful detainer cases
{Art.
1674; 539 par. 2)
k. Implied extension oflease (Arts. 1,670, 16a2,1647, 1675)
L Right o[ purchaser ofleased land
{Art
167b, 16771
PROPERry
Prof. Eduardo A Labitag
4g
m. Useful improt ements in good faith made by lessee (A-rt.
r 678)
n. Special provisions for leases of rural lards (Art. 1680-1685)
o. Special provisions for leases oi rlrban lands (Art. 1686- 1688)
-oooOoG