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Chapter 15 Notes

The West and the Changing World Balance

I. Introduction
A. 1400 world in period of transition
1. ownfall of Ara! caliphate
". #pread of $ongols
%. Who would ta&e new international trade role' $a(!e China'
B. But)*nter the *uropeans finall(+ the(,-e !een !ehind e-er(one for .000 (ears
1. Ital(+ #pain+ /ortugal too& leadership role
". A0ericas couldn,t respond to *uropean in-asions
C. 1e( 2uestion wh( did different ci-ili3ations react differentl('
1. This could !e a &e( 2uestion notice the word differences
a. This class 4ust lo-es to co0pare ci-ili3ations
II. The ecline of the 5ld 5rder
A. 1"00 $iddle *ast run !( B(3antine *0pire 6North7 Ara! *0pire 6#outh7
1. But)Tur&s too& o-er B(3antines in 145%+ 1"5. $ongols 8 Caliph
B. #ocial and Cultural Change in the $iddle *ast
1. 9eligious leaders gained power o-er artistic leaders in Ara! world
a. New piet( thin& a!out orthodo: $usli0s toda(
!. 9eligious art the0es
c. 9ationalis0 of ;reece 6<ellenis07 now seen as !ad+ a threat
1. )don,t thin& this is 4ust Ara! world+ *uropeans getting scared of
logic=rationalis0 as well
". *cono0ic shifts
a. As centrali3ed power slows+ pro-incial leaders 6landlords7 get 0ore power
1. <000)what an interesting pattern I,-e ne-er seen !efore
!. But)!ad things resulted
1. >ower agricultural (ield
". >ess ta:es
%. >ess trade
4. Indian 5cean trade still strong
c. A gradual decline+ not sudden li&e in 9o0e
d. But)e-en though politicall( wea&+ other political areas too& 0ore power
1. 5tto0an Tur&s too& o-er control 0ore powerful than !efore
C. A /ower ?accu0 in International >eadership
1. 5tto0an Tur&s not an international leader li&e Isla0ic caliphate
". $ongols pro-ided ne:t glo!al leader
a. *ncouraged interregional trade
!. *:changed technolog(=ideas
c. *nd of e0pire turned to sea!orne trade+ as land trade less protected
. Chinese Thrust and Withdrawal
1. $ing @!rilliantA d(nast( too& o-er 1%B.81B44
a. pushed out $ongols first
!. re8esta!lished tri!utar( lin&s with #outheast Asian states
". #tate8sponsored trade e:peditions
a. Ad0iral( Chenghe 1405814%% led -ast+ unparalleled fleet
1. Dor0er eunuch wh( do (ou thin& leaders li&e eunuchs for ad-isors'
". Brought fleet of ".+000 troops scared the willies out of local leaders
!. *-entuall( !rought !ac& threatened the Confucian !ureaucrats
1. 9e0e0!er the( don,t li&e 0erchants ha-ing power
". 5ther reasons cost
a. $one( !etter spent !uilding Bei4ing+ fighting $ongols
%. What if Chinese &ept trading' >ost chance to !e world power
a. aint( little *uropean ships no 0atch
!. Dollowed Chinese pattern of spending 0one( internall(+ practicall(
1. Not li&e West+ where power is 4udged !( e:pansion
4. Instead wor&ed on infrastructure population increased+ 0anufacturing i0pro-ed
5. Ara!s on decline+ $ongols d(ing out+ China not stepping to the plate)leads to)
III. The 9ise of the West
A. Wh( is their rise surprising'
1. #till awed !( other !ureaucracies
". Church under attac&
%. warrior aristocrats softened life ridiculous tourna0ents=ar0or
4. li-es of ordinar( *uropeans falling apart
a. fa0ine
!. -ulnera!le to !u!onic plague
1. China,s population hit !( %0E
". *urope lost %0 0illion
a. >ed to stri&es=peasant uprisings
B. #ources of (na0is0F $edie-al ?italit(
1. Wh( was *urope still strong'
a. #trong regional go-ern0ents created during feudalis0
!. $ilitar( inno-ations than&s to <undred Gears War
1. Nonaristocratic soldiers regular gu(s not paid !o( go-,t
". /aid !( central go-,t H 0ore ta:es H 0ore central power
c. ;rowth of cities helped co00erce
d. Church content with capitalis0 notice alliteration
e. Technolog( i0pro-ing 0etalwor&
C. I0itation and International /ro!le0s
1. Technolog( pushes e:pansion
a. uring $ongol period *urope has ideal access
1. Not controlled+ !ut still in-ol-ed in trade
". Internal conflict spurs regions to i0pro-e technolog( to win !attles
". International Dactors push e:pansion
!. Interest in lu:ur( goods
c. No!od( wants *uropean products+ so the( ha-e to pa( in gold
1. *urope doesn,t ha-e gold)so)the( need to go find so0e
d. Dears of a $usli0 threat
1. Need to secure Western ports
". Need to create sea trade since $usli0s now control land trade
. #ecular irections in the Italian 9enaissance
1. Dirst)I can,t !elie-e we,re going to spend two paragraphs tal&ing a!out the
9enaissance when this was discussed ad nauseu0 in Western Ci-
". West,s surge forward re!irth of culture and political -iews of Classical *urope
a. Artists create 0ore hu0an8centered wor&s of art hu0anis0
!. Artist=writers pushed for own reputation
c. Wor&s now secular+ and religious si0ultaneousl(
d. Ital( started wealth( 0erchants want to i0press others patrons
1. <elp sponsor cultural acti-ities+ scholars co0petition
*. <u0an ?alues and 9enaissance Culture
1. Docus of art changes it,s a cultural re-olution
a. #u!4ect people+ nature+ portraits
!. Created perspecti-e
c. ?i-id+ realistic statues li&e classic 9o0e=;reece
". But)not a full !rea& fro0 $edie-al World)usuall( had to in-ol-e religion too
%. Change 0indset loo&ing outward
a. Building ships+ pushing co00erce
!. A0!itious cit(8state go-ern0ents funded new -entures
c. <u0an a0!ition+ pursuit of glor( focused on e:ploration=con2uest
D. The I!erian #pirit of 9eligious $ission
1. #panish and /ortugese rulers pushing 0ilitar(=religious agenda
a. ;oal of ar0ies push Christianit(+ &ic& out Ara!s=Iews
!. ;o-ern0ent enforced Church codes
c. In2uisition courts to enforce orthodo:(
d. 1e()go-ern0ent with religious 0ission
I?. Western *:pansionF The *:peri0ental /hase
A. *arl( *:plorations
1. Western route to the Indies spice trade area'
a. ?i-aldis fro0 ;enoa sailed off to the land of nowhere-ille
!. $ostl( had to stic& to the coast of Africa
". After 14%0+ so0e na-igational pro!le0s sol-ed
a. co0pass=astrola!e na-igation !( stars fro0 Ara!s
!. I0pro-ed 0ap0a&ing
c. !ut)geographicall( inaccurate 0aps gi-e false confidence
d. 14J. ?asco de ;a0a heads to Indian 5cean
B. Colonial /atterns
1. <ow to 0a&e e:peditions profita!le'
a. <enr( the Na-igator pushed for scientific+ intellectual+ religious+ econo0ic
". Islands off Africa !eca0e test ground for colonialis0
a. large agricultural estates
1. sugar+ cotton+ to!acco
!. !rought in sla-es !( /ortugese
%. #uccess of earl( progra0s led to e:pansion
4. Dorces influencing *uropean e:pansion
a. inferiorities and fears 8 $usli0s
!. energies of 9enaissance 0erchants
c. econo0ic pressures
d. population surge
?. 5utside the World Networ&
A. Introduction
1. A0erica=/ol(nesia not affected !( world e:change the(,d !e centuries !ehind
". New pro!le0s left ci-ili3ations -ulnera!le
B. /olitical Issues in the A0ericas
1. 9esent0ent for leadership
a. Dor so0e reason tri!ute regions tired of !eing ensla-ed+ sacrificed
". 5-ere:tension difficult to control
%. 5ther cultures de-eloping 0a(!e would ha-e surpassed
4. All irrele-ant+ !ecause when *uropeans arri-e)
C. *:pansion+ $igration+ and Con2uest in /ol(nesia
1. Between K
and 14
spread eastward <awaii spread culture
a. #ociet( in caste s(ste0 0ilitar( leaders=priests do0inate
!. No written language oral histor(
. Isolated Achie-e0ents !( the $aori
1. .
centur( $aori in New Cealand
a. $ost ela!orate art
!. $ilitar( leaders=priests ha-e great power
c. #la-es
". Because de-eloped in isolation
a. ?ulnera!le to disease
!. Inferior weapons
c. Cultural disintegration
*. Adding up the Changes
1. $aster plan that *uropeans would do0inate or series of coincidences'
a. /olitical insta!ilit( in A0ericas
!. e-eloped in isolation left technologicall( inferior
c. ?ulnera!le to diseases
d. China decides not to continue pursuit of world trade do0ination
e. Indi-iduals tr( to i0pro-e *urope,s trade deficit <enr( the Na-igator
f. $usli0 i0pact on Africa less control
g. Africans don,t !enefit fro0 trade with $ongols
?I. ;lo!al Connections
A. ;lo!al contacts
1. $usli0 traders=0issionaries still acti-e
". $ongols readil( shared ideas fro0 one end of e0pire to the other
%. China 0ade new contacts
4. But !( 1450)who would do0inate ne:t was in flu:
B. 1e( continuit(
1. 9egions re2uired trade to sur-i-e
a. Africa relied on $iddle *ast
!. #outheast Asia lin&ed to $usli0 traders=China
c. Western *urope contacts increasing
d. China+ India+ $iddle *ast see Africa=*urope as consu0er source
C. And that,s it)not that painful of a chapter+ agree'