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Heavy Oil Programs

Click on Description to get to Program


To use programs:
Input data in white cells, answers in green cells.

Program

Description

Conversion Factors

API - Determines oil API, density and molecular weight at any temperature

Water Properties: Density and thermal properties of water

Thermal Properties: Heat capacity, thermal conductivity and diffusivity of


fluid saturated rocks/and liquids

Viscosity of Liquid Mixtures & Emulsions

PVT: Determine Bo, Bw,Bg, GOR, Pb,compressibility, dead/live oil viscosity at reservoir temperature

Steam Tables

Heat of Combustion

Heat Conduction: erfc function

Hot Water Injection: Temperature away from injector

10

Steam Zone Volume

11

Steam Conformance

12

Oil-Steam Ratio

13

Combustion Parameters

14

Single Phase Pressure Drop in Pipeline

15

Wellhead Steam Rates and Pressure Drops

16

Waterflood Voidage Replacement Ratio

17

Bottomhole Pressure Determination from Acoustic Shot

18

Recombination at Separator

19

Residual Oil Saturation After Steamflood

20

Reserves

21

SAGD

22

Horizontal Wells

23

Thermal Casings

24

Wellbore Heatlosses

25

Reservoir Properties

26

Optimum Working Interest

27

Optimum Number of Drilling Locations and PDV

28

Success-Fail Model

29

Original-Gas-In-Place

30

Refinery Calculations

30.1

Petroleum Fractions

31

Relative Permeability

32

Slurry Viscosity

33

DST

34

Volumetrics

35

Engineering Economics

36

Sask Royalties

37

Alta Royalties

38

Oil Prices

39

OPEC and World Production

40

Progressive Cavity Pumps and Pumps (IPR)

41

Steam Distribution Systems

42

Minimum Miscibility Pressure & VAPEX

43

EOR Parameters

44

EOR Royalties

45

Tracers - Radioactive

46

Heavy Fractions

47

Mining

48

Production Facilities

49

Catalyst

50

Canadian Dollar

51

References and Assignments

METRIC TO
IMPERIAL

CONVERSION

Input Here:
METRIC UNITS
Length

Area

1
250
1

m
km
cm

10000

m2

m2

1000

m2

km2

4143.9
1
1

ha
ha
ha

7
60
1
1
13
1
1
1
14
1
1

m3
m3
m3
m3
m3
m3
m3
e3 m3
litres
litres
litres

Mass

1
1
1
454
150

kg
Tonnes
Tonnes
gm
metic tonnes CO2

Pressure

8000
1
0.2

kPa
MPa
bar

Volume
Oil Volume
Water Volume
Butane Volume
Propane Volume
Ethane Volume
Gas volume
Gas Volume
Liquid Volume
Liquid Volume
Liquid Volume

Gauge+101.3kPa=Absolute P

Pressure Gradient

kPa/m

Force

Newtons

Dynamic Viscosity

mPa-s

Kinematic Viscosity

m2/s

Temperature

13

deg C

5
1
1

deg C
K
K

1000

kg/m3

kg/m3

Specific Volume

m3/kg

Flow Rate

0.0008
1
1
546

m3/s
m3/s
kg/s
tonne/d

Permeability

1
1

m2
micro m2

Heat, Enthalpy

kJ

GJ

Specific Heat

kJ/kg-K

Volumetric heat Capacity

kJ/m3-K

Specific Enthalpy

kJ/kg

Heat Flow Rate

kW

Thermal Conductivity

1
1

kW/m-K
W/m-K

Thermal Diffusivity

m2/s

Heat Transfer Coefficient

kW/m2-K

Density

Horsepower

Electricity

1 gigawatt hour = 3600 GJ

GOR

10

m3/m3

Concentration

mg/kg

Geothermal Gradient

deg C/m

Gas Constant R

82.053

cm3-atm/(g-mole deg K)

8.3143

J/(g-mole deg K)

Radioactive Amount

1.48E+10

Becquerels (Bq)

Radioactive Dose

gray (gy)

rem

IMPERIAL
TO METRIC

CONVERSION

kW

Input Here:
IMPERIAL UNITS
Length

Area

ft

1
1
1

yd
mile
inches

ft2

yard2

acres

sections

1
1
1

sections
acres
ft2

Volume

6.00E+07
1
400
1
13
1
1
1
14
1
1
1

ft3
bbl
bbl
bbl
bbl
bbl
MCF
MCF
gallons (Imperial)
gallons (US)
bbl
fluid ounces (U.S)

Mass

1
1
1
16
3000

lb
Long tons
Short tons
oz
mcf CO2

Pressure

1334
145
1

psi
psi
psi

Oil Volume
Water Volume
Butane Volume
Propane Volume
Ethane Volume
Gas volume
Gas Volume
Liquid Volume
Liquid Volume
Liquid Volume
Liquid Volume

Gauge+14.7psi=Absolute Pre

Pressure Gradient

psi/ft

Force

15000

pound force

Dynamic Viscosity

cp

Kinematic Viscosity

centistokes

Temperature

200

deg F

500
1
1

deg R
deg R
deg F

62.4

lb/ft3

lb/gal(US)

Specific Volume

ft3/lb

Flow Rate

1
1
1
1

bbl/d
ft3/d
lb/hr
lb/hr

Density

Permeability

1
5

Heat, Enthalpy

Btu

Million Btu

Btu

Specific Heat

Btu/lb-deg F

Volumetric heat Capacity

Btu/ft3-deg F

Specific Enthalpy

Btu/lb

Heat Flow Rate

3.06E+06

Btu/hr

million BTU/hr

Thermal Conductivity

1
1

Btu/hr-ft-deg F
Btu/hr-ft-deg F

Thermal Diffusivity

ft2/hr

Heat Transfer Coefficient

Btu/hr-ft2-deg F

Horsepower

hp (electric)

GOR

50

scf/bbl

Concentration

ppm

Geothermal Gradient

deg F/ft

Radioactive Amount

20

curies

Radioactive Dose

rad

sieverts (Sv)

Prefix

Multiplier

Symbol

yotta
zetta
exa

10^24
10^21
10^18

Y
Z
E

Darcy
Darcy

peca
tera
giga
mega
kilo
hecto
deka
deci
centi
milli
micro
nano
pico
femto
atto
zepto
yocto

10^15
10^12
10^9
10^6
10^3
10^2
10
10^ -1
10^ -2
10^ -3
10^ -6
10^ -9
10^ -12
10^ -15
10^ -18
10^-21
10^-24

P
T
G
M
k
h
da
d
c
m
Greek Letter mu
n
p
f
a
z
y

1
1
1

Mcf
Bcf
Tcf

1
1
1

m3
m3
m3

Light Oil
Heavy Oil
Pentanes Plus
Bitumen
Synthetic Crude Oil

1
1
1
1
1

m3
m3
m3
m3
m3

Solids
Coals Bituminous
Coals Subbituminous
Asphalt
Coke

1
1
1
1

tonne
tonne
m3
m3

Energy Content Table


Natural gas
Methane
Methane
Methane

Natural Gas Liquids


Ethane
Propane
Butane

Crude Oil

Gas Price Conversion


Btu Content per mscf
Gas Price per MMBtu

1100
$6.00

Canadian Dollars

Gas Price per mscf

$6.60

Canadian Dollars per mscf

Concentration
1 percent by volume =

10,000 ppm

Example 1:
Current AEUB upper H2S limits which can
be flared are 50 mole/k-mol.
Recall that 10 mole/k-mol is 1%,
thus the H2S limit is 5% or 50,000 ppm.

Example 2:
Convert 30 ppm SO2 to gm/m3.
Recall that 1 ppm is equal
to 1 part per million by volume,
or 1 ml of SO2 for every million
ml of air. So 30 ppm of
SO2 is actually 1 cm3 SO2/ 1 m3 air.
To convert 1 cm3 SO2 gas to
grams, we need the density of
SO2 which can be found using
the ideal gas law:
Density = Molecular weight*pressure/R/Temperature
The molecular weight of SO2 is 64 g/mol.
At 25 deg C (298 K) and 1 atmosphere,
the density of SO2 is =
64g/mol*1 atm/(82.06 atm cm3/mol K)/(298 K) = .00262 g cm3.
Thus 30 ppm = 30 * .00262 = .0786 g/m3
or 78,600 micrograms/m3

Rules of Thumb:
1 litre water weighs 1 kg
Lift 1 book (1 kg) 10 cm and
you've done 1 Joule of work
Density of air at STP
is 1.3 kg/m3

Effective reservoir compressibilty


is 60% of pore compresibility
Cloud point = pour point
plus 7 deg C

Molar Mass:
1 kmol = 1000 mol
= 1000 g mol
= 2.2046 lbm mol
Example

Molar mass of methane =

16.04 kg/kmol
= 16.04 g/mol
= 16.04 g/ g mol

Molecular weight is measured

in Daltons =Da

Convert Decimal Degrees to

Degrees, Minutes, Seconds

1Da=1.65 e-24 g

Input degrees in decimal:


121.135

Answer: Degrees
121

Minutes
8

Problem:
1. Convert:
12 MPa = ? Psi
200 hp=? kW
1000 GJ=?J
10 kPa/m=?psi/ft
20 e3 m3=?MMscf
1 bbl heavy oil has ? GJ energy content

2. Oil A has a viscosity of 10,000 cp at 15 deg C.


Oil B is 20 deg API and has a viscosity of 9500 cs at 15
deg C. Which oil is more viscous at 15 deg C?

Table of Contents

Output
Comment

IMPERIAL UNITS
3.281

ft

1.094
155.343
0.394

yd
mile
inch

107639.000

ft2

1.196

yard2

0.247

acres

1 section = 640 acres

0.386

sections

1 ha=10,000 m2

15.995
2.471
107639.0

sections
acres
ft2

247.203
377.572
6.290
6.297
81.900
6.330
0.035
35.494
3.080
0.264
0.006

ft3
bbl
bbl
bbl
bbl
bbl
MCF
MCF
gallons (Imperial)
gallons (US)
bbl

1 ton of oil = 7.5 barrels


1 metric tonne=1000 kg
1 Megatonne=1e6 tonnes

2.205
0.984
1.102
16.000
2889.3

lb
Long tons
Short tons
oz
mscf CO2

1 Pa=1 kg/m-s2
1 atm=101.325 kPa
100 kPa=1 bar
101.325 kPa= 760 mm Hg
Gauge+101.3kPa=Absolute Pressure
1 torr = 0.1333 kPa

1160.304
145.038
2.90076

psi
psi
psi

1 litre = 0.001 m3
or 1000 litre =1 m3
1 litre=1000 cm3

1 Pa=1 Nt/m2
1 Pa=0.1 dynes/cm2

0.0442

psi/ft

1 deca newton=10 newtons


1 newton=1 kg/m/sec2

0.2248

pound force

1 Pa-s=1 kg/m-s

cp

centistoke=centipoise/density

1000000

centistokes

55.400

deg F

R=deg F + 460
K= deg C + 273

501.000
1.800
0.556

deg R
deg R
deg F

1 kg/m3=1000 g/cc

62.428

lb/ft3

0.0083

lb/gal(US)

16.0185

ft3/lb

434.752
3051190.0
7936.632
50155.107

bbl/d
ft3/d
lb/hr
lb/hr

1 Darcy=1000 md

1.01325E+12
1.013253354

Darcy
Darcy

1 GJ=10^9J

0.947777462

Btu

0.947777462

Million Btu

0.000948213

Btu

1.194

Btu/lb-deg F

0.014911308

Btu-ft3-deg F

0.429922614

Btu/lb

20472

Btu/hr

577.7875
0.57778

Btu/hr-ft-deg F
Btu/hr-ft-deg F

38750

ft2/hr

176.1102873

Btu/hr-ft2-degF

1 J = 10^7 erg

1 kW= 1 kJ/s

1 hp = 550 ft-lbf/s

1.341022

hp

1 terawatt hour= 3.6 PJ

1 GJ=0.28 megawatt hours

Power is watt, energy is kW-hr


1 megawatt=1,000 kW

1 ppm = 1 mg/L

1 Becquerel=1 disintegration/s

56.40309

scf/bbl

ppm

0.54884742

deg F/ft

1.986

Btu/(lb-mole deg R)

0.4

curies (Ci)

100

rad

0.01

sieverts (Sv)

1 curie= 37 G Bq
1 gray=dose of 1 joule/kg

Output
Comment

1 acre=43560 ft2

METRIC UNITS
0.6096

0.914
1.609
2.54

m
km
cm

0.093

m2

0.836

m2

4046.856

m2

2.590

km2

259.109
0.405
0.000009

ha
ha
ha

1 tonne=1000 kg

1 Pa=1 kg/m-s2
100 kPa=1 bar
1 Pa-s=1 kg/m-s
Gauge+14.7psi=Absolute Pressure

K= deg C + 273

1699009.2
0.15891
63.592
0.15881
2.06349
0.15798
28.17399
0.02817399
63.64526
3.785412
158.91
2.95735E-05

m3
m3
m3
m3
m3
m3
m3
1e3m3
litres
litres
litres
m3

0.453592
1.016047
0.9071847
454
155.75

kg
tonnes
Tonnes
gm
metric tonnes CO2

9197.61
1.00
0.07

kPa
MPa
bar

22.6206

kPa/m

66723.3

Newton

6672.3

daN

mPa-s

0.000001

m2/s

93.33

deg C

4.444
0.556
1.8

deg C
K
K

999.5544

kg/m3

119.839

kg/m3

0.062427818

m3/kg

0.00000184
0.000000328
0.000125998
0.010886229

m3/s
m3/s
kg/s
tonne/d

1 Btu=252.16 cal

1 kW= 1 kJ/s

1 pCi=37mBq

9.86923E-13
4.9346

m2
micro m2

1.055099998

kJ

3163.846098

4.186799993

kJ/kg-K

67.06319794

kJ/m3-K

2.326

kJ/kg

896.83398

kW

0.2930711

MW

0.00173074
1.730762574

kW/m-K
W/m-K

0.000025806

m2/s

0.00567826

kW/m2-K

0.745699921

kW

8.86476255

m3/m3

mg/kg

1.822

deg C/m

7.40E+11

Becquerels

0.01

gray

0.01

rem

1.05
1.05
1.05

GJ or 0.995
PJ
EJ

18.36
25.53
28.62

GJ
GJ
GJ

38.51
40.9
35.17
42.8
39.4

GJ
GJ
GJ
GJ
GJ

25
18.5
44.5
28.8

GJ
GJ
GJ
GJ

MMBtu

Seconds
6

1 Pa=1 Nt/m2
1 Pa=0.1 dynes/cm2

Density of Oil

Table of Contents

Calculates oil density at standard conditions


specific heat and density at any temperature
and molecular weight using
Cragoe
Input:
Enter Specific Gravity of Oil at 15 deg C
Enter temperature of interest

0.95
65

dimensionless
deg C

API
Density at 15 deg C
or Density at 60 deg F
Oil molecular Weight

17.4
950
59.28
527

no units
kg/m3
lb/ft3

or

(Note: API is reported at 15 deg C)


0.95

g/cc

Oil density at temperature of interest


Specific Heat oil at temp of interest

910.9
1.99

kg/m3
kJ/kg-K

at
at

65
65

deg C
deg C

Output:

Temperature deg C

980

960

Oil Density kg/m3

940
920

900
880

860
840
820

800
0

Density, kg/m3
Oil Density vs Temperature

6.5
13
19.5
26
32.5
39
45.5
52
58.5
65
71.5
78
84.5
91
97.5
104
110.5
117
123.5 50
130
195

962.4
956.4
950.5
944.6
938.8
933.1
927.4
921.8
916.3
910.9
905.5
900.1
894.9
889.7
884.5
879.4
874.4
869.4
100
150
864.5
859.7
Temperature deg C
814.0

200

Density of Cold Lake Crude


Input:
Temperature

50

deg C

0.9772

g/cm3

Output:
Density:

Problem
Can the API of a heavy crude ever be negative?
If so, what density range does this correspond to?
What is the API of water?

250

Heavy Oil Pool

deg API

Battrum
Burnt Lake
Cactus Lake
Celtic
Cold Lake
Cymric
Duri
Foster Creek
Frog Lake
Gujarat
Pike's Peak
Suffield
Venezuelan Orinoco
Wainwright
West Sak Alaska

18
12
13
12
10
12
22
10
10-14
12-17
12
12-16
8-10
20
10-22

Table of Contents

A.

Water Density

Water Properties
1010

Calculates water density and


specific heat, thermal
conductivity at any temperature
TDS corrections for standard conditions

1000

Density kg/m3

990

Input:
Enter temperature of interest

31

deg C

980
970
960
950

Output:
Density of Water
Specific heat of Water
Thermal Conductivity of Water

998.11
4.23
0.6166

940

kg/m3
kJ/kg-K
W/m deg C

930
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

Temperature deg C

Temperature
Density kg/m3
Specific Heat
Thermal
kJ/kg-Kcond W/m deg C
Water Specific Heat

4.30

Specific heat kJ/kg-K

4.28
4.26

4.24
4.22

1006.43
1005.74
1004.99
1004.18
1003.31
1002.38
1001.40
1000.36
999.26
998.11
991.52
983.59
964.00
939.96

4.31
4.30
4.29
4.28
4.27
4.26
4.26
4.25
4.24
4.23
4.21
4.19
4.19
4.24

Water Thermal Conductivity

0.5752
0.5802
0.5852
0.5900
0.5948
0.5994
0.6038
0.6082
0.6125
0.6166
0.6356
0.6517
0.6752
0.6872

0.700
Thermal Conductivity W//m deg C

3.1
6.2
9.3
12.4
15.5
18.6
21.7
24.8
27.9
31
46.5
62
93
124

4.32

4.20

4.18

0.680

0.660
0.640
0.620
0.600

0.580
0.560

4.16
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

20

40

60

80

Temperature deg C

Temperature deg C

Input:
Total Dissolved Solids % in water

20

percent

(at 15 deg C and atmospheric Pressure)

Output:
Water Density

B.

1148.7

kg/m3

(at 15 deg C and atmospheric pressure)

Solubility of Methane in
Interstitial Water
McCain (1990)
Input:
Formation Temperature
Reservoir Pressure
Solids in Brine

33
8000
3

deg C
kPa
wt %

91.4
1160

Output
Methane Solubility in Fresh Water
Methane Solubility in Brine

C.

1.8044 m3/m3
1.5380 m3/m3

Water Hardness
Uses Langelier Saturation Index
Input:
Current pH
TDS
Calcium Concentration
Carbonate Concentration
Bicarbonate Concentration
Alkalinity
Temperature

7.5
320
150
17
0
34
80

no units
mg/L
mg/L (ppm)
mg/L (ppm)
mg/L (ppm)
mg/L (ppm)
deg C

Output:
Langelier Saturation Index

D.

0.2339 has tendency


to scale

Estimating TDS from Conductivity Meter


Input:
Conductivity

812

micro-siemans/cm

Output:
TDS

340.34

Problem:
For fixed water analysis, does the scaling tendency
increase or decrease as the temperature is raised?

mg/L as CaCO3

Hard water has calcium carbonate concentrations greater than 120 mg/L (ppm)

Enter alkalinity or carbonate and bicarbonate concentration (only one)

100

120

140

A Thermal Properties of Saturated Rocks


Calculates heat capacity, diffusivity
and thermal conductivity of fluid
filled rocks
Input:
Oil API
Rock porosity
Oil Saturation
Water Saturation
Reservoir temperature
Fraction of matrix that is quartz

Output:
Rock Density assumed
Oil Density at 15 deg C
Oil Specific Gravity at Reservoir Temp
Oil density at Reservoir Temp
Water Density at Reservoir Temp
Specific Heat of Oil
Specific Heat of Water
Specific Heat of rock assumed
Heat Capacity of Saturated Rock
Thermal Conductivity of Saturated Rock (Tikhomirov Eqn)
Thermal Diffusivity of Saturated Rock
or
Thermal Conductivity using Somerton's Correlation
at 50 deg C
and at reservoir temperature

Problem 1
For fixed fluid properties, how does thermal
conductivity of a fluid saturated rock vary with temperature?
(Plot thermal conductivity on y-axis, and vary x-axis temperature

from 10 to 300 deg C).

Problem 2
A Lloydminster rock contains oil of API gravity 20 degrees with oil
saturation of 0.7 and water saturation of 0.3. The porosity is
33%. Oil viscosity is 15,000 cp. The reservoir will
undergo a steamflood at 225 deg C. What is the :
a) heat capacity
b) thermal conductivity
c) thermal diffusivity
of this rock at steamflood temperature?

Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Diffusivity


of Common Materials at 25 deg C (298.2 K)
Material

Copper
Carbon Steel
Air
Water, saturated liquid
Water, saturated vapor
Iron
Cement

Thermal Conductivity of Liquids


1

Hydrocarbons
Input
Temperature
Specific Gravity
Output
Thermal Conductivity

Table of Contents

Heat Capacity
20
0.25
0.5
0.5
100
0.99

dimensionless
fraction
fraction
fraction
deg C
fraction

2643
933.99
0.87
867.7
958.94
2.23
4.20
0.96296

kg/m3
kg/m3
dimensionless
kg/m3
kg/m3
kJ/kg-K
kJ/kg-K
kJ/kg-K

2653.70
2.54
0.00096
0.95886

kJ/m3-K
W/m-K
1000 m2/s
mm2/s

1.55

Btu/hr-ft-F

2.53

W/m-K

Athabasca Bitumen

0.35

Thermal
Conductivity
W/m-K

Thermal
Diffusivity
10^ -4 m2/s

401
60.5
0.026
0.609
0.0186
79.1
1.82

1.17
0.145
0.202
0.0014
4.08
0.228
0.009

25
0.9

deg C
no units

0.128

W/m-deg C

cal/gm-deg C

Viscosity of Liquid Mixtures


A

Calculates the viscosity of a liquid mixture


of 2 liquids of different viscosity and concentration
using Cragoe's Method

Input:
Viscosity of liquid 1
Viscosity of liquid 2
Weight fraction of liquid 1 in mixture

1000000
0.25
0.95

cp
cp
fraction

Output:

Liquidity 1
Liquidity 2
Liquidity of mixture

139.88
482.05
156.99

Mixture Viscosity

96914.83

cp

100000
0.432
0.153

cs
cs
fraction

2.5916853
0.8226177
343.61

cs

Uses Miadonye et al CIM 99-121 Method for


more accurate results
Input:
Heavy oil/bitumen viscosity in centistokes
Diluent viscosity in centistokes
Diluent mass fraction

Output:
Viscosity interaction factor
Viscosity reduction parameter
Mixture Viscosity

Problem

Current pipeline specs on the Enbridge line is


a maximum viscosity limit of 350 centistokes.
What mass fraction of Strachen condensate
is needed to move Cold Lake crude at this viscosity
and at a pipeline temperature of 30 deg C?

Shu's Method (SPE 11280) June 1984


Input
Heavy Oil Viscosity at 24-28 deg C
Solvent Viscosity at 24-28 deg C
Specific Gravity Heavy Oil
Specific Gravity Solvent
Volume fraction heavy oil

550
0.01
0.96
0.8465
0.5

cp
cp
no units
no units
fraction

Output
Gamma
alpha
xa
xb
Mixture Viscosity

3.6344126
0.3329714
0.2497964
0.75
0.1528007 cp

Table of Contents

Diluent Viscosities @ 30 deg C


Diesel
Naptha
Toluene
Strachen Condensate
Rimbey Condensate

2.467
0.703
0.614
0.528
0.432

cs
cs
cs
cs
cs

157279
26988
2967

cs
cs
cs

Heavy Oil Viscosities @ 30 deg C


Syncrude Coker feed
Suncor coker feed
Lloyd cold production

Units of Viscosity
1) Dynamic Viscosity (Greek letter mu)
The SI unit of dynamic viscosity is
Pa-s which is also kg /(m-s).
Remember multiply by
density to get centipoise

1 poise = 0.1 kg / (m-s) = 1 g /(cm-s)


1 cp = 0.001 Pa-s = 1 mPa -s

2) Kinematic Viscosity
The SI unit of kinematic viscosity
denoted by the Greek letter nu,
is defined as the dynamic viscosity
divided by the density. It's units are
Pa-s/(kg/m3) = m2/s
Also, stokes are introduced:
1 stoke= 1 cm2/s = 0.0001 m2/s

Then
1 centistoke = 0.01 stoke
or
1 centistoke = 1 e-6 m2/s

PVT for Heavy/Extra Heavy Oil

Bitumen is defined as being an oil with viscosity greater than 10,000 cp (


Heavy Oil has an API of 20 deg or less (UNITAR).

Recall Heavy Oil: 10 < API < 22.3


Extra Heavy Oil API <10

Reservoir Classification
Bitumen
PVT Variables
API
GOR m3/m3
Bo, m3/m3
Oil Viscosity, cp
Stock Tank Liquid Color
Heptanes+ Mole Percent

API less than 10


negligible
1
from 10,000 to several million
black
>30

A.

Bubble Point Pressure, Pb


Bubblepoint is that pressure where
gas first comes out of solution.
Uses Modified Standing's Correlation
Input:
Solution GOR
Gas Gravity
Reservoir Temperature
API of crude

Output:
Bubble Point Pressure

B.

Solution Gas-Oil Ratio, Rs


Heavy Oils
Uses Modified Vasquez-Beggs Correlation
Extra Heavy Oil uses Standing
Input:
Bubble Point Pressure
Gas Gravity
API of crude
Reservoir Temperature
Separator Pressure
Separator Temperature

OutPut:
Corrected Gas Gravity
Solution GOR

C.

Oil Formation Volume Factor, Bo


(at or below bubble-point)
Uses Standing's Correlation

Input:

Gas-oil ratio
Gas Gravity
API of crude
Reservoir Temperature

Output:
Oil Formation Volume Factor, Bo

D.

Dead Oil Viscosity, mu o


Uses Modified Egbogah-Jack Correlation
(For Liaohe heavy oils, see M below)
Input:
API of crude
Reservoir Temperature

Output:
Dead Oil viscosity
or

E.

Live Oil Viscosity, mu o


Uses Modified Kartoatmodjo Eqns
(Run Program D above first to get
dead oil viscosity)
Input:
API of crude
GOR
Gas Gravity
Separator Pressure
Separator Temperature
Dead oil viscosity (from Part D above)

Output:
Live oil viscosity

F.

Water Viscosity, mu w
Water viscosity is a greater function of
temperature rather than pressure
and to a lesser degree on salinity

Input:
Reservoir Temperature

Output:
Water Viscosity at Reservoir Temperature

G.

Water Formation Volume Factor, Bw


Input:
Reservoir Pressure
Reservoir Temperature

Output:
Water Formation Volume Factor, Bw

H.

Gas Formation Volume Factor, Bg


Input:
Reservoir Pressure
Reservoir Temperature
Compressibility Factor, z

Output:
Gas Formation Volume Factor, Bg

I.

Gas Viscosity, mu g

Input:
Temperature
Gas density
Gas Composition:
Nitrogen
Carbon Dioxide
Hydrogen Sulphide
Methane
Ethane
Propane
i-Butane
n-Butane
i-Pentane
n-Pentane
Hexane
Heptane plus
Total mole fraction
Output:
Molecular Mass
Gas Viscosity

J.

Oil Compressiblity, Co
Uses the modified Vasquez-Beggs Correlation
Input:
Gas Gravity
Separator Pressure
Separator Temperature
Oil API
Solution GOR
Reservoir Temperature
Reservoir Pressure

Output:
Corrected Gas Gravity to Separator Conditions
Oil Compressibility

Oil Compressibility, Co

J. a

Uses Al-Marhoun Correlation, SPE 81432, 2003


Input:
Oil Gravity at bubble Point
Bubble Point Pressure
Pressure of interest
Temperature of interest
Output:
Oil Compressibility

Oil Specific Heat

Input:
Oil Specific Gravity
Temperature
Output:
Oil Specific Heat

Water Specific Heat

Input:
Temperature
Output:
Water Specific Heat

Liaohe Dead Oil Viscosity


JCPT vol 46 no 4 pg 10 2007 (Zhang et al)
Input
Dead oil viscosity at 50 deg C
Desired Temperature
Output
Liaohe Dead Oil viscosity at desired temperature

Problem 1

Plot Cold Lake (API =10 deg) dead oil viscosity (cp) vs
Temperature (from 13 to 300 deg C). What is
Cold Lake oil viscosity at reservoir temperature
(of 13 deg C)?

Problem 2
Calculate the bubble point of a heavy oil with:
API=15 deg
Gas Gravity=0.7
GOR=5 m3/m3
Reservoir Temperature=15 deg C.

Problem 3
Calculate the oil formation volume factor of oil with:
API=10 deg
Gas Gravity=0.65
GOR=7 m3/m3
Reservoir Temperature=25 deg C

Problem 4
For a fixed reservoir temperature of 15 deg C, how
does the live oil viscosity (on y-axis) vary with API
(on x-axis, with 10 deg < API < 25 deg)?

Problem 5
Calculate the solution-gas oil ratio of a
typical Lloydminster crude whose properties are:
API=14 deg
Gas Gravity=0.65
Reservoir Temp=20 deg C
Discovery Pressure=4000 kPa (saturation pressure)
Separator Pressure= 110 kPa
Separator Temperature= 25 deg C.
Problem 6
What is the specific heat of Cold Lake crude (API=10)
and its connate water at reservoir temperature
of 13 deg C?

Table of Contents

viscosity greater than 10,000 cp (UNITAR).

(World Petroleum Congress)

of Hydrocarbons
Heavy Oil

Low Shrinkage Oil

High Shrinkage Oil

10 < API < 20


negl < GOR < 20
1.01 < Bo < 1.1
100 < mu < 10000
black
>20

20 < API < low 30's


20 < GOR < 90
1.1 < Bo < 1.5
2 < mu < 100
colored
13-20

low 30's < API < low 50's


90 < GOR < 350 to 1000
1.5 < Bo < 2.5 to 3.5
.25 < mu < 2 to 3
colored
13-20

16.8
0.65
31.3
13.3

m3/m3
fraction
deg C
dimensionless

5332

kPa

3100
0.7
20
20
115
15

kPaa
fraction
dimensionless
deg C
kPaa
deg C

0.66
15.37

fraction
m3/m3

26
0.757
17
33

m3/m3
fraction
dimensionless
deg C

1.064

m3/m3

23
60

dimensionless
deg C

86
90

cp
centistokes

SPE 23556

23
25
0.65
150
25
86

dimensionless
m3/m3
dimensionless
kPa
deg C
cp

33

cp

20

deg C

1.35

cp

3000
20

kPa
deg C

0.998

m3/m3

3000
20
0.9

kPa
deg C
fraction

0.0309

m3/m3

30
0.173

0.017
0.0328
0.0066
0.8924
0.0396
0.0051
0.0012
0.0013
0.0006
0.0004
0.0006
0.0024
1

deg C
g/cc

mole fraction
mole fraction
mole fraction
mole fraction
mole fraction
mole fraction
mole fraction
mole fraction
mole fraction
mole fraction
mole fraction
mole fraction

18.387
0.020

cp

0.7
150
25
12
10
15
3000

fraction
kPa
deg C
dimensionless
m3/m3
deg C
kPa

0.6724
-4.9732E-06

fraction
kPa -1

MW
28.013
44.01
34.08
16.043
30.07
44.097
58.124
58.124
72.151
72.151
86.178
100.205

0.97
1300
1300
100

fraction
psia
psia
deg F

4.43667E-06

psi-1

0.99
25

dimensionless
Deg C

1.7915

kJ/kg-deg K

25

deg C

4.3954

kJ/kg-deg K

1059
100

74.22

cp

Retrograde Condensate Gas

Wet Gas

middle 50's < API < 70


350 to 1000 < GOR < 2600
not applicable
condensate liquid about 0.25
light red/green/orange
<12.5

> 60
2600 < GOR < 17700
not applicable
condensate liquid about 0.25
colorless
<4

Recall that centistokes


is cp/density

112.7188022
5.491715218
1.301656956

Dry Gas

no liquids at surface or drop out in reservoir


not applicable
not applicable
not applicable
no liquid
<0.7

y
Gamcor
F1
F2

0.768747869
12.13660574
33.64638907
34.2316126

Steam Tables
Generates Steam Tables for Saturated
Steam

Input:

Saturation Pressure
Steam Quality

10
0.8

MPa
fraction

310.8
1406.5
2730.4
1323.9
0.00132
0.02114
0.017176874
758.32
47.30
0.020

deg C
kJ/kg
kJ/kg
kJ/kg
m3/kg
m3/kg
m3/kg
kg/m3
kg/m3
cp

135

deg C

Saturation Pressure

330

kPa

Saturation Pressure

Ts

hw

Output:
Saturation Temperature, Ts
Liquid Enthalpy, hw
Vapor Enthalpy, hv
Latent Heat of Vaporization, Lv
Specific Volume of liquid, vw
Specific Volume of vapor, vv
Specific Volume of Wet Steam, vs
Water Density, Rhow
Vapor Density, Rhov
Steam viscosity, Mus

If Saturation Pressure is required:


Input:
Saturation Temperature:

Output:

MPa

deg C

kJ/kg

15.0
14.0
13.0
12.0
11.0
10.0
9.0
8.0
7.0
6.0
5.0
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0

342.2
336.6
330.7
324.5
317.9
310.8
303.1
294.7
285.5
275.2
263.6
250.0
233.4
212.0
179.8

1530.0
1503.0
1474.6
1444.6
1412.6
1378.3
1341.5
1301.4
1257.4
1208.5
1153.1
1088.7
1011.0
910.8
762.0

Saturated Steam
400

Saturation Temperature deg C

350
Vapor

300
250

Liquid
200
150
100
50
0
0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

8.0

10.0

Saturation Pressure MPa

Problem: How much heat (in Joules per gram of water) is required to
change the state of liquid water at
100 deg C to gas at 100 deg C without
a change in temperature?

Table of Contents

(valid up to 20 Mpa)

hv

Lv

vw

vv

vs

Rhow

10.0

ressure MPa

s required to

12.0

kJ/kg

kJ/kg

m3/kg

m3/kg

m3/kg

kg/m3

2868.8
2866.3
2863.6
2860.7
2857.5
2854.1
2850.3
2846.0
2841.2
2835.6
2829.1
2821.1
2810.9
2796.5
2772.0

1023.8
1068.1
1115.9
1167.7
1223.8
1284.8
1351.1
1423.4
1501.9
1586.5
1676.3
1767.2
1847.7
1880.7
1715.6

0.00136
0.00136
0.00135
0.00134
0.00133
0.00132
0.00131
0.00130
0.00128
0.00127
0.00125
0.00124
0.00121
0.00119
0.00115

0.01433
0.01531
0.01644
0.01775
0.01930
0.02114
0.02339
0.02618
0.02976
0.03450
0.04109
0.05090
0.06706
0.09893
0.19228

0.011738
0.012521
0.013421
0.014468
0.015702
0.017177
0.018973
0.021207
0.024066
0.027855
0.033125
0.040964
0.053892
0.079378
0.154054

732.89
737.34
742.07
747.10
752.50
758.32
764.64
771.56
779.22
787.81
797.64
809.18
823.27
841.71
869.61

14.0

16.0

Rhov

Mus

kg/m3

cp

69.78
65.31
60.83
56.34
51.83
47.30
42.76
38.19
33.60
28.98
24.34
19.65
14.91
10.11
5.20

0.0209
0.0207
0.0205
0.0203
0.0200
0.0198
0.0195
0.0192
0.0189
0.0185
0.0181
0.0176
0.0171
0.0163
0.0152

Heats of Combustion
Use Maxwell's Correlation at 15 deg C

Input:
API of crude oil
Sulphur Content

10
2

Output:
Gross Heat of Combustion (without S correction)
Net Heat of Combustion (without S correction)
Maxwell wt % S fit
Corrected Gross Heat of Combustion

42577
40281
1.8063
42503

Maxwell's Tables work for:

API
0
5
10
15
20
25
30

The corrected heat of combustion (net or gross) is obtained from


the above answer listed in output & subtracting off a quantity
(.01*above heat of combustion - 40.5)* difference in sulphur
wt % from above table.
Example:
An 20 API oil with 1.2% wt % sulphur would have a
corrected gross heat of combustion of:
43883-(.01*43883-40.5)*(1.2-1)=43803 kJ/kg

API vs Wt % S
3.5

3.5
3

Wt % S

2.5
2
1.5
1
y = -2E-05x3 + 0.0024x2 - 0.1372x + 2.9583
0.5
0
0

10

15

20

25

30

API

Problem:
For Cold Lake Crude, does the heat of combustion increase or decrease with
increasing Sulphur content (use S from 0.5 to 2 wt %)?

Table of Contents

dimensionless
wt %

kJ/kg
kJ/kg
kJ/kg

Wt % Sulphur

Calc'd Wt%

2.95
2.35
1.8
1.35
1
0.7
0.4

2.9583
2.3298
1.8063
1.3728
1.0143
0.7158
0.4623

35

Heat Conduction Complementary Error Function


Numerical Approximation to Erfc(x) which
often appears as a solution to heat conduction problems

Input:
Variable

Output:
Erfc(x)
Error Function

0.157307
0.842693

Complementary Error Function


1
0.9
0.8
0.7
Erfc(x)

0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0

0.5

1.5
Variable

2.5

Table of Contents

dimensionless

dimensionless
dimensionless

Variable
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4

erfc(x)
1
0.887963
0.777245
0.670949
0.571194
0.479375
0.396362
0.322633
0.258344
0.203365
0.157307
0.119546
0.089267
0.065527
0.047323
0.033659
0.02361
0.016357
0.011211
0.007615
0.005134
0.003442
0.002297
0.001529
0.001017

2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
3

0.000676
0.00045
0.0003
0.0002
0.000134
9.02E-05

Hot Fluid Injection


Calculates the temperature at any distance and
at any time for hot fluid (water or gas) injection for
linear or radial flow using Lauwrier's model
Use
and

Program 3
to determine thermal properties of formation
Program 2
for water properties

Input:

Reservoir Temperature
Water Injection Temperature
Thermal Conductivity of over/underburdens
Heat capacity of adjacent formations
Heat capacity of formation
Formation thickness
Injected water density
Injected water specific heat
Water Injection Rate
Linear or radial distance from injection well
Injection Time

37
550
2.07
2012
2010
6
1000
4.18
100
15
100

Output:

Distance
m
1.5
3

Dimensionless distance
Dimensionless time
Lauwrier Variable
Complementary Error Function

0.201821787
0.989640454
0.113690694
0.872645328

After injecting hot water for


the reservoir temperature at a distance of
from the injection well is

100
15
485

Dimensionless Distance

Laurwrier

Reservoir0.002018218
Temperature with 0.001015413
Hot Water Injecti
0.008072871

0.004074159

Reservoir Temperature with Hot Water Injecti


Reservoir Temperature deg C

4.5
6
7.5
9
10.5
12
13.5
15
16.5
18
19.5
21
22.5
30
45
60
75
90
105
150

0.018163961
0.032291486
0.050455447
0.072655843
0.098892676
0.129165944
0.163475648
0.201821787
0.244204363
0.290623374
0.341078821
0.395570703
0.454099022
0.80728715
1.816396087
3.229148599
5.045544686
7.265584348
9.889267585
20.18217875

600
500
400
300
200
100

0.009214344
0.01650148
0.026031697
0.037936698
0.052391009
0.069622405
0.089926921
0.113690694
0.141422404
0.173802753
0.211762536
0.25661108
0.310258746
0.945238114
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0

50

100

Distance From Injector, m


Problem

Hot water at 200 deg C is injected at 100 m3/d in


a 5 m formation which is originally at 15 deg C.
The formation and overburden heat capacity
is 2012 kJ/m3-K. The overburden thermal
conductivity is 2.1 W/m-K.
After 1 year of injection, whar is the temperature
profile up to 30 m from the injector?

Table of Contents

deg C
deg C
W/m-K
kJ/m3-K
kJ/m3-K
m
kg/m3
kJ/kg-K
m3/d
m
days

days,
m
deg C

Compl
Error Function
0.998869115
0.995460756

Hot Water Injection

Temp
deg C
549
548

Hot Water Injection


0.989727382
0.981588275
0.970927192
0.957588828
0.94137376
0.922031436
0.899250488
0.872645328
0.841737402
0.805928633
0.764463148
0.716371187
0.660385723
0.181456901
1
1
1
1
1
1

150

m Injector, m

545
541
535
528
520
510
498
485
469
450
429
404
376
130
37
37
37
37
37
37

200

Steam Zone Volume


Calculates steam zone volume and
cumulative heat loss using the
Marx-Langenheim Equation
for a steam injection project
Use Program 3. To determine
thermal properties of the formation

Input:

Thermal Conductivity of overburden


Heat Capacity of overburden
Heat capacity of formation
Reservoir temperature
Injected steam quality
Steam injection rate
Steam pressure
Gross pay
Length of injection

2
2000
2010
20
0.7
250
12
10
400

Output:
Injected Latent heat
Injected steam temperature
Sensible heat
Dimensionless time
Square Root Dimensionless time
Marx-Langenheim Variable

1167.7
324.5
1444.6
1.369
1.170
0.7039

Heat Injection Rate


Cumulative Heat Loss as percent of heat injected

378
48.57%

Steam Zone Volume


Cylindrical Steam Zone Radius

10981
18.7

Marx-Langenheim Assumptions:
1) constant injection rate
2) no pressure drop in steam zone
3) no gravity effects

4)
5)
6)
7)

homogeneous sands and over/underburdens


temperature at steam front (inside) is steam temperature
temperature at reservoir side of steam front is reservoir temperature
no hot water flow ahead of steam front

Problem
Calculate the steamed zone radius
around a Cold Lake well that has just finished
steaming for the first cycle.
Typical injection rates are 250 m3/d of 66% quality
steam at 12 MPa for 1 month. Net pay is 45 m with
reservoir temperature of 13 deg C.

Table of Contents

W/m-K
kJ/m3-K
kJ/m3-K
deg C
fraction
m3/d
MPa
m
days

kJ/kg
deg C
kJ/kg

kW

m3
m

1 kW=1 kJ/s

Estimates Vertical Conformance of


a Steamflood using van Lookeren's Method

Input:
Steam Injection Pressure
Steam Injection Rate
Steam Quality
Effective Permeability to Steam
Net Pay
Oil API

8
200
0.75
1
60
12

Output:
Steam Injection Temperature
Steam Viscosity
Oil Density at Steam Conditions
Specific Volume water
Specific Volume vapor
Steam density
Steam mass flow rate

294.7
0.019
781.1
0.00130
0.02618
50.09
0.1160

Vertical Conformance Factor


Average thickness swept by steam zone

0.6378
19.13

Problem:
What is the average thickness swept by the steam zone at Pikes Peak
where the reservoir thickness is 30 m, the steam quality is 60%, the
injection rate is 175 m3/d at an injection pressure of 8 MPa
The oil API is 18 degrees. Assume an effective permeability to
steam of 800 md. Assume a single pattern.

Table of Contents

MPa
m3/d
fraction
Darcies
m
dimensionless

deg C
cp
kg/m3

kg/m3
kg/s
dimensionless
m

Predicts Oil-Steam Ratio (or Steam-Oil Ratio)


using Chu's correlation for Steamflood
Input:
Reservoir Depth
Permeability
Reservoir Dip
Net pay
Initial Oil Saturation
Porosity
Oil Viscosity

450
3000
4.5
20
0.7
0.34
5000

Output
Steam-Oil Ratio
Oil-Steam Ratio

within correlation limit


Problem:
What would be the predicted OSR for the pattern steam flood
described in the previous problem on worksheet 11?
Recall the reservoir dip is 4.5 degrees, reservoir depth is 500 m, oil saturation
is 80% with median porosity 34% and viscosity 5000 cp.

1.57
0.64

Table of Contents

m
mD
degrees
m
fraction
fraction
cp

m3/m3
m3/m3

In-Situ Combustion Parameters

Table of Contents

Calculates the basic combustion parameters


required to design an
in-situ combustion project

Input:
Laboratory Data
Volume or mole fraction produced CO2
Volume or mole fraction produced CO
Volume or mole fraction produced O2
Volume of gas produced
Volume of sand burned
Oil Saturation
Reservoir Porosity
Air injection Rate
Formation thickness
Length of air injection

0.094
0.003
0.03
4800
10
0.5
0.25
56600
7
2190

fraction
fraction
fraction
m3
m3
fraction
fraction
m3/d
m
days

31.33
4.41
2.09
0.87
0.87
14.84
32.28
530.85
5807.62
0.13
11947.42
0.00016
103.04
2.42

dimensionless
dimensionless
dimensionless
fraction
dimensionless
Percent
kg/m3
m3/m3
m3/m3
fraction
kJ/kg
m3/m3
m
m3/d

Output:
Carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide ratio, m
Hydrogen to carbon ratio in fuel, n
R factor
Mole fraction produced Nitrogen
Oxygen utilization efficiency, Y
Excess Air
Fuel content, Mass of Coke deposited per unit rock volume
Air Requirement to burn thru 1 m3 rock
Air-Oil Ratio, (vol of air to displace 1 m3 of oil)
Oil Saturation fraction consumed as fuel
Heat of Combustion of the fuel
Volume of water formed by combustion per m3 gas produced
Radial distance of firefront from injection well
Velocity of combustion front

"m" and "n" represent the stochiometric coefficients


that represent the coke or fuel being deposited
just ahead of the flame front. Excess air, related to Y,
is usually injected. (Y is a fraction).

Problem
A laboratory combustion tube run on a heavy
oil sand produced the following combustion gases:
CO2=14%
N2=83%
CO=1%
O2=2%
The field contains the same porosity (30%) and oil saturation
(70%) as the lab model. The lab model burned through
8500 m3 sand and produced about 1.7 e6 m3 gas.
The field average pay is 20 m and proposed air
injection rate is 0.3 e6 m3/d.
Calculate:
m,n,R,Y, excess air,fuel content,air requirement,
water formed by combustion, oil consumed as
fuel, air-oil ratio. What is the radial distance of the
combustion front 2 years after combustion is
initiated and what is the front velocity at that time?

Table of Contents

Single Phase Pressure Drop


In a Smooth Pipeline

Current Pipeline
Construction Costs
In 2001, Alberta
pipeline construction
costs are about
$45,000 - $50,000
per inch/mile.

Calculates pressure drop for a single


phase fluid in laminar or turbulent flow

Input:
Fluid Viscosity
Fluid Density
Pipe Inside Diameter
Flow Rate
Pipe Length

1
1000
50.88
1000
66

cp
kg/m3
mm
m3/d
m

Fluid Velocity
Reynold's Number
Laminar Friction Factor
Turbulent Friction Factor

5.69
289634.07
0.0002
0.0145

m/s
dimensionless
dimensionless
dimensionless

Flow in this section of the pipeline is


Pressure Drop over Pipe Length

turbulent
305.52

kPa

Output:

Problem 1
What is the pressure drop from the wellhead of a
cold production producer of a 17 degree API oil
to the tank which is 50 m away? The line ID is 3 inches.
When the well was put on test for
12 hours,it produced 7.5 m3 oil with zero
watercut at a separator pressure of 140 kPa
and separator temperature of 33 degrees C. The
producing GOR was 126 scf/bbl. The gas gravity
was 0.70 and the reservoir temperature is 27 deg C.

Problem 2
Make an estimate of the cost of the Thicksilver Pipeline, which
transports heavy oil from Cold Lake to Hardisty, a distance of 250 km.
The blended bitumen line is 36 inches, while the parallel
diluent return line is 12 inches.

Wellhead Steam flow rate


Determines the steam flow rate thru a choke
using the Thornhill-Craver equation

Input:
Choke diameter
Upstream Pressure
Length of choke
Steam quality

0.5
5000
12
0.8

in
kPa
in
fraction

263.6
0.00125
0.04109
0.033124673
1.664
144

deg C
m3/kg
m3/kg
m3/kg
kg/s
m3/d

0.8
5000
10000
10
300

fraction
kPa
m
cm
m3/d

263.6
0.001
0.041

deg C
m3/kg
m3/kg

Output:
Saturation Temperature
specific volume of liquid
specific volume of gas
specific volume of wet steam
Mass flow rate of steam
or daily steam flow rate (CWE)

Frictional Pressure Drop


for Wet Steam
Input:
Steam Quality
Upstream Pressure
Length of pipe
Inside diameter of pipe
Steam injection rate

Output:
Saturation Temperature
specific volume of liquid
specific volume of steam vapor

specific volume of wet steam


Frictional Pressure drop

Problem:
What choke setting should be used to deliver
steam at 250 m3/d at Cold Lake wellhead where
the choke length is 1 foot, upstream pressure
10 MPa and steam quality is 75%?

0.033
0.0039459

m3/kg
kPa

Table of Contents

Waterflooding
Calculates Voidage Replacement Ratio
On a Pattern Basis - monthly and cumulative
The example is for an inverted nine-spot.

Input:
Reservoir Pressure
Oil Formation Volume Factor
Gas Formation Volume Factor
Water Formation Volume Factor
Solution Gas Ratio

3000
1.02
0.03
1.01
13

Pattern 1
Well UID
Injector
Producer
Producer
Producer
Producer
Producer
Producer
Producer
Producer

07-01-45-21-W3M
01-01-45-21-W3M
02-01-45-21-W3M
03-01-45-21-W3M
06-01-45-21-W3M
08-01-45-21-W3M
09-01-45-21-W3M
10-01-45-21-W3M
11-01-45-21-W3M

Water needed to get VRR = 1 (monthly basis)


Water needed to get VRR = 1 (cumulative basis)

Waterflooding
The best time to start waterflooding is at
bubblepoint pressure. The gas is at a maximum
in the residual oil and the oil viscosity is
very favorable. If the bubblepoint pressure
is low, it is wise to start earlier while there
is still a drive in the reservoir.
Higher recoveries will be obtained in
water wet rocks. Use the permeability trends
for effective flooding: if there is good permeability
in the east-west direction, go to a line flood

Pattern
Allocation factor
(Tract Factor)
1
0.25
0.5
0.25
0.5
0.5
0.25
0.5
0.25

in the east-west row. Patterns such as an


inverted nine spot or staggered line drive give
high sweep efficiencies. Keep injection pressure
below 16.9 kPa/m (.75 psi/ft) depth to avoid fracturing
out of the formation. Check for Stiles type of
continuity between injectors and producers and
open up all pay. Determine heterogenity of
reservoir using modelling or Dykstra-Parsons
and Lorenz Coefficients analysis of core.
It is best to keep the produced water and
formation water injection lines separate.

Problem
A waterflood is being carried out in a reservoir
with the following properties:
API = 20 deg
Reservoir Temperature=20 deg C
Gas Gravity=0.65
Reservoir Pressure=5000 kPa
z=0.9
GOR=10 m3/m3
The reservoir consists of 21 producing wells
and 4 injectors. Calculate the tract factors, draw
out a sketch of the wells and finally calculate the
required monthly water injection rates
to obtain a monthly VRR=1.
The monthly production volumes are:

Well UID

Producer
Producer
Producer
Producer
Injector
Producer
Injector
Producer
Producer
Producer
Producer
Producer
Injector
Producer
Injector

01-01--54-22-W3M
02-01--54-22-W3M
03-01--54-22-W3M
04-01--54-22-W3M
05-01--54-22-W3M
06-01--54-22-W3M
07-01--54-22-W3M
08-01--54-22-W3M
09-01--54-22-W3M
10-01--54-22-W3M
11-01--54-22-W3M
12-01--54-22-W3M
13-01--54-22-W3M
14-01--54-22-W3M
15-01--54-22-W3M

Producer
Producer
Producer
Producer
Producer
Producer
Producer
Producer
Producer
Producer

16-01--54-22-W3M
01-02--54-22-W3M
08-02--54-22-W3M
09-02--54-22-W3M
16-02--54-22-W3M
01-11--54-22-W3M
01-12--54-22-W3M
02-12--54-22-W3M
03-12--54-22-W3M
04-12--54-22-W3M

Table of Contents

kPa
m3/m3
m3/m3
m3/m3
m3/m3

Mon. Water
Inj m3

Cum Water
Inj m3

2050

13000

2034
14170

m3
m3

Mon. Oil
Prod m3

Cum Oil
Prod m3

Mon. Gas
Prod e3 m3

Cum Gas
Prod e3 m3

50
25
10
3
4
75
60
100

59
1250
450
560
789
250
200
894

14
10
5
0
0
0
0
0

400
500
30
0
1
3
0
0

or
or

16
-1170

m3/mon
m3

excess
under

Pattern
Mon. Water
Allocation factor
Inj m3
(Tract Factor)
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?

Cum Water
Inj m3

Mon. Oil
Prod m3

Cum Oil
Prod m3

Mon. Gas
Prod e3 m3

90
30
50
10

1
0
3
0

30

35
70
50
40
32

2
1
1
1
1

20

?
?

?
?

?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?

10
15
13
9
16
17
15
12
5
14

0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1

Mon Water
Prod m3

Cum Water
Prod m3

800
1030
456
130
450
890
230
890

1000
1300
890
460
489
980
592
983

Monthly
VRR

Cum VRR

1.0079

0.9174

Cum Gas
Prod e3 m3

Mon Water
Prod m3

40
40
10
23
30
45
100
50
50
40
30

Cum Water
Prod m3

Monthly
VRR

10
20
25
20
20
20
40
25
5
22

Bottom Hole Pressure Calculation


Acoustical Well Sounder
Input:
Well Name:
KB Elevation
CF Elevation:
MPP Depth from CF:
Tubing Depth from CF:
No. Jts. In well:
Avg. Jt. Length:
Pool Datum mSS:
Well Datum:
PBTD

Heavy Oil Well 08-07


566.42 m
563.00 m
472.00 mCF
470.00 mCF
48
9.79 m
-38.50 mSS
524.50 mCF
506.00 mCF

Output:
PRODUCING BOTTOM HOLE
PRESSURES

Joints to fluid
Gas col.length,m
Casing pressure,kPag
Press.at fl.level,kPag
Fluid col. pressure to Bot. Tubing,kPag
Press. at tbg bottom,kPag
MPP pressure, kPag
Datum pressure, kPag

20
196
0
0
2626
2626
2646
3148

Pool Datum is usually defined as


the midpoint of the perforations (MPP) of the
first well drilled in the pool.
Remember that foam formed in the casing
annulus can give misleading bottomhole pressures.

To Determine Gas Gradient:


Input:
Gas Specific Gravity
Reservoir Pressure
Compressibility value, z
Reservoir Temperature
Output:

0.566
4275
0.9229
23

Gas Gradient
or

Problem 1. An well produces a 18 deg API oil.


The measured KB is 779 m, with the casing
flange 3 m below that. The perf top is 970 mKB
with the perf bottom at 972 mKB. The pool datum is
minus 179.5 mss. There are 98 joints of tubing downhole.
The reservoir temperature is 33 deg C. The gas gravity
is 0.69. The Plugback tubing depth is 963.5 mCF.
The tubing depth is 963 mCF.
In Jan, the casing pressure was 100 kPa with 14 joints
to fluid. The well was producing a 50% watercut.
Next Jan, the casing pressure was 50 kPa with 20
joints to fluid and a 75% watercut.
How much had the pressure dropped in 1 year?
(You'll need Prog 1 & 2).

0.0142
0.3217

Table of Contents
Shot Jan 19/99

Shut-in since Nov 1985


Gas Density
Oil Density:
Oil Gradient:
Water Density:
Water Gradient:
Current W/C %
Emulsion Grad:
Joints to Fluid
Casing Pressure

24-Oct-14
0.772
0.978
9.578 kPa/m
1.061
10.392 kPa/m
55.00%
10.026 kPa/m
20
0.0 kPa

SHUT-IN BOTTOM HOLE


PRESSURES

20
196
0
0
2626
2626
2645
3179

no units
kPa
no units
deg C

psi/ft
kPa/m

Separator Recombination Analysis


Taken from EUB Gas Well Testing Manual
Input:
Sample taken Oct 3/98
SEPARATOR CONDITIONS
SEPARATOR PRODUCTS
LIQUID FLOW RATE CALCULATIONS*

MOLAL RECOMBINA
HP SEP, Pga
1448
HP GAS
51.44
LIQUID:
STOCK TANK
(STOCK TANK
MOLAR MASS OF LIQUID, ML =
LIQUID FLOW RATE (mol/d) =
GAS EQUIVALENT OF LIQUID =
(10^3m^3/d(st))

COMP
i

Mi
g/mol

Tci
K

Pci
kPa

N2
CO2
H2S
C1
C2
C3
iC4
nC4
iC5
nC5
C6
**C7+

28.013
44.01
34.076
16.042
30.07
44.097
58.124
58.124
72.151
72.151
86.178
123

126.27
304.22
373.55
190.59
305.43
369.83
408.15
425.19
460.44
469.66
507.44
568.84

3 399.1
7 384.3
9 004.6
4 604.3
4 880.1
4 249.2
3 648.0
3 796.9
3 381.2
3 368.8
3 012.3
2 486.2
TOTAL

LIQUID
MOLE
FRACTION
0.000 1
0.003 4
0.000 0
0.071 0
0.040 2
0.052 4
0.020 6
0.044 5
0.034 8
0.040 3
0.090 2
0.602 5
1.000 0

kPa, T
10^3m^3/d(st)
m^3/d

96.1
FLOW RATE(m^3/d) x (pL / ML) x 1000 =
LIQUID FLOW RATE (mol/d) x 23.645 e-

GAS RATE
10^3m^3/d(st)
0.000 0
0.000 9
0.000 0
0.019 1
0.010 8
0.014 1
0.005 5
0.012 0
0.009 4
0.010 8
0.024 3
0.162 2
0.269 2

RECOMBINED GAS PROPERTIES: FLOW RATE =


Tc =
* THE LIQUID FLOW RATE (m^3/d) AND LIQUID DENSITY ARE TO BE MEASURED AT THE SAME CONDITIONS
** PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF OCTANES ARE USED FOR THE C7+ FRACTION
Plant Yield Analysis
Sample taken Oct 3/98
Volume of Raw Gas Production (103m3)
Surface Loss for Gathering (%)
Gathering Surface Loss (103m3)
Gathered Volume (103m3)
Non-Hydrocarbon Losses (103m3)
Non-Hydrocarbon Losses (%)
Plant Yield Losses (103m3)
Plant Yield Losses (%)
Plant Fuel (%)
Plant Fuel and Other Losses (103m3)
Total Losses (103m3)
Total Losses (%)

51.71
3.0%
1.55
50.16
1.13
2.2%
0.79
1.5%
3.0%
1.55
5.02
9.7%

Product
Molar Mass of Component (g/mol)
Density of Component (kg/m3)
Volume of Production (m3/d)
Yield (m3/103m3)
Yield (bbl/mmcf)
Plant Efficiency (%)
Net Production (m3/d)
Net Yield (m3/103m3)
Net Yield (bbl/mmcf)
Cumulative Net Ci+ Production (m3/d)
Cumulative Net Ci+ Yield (m3/103m3)
Cumulative Net Ci+ Yield (bbl/mmcf)
Volume of Ci Sales as Gas (103m3/d)
Heating Value, Ideal Gas Ci (MJ/m3)
Heating Value, Liquid Ci (MJ/m3)
Sales Gas Heating Value (MJ)
Cum. Sales Gas Ci+ Heating Value (MJ)
Liquid Sold Heating Value (MJ)
Cum. Sales Liquid Ci+ Heating Value (MJ)

C7+
123.00
799.60
3.13
0.06
11.07
100.0%
3.13
0.06
11.07
3.13
0.06
11.07
0.00
225.00
33500
0
0
104972
104972

Table of Contents

MOLAL RECOMBINATION CALCULATIONS


24
C
LP SEP, Pga
LP GAS
HP
1.5
m^3/d
, HP
x
, or LP
g/mol, DENSITY OF LIQUID, pL =
OW RATE(m^3/d) x (pL / ML) x 1000 =
QUID FLOW RATE (mol/d) x 23.645 e-6 =

HP GAS
MOLE
FRACTION
0.002 0
0.020 6
0.000 0
0.819 4
0.093 3
0.036 3
0.005 8
0.008 5
0.002 7
0.002 4
0.002 5
0.006 5
1.000 0

GAS RATE
10^3m^3/d(st)
0.10
1.06
0.00
42.15
4.80
1.87
0.30
0.44
0.14
0.12
0.13
0.33
51.44

51.709
219.381

x 10^3m^3/d(st),
K, Pc =

LP GAS
MOLE
FRACTION

0.000 0
G=
4627.260

Oct 24, 2014


kPa, T
10^3m^3/d(st)
LP
729.4
11385.01561
0.269 2

GAS RATE
10^3m^3/d(st)
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

C
m^3/d

LIQUID)
kg/m^3
mol/d
10^3m^3/d(st)

TOTAL
GAS RATE
10^3m^3/d(st)
0.10
1.06
0.00
42.17
4.81
1.88
0.30
0.45
0.15
0.13
0.15
0.50
51.71

0.002 0
0.020 5
0.000 0
0.815 5
0.093 0
0.036 4
0.005 9
0.008 7
0.002 9
0.002 6
0.003 0
0.009 6
1.000 0

0.056
0.903
0.000
13.082
2.797
1.604
0.342
0.505
0.207
0.187
0.255
1.181
21.119

21.119

/ 28.964 =

0.729

xi

RECOMBINED GAS PROPERTIES


ximi
xiTci
xiPci
0.251
6.240
0.000
155.427
28.412
13.456
2.399
3.694
1.320
1.220
1.500
5.462
219.381

6.765
151.455
0.000
3754.824
453.964
154.602
21.439
32.985
9.694
8.750
8.906
23.874
4627.260

kPa
BASE CONDITIONS = 101.325 kPa AND 15 DEG. C

Plant Yield Analysis


Sample taken Oct 3/98
Heat Value of Gas Sales w/o Non H-C (MJ/m3)
Heat Value of Gas Sales w/ Non H-C (MJ/m3)
Sales Gas Volume w/o Non H-C (103m3/d)
Sales Gas Volume w/ Non H-C (103m3/d)

44.30
43.26
46.79
47.92

C6
86.18
663.80
0.81
0.02
2.88
50.5%
0.41
0.01
1.45
3.54
0.07
12.52
0.07
177.56
32091
12643
12643
13195
118168

nC5
72.15
631.00
0.63
0.01
2.23
46.9%
0.30
0.01
1.04
3.84
0.08
13.57
0.07
149.65
30709
10051
22694
9064
127231

iC5
72.15
624.40
0.70
0.01
2.48
43.5%
0.31
0.01
1.08
4.15
0.08
14.64
0.08
149.32
30333
11779
34473
9263
136494

nC4
58.12
584.20
1.83
0.04
6.48
17.5%
0.32
0.01
1.13
4.47
0.09
15.78
0.35
121.78
28718
42465
76938
9215
145709

iC4
58.12
563.20
1.29
0.03
4.55
10.2%
0.13
0.00
0.46
4.60
0.09
16.24
0.26
121.43
27621
31179
108116
3625
149333

C3
44.10
507.80
6.70
0.13
23.68
0.4%
0.03
0.00
0.09
4.62
0.09
16.34
1.76
93.97
25394
165683
273799
681
150014

C2
30.07
357.80
16.58
0.33
58.59
0.0%
0.00
0.00
0.00
4.62
0.09
16.34
4.53
66.03
18458
298854
572653
0
150014

C1
16.04
300.00
92.50
1.84
326.82
0.0%
0.00
0.00
0.00
4.62
0.09
16.34
39.68
37.69
0
1495579
2068232
0
150014

Residual Oil Saturation


Calculates Residual Oil Saturation
After Steamflood Using
Bursell's Laboratory Data

Input:
Oil Visocosity at Reservoir Conditions
Steamflood Temperature

18000
204

cp
deg C

0.082

fraction

Output:
Residual Oil Saturation
after steamflood

Residual Oil Saturation


Sor

0.300

0.247
0.227
0.206
0.185
0.165
0.144
0.124
0.103
0.082
0.062
0.041
0.020

0.250
0.200
Sor

Deg C

0.150
0.100
0.050

40.8
61.2
81.6
102
122.4
142.8
163.2
183.6
204
224.4
244.8
265.2

0.000
0

50

100

150

200

Steamflood Temp deg C

Problem
What will be the anticipated residual oil

250

300

saturation of the steamflood described in


Problem 2 of Program 3?

Table of Contents

300

A.

Reserves

Table of Contents

Calculates Exponential, Hyberbolic and Harmonic Declines


Input:
Initial Rate
Economic Limit
Hyberbolic Exponent

20
2
0.6

m3/d
m3/d
dimensionless

Comment 1
(Between 0 and 1)

Enter Part A or Part B


Part A

Net Pay
Porosity
Area
Oil Formation Volume Factor
Water Saturation
Recovery Factor

Part B

Reserves

m
fraction
Ha
m3/m3
fraction
fraction
10000

m3

10000
4
5
5

m3
years
years
years

The economic limit is defined


as the cost per day/revenue per unit.
Example: Suppose the operating
cost per month (September) is $1200
and the oil price is $20 per bbl.
Then the economic limit would be
equal to:
($1200/30days)/($20 per bbl)
or 2.00 barrels per day.

Output:
Reserves
Well Life (Exponential)
Well Life (Hyperbolic)
Well Life (Harmonic)

Decline Curves
25

Oil Rate m3/d

20

15

Exponential
Hyperbolic
Harmonic

10

0
0

Time in Years

Exponential Decline Parameters


Comment 1:
Nominal Decline Fraction
Nominal Decline Fraction
Percent Decline Per Year
Life of Well

0.00180
0.65700
48.16%
3.50

per day
per year
per year
years

Time Years

Oil Rate m3/d

Cumulative oil m3

Annual Oil m3

0.00
1.00
2.00
3.00
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.50
3.50

20
10.37
5.37
2.79
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00

0
5351
8125
9563
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000

0
5351
2774
1438
437
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

For all 3 types of decline, the


nominal decline rate Dn is
related to the effective decline
rate, De, by: (De, Dn in fractions)
Dn = -ln (1-De).
Thus a 20% decline per year (=De)
becomes
Dn = 22.3% or .223 nominal rate.

Comment 2:
To calculate gas volumes, use the
predicted oil rates and multiply
them by the current producing GOR.

Exponential Decline Oil Rate

Exponential Decline-Cumulative Oil

Rate vs Cum (Exponential decline)

Exponential Decline Oil Rate

12000

25

25

100

10000

20

10

8000

6000

4000

0.50

1.00

1.50

2.00

2.50

3.00

3.50

4.00

0.00301
1.09845
4.52

per day
per year
years

Oil Rate m3/d

Cumulative oil m3

Annual Oil m3

0
1.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
4.52
4.52
4.52
4.52
4.52
4.52
4.52
4.52
4.52
4.52
4.52
4.52
4.52
4.52
4.52
4.52
4.52
4.52
4.52
4.52
4.52

20.00
8.60
4.93
3.25
2.33
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00

0
4759
7129
8586
9588
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000

0
4759
2370
1457
1002
412
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Hyberbolic Decline Oil Rate

Hyperbolic Decline Cumulative Oil


12000

25

10000
Cumulative Oil m3

Oil Rate m3/d

20

15

10

8000
6000
4000
2000
0

0
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

Time in Years

Time in Years

Harmonic decline
Nominal Decline
Nominal Decline
Life of Well

0.00461
1.68089
5.35

per day
per year
years

Time in Years

Oil Rate m3/d

Cumulative Oil m3

Annual Oil m3

0
1.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
5.00
5.35
5.35
5.35
5.35
5.35
5.35
5.35
5.35
5.35
5.35
5.35
5.35
5.35
5.35
5.35
5.35
5.35
5.35
5.35
5.35

20.00
7.46
4.59
3.31
2.59
2.13
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00

0
4283
6397
7812
8878
9733
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000

0
4283
2114
1416
1066
855
267
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Harmonic Decline Cumulative Oil

Harmonic Decline Oil Rate

12000

20

10000
Cumulative Oil m3

25

15

10

8000

6000
4000

2000
0

0
0

Problem:
A vertical well is drilled on 40 acre spacing with 8 m net pay.
Measured gas gravity is 0.65 with separator GOR of 9 m3/m3. The
crude API is 18 degrees. Reservoir temperature and porosity is
25 deg C and 33%. Water saturation is 35%. The well
comes on at 10 m3/d and the economic limit is 3 bbl/d. Assuming
a primary production recovery factor of 10%, what is the well life if the
decline is:
a) exponential
b) hyperbolic (assume constant = 0.6)
c) harmonic?
What are the reserves? Produce a graph of cumulative
oil versus producing years assuming the decline is exponential.

Probabilistic Reserve Estimation


Warren 1961 Method
Input
Netpay, m
Porosity, fraction
Oil Saturation, fraction
Area, Hectares
Oil Formation Volume Factor

Minimum
4.2
0.12
0.78
50
1.02

Most Likely
12
0.15
0.8
520
1.022

Output:
Mean OOIP
Variance OOIP
Del Squared
Standard Deviation
Fiftieth Percentile of OOIP, R50
Eightyfourth Percentile of OOIP, R84.1

6.640E+07
6.59275E+15
0.402
0.634
5.430E+07
1.024E+08

3
Time in Years

Time in Years

m3

m3
m3

Maximum
17
0.17
0.82
1000
1.023

Mean, m1(x)
11.051
0.147
0.800
523.390
1.022

Variance
m2(x)
137.6
0.0217
0.6402
359400.9
1.0

1
0.00

0.50

1.00

1.50

2.00
Time in Years

Hyberbolic Decline

Time in Years

10

2.50

3.00

3.50

4.00

0
0

Time in Years

Nominal Decline
Nominal Decline
Life of Well

15

0
0.00

Time In years

Oil Rate m3/d

10

2000

Oil Rate m3/d

15

Natural Log Oil Rate m3/d

Cumulative Oil m3

Oil Rate m3/d

20

2000

4000

6000
Cum Oil m3

8000

10000

12000

SAGD
Calculates oil production
from SAGD well pair
using Butler's theory

Input:
Net Pay
Porosity
Initial Oil Saturation
Reservoir Temperature
Steam Injection Pressure
Oil Gravity
Reservoir Permeability
Horizontal Producer Length

Output:
Steam Temperature
Oil Density at steam temperature
Oil Viscosity at reservoir conditions
Oil Viscosity at steam temperature
or
Rock Density assumed
Oil Density at 15 deg C
Oil Specific Gravity at Reservoir Temp
Oil density at Reservoir Temp
Water Density at Reservoir Temp
Specific Heat of Oil
Specific Heat of Water
Specific Heat of rock assumed
Heat Capacity of Saturated Rock
Thermal Conductivity of Saturated Rock (Tikhomirov Eqn)
Thermal Diffusivity of Saturated Rock
Formation Thermal Diffusivity
Residual Oil Saturation
Oil Production Rate from SAGD well

Problem 1:
Calculate the predicted SAGD oil production rates
from Foster Creek.

Table of Contents

10
0.2
0.7
15
1.7
15
1
500

m
fraction
fraction
deg C
MPa
deg API
darcies
m

204.0
821.5
14814
18.1
22.0
2643
965.87
0.97
1.0
1003.45
1.77
4.27
0.96296

deg C
kg/m3
cp
cp
centistokes
kg/m3
kg/m3
dimensionless
kg/m3
kg/m3
kJ/kg-K
kJ/kg-K
kJ/kg-K

2293.68
3.18
0.00138
0.1196352
0.076

kJ/m3-K
W/m-K
1000 m2/s
m2/d
fraction

29.44

m3/d

Horizontal Well Calculations

Horizontal Well Production Rates


Uses Joshi theory
Drainage Area Calculated Using
Vertical Well Drainage Area

Input:
Vertical well Spacing
Horizontal well Length
Net Pay
Hole diameter
Reservoir Pressure
Wellbore Pressure
Reservoir Vertical Permeabilty (can leave blank)
Reservoir Horizontal Permeability
Oil viscosity
Oil Formation Volume Factor
Skin Factor

20
500
8
127
7.5
6
300
1000
150
1.05
0

Output:
Horizontal Well Drainage Area
Drainage radius
Geometric "a" factor
Assumed Vertical Permeability
Beta factor
Den1
Den2

34.9
211.9
961.9
300.0
1.8
0.6
0.1

Steady State Oil Production Rate

56.7

Horizontal Well Length m

Oil Rate m3/d

100
250
400
500
600
1000
1500

16.9
31.7
46.4
56.7
67.4
112.8
172.2

Horizontal Well Production


200
180
160

Oil Rate m3/d

140
120
100
80
60
40

40

20
0
0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

Horizontal Well Length m

Pressure Drop In Horizontal Wells

Laminar Pressure Drop Toe-to Heel


Input:
Oil Viscosity
Oil Formation Volume factor
Oil Rate
Horizontal length
Well Diameter

10000
1.05
50
1200
228

Output:
Pressure Drop from Toe-to-Heel

Pressure Drop Toe-to-Heel


70.00
60.00

55.04

5.50
11.01
16.51
22.01

27.52
33.02
38.53
44.03
49.53
55.04
60.54
66.04

Pressure Drop kPa

60.00
50.00
40.00
30.00
20.00
10.00
0.00

10

20

30

40

50

Oil Rate m3/d

Uses Islam CIM 99-117 Correlations

Input:
Oil Viscosity
Horizontal Length
Gas Liquid Ratio
Water Cut

1000
500
200
0.2

Output:
A.

Horizontal Well Open Hole Completion


Void Fraction

Pressure Drop kPa/m

0.05
0.1
0.2

31
37
50

0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8

B.

C.

62
74
86
97
107
117

Horizontal Well With Perforations


Void Fraction

Pressure Drop kPa/m

0.05
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8

27
37
57
76
93
110
125
139
152

Horizontal Well with Perforations also Producing Water


Void Fraction

Pressure Drop kPa/m

0.05
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8

16
22
32
41
49
56
61
66
69

Horizonal Well Open Hole Pressure Drop


140

Pressure Drop kPa/m

120

100
80
60
40
20
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

Void Fraction

Horizontal Well With Perfs Pressure Drop


160

0.7

0.8

160
140

Pressure Drop kPa/m

120
100
80
60
40
20
0
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

Void Fraction

Horizontal Perf'd Well Producing Water Pressure Drop


80
70

ssure Drop kPa/m

60
50

0.7

0.8

Pressure Drop kPa/m

50

40
30
20
10
0
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

Void Fraction

Problem:
A horizontal well with 7" casing is being drilled in Lloydminster
where the 21 deg API oil is at a reservoir temperature
of 27 deg C. Net pay is 20 m. Initial reservoir pressure
is 3900 kPa. The well can be drawn down to 200 kPa.
The horizontal permeability is 1500 md. Vertical wells
here are drilled on 20 acre spacing. What length of
horizontal well must be drilled if the desired steadystate production rate is 60 m3/d? Use Bo of 1.05 m3/m3,
and live oil viscosity of 5000 cp.

C.

Horizontal Well Placement


Calculates breakthru time & optimum placement of horizontal
well if gas and water cresting can occur using

0.6

0.7

0.8

the correlelations developed by Wagenhofer and Hatzignatiou


SPE 35714, 1996

Input:
Horizontal length
Horzontal drainage area
Oil flow rate
Oil Reservoir Thickness
Reservoir porosity
Gas cap thickness
Aquifer thickness
Reservoir horizontal permeability
Reservoir vertical permeability
Oil viscosity
Oil formation volume factor
Oil-water end point mobility ratio
Gas-oil end point mobility ratio
Oil hydrostatic gradient
Water hydrostatic gradient
Gas hydrostatic gradient
Residual Oil Saturation
Connate Water Saturation

900
40
30
10
0.3
12
30
1500
1500
500
1.05
54.99
400
10.3
9.5
0.667
0.27
0.475

Output:
Dimensionless horizontal length
Dimensionless flow rate
Dimensionless gas cap size
Dimensionless aquifer size
Dimensionless breakthrough time
Dimensionless vertical distance from WOC

0.055570248
0.137050263
0.36
0.9
0.004103107

Breakthrough time
Optimum placement above WOC contact

16
4.2

Table of Contents

acres
m
m
mm
MPa
MPa
md
md
cp
m3/m3
no units

acres
m
ft
md
dimensionless

m3/d

Drainage Area acres


15.0
22.4
29.9
34.9
39.8
59.7
84.6

Drainage radius m

"a" factor

den1

138.9
170.0
196.2
211.9
226.5
277.3
330.0

470.6
637.4
826.0
961.9
1104.0
1710.3
2504.8

1.7
1.0
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.3
0.2

den2
0.7
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.0

1400

1600

cp
m3/m3
m3/d
m
mm

kPa

5
10
15
20

25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60

60

70

cp
m
scf/bbl
fraction

0.8

0.9

0.8

0.9

0.8

0.9

m
acres
m3/d
m
fraction
m
m
md
md
cp
m3/m3
no units
no units
kPa/m
kPa/m
kPa/m
fraction
fraction

days
m

Mow=(muoil/kro at Swc)/(muwater/krw at 1-Sor)


Mgo=(muoil/kro at Swc)/(mu gas/krg at 1-Sor)

Thermal Casings
Calculates Yield Strength of Casing

J55,N80 (L80), P105, P110

Input:
Casing Type
Casing Temperature
Reservoir Temperature
Length of casing

n80
200
13
500

Output:
Casing Temperature
Casing Yield Strength
or
Thermal Stress in Casing
Thermal Stretch in Casing

392
83602
576.6
471.24
1.178

Temperature deg C

Yield Strength psi

20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
240
300
400
500

82507
81942
81614
81496
81558
81773
82113
82549
83055
83602
84706
85970
85163
77682

Yield Strength psi


87000

86000
85000

85000
Yield Strength psi

84000
83000
82000
81000
80000
79000
78000
77000
0

100

200

300
Temp deg C

Table of Contents

deg C
deg C
m

deg F
psi
MPa
MPa
m

emp deg C

400

500

600

Wellbore heat Losses

Table of Contents

Calculates wellbore heat losses


using Ramey's equation

Input:

Tubing size
Ground Thermal conductivity
Steam injection Pressure
Formation depth
Casing size
Reservoir Temperature
Geothermal Gradient
Injection Time

50.8
2.4
6.89
609.75
178
21
0.038
200

mm
W/m-deg K
MPa
m
mm
deg C
deg C/m
days

Steam Injection Temperature


Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
or
Thermal Conductivity
F factor
Geothermal Gradient

544.4806
165.5533
33.28013
4.297996
0.020856

deg F
Btu/ft2-deg F
kW/m2-K
Btu/ft-d-deg F
dimensionless
deg F/ft

Heat Loss Rate


or

5.66E+07
5.97E+07

Btu/d
kJ/d

Output:

Problem: What are the heat losses after steaming at Cold Lake for 30 days after 1 cycle?

fter 1 cycle?

RESERVOIR PROPERTIES
A.

Porosity Calculation
Uses modified Gluyas-Cade
Correlation
for Uncemented Sandstones

Input:
Reservoir Depth

Output:
Porosity

B.

Absolute

and

Saturating

fluid is

Input:
Liquid flow rate
Thickness
Viscosity
Inlet Pressure
Outlet Pressure
Cross-sectional area
Re
Rw
Core Length

5
3
1
1.5
1
10
22
8
100

Output:
Absolute Permeability
Absolute Permeability

2 Saturating

100.0
0.5

fluid is
Input:

Gas Viscosity
Cross-sectional Area
Length of Core
Outlet Pressure

0.0183
1.36
1.3
1

Flowrate cc/sec

Pressure, atm

4.05
17.9
34.56
61.79

1.13
1.5
1.86
2.33

Output:
Corrected Permeability
to gas

0.4431

Klinkenberg Effect
0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

Inverse Average Pressure, atm

C.

Mean Grain Size

for Cold Lake Sand

Input:
Bitumen Saturation

7.6

Output:
Mean Grain size
or

D.

0.1250
3.000

Weight and Volume Percent


Input:
Oil API
Weight oil in sample
Weight water in sample
Weight mineral matter

10
15
2
83

Output:
Oil Density
Oil Saturation
Water Saturation
Oil Saturation
Water Saturation
Oil Saturation
Water Saturation

E.

Rock Compressiblity for

1
15.00%
2.00%
31.04%
4.14%
88.24%
11.76%

Unconsolidated Sandstones

Hall's correlation is not


recommended for these type
of reservoirs as the actual pore volume
compressibilities may be higher
by an order of magnitude.

Using Newman's Sandstone Correlation


Input:
Average Porosity
Output

0.24

Formation Compressibility
or

6.75E-06
9.80E-07

Using Yales (SPE 26647) Sandstone Correl.


Input:
Depth
Initial Reservoir Pressure
Current reservoir Pressure

700
10000
8000

Output:
Formation Compressibility
Formation Compressibility

F.

1.88E-06
1.30E-05

Average Permeabilty for Layered Beds


Layered Bed:
Input:
Bed 1
Bed 2
Bed 3
Bed 4
Bed 5
Bed 6
Bed 7
Bed 8
Bed 9
Bed 10

Thickness, m
1
5
2
5
2
2.4
3
1
1
1

Output:
Average Thickness Weighted Perm

Reservoir Temperature for Alberta

663.46

and Venezuela

Enter Reservoir Depth in m

450

Calculated Bottomhole Temperature


Calculated Bottomhole Temperature

18.2
50

Average Geothermal Gradient Alberta

0.0366 deg C/m

Pore Throat Radius


Uses Winland Correlation
SPE 69457
(Corresponds to 35% mercury saturation)

Input:
Porosity
Permeability to air (Uncorrected)

25
2000

Output
Pore Throat Radius

29.19

Initial Reservoir Pressure


Input:

Reservoir Depth
Reservoir Depth (Saskachewan only)
Output:

450
-75

Alberta Cretaceous
Venezuela
Western Siberia
Offshore Nigeria
Saskatchewan

2747
5266
4699
5860
5253

Edgewater Drive Recovery


for Viscous Oils

(less than 500 cp)

from Van Meurs-van der Poel (1958)


Input:
Connate Water Saturation
Residual Oil Saturation to Water
Live Oil Viscosity
Water Viscosity
Economic Watercut Limit

0.38
0.33
350
1.5
0.99

Output:
Moveable Oil Saturation
Oil Recovery

0.29
50.2%

Problem 1
Calculate the oil recovery for the
Suffield heavy oil edgwater waterflood where
connate water saturation is 32%, the
residual oil saturation is 32%, the live oil
viscosity is 470 cp, the injected water is
at 33 deg C and the economic watercut
cutoff is 95%. (Need program 5)

Table of Contents

Effective

472

35.11

High grade Athabasca Tar Sands have


porosity in the range of 30-35%, which
is higher than sandstone reservoirs
(which is 5-25%) due to lack of cement
in the pore space.
Thus, the name sands instead of sandsto

Permeability
Elemental Analysis

liquid.

cc/sec
cm
cp
atm
atm
cm2
cm
cm
cm

darcies
darcies

gas.

Carbon, mean wt %
Hydrogen, mean wt%
Sulphur, mean wt%
Nitrogen, mean wt %
Oxygen, mean wt %
Vanadium, ppm
Nickel, ppm
Iron, ppm

Linear flow
Radial flow

cp
cm2
cm
atm
Inverse Avg. Pressure, atm-1

Permeability, darcy

0.9390
0.8000
0.6993
0.6006

0.5117
0.5010
0.4916
0.4881

darcies

berg Effect

y = 0.0724x + 0.4431

0.6

ge Pressure, atm-1

0.7

0.8

0.9

Mineralology

wt %

Quartz
Feldspar
Mica and Clays

mm
Krumbein phi scale

g
g
g

g/cm3
weight percent
weight percent
volume percent
volume percent
percent
percent

For Alberta medium grade


oil sands, use
3.5 - 14.0 e-6 kPa-1 for
rock compressibility

fraction

The highest grade oil sands in Athabasc


have oil saturations of 18 wt % or 36 vol
Typical feed to Suncor is about 12 wt %.
There is also always irreducible water
present of about 2 wt %.
Any feed over 10 wt % is consdiered
rich, while less than 6 wt % is
considered lean.

Bulk Density
Cold Lake Tar Sands

psi -1
kPa -1

m
kPa
kPa

kPa -1 for
kPa -1 for

Unconsolidated
Consolidated

Permeability, md
100
200
300
400
1000
750
1200
1700
1275
1450

md

m
deg C in
deg C in
or 0.0201 deg F/ft

Alberta
Venezuela

rock
rock

percent
md

microns

m
m subsea

kPa
kPa
kPa
kPa
kPa

fraction
fraction
cp
cp
fraction

fraction
percent

habasca Tar Sands have


e range of 30-35%, which
sandstone reservoirs
%) due to lack of cement

me sands instead of sandstones.

Cold Lake
Produced Oil

Athabasca

83.09
10.64
4.41
0.35
0.35
166
60
10

82.71
10.29
4.68
0.43
1.35
248
77
181

Athabasca Oil Sands


95%
2 to 3%
2 to 3%

rade oil sands in Athabasca


ations of 18 wt % or 36 vol %.
o Suncor is about 12 wt %.
always irreducible water

considered
s than 6 wt % is

2.633

g/cm3

Optimum Working Interest


Uses Cozzolino's Risk
Aversion Formula to
Calculate Optimum
Working Interest
(SPE 6359, 1978)
Variable Risk Tolerance
is calculated below (Pt B)

A. Optiumum Working Interest

Chance
NPV (Millions)
Cost (Millions)
Expected Val (Millions) @ 100%
Risk Tolerance (Millions)
Working Interest
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
Selected WI
EV at Selected WI
RAV at Selected WI
Apparent Risk Tolerance
Optimum Working Interest
EV at optimum WI
RAV at optimum WI

20.00%
90
10
10
20
rav-coz
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$

(5.571)
(4.593)
(3.628)
(2.688)
(1.785)
(0.943)
(0.203)
0.377
0.703
0.639
50.00%
5

(0.94340)
$61.6576

16.22%
$
$

1.62186
0.73380

Working Interest
$2.000
$1.000

$1.000

Risk Adjusted Value

$0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

$(1.000)
$(2.000)
$(3.000)
$(4.000)
$(5.000)
$(6.000)
% Working Interest

B. Variable Risk Tolerance

Chance
NPV (Millions)
Cost (Millions)
Expected Val (mm) @ 100%
Risk Tolerance (MM)
$10
$20
$30
$40
$50
$60
$70
$80
$90
$100
$110

20.00%
90
10
10
rav-coz
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$

(7.769)
(5.571)
(3.572)
(1.887)
(0.507)
0.620
1.547
2.317
2.965
3.516
3.989

Variable Risk Tolerance


$8.000
$6.000
$4.000

Risk Adjusted Value

$4.000
$2.000
$$0

$20

$40

$60

$(2.000)
$(4.000)
$(6.000)
$(8.000)
$(10.000)
Risk Tolerance MM $

$80

$100

Table of Contents

rav-tanh
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$

(3.136)
(2.579)
(1.983)
(1.350)
(0.685)
(0.007)
0.639
1.146
1.313
0.909
-

80%

90%

100%

rav-coz
rav-tanh

rav-tanh
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$

(3.431)
(3.136)
(1.697)
(0.013)
1.598
3.009
4.189
5.153
5.933
6.563
7.074

$120

rav-coz
rav-tanh

Optimum Number
of Drilling Locations and
Present Day Value
Uses Nind's Formula (1981)

Input:
Average Initial Production per well
Development Costs per well
Lifting Costs per well
Oil Value
Discount Rate
Specific Volume oil recoverability
Net sand thickness

77
$0.72
$0.09
$10.50
10.00%
400
20

Output:
Recoverable Oil
Optimum Number of Wells
Present Day Value (Less other dev. Costs)

8000
2.8
$225.55

Table of Contents

bbl/d
Millions
Millions
$/bbl
per year
bbls/acrefoot
feet

bbls/acre
Millions

Success/Fail Model
SEISMIC EXAMPLE

OIL DISCOVERY

90.00%
10.00% SUCCESS
10.00%

20.00%
90.00% FAIL
80.00%

BRIGHT SPOT

33.33%
27.00% SUCCESS
66.67%

1.37%
73.00% FAIL
98.63%

BAYESIAN UPDATING

Table of Contents

BRIGHT SPOT
GIVEN
OIL DISCOVERY

BRIGHT
SPOT

9.00%
SUCCESS
1.00%

27.00%

18.00%

73.00%

FAIL

SUCCESS
72.00%
FAIL

OIL DISCOVERY
GIVEN
BRIGHT SPOT

OIL
DISCOVERY

9.00%
SUCCESS
18.00%

10.00%

1.00%

90.00%

FAIL

SUCCESS
72.00%
FAIL

SUCCESS

FAIL

SUCCESS

FAIL

A.

ORIGINAL-GAS-IN-PLACE
Calculates OGIP using
Material Balance and
Standing Correlation for z

Input:
Gas Gravity
Initial Reservoir Pressure
Reservoir Temperature
Abandonment Pressure
Depth
Output:
Estimated Abandonment Pressure

Input Date,Pressure History, Cum Gas Produced:


Date
5-Mar-90
1-Apr-91
11-Nov-91
3-May-92
9-Jun-93
13-Dec-93
5-Apr-94
21-Dec-94
15-Jul-95
23-Dec-95
6-Jun-96
31-Dec-96
27-Feb-97
30-Nov-97
6-Jun-98
15-Dec-98
14-Mar-99
25-Jun-99
19-Dec-99
4-Mar-00

Bottomhole Pressure, kPa


(input)
2800
2750
2666
2500
2430
2300
2220
2105
2100
2000
1900
1800
1755
1700
1688
1550
1478
1450
1350
1307

Pseudocritical Pressure
Pseudcritical Temperature
Reservoir Pressure
Reservoir Temperature
Pseudoreduced Pressure
Pseudoreduced Temperature
P/Z at abandonment

OGIP=
Reserves=
Remaining Reserves=

3500
3000

P/Z kPa

2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
0

10

15

Cum Gas Produced e3 m

P/Z vs Cumulative Gas Plots


A.

If P/Z Curve Bends Upwards:


1
2
3
4
5

B.

subsidence or compaction occurring


water influx
oil zone beneath
leakage into fault or behind casing channelling
bad data

If P/Z Curve Bends Downwards:


1
2
3
4
5

B.

bad data
competitive drainage
retrograde condensation
overpressured reservoir
leakage out of reservoir

Z Factor Calculation

Input
Component
CO2
N2
H2S
C1
C2
C3
iC4
nC4
iC5
C5
C6
C7+
Total

Mole Fraction
0.02
0.01
0
0.85
0.04
0.03
0.03
0.02
0
0
0
0
1

Res. Pressure
Res Temp

20689
82
Output:
Pseudocritical Pressure
Pseudocritical Temperature
Pseudoreduced Pressure
Pseudoreduced Temperature
Apparent Molecular Weight

Z Factor
Gas Density

Table of Contents

0.7
3000
70
150
500

no units
kPa
deg C
kPa
m

680

kPa

P/Z kPa
2930.40
2875.56
2783.63
2602.78
2526.84
2386.29
2300.13
2176.69
2171.33
2064.42
1957.87
1851.70
1804.04
1745.90
1733.23
1587.87
1512.31
1482.98
1378.43
1333.59

Cum Gas Produced e3 m3


(input)
5
7
8
9
11
13
14
15
16
17
18
20
21
22
22.5
23
24
25
26
26.5

3343.747
-74.8366

669.125
389.375
435.114
618
0.6503
1.5872
187.2499

44.681
42.179
15.679

psi
deg R
psi
deg R

kPa

e3 m3
e3 m3
e3 m3

or

1.586
1.497
0.556

BCF
BCF
BCF

OGIP

y = -84.58x + 3033

20

25

30

Cum Gas Produced e3 m3

35

40

45

50

0.497858848
1.964371237
0.061427847
1.000027457

kPa
deg C

672.16
384.92
4.46
1.66
20.18

A
B
C
D

0.8424
167.73

kg/m3

Refining
A

Cetane Number and Smoke Point


for Athabasca Oilsands
Uses Yui (Oil and Gas Journal Nov 20,2000)
correlation

Input:
Aniline Point
Density at 15 deg C
Density at 20 deg C
Monoaromatics determined by SFC
Total aromatics determined by SFC
Simulated Distillation at 10%
Simulated Distillation at 30%
Simulated Distillation at 50%
Simulated Distillation at 70%
Simulated Distillation at 90%
Boiling Range t90-t10
Boiling Range t70-t30

67.8
0.8329
0.8292
15.2
22.4
196
229.1
261.2
295.6
328
132
66.5

deg C
g/ml
g/ml
wt %
wt %
deg C
deg C
deg C
deg C
deg C
deg C
deg C

49.84
50.32
14.57

mm

Output:
Cetane Number (Correlation 1)
Cetane Number (Correlation 2)
Smoke Point

Normal Boiling Point

Normal
BP deg K

Carbon Number
Methane
Ethane
Propane
n-Butane
i-Butane
n-Pentane
i-Pentane

1
2
3
4
4
5
5

111.67
184.53
231.09
272.66
261.43
309.23
300.9

neo-Pentane
Hexane
Heptane
n-Octane
i-octane
n-Nonane
Decane
n-Undecane
n-dodecane
n-Tridecane
n-Tetradecane
n-Pentadecane
n-Hexadecane
n-Heptadecane
n-Octadecane
Eicosane
Docosane
Tetracosane
Hexacosane
Octacosane
Triacontane
Dotriacontane
Tetratriacontane
Hexatriacontane
Octatriacontane
Tetracontane
Dotetracontane
tetratetracontane

5
6
7
8
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44

282.5
341.9
371.59
398.7
372.24
423.8
447
468.9
489.27
508.444
526.5
543.6
559.77
575.16
589.72
617
642
664
685
704
722
739
754
769
782
795
807
818

Normal Boiling Point


900
800

Boiling Point deg K

700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0

10

15

20

25
Carbon Number

Carbon Number

B. Vacuum Distillation Corrections


Converts Distillation Boiling
Points to Normal Boiling Points
Uses Maxwell-Bonnett Eqn
Input:
Measured Boiling Point
Specific Gravity at 15 deg C
Measured Pressure in Distillation Apparatus

600
0.942
50

deg K
kPa

Output:
Watson Characterization Factor
Type of fraction
A Factor
Measured BP
Normal Boiling Point at Kw=12
F Value

10.89
paraffinic
0.0017
621.00
859.47
1.00

Normal Boiling Point

732.0

deg F
deg F

deg K

A. Ethane
Temp deg K

Te
273
283
293
303
313
323
333
343
353
363
373
383
393
403
413
423
433

ln Pn
265.046461
273.9581381
282.8322435
291.6690143
300.4686856
309.2314904
317.9576602
326.647424
335.3010092
343.9186414
352.5005441
361.046939
369.5580461
378.0340835
386.4752675
394.8818126
403.2539316

3.284682995
3.778089313
4.232469765
4.651905243
5.039996343
5.399928858
5.734529033
6.046310397
6.337513602
6.610140458
6.865983112
7.106649151
7.333583275
7.548086057
7.751330248
7.944374975
8.128178141

Vapor Pressure of Ethane

2500

Vapour Pressure kPa

2000

1500

1000

500

0
250

300

350
Temperature deg K

B. Propane
Temp deg K

Te
273
283
293
303
313
323
333
343
353
363
373
383
393
403
413
423
433

ln Pn
400.2127871
414.0393419
427.8325292
441.5924695
455.3192829
469.0130889
482.6740064
496.3021538
509.8976488
523.4606087
536.99115
550.4893889
563.9554409
577.3894211
590.7914438
604.1616229
617.5000719

Athabasca
S wt %
N wt %
O wt %

8.06233788
8.353760727
8.626042652
8.882056192
9.124290273
9.354906829
9.575787992
9.788575624
9.99470456
10.19543069
10.39185479
10.58494276
10.77554299
10.96440116
11.15217301
11.33943537
11.52669563

Bachaquero
5.14
0.56
1.17

3.39

Ni ppm*100
V ppm*100

1.5
2.9

1
8.8

Composition of Residue Fee


12

10

Wt % or ppm

0
Athabasca

Bachaquero

Cerro Negro

Cold Lake

Gach Saran

Heavy Arabian

Table of Contents

SFC=Supercritical
Fluid Chromatography

Normal
BP R
130.2041
177.533
221.2759
261.6734
261.6734
298.9565
298.9565

SGn

201.006
332.154
415.962
490.788
470.574
556.614
541.62

-0.010842
0.391253
0.512688
0.584694
0.567625
0.631172
0.621647

2.8279402
6.2423763
6.3345676
5.0399612
5.5177507
2.8270735
3.4195427

-0.000563139
-0.000224993
-0.000125186
-6.58954E-05
-7.9986E-05
-2.7313E-05
-3.52521E-05

SG

0.30000
0.35600
0.50800
0.58400
0.58400
0.63100
0.63100

298.9565
333.3466
365.0555
394.2854
394.2854
421.2289
446.069
468.9791
490.123
509.6549
527.7194
544.4515
559.9766
574.4105
587.8594
612.179
633.593
652.6054
669.5666
684.6734
697.969
709.343
718.5314
725.1166
728.5274
728.039
722.773
711.6974

508.5
615.42
668.862
717.66
670.032
762.84
804.6
844.02
880.686
915.1992
947.7
978.48
1007.586
1035.288
1061.496
1110.6
1155.6
1195.2
1233
1267.2
1299.6
1330.2
1357.2
1384.2
1407.6
1431
1452.6
1472.4

0.598467 4.5433877 -5.45001E-05


0.66372
0
0
0.687945 -3.265059 2.05742E-05
0.706637 -6.825129
3.6647E-05
0.688428 -3.343953 2.09873E-05
0.721607 -10.61378 4.96806E-05
0.733796 -14.53678 6.04243E-05
0.744079 -18.61118 6.95961E-05
0.752727 -22.72455 7.73996E-05
0.760165 -26.88137 8.41854E-05
0.766619 -31.04846 9.01364E-05
0.772294 -35.22087 9.54211E-05
0.777308 -39.36855 0.000100134
0.781792
-43.4987 0.000104387
0.785797
-47.57 0.000108219
0.792748 -55.62709 0.000114946
0.79856
-63.502 0.000120651
0.803291 -70.82055 0.000125352
0.807511 -78.14582 0.000129591
0.811107 -85.05908 0.000133238
0.814339
-91.8588 0.000136543
0.817249 -98.50438
0.00013954
0.819712 -104.5485 0.000142094
0.822085 -110.7618 0.000144567
0.824074 -116.2835
0.00014665
0.826005 -121.9321
0.00014868
0.827739 -127.2591
0.00015051
0.82929 -132.2372 0.000152153

ormal Boiling Point

25
Carbon Number

30

35

40

45

50

0.63100
0.66400
0.68800
0.70700
0.70700
0.72200
0.73400
0.74400
0.75300
0.76000
0.76700
0.77200
0.77700
0.78200
0.78600
0.78600
0.78600
0.78600
0.78600
0.78600
0.78600
0.78600
0.78600
0.78600
0.78600
0.78600
0.78600
0.78600

Carbon Number

ln P kPa
2.975166
3.454424
3.896522
4.305243
4.683945
5.035616
5.362917
5.668226
5.95367
6.221154
6.472391
6.70892
6.932127
7.143264
7.343461
7.533739
7.715025

Vapor Pressure of Ethane

Vap P kPa
19.592871
31.640047
49.230907
74.087205
108.19611
153.79434
213.34647
289.52057
385.16424
503.28382
647.02907
819.68496
1024.6716
1265.5527
1546.053
1870.0843
2241.7794

400

450

500

Temperature deg K

Ln P kPa
8.053272
8.343266
8.614306
8.869237
9.110523
9.340304
9.560448
9.772582
9.978128
10.17833
10.37429
10.56696
10.75719
10.94571
11.13317
11.32015
11.50716

Cerro Negro

Cold Lake
4.5

5.1
0.45
0.97

Vap P kPa
3144.0667
4201.7885
5509.9253
7109.8557
9050.0233
11387.873
14192.202
17546.005
21549.943
26326.596
32025.69
38830.589
46966.376
56709.967
68402.807
82466.872
99424.903

Gach SaranHeavy Arabian


Hondo
2.6
4.23
0.41
0.26
0
0

4.42
0.7
0

Lloydminster
4.69
0.53
0.99

2
10.4

2
4.9

0.4
1.1

0.3
0.9

0.9
2.8

1.4
1.9

Composition of Residue Feedstock

Heavy Arabian

Hondo

Lloydminster

Maya

Peace River

Tia Juana

Zuata

(SG/SGn)^.5

#NUM!
0.953885777
0.995417086
0.999406154
1.014321178
0.999864081
1.007494372

1.026820913
1.000211184
1.000039844
1.000256962
1.013398634
1.000272609
1.000138992
0.999947193
1.000181437
0.999891642
1.00024818
0.999809408
0.999801782
1.000133265
1.000129131
0.995734682
0.992104479
0.989178818
0.986590676
0.984401197
0.982446001
0.980695258
0.979220746
0.977806487
0.976625735
0.975483618
0.974461288
0.973549324

Maya
4.42
0.52

Peace RiverTia Juana Zuata


7.02
3.17
4.17
0.63
1.09

0.8
4.1

1.3
4.1

S wt %
N wt %
O wt %
Ni ppm*100
V ppm*100

Zuata

1
7.6

1.6
8.2

Petroleum Fractions
A

Watson Characterization Factor


Input
Normal Boiling Point
Specific Gravity

550
0.809

deg C
no units

14.09

no units

550
0.899

deg C
no units

823
552.05

deg K
kg/kmol

550
0.802

deg C
no units

0.943
14.211
582.99

no units

Output
Watson K Factor

Molecular Weight of Fraction


(Uses Riazi(1986) and Lee-Kesler Correlations

Input:
Normal Boiling Point
Specific Gravity

Output:
Normal Boiling point
Molecular Weight

Pseudo-Critical Temperature,
Pseudo-Critical Pressure,
Acentric Factor
Input:
Normal Boiling Point
Specific Gravity

Output
Reduced Boiling Point Temperature
Watson Characterization Factor
Pseudo Critical temperature

deg K

Pseudo-Critical Pressure
or Pseudo-Critical Pressure
Acentric Factor

15.4006
1540.06
1.728117

bars
kPa
no units

Table of Contents

Group

Watson K Factor

Paraffins
Naphthenes
Aromatics

13
12
10

Relative Permeability
and Capillary Pressure

Creates Relative Permeability Data and Capillary Pressure from initial water and residual oil saturation
Uses Corey's Correlation

Input:
Initial Water Saturation
Residual Oil Saturation

0.3
0.25

Output:
Sw

Kro

Krw

0.3
0.36
0.42
0.48
0.54
0.6
0.66
0.72
0.78
0.84
0.9
0.96
1.02
1.08
1.14
1.2

1
0.6992
0.4605
0.2789
0.1488
0.0642
0.0179
0.0011
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000

0
0.0037
0.0149
0.0334
0.0594
0.0929
0.1338
0.1821
0.2378
0.3010
0.3716
0.4496
0.5350
0.6279
0.7282
0.8360

Pc
kPa
7.67
5.43
4.43
3.84
3.43
3.13
2.90
2.71
2.56
2.43
2.31
2.22
2.13
2.05
1.98

Relative Permeabilty Curve


1
0.9
0.8
0.7

Kro, Krw

0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

Water Saturation
Kro

B.

Numerical Simulator Correlations

Krw

(Corey-type)

Input:
Exponent for water flow
Residual Oil to waterflood saturation Sorw
Rel Perm of water at residual oil saturation

2
0.37
0.3

Recommend default 2
Recommend default 0.37
Recommend default 0.3

Exponent for oil flow rel perm


Connate water saturation Swc
Rel Perm of oil at connate water saturation
Capillary Pressure at connate water
Exponent of cap pressure for oil-water

1.5
0.2
0.4
150
0.71

Recommend default 2
Recommend default 0.2
Recommend default 0.4
kPa

Exponent for gas flow rel perm


Residual gas saturation to oilflood
Rel Perm of gas at connate water saturation
Capillary Pressure at critical liquid saturation
Exponent of cap pressure for gas-oil

0.6
0.05
0.95
250
0.51

Recommend default 2
Recommend default 0.37
Recommend default 0.4
kPa

Exponent for oil-gas equation


Residual oil saturation to gas flood

1.2
0.23

Recommend default 2
Recommend default 0.37

Output:
Total critical liquid saturation
Sw

0.43
krw

kro

Pc, kPa

0.2
0.24
0.28
0.32
0.36
0.4
0.44
0.48
0.52
0.56
0.6
0.64
0.68
0.72
0.76
0.8
0.84
0.88
0.92
0.96

0.0000
0.0026
0.0104
0.0234
0.0415
0.0649
0.0935
0.1272
0.1661
0.2103
0.2596
0.3141
0.3738
0.4387
0.5088
0.5841
0.6646
0.7502
0.8411
0.9372

0.4000
0.3455
0.2937
0.2448
0.1990
0.1565
0.1175
0.0824
0.0518
0.0263
0.0074
#NUM!
#NUM!
#NUM!
#NUM!
#NUM!
#NUM!
#NUM!
#NUM!
#NUM!

96.52948
90.06442
83.40377
76.5181
69.36903
61.90477
54.05208
45.70063
36.66791
26.60216
14.57651
#NUM!
#NUM!
#NUM!
#NUM!
#NUM!
#NUM!
#NUM!
#NUM!
#NUM!

Relative Perm Oil/Water


1.00
0.90
Relative Permeability

0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.10
0.00
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Water Saturation
krw

kro

Capillary Pressure-oil-water
120
100
80

Pc, kPa

80
60
40
20
0
-20

0.2

0.4

0.6
Sw
Pc, kPa

0.8

Table Of Contents

ial water and residual oil saturation

bilty Curve

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Recommend default 2
Recommend default 0.37
Recommend default 0.3
Recommend default 2
Recommend default 0.2
Recommend default 0.4

Recommend default 2
Recommend default 0.37
Recommend default 0.4

Recommend default 2
Recommend default 0.37

Sg

krg

krog

Pc, kPa

0.05
0.075
0.1
0.125
0.15
0.175
0.2
0.225
0.25
0.275
0.3
0.325
0.35
0.375
0.4
0.425
0.45
0.475
0.5
0.525
0.55
0.575

0
0.123439
0.187098
0.238629
0.283587
0.324215
0.361694
0.396743
0.429838
0.461314
0.491418
0.520339
0.548226
0.575197
0.60135
0.626766
0.651513
0.675648
0.699221
0.722276
0.74485
0.766977

0.268705
0
0.253278 39.10663
0.238007 #VALUE!
0.222897 68.48291
0.207956 79.41582
0.193191 89.36334
0.178613
98.7695
0.164231 107.9326
0.150055 117.0844
0.1361
126.4302
0.122379 136.1728
0.108911 146.5342
0.095715 157.7779
0.082816
170.239
0.070244 184.3707
0.058038 200.8227
0.046248 220.5851
0.034941
245.28
0.024221 277.8198
0.014254 324.1553
0.005387 399.1711
#NUM!
557.6269

Relative Permeability Oil/Gas


0.9

Relative Permeability

0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
1.2

0
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

Gas Saturation
krg

krog

0.5

0.6

0.7

1.2

Porosity
0.749
0.602
0.548
0.503
0.478
0.47
0.47
0.46
0.478
0.47
0.47
0.684
0.637
0.596
0.558
0.526
0.496
0.476
0.466
0.456
0.451
0.446
0.441
0.451
0.446
0.441

Cold

Production

Based On

J. Yuan, J. Weaver, B. Barr

Oil Viscosity cp
1.18E+04
1.15E+04
7.00E+03
1.14E+04
1.11E+04
1.12E+04
1.12E+04
1.07E+04
1.11E+04
1.12E+04
1.12E+04
1.13E+04
1.12E+04
1.10E+04
1.09E+04
1.08E+04
1.08E+04
1.07E+04
1.08E+04
1.09E+04
1.08E+04
1.11E+04
1.11E+04
1.12E+04
1.12E+04
1.12E+04

Slurry Viscosity cp
3.70E+04
1.31E+05
2.42E+05
1.72E+06
4.06E+06
1.41E+06
6.92E+06
6.71E+06
3.47E+06
5.60E+06
2.58E+06
7.80E+04
9.30E+04
1.72E+05
3.31E+05
6.25E+05
2.27E+06
3.25E+06
3.67E+06
8.99E+06
2.08E+07
1.94E+07
4.00E+07
9.75E+06
1.48E+07
2.36E+07

Relative Slurry Viscosity to O


10000

Relative Viscosity

1000

100

Relative Viscosity

100

10

1
0.3

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

Sand/Oil Slurries
JCPT Vol 38 No 13, 1999

Relative Slurry Viscosity to Oil


3.13559322
11.39130435
34.57142857
150.877193
365.7657658
125.8928571
617.8571429
627.1028037
312.6126126
500
230.3571429
6.902654867
8.303571429
15.63636364
30.36697248
57.87037037
210.1851852
303.7383178
339.8148148
824.7706422
1925.925926
1747.747748
3603.603604
870.5357143
1321.428571
2107.142857

Relative Slurry Viscosity to Oil

Table Of Contents
Paper 97-121

0.55
Porosity

0.6

0.65

0.7

0.75

0.8

GAS WELL

DST

Table of Contents

Analyzes Gas Well DST

INPUT:
Well Name
Test Number
Zone Name
Interval , m
Date Done
Tester
Type of Test

10-03-19-08-w1
DST #1
Bow Island
768.3-777.4m
Jan 24-1977
Lynes
Inflatable Straddle

First Shutin extrap kpag Press


Sec shutin extrap press kPag
Last shutin slope kpa^2xe6
Gas Flow rate prior to 2nd shutin m3/d
End of 2nd flow pressure, kpag
Gas Saturation
Compressibility kpa-1
Net pay, m
Z factor
Total flow time min
Hole radius mm
Bottomhole Temp ,deg C
Porosity, fraction
Drainage area, sec
Gas viscosity cp

6691.3
6711
1603613
21947
6687.8
0.7
0.00010
1
0.955
90
200.025
29.7
0.25
1
0.0115

OUTPUT:
Initial Reservoir Pressure kpag
Reservoir Press end-of test kpag
Transmissibility md m/mPa/s
Capacity md x m
Permeability md
Apparent skin
Pressure Drop due to skin kpag
Damage Ratio
AOF e3 m3/d ( Mscf/d)
AOF with damage removed e3 m3/d (Mscf/d)
Stabilized AOF with Damage e3 m3/d (Mscf/d)
Drainage Radius, m
Stabilized AOF No Damage e3 m3/d (Mscf/d)
Radius of Investigation , m
Percent Depletion

6691.3
6711.0
5898.9
67.8
67.8
-5.5
-603.6
0.01
21769.30
131.47
329.75
908.4
91.98
69.81
-0.29%

4666
11704

Mscf/d
Mscf/d

3265

Mscf/d

Volumetrics

Table of Contents

Calculates OOIP or OGIP From Planimetering


Net Pay Maps Using Trapezoidal Rule

Input:
OOIP:

OGIP:

Average Water Saturation fraction


Average Porosity fraction
Oil Formation Volume Factor m3/m3

0.3
0.28
1.13

Contour Interval
Peak Reading Above Highest Contour, m

2
0

Contours
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24

Planimeter Reading
130
110
83
70
44
37
16
11

Reference Section

Average Gas Saturation


Gas Formation Volume Factor
Average Porosity, fraction

1
1
1

Planimeter Reading
130
110
83
70
44
37
16
11

Planimeter Reading
130
110
83
70
44
37
16
11

Average Planimeter Reading


130
110
83
70
44
37
16
11
0
0
0
0
0

Planimeter Reading
656

Planimeter Reading
656

Planimeter Reading
656

Average Planimeter Reading


656

2755.91
589.57
3.71

acre-feet
e3 m3
MMbbl

(SI)
(Imperial)

OGIP, e6 m3

fraction
m3/m3

Output:
Rock Volume
OOIP
or

Engineering Economics
A.

Present Value
Input:
Annual Interest Rate
Future Sum
Time Period

12.00
$5,000.00
5

Output:
Present Value
Present Value

B.

$2,837.13
$2,791.97

Net Present Value, PIR, DPI


Input:
Capital Outlay
Capital Overhead
Annual Revenue
Annual Operating Expense
Desired Rate of Return
Time Period

$100,000
$5,000
$50,000
$10,000
15
5

Output:
Net Present Value, NPV
Profit to Investment Ratio (PIR)
Discounted Profitability Index (DPI)
Discounted Return on Investment (DROI)

C.

$34,086
0.341
1.341
0.325

Rate of Return
Input:
Capital Outlay
Annual Revenue
Annual Operating Expense
Desired Rate of Return
Time Period

$270,000.00
$400,000.00
$157,000.00
15
2

Output:
Net Present Value, NPV
Net Present Value, NPV
Net Present Value, NPV
Net Present Value, NPV
Net Present Value, NPV
Net Present Value, NPV
Net Present Value, NPV

$181,837
$125,047
$101,250
$79,920
$60,710
$43,333
-$33,471

Rate of Return, ROR

50

$200,000

$150,000

NPV

$100,000

$50,000

$0
0

10

20

-$50,000

D.

Percent Escalation
Input:
Initial Price

$15.00

Annual Escalation Percent


Time in Years
or Time in months

5
4

Output:
Forecast Price

E.

$18.23

Working Interest
Definitions
Intangible Capital

Tangible Capital

Simple Example
What is the revenue from a 60% working
interest well with ORRI of 12.5% & crown
royalties of 25% for the following
production and price forecast?
Year

Annual Oil Production m3

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

500
450
400
370
300
260
250
245
230
220

Product Price
$/m3
120
125
125
130
130
135
140
140
140
140

Table of Contents

percent
years

compounded annually
compounded semi-annually

per year
percent
years

also called Return on Investment (ROI)

per year
percent
years

at
at
at
at
at
at
at

5
15
20
25
30
35
65

percent interest
percent interest
percent interest
percent interest
percent interest
percent interest
percent interest

percent

ROR

30

40

Percent

50

60

70

Percent
years
months

Capital that cannot be removed from lease. Eg.


Exploration expenses,
workovers, perforating etc
No salvage value.
Capital that can be removed
from lease: tanks, separators,
compressors etc. This capital
depreciates over time.

Working Interest Percent

Gross
Revenue

ORRI

Crown

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60

$60,000
$56,250
$50,000
$48,100
$39,000
$35,100
$35,000
$34,300
$32,200
$30,800

$7,500
$7,031
$6,250
$6,013
$4,875
$4,388
$4,375
$4,288
$4,025
$3,850

$15,000
$14,063
$12,500
$12,025
$9,750
$8,775
$8,750
$8,575
$8,050
$7,700

WI Revenue
$22,500
$21,094
$18,750
$18,038
$14,625
$13,163
$13,125
$12,863
$12,075
$11,550

Saskatchewan Royalties

Calculates Heavy Oil Royalty


Payments on Crown
and Freehold Land

The minimum heavy oil base price


is $100 /m3 for third tier oil and
$50 /m3 for new oil. When the monthly
heavy oil price is less or equal to
the base price, then the base royalty
rate of 10 % applies to all heavy oil.

For vertical non-deep heavy oil wells


drilled on or after Feb 9,1998, 4000 m3
of oil qualifies for incentive volume
and is subject to a crown royalty of
the lesser of:
a) 2.5% or
b) third tier crown royalty rate
Input:

Date

SEM
Heavy Oil Price
$/m3

SEM Calculated
Heavy Oil
Third Tier
K

Jan-00
Feb-00
Mar-00
Apr-00
May-00
Jun-00
Jul-00
Aug-00
Sep-00
Oct-00
Nov-00
Dec-00
Jan-01
Feb-01

166
194
195
154
189
209
192
205
211
140
124
67
94
99

20.75
22.45
22.50
19.84
22.18
23.17
22.34
22.99
23.26
18.57
16.77
3.40
11.76
12.80

Mar-01
Apr-01
May-01
Jun-01
Jul-01
Aug-01
Sep-01
Oct-01
Nov-01
Dec-01

93
101
112
111
136

Example Problem

11.53
13.19
15.09
14.93
18.16

Producing Month

Input
Well UWI

Input
Date Drilled

Input
On Production Date

01-13-44-22W3M
02-13-44-22W3M
03-13-44-22W3M
04-13-44-22W3M
05-13-44-22W3M
06-13-44-22W3M
07-13-44-22W3M
08-13-44-22W3M
09-13-44-22W3M
10-13-44-22W3M
11-13-44-22W3M
12-13-44-22W3M
13-13-44-22W3M
14-13-44-22W3M
15-13-44-22W3M
16-13-44-22W3M

1-Feb-95
30-Aug-86
15-Jul-00
22-Oct-99
2-Feb-79
2-Feb-80
23-Jul-99
6-Oct-99
15-Mar-90
15-Mar-90
30-Apr-90
30-Apr-90
31-May-90
31-May-90
7-Jun-95
25-Feb-98

15-Feb-95
17-Sep-87
25-Jul-00
27-Oct-99
7-Feb-79
7-Feb-80
28-Jul-99
11-Oct-99
20-Mar-90
20-Mar-90
5-May-90
5-May-90
5-Jun-90
5-Jun-90
12-Jun-95
2-Mar-98

Problem 1
For the same monthly oil production
rate of 750 m3/mo for a third tier well,
what is the royalty rate (Jul-00) if
a) the well was on crown land
b) the well was on freehold?

Problem 2
Plot monthly oil production rate on the
x-axis versus the crown royalty rate
on the y axis for a new heavy oil well

on production in July-2000.

Table of Contents

Heavy oil is produced from below


the Viking formation. Southwest
oil is oil produced after Feb 8/98
from the SW part of Saskatchewan.

Recall that royalties are payments


made on production from oil
and gas at the wellhead. Royalty
owners do not share in the capital
or operating costs.

Sasketchewan's heavy
oil is classified as either:
a) third tier (drilled after 01-Jan-94)
b) new (drilled before 01-Jan-94)
There is no "old" category.

SEM Calculated
Heavy Oil
Third Tier
X

SEM Calculated
Heavy Oil
New
K

SEM Calculated
Heavy Oil
New
X

479
518
519
458
512
535
516
531
537
429
387
78
271
295

26.63
27.47
27.50
26.17
27.34
27.83
27.42
27.74
27.88
25.54
24.64
17.95
22.13
22.65

615
634
635
604
631
642
633
640
643
589
569
414
511
523

266
304
348
345
419

22.02
22.85
23.79
23.72
25.33

508
527
549
547
585

Jul-00

Base Price=

192.00

Input
Oil Production
m3/month

Input
Cum Oil Produced, m3
Prior to:
Jul-00

Input
Land

500
500
1000
145
30
523
456
308
695
860
489
350
800
825
500
183

5000
4000
623
3900
23850
24850
5610
1009
23000
15987
25089
33000
32000
14008
26895
2300

Crown
Crown
Crown
Crown
Crown
Crown
Crown
Crown
Freehold
Freehold
Freehold
Freehold
Freehold
Freehold
Freehold
Freehold

(From Above Table)

Classification

Saskatchewan
Resource Credit

Production
Tax Factor

Crown
Royalty Rate
Percent

Third Tier
New
Third Tier
Third Tier
New
New
Third Tier
Third Tier
New
New
New
New
New
New
Third Tier
Third Tier

1.0
1.0
2.5
2.5
1.0
1.0
2.5
2.5
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0

12.5
12.5
0
0
12.5
12.5
0
0
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10

20.31
25.16
19.33
16.29
5.33
25.21
18.71
18.17

Freehold
Royalty Rate
Percent

6.51
6.69
6.13
5.61
6.63
6.65
1.31
-0.47

Does Well
Qualify for
Incentive
Volume?

No
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No

Allowed
Incentive
Volume
m3 on
Jul-00

Crown
Royalty
Incentive
Volume
m3

20.31
25.16
1000
100
5.33
25.21
18.71
308

Table Of Contents

Alberta Royalties
In Alberta there are 3 types of oil:
a) new oil (discovered on or after April 1, 1974)
b) third tier oil (discovered on or after Oct 1, 1992)
c) old oil (discovered before April 1974)

Heavy Oil in Alberta is classified as having a


density less than 25.7 API.

Month
Jan-00
Feb-00
Mar-00
Apr-00
May-00
Jun-00
Jul-00
Aug-00
Sep-00
Oct-00
Nov-00
Dec-00
Jan-01
Feb-01
Mar-01
Apr-01
May-01
Jun-01
Jul-01
Aug-01
Sep-01
Oct-01
Nov-01
Dec-01
Jan-02
Feb-02

PAR
PRICE
165.97
177.56
188.85
210.58
233.43
184.72
202.35
236.96
232.54
218.02
254.13
206.4
180.92
159.94
130.68
160.7
149.54
151.01
152.75
154.58
168.91

SELECT PRICE
OLD
26.58
26.93
26.93
26.93
26.93
26.93
26.93
26.93
26.93
26.93
26.93
26.93
27.77
27.84
27.84
27.84
27.84
27.84
27.84
27.84
27.84

NEW
57.12
57.87
57.87
57.87
57.87
57.87
57.87
57.87
57.87
57.87
57.87
57.87
59.68
59.83
59.83
59.83
59.83
59.83
59.83
59.83
59.83

THIRD TIER
121.56
123.15
123.15
123.15
123.15
123.15
123.15
123.15
123.15
123.15
123.15
123.15
127.01
127.32
127.32
127.32
127.32
127.32
127.32
127.32
127.32

Mar-02
Apr-02
May-02
Jun-02

Heavy Oil

ROYALTY FACTORS
OLD
2.976720
2.946956
2.915792
2.866594
2.826029
2.926675
2.883793
2.820549
2.827440
2.852321
2.796325
2.875132
2.953314
3.000000
3.000000
3.000000
3.000000
3.000000
3.000000
3.000000
2.993372

NEW
2.670426
2.768697
2.695224
2.691301
2.659262
2.701611
2.713000
2.646267
2.662621
2.722697
2.589728
2.779237
2.984494
3.000000
3.000000
3.000000
3.000000
3.000000
3.000000
3.000000
3.000000

THIRD TIER
3.000000
3.000000
3.000000
3.000000
3.000000
3.000000
3.000000
3.000000
3.000000
3.000000
2.910330
3.000000
3.000000
3.000000
3.000000
3.000000
3.000000
3.000000
3.000000
3.000000
3.000000

R MULTIPLIERS
OLD
3.500000
3.500000
3.500000
3.500000
3.500000
3.500000
3.500000
3.500000
3.500000
3.500000
3.500000
3.500000
3.500000
3.477804
3.360882
3.480274
3.441487
3.446924
3.453224
3.459697
3.500000

NEW
2.751376
2.866329
2.869317
2.951698
3.000000
2.855237
2.937110
3.000000
3.000000
3.000000
3.000000
3.000000
3.000000
2.877767
2.626492
2.883074
2.799719
2.811403
2.824943
2.838854
2.892634

THIRD TIER
1.802735
1.919295
2.043685
2.245560
2.417299
1.999946
2.174203
2.440876
2.411241
2.305431
2.500000
2.210029
1.893931
1.611854
1.077135
1.623149
1.445767
1.470631
1.499444
1.529046
1.738677

Oil and

Date
Dec-99
Jan-00
Feb-00
Mar-00
Apr-00
May-00
Jun-00
Jul-00
Aug-00
Sep-00
Oct-00
Nov-00
Dec-00
Jan-01
Feb-01
Mar-01
Apr-01
May-01
Jun-01
Jul-01
Aug-01
Sep-01
Oct-01
Nov-01
Dec-01
Jan-02
Feb-02
Mar-02
Apr-02
May-02
Jun-02
Jul-02
Aug-02
Sep-02
Oct-02
Nov-02
Dec-02
Jan-03
Feb-03
Mar-03
Apr-03
May-03
Jun-03
Jul-03
Aug-03
Sep-03
Oct-03
Nov-03
Dec-03
Jan-04
Feb-04
Mar-04
Apr-04
May-04
Jun-04
Jul-04
Aug-04
Sep-04
Oct-04
Nov-04
Dec-04
Jan-05
Feb-05
Mar-05
Apr-05
May-05
Jun-05
Jul-05
Aug-05
Sep-05
Oct-05
Nov-05
Dec-05
Jan-06
Feb-06
Mar-06
Apr-06
May-06
Jun-06
Jul-06
Aug-06
Sep-06
Oct-06
Nov-06
Dec-06
Jan-07
Feb-07
Mar-07
Apr-07
May-07
Jun-07

Gas Prices

WTI (US$/bbl)
26.09
27.01
29.30
29.89
25.54
28.81
31.53
29.72
31.14
33.87
32.93
34.26
28.40
29.26
29.64
27.27
27.62
28.68
27.58
26.47
27.55
29.65
22.21
19.67
19.33
19.67
20.74
24.42
26.27
27.02
25.52
26.95
28.38
29.67
28.85
26.27
29.42
32.94
35.87
33.55
28.25
28.14
30.72
30.76
31.59
28.29
30.33
31.1
32.11
34.24
34.74
36.51

Table of Contents

Exchange Rate
1.4733
1.4489
1.4511
1.4606
1.4684
1.4955
1.4768
1.4779
1.4825
1.4862
1.5124
1.5422
1.5224
1.5032
1.5218
1.5585
1.5574
1.5415
1.5300
1.5300
1.5400
1.5710

LLB@Hardisty
vs WTI (US$/bbl)
-6.18
-5.67
-5.04
-5.64
-5.74
-5.66
-6.05
-6.45
-6.50
-8.02
-32.93
-34.26
-28.40
-29.26
-29.64
-27.27
-27.62
-28.68
-27.58
-26.47
-27.55
-29.65

Heavy/Light Differential
(Cdn $/bbl)
8.30
6.83
5.51
6.27
5.58
5.64
6.00
6.81
6.86
9.18
18.40
21.77
21.43
18.45
17.79
15.07
15.53
16.12
16.00
11.19
5.71
16.50
0.00
0.00

Koch Posting
LLB @ Hardisty (Cdn$/bbl)
29.24
30.92
35.11
35.41
29.04
34.58
37.55
34.30
36.40
38.42

Bow River
at Hardisty
(Cdn$/bbl)
30
32.04
36.34
37.09
30.74
36.59
39.76
36.33
38.76
41.34
31.93
31.12
21.82
25.58
26.72
26.20
26.51
26.91
26.20
29.28

Edmonton Light
at Edmonton(Cdn$/bbl)
38.30
38.87
41.85
43.36
36.32
42.23
45.76
43.14
45.62
50.52
50.33
52.89
43.25
44.03
44.51
41.27
42.04
43.03
42.20
40.47

26.53

43.03

69.44
70.84
70.95
74.41
73.04
63.8
58.89
59.08
61.96
54.51
59.28
60.44
63.98
63.45

Edmonton Light vs Bow River @ Hardisty


60

Oil Price (Cdn$/bbl)

50
40
30
20
10

Jan-02

Dec-01

Nov-01

Jul-01

Oct-01

Sep-01

Aug-01

Apr-01

Jun-01

May-01

Jan-01

Mar-01

Feb-01

Dec-00

Nov-00

Jul-00

Oct-00

Sep-00

Aug-00

Apr-00

Jun-00

May-00

Jan-00

Mar-00

Feb-00

Dec-99

Date
Bow River at Hardisty

Edmonton Light

WTI (US$/bbl)
40

Oil Price (US$/bbl)

35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Oct-99Jan-00Apr-00Jul-00Oct-00Jan-01Apr-01Jul-01Oct-01Jan-02Apr-02Jul-02Oct-02Jan-03Apr-03Jul-03Oct-03Jan-04Apr-04Jul-04Oct-04Dec-04Mar-05Jun-05

Date

AECO Daily Price


14.00

Gas Price (Us$/MMBtu)

12.00
10.00
8.00
6.00
4.00
2.00
0.00
Dec-99
Jan-00
Feb-00
Mar-00
Apr-00
May-00
Jun-00
Jul-00
Aug-00
Sep-00
Oct-00
Nov-00
Dec-00
Jan-01
Feb-01
Mar-01
Apr-01
May-01
Jun-01
Jul-01
Aug-01
Sep-01
Oct-01
Nov-01

Date

NYMEX Natural
Gas (US$/MMBtu)
2.17
2.34
2.58
2.56
2.93
3.11
4.24
4.54
3.75

AECO Spot Gas


(Cdn$/GJ)
3.15
2.98
2.89
3.13
3.59
3.84
4.61
5.24
4.65
4.51
6.46
7.20
11.81
10.48
7.84
7.33
7.33
5.58
4.44
3.35

OPEC & World Oil

Production

World oil production 2005 is


83 million b/d

OPEC was formed in 1960 when


"7 Sisters"- Exxon, Mobil, BP, Shell etc
cut royalties to producing countries.
OPEC headquarters are in Vienna.

OPEC
8
4
3
2.5
2.5
2.5
2
1.6
1.5
1

Crude Oil Production million bbl/d

Saudi Arabia
Iran
Venezuela
Iraq
9
UAR
Nigeria
Kuwait 8
Indonesia
Libya
Algeria 7
OPEC Total
6
Non-OPEC Total

OPEC Crude Oil Produc

28.6
37.3

5
Non-OPEC
Former Soviet Union
4
North Sea (UK & Norway)
US
China 3
Mexico
Canada
Oman 2
Egypt
Brazil
1
Columbia
Argentina
Angola 0
Malaysia
Saudi
Syria
Australia
Arabia
India
Yemen
Total

Iran

7
6.9
6.8
3.5
3
2
1
1
1
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.75
Venezuela
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.5
37.3

Iraq

World Crude Oil Production

57%

Non-OPEC 37 million bbl/d

Oil Production Millions bbl/d

Non-OPEC Crude Oil Prod


8
7
6
5

4
3

Crude Oil Production Mi


Kuwait
Venezuela
Iraq
Former Soviet Union
US
Mexico
China
Saudi Arabia
Brazil
Indonesia
Neutral Zone
Iran
Canada
Others

4
3
2
1
0

Indonesia
Neutral Zone
Brazil
Saudi Arabia
China
Mexico

29%
24%
7%
6%
5%
5%
4%
4%
2%
2%
1%
1%
1%
9%

Heavy Oil / Bitumen Res

Canada
Iran
Others

Mexico
Iraq
US
Former Soviet Union

Table of Contents

OPEC Crude Oil Production

UAR

Nigeria

Country

Kuwait

Indonesia

Libya

World Crude Oil Production

OPEC 29 million bbl/d

43%

OPEC Total
Non-OPEC Total

OPEC Crude Oil Production

Country

Heavy Oil / Bitumen Reserves

Others

Kuwait

Iraq

Venezuela

Algeria

OPEC Total
Non-OPEC Total

Progressing Cavity Pumps

Definitions:
PCP's consist of 2 components:
1) metallic rotor
2) elastomer stator
When the rotor turns, the fluid moves
along pump axis inside the cavities between
the rotor and stator. The flow rate depends
on the rotor diameter, length of stator
pitch and pump eccentricity. The
eccentricity is the distance between the
centre-line of the rotor and the centreline of the stator.
The geometry of PCP's is defined by
the number of lobes of the rotor, then the
number of lobes of the stator. A 1-2 pump
would be a PCP with a single helical rotor
and a double helical stator.

(PCP's)

A.

B.

C.

Pump Displacement

Eccentricity of rotor/stator
Number of rotations per minute
Rotor Diameter
Stator Pitch, Ps
Leak rate per minute

5
150
40
40
0.01

mm
rpm
mm
mm
ml/min

Actual Pump Flow Rate


or

4800000
6.91

ml/min
m3/d

Tubing inside diameter


Rod String Diameter
Pumping Rate
Viscosity at Perforations
Viscosity at Surface
Length of tubing
Rotating Speed
Drive String Diameter

7.2
5.1
10
5000
4990
450
150
5.1

cm
cm
m3/d
cp
cp
m
rpm
cm

Pressure Drop due to Friction


Resistant Torque

13.91
35.14

kPa
daN-m

Input:
Bubble Point Pressure
Reservoir Pressure
Bottomhole Flowing Pressure
Measured Oil Rate

1825
3620
1980
108

psia
psia
psia
b/d

Output
Productivity Index J
Oil Rate at Bubble Point
Maximum Oil Rate

0.0659
118.2
178.3

b/d/psi
b/d/psi
b/d

Pressure Drop Along Tubing/Resistant Torque

IPR Curve
Calculate IPR Curve

Oil Rate b/d


0.0
23.8
47.7

Pwf, psi
3620
3258
2896

71.5
95.4
119.2
140.5
157.0
168.8
175.9
178.3

2534
2172
1810
1448
1086
724
362
0

Flowing Bottomhole Pressure


psi

IPR

4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
0.0

50.0

100.0

150.0

Oil Rate b/d

Sucker Rod Pump


Input
Pump Speed, strokes per min
Plunger Area
Effective Plunger Stroke
Volumetric Efficiency

5
50
12
0.7

s/m
in2
in
fraction

Output
Pump Rate

311.64

b/d

Table of Contents

200.0

Steam Distribution System


Calculates number of expansion
loops, line size, pressure drop
and quality change from generator
to wellhead.

Input:
Distance between generator and wells
Loop height
Thermal expansion factor
Assumed pipe diameter
Generator Output Pressure
Wellhead Pressure
Steam flow rate
Insulation Thickness
Ambient temperature
Answer "yes" to which present:
Long elbows
Mitre-weld elbows

792.6
6.09
1.08E-05
220
14000
13560
200
50
10
yes

Output:
Thermal expansion factor
Distance between expansion loops
Output generator steam temperature
Number of Loops Required
Actual Distance between loops
Length of pipe needed
Equivalent length constant
Equivalent length pipe
B&W friction factor
Average Pressure beteen generator and wellhead
Pressure Correction Factor
Pressure Drop for 7000 kPa steam

3.527
39.83
336.6
20
39.6
1036.2
0.0816
1395.2
0.0112
13780
0.339684
928

Table of Contents

m
m
mm/mm per deg K
mm
kPa
kPa
m3/d
mm
deg C

mm/m
m
deg C
m
m
m
kPa
kPa/1000m

Minimum Miscibility Pressure


A.

and VAPEX

MMP
Based on Glaso's Correlations
JPT Dec 1985

Input:
Reservoir Temperature
Specific gravity of C7+ in Stock tank oil
Methane Content in injection Gas
Molecular Weight C2 to C6 in Injection Gas

33.6
0.87
58
44

Output:

34
44
54

Corrected MW of C7+ in Stock Tank Oil

264

MMP for MW(C2-C6) of 34


MMP for MW(C2-C6) of 44
MMP for MW(C2-C6) of 54

13857
9472
7483

Interpolation

B.

Intercept =
Slope =

24293.03923
-318.6849788

Interpolated MMP for MW (C2-C6) of


44
is

10271

Nitrogen Minimum Miscibility Pressure


Based on Lawrence-Sebastian Correlation
SPE 24134
Input:
Reservoir Temperature
Mol Fraction Methane in Oil
Mol Fraction C2 to C6 including CO2
Molecular Weight C7+ in oil

33.6
0.2393
0.0231
482.96

Output:
Nitrogen MMP

61880

Problem:
How does the Nitrogen MMP vary with
molecular weight C7+ in the oil? If the
concentration of the intermediates or
methane in the oil increase, does the
MMP increase or decrease?

C.

CO2 Minimum Miscibility Pressure


1) Based on Cronquist DOE 1978
Input:
Reservoir Temperature
Molecular Weight C5+ of oil
Mole Percent N2 and Methane in oil

32.2
267
10.4

Output:
CO2 MMP

12690

2) Alston Correlation (SPEJ April 1985, pg 268)


Input:
Reservoir Temperature
Molecular Weight C5+
Volatile Oil fraction (C1+N2)
Intermediate fraction (C2,C3,C4,CO2,H2S)

32
280
27.38
7.47

Output:
CO2 MMP

12043

3) Based on Yellig-Metcalfe JPT Jan 1980


Input:
Reservoir Temperature
Bubble Point Pressure

32
10700

Output:
CO2 MMP

10700

4) Based on PRI
Input:
Reservoir Temperature

32.2

Output:
MMP

7562

5) Based on Yuan (2004), SPE 89359


Input:
Reservoir Temperature
Molecular weight C7+ fraction
Mole percent of C2-C6
Mole percent CO2 in injection gas (C1<40%)

93.3
148.9
14.11
60

Output
MMP for pure CO2
MMP for impure CO2

D.

17333
25598

VAPEX Calculations
For binary mixtures, liquid & gas compositions

if given mole fractions

Input:
Reservoir Temperature
Operating Pressure
Convergence Pressure at reservoir temperature
Mole fraction component A
Mole fraction component B
K value component A at res. Temp
K value component B at res. Temp

33
8500
1500
0.7
0.3
1.8
0.46

Output:
Total System that is vapor
Fraction Component A in Liquid Phase
Fraction Component B in Liquid Phase
Component A in Vapor Phase
Component B in Vapor Phase

0.921
0.403
0.597
0.725
0.275

Dewpoint Calculations

For Binary System

Fill in 2 Pressure/K values from GPSA handbook


Input:
Pressure in kPa
8500
5000
1000

K for Component A
1.8
3.4
15

Output:
Dewpoint Pressure
Bubblepoint Pressure

7465
9919

Recall that the dew point is the pressure at a given temperature at which an all vapor system begins to condense,
while the bubble point is that pressure at a given temperature where an all liquid system begins to vaporize.

Vapor Pressure Curves for Pure Components

GPSA Fig 16-21,16-22

Temperature deg C

Vapor Pressure Methane


kPa
1000
3000
11000

-125
-100
-50
0
25
50
75
100

Vapor Pressure
12000

Vapor Pressure kPa

10000
8000
Methane
6000
4000

Vapor Pressure kP

4000
2000
0
-150

-100

-50

0
Temperature deg C

Input
Enter Temperature
Vapor Pressure Methane
Vapor Pressure Ethane
Vapor Pressure Propane
Vapor Pressure Butane

20
above critical point, single phase
4091
981

Multicomponent System
Find the dewpoint of a gas:

Assume
Convergence Press=2000 psi

Component
N2
C1
C2
C3
iC4
nC4
iC5+

Mole Fraction
0.003
0.9163
0.0572
0.0163
0.0029
0.0031
0.0012

Total

As can be seen, the above gas dewpoint is


close to -40 deg F.

Find the dewpoint of a gas:

Assume
Convergence Press=2000 psi

Component

Mole Fraction

N2
C1
C2
C3
iC4
nC4
iC5+

0.1205
0.8687
0.01
0.0003
0.0003
0
0.0002

Total

As can be seen, the above gas dewpoint is


close to -40 deg F.

Find the dewpoint of a gas:

Assume
Convergence Press=1000 psi

Component
N2
C1
C2
C3
iC4
nC4
iC5+

Mole Fraction
0.069
0.916
0.012
0.0011
0.0014
0.0002
0.0003

Total

Assume
Convergence Press=800 psi
Find the dewpoint of a gas:

E.

Component
N2
C1
C2
C3
iC4
nC4
iC5+

Mole Fraction
0.0844
0.9038
0.0095
0.0006
0.0009
0.0001
0.0007

Total
Total

Reduction in Viscosity

Due to VAPEX

Uses Puttagunta Method JCPT vol 36 Jan 1997 pg 50


Puttagunta Constants:
C
b
S
Bo
d
CH4
CO2
C2H6

-3.002
5.081181246
3.570413427
0.032267894
-0.001768616

Input:
Viscosity Measurement @ 101 kPa & 30 deg C

120

Table of Contents

Notes:
deg C
no units
mol %
kg/kmol

For CO2 injection:


Use MW (C2-C6) = 44 kg/kmol
& Methane Content = 58%

kg/kmol
kPa
kPa
kPa

MMP for CO2 Flood by Glaso is:


kPa

deg C
no units
no units
kg/kmol

9481

kPa

kPa

deg C
kg/kmol
percent

kPa

deg C
g/g-mol
mol %
mol %

kPa

deg C
kPa

kPa

deg C

kPa

deg C
no units
percent
percent

kPa
kPa

-0.011920866

deg C
kPa
psia
fraction
fraction
no units
no units

fraction
fraction
fraction
fraction
fraction

GPSA Fig 18-2


(check Res. Temp and binary mixture)
Use correct Convergence Press for bin mixture
(GPSA)
(GPSA)

K Compt B
0.46
0.44
1.3

Za/Ka + Zb/Kb
1.041
0.888
0.277

ZaKa+ZbKb
1.398
2.512
10.89
Sum

kPa at
kPa at

33
33

deg C
deg C

ll vapor system begins to condense,


uid system begins to vaporize.

Sum

Vapor Pressure
Ethane, kPa
8
52
550
2400
4300
7000

Vapor Pressure Propane


kPa
0.22
2.6
65
470
950
1775
3000
4500

Ethane
Propane
Butane

Vap Press n-Butane


kPa
0.8
10
100
240
500
910
1650

Butane

50

100

150

perature deg C

deg C
kPa
kPa
kPa
kPa

Critical Temp Methane = -83 deg C


Critical Temp Ethane = 32 deg C
Critical Temp Propane = 97 deg C

Operating Press
1000 psi
K=0 deg F
4
2.3
0.46
0.17
0.081
0.06
0.025

Y/K
0.001
0.398
0.124
0.096
0.036
0.052
0.048

K=-20 deg F
4
2.25
0.45
0.15
0.07
0.048
0.018

Y/K
0.001
0.407
0.127
0.109
0.041
0.065
0.067

(GPSA)

0.755

(GPSA)

0.816

Operating Press
1000 psi
K=0 deg F

Y/K

K=-20 deg F

Y/K

4
2.3
0.46
0.17
0.081
0.06
0.025

0.030
0.378
0.022
0.002
0.004
0.000
0.008

4
2.25
0.45
0.15
0.07
0.048
0.018

0.030
0.386
0.022
0.002
0.004
0.000
0.011

(GPSA)

0.443

(GPSA)

0.456

Operating Press
800 psi
K=-20 deg F
2.8
1.5
0.56
0.24
0.1
0.075
0.05

Y/K
0.025
0.611
0.021
0.005
0.014
0.003
0.006

K=-40 deg F
2.7
1.6
0.48
0.14
0.08
0.06
0.035

Y/K
0.026
0.573
0.025
0.008
0.018
0.003
0.009

(GPSA)

0.684

(GPSA)

0.660

Operating Press
800 psi
K=0 deg F
1.1
1.2
0.9
0.8
0.4
0.3
0.15

Y/K
0.077
0.753
0.011
0.001
0.002
0.000
0.005

K=-20 deg F
1.3
1.1
0.9
0.5
0.2
0.25
0.1

Y/K
0.065
0.822
0.011
0.001
0.005
0.000
0.007

(GPSA)

0.848

(GPSA)

0.910

cp

Dewpoint Determination

Pressure kPa

y = 21303x2 - 18266x + 4427.9


9000
8000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000

Pressure kPa

2000
1000
0
0.000

0.200

0.400

0.600

0.800

1.000

1.200

Za/Ka+Zb/Kb

Za/Ka +Zb/Kb P
x
y
x2
x3
x4
xy
x2y
1.041
8500 1.08381176 1.12832
1.1746 8849.034 9212.40
0.888
5000 0.78801224 0.69952
0.6210 4438.503 3940.06
0.277
1000 0.07697068 0.02135
0.0059 277.4359
76.97
2.206 14500.000
1.949
1.849
1.802 13565.0 13229.4
Det
A
B
C

0.0051078
21302.611
-18265.91
4427.9441

ZaKa+ZbKb
P
x
y
x2
x3
x4
xy
x2y
1.398
8500
1.954404
2.7
3.8 11883.0 16612.4
2.512
5000
6.310144
15.9
39.8 12560.0 31550.7
10.890
1000
118.5921
1291.5 14064.1 10890.0 118592.1
14.800 14500.000
126.857
1310.1 14107.7 35333.0 166755.3
Det
A
B
C

7848.1366
280.69852
-4239.362
13878.03

K=-40 deg F
3.9
2.1
0.325
0.12
0.042
0.035
0.012

Y/K
0.001
0.436
0.176
0.136
0.069
0.089
0.100

(GPSA)

1.007

K=-40 deg F

Y/K

3.9
2.1
0.325
0.12
0.042
0.035
0.012

0.031
0.414
0.031
0.003
0.007
0.000
0.017

(GPSA)

0.502

K=-60 deg F
2
1.3
0.35
0.15
0.07
0.05
0.035

Y/K
0.035
0.705
0.034
0.007
0.020
0.004
0.009

K=-80 deg F
2
1.3
0.33
0.1
0.04
0.04
0.035

Y/K
0.035
0.705
0.036
0.011
0.035
0.005
0.009

(GPSA)

0.813

(GPSA)

0.835

K=-40 deg F
1.7
1.2
0.8
0.3
0.25
0.3
0.1

Y/K
0.050
0.753
0.012
0.002
0.004
0.000
0.007

K=-60 deg F
1.2
1.1
0.65
0.25
0.1
0.15
0.15

Y/K
0.070
0.822
0.015
0.002
0.009
0.001
0.005

(GPSA)

0.828

(GPSA)

0.923

EOR Parameters

A.

Residual Oil Saturation


for Gas Injection EOR
Based on Lange Correlation
SPE Reservoir Engineering April 1998

Input:
Critical Pressure of Injectant Gas
Density of Injected Gas
Critical Density of Injected Gas
Oil Average Molecular Weight
Reservoir Temperature

4604
300
162.074
300
50

kPa
kg/m3
kg/m3
kg/kmol
deg C

1.85100633
9.29
5.862084073
0.094

no unit
(cal/cm3)^0.5
(cal/cm3)^0.5
fraction

Output:
Reduced Density of Injectant
Crude Oil Solubility Parameter
Gas Solubility Parameter
Miscible Residual Oil Saturation

B.

Critical Temperature, Critical


Pressure and Acentric Factor for
Heavy Undefined Fractions
Based on SPE 64996 by Stamataki
and Magoulas
Input:
Molecular Weight
Specific Gravity at 15 deg C

595
1.075

Output:
Critical Temperature
Critical Pressure
Acentric factor

1086.30
203.61
1.84

deg K
kPa
no units

Table of Contents

Physical

Constants

Compound

Critical
Pressure, kPaa

Critical
Density, kg/m3

Methane
Ethane
Propane
CO2
Nitrogen

4604
4880
4249
7382
3399

162.074
203.252
217.391
467.289
310.559

Heavy Oil

Molecular Weight

Specific gravity
at 15 deg C

Athabasca
Cold Lake
Peace River
Wabasca
Cold Lake

595
533
527.5
446.5
568

1.075
1.024
1.05
1.007

Bitumen Properties

EOR Royalty Calculations


Working Interest
Crown interest
T factor

100.00 percent
100.00 percent
0.75 fraction

Overhead Allowance

15 percent

Gas Processing Cost


Transportation cost
Fuel Gas Consumed

$10.00 $/e3 m3
$20,000.00
125 e3 m3

Capital Costs
Unamortized Balance Jan 1
Capital addition
Total Capital
Amortization

$1,000,000.00
$250,000.00
$1,250,000.00
30 percent

Effective Royalty Rate

20 percent

Price & Royalty Rate Assumptions

Gas
Propane
Butane
Pentane
Crude oil

Reference Price Royalty Rate,%


per GJ/m3
$2.00
25
$75.00
30
$90.00
30
$120.00
35
$120.00
25

Injection and Production Volumes


Product
Gas (GJ)
Gas (e3 m3)
Propane m3
Butane m3
Pentane m3
Oil m3
Net Breakthrough Volume e3 m3

Injection

Production
100000
2500
5000
3000
1000

70000
1750
4000
2500
1500
40000
2000

Injected Proprietary
70000
1750
4000
2500
1000

Table of Contents

Injected Purchased
30000
750
1000
500
0

A.

Radionuclide Half-Life
Measurements

Radionuclide

Half Life

Tritiated Water
F

12.25 yr

18

1.829 hr

22

950.9 d

24

14.95 hr

57

272.1 d

58

70.77 d

59

44.5 d

60

1925.1 d

85

3934.4 d

85

64.85 d

Na
Na
Co
Co
Fe
Co
Kr
Sr

123

13.2 hr

125

59.5 d

127

36.3 d

131

8.0 d

133

5.2 d

134

753.8 d

137

30.2 yr

139

137.7 d

I
I
Xe
I
Xe
Cs
Cs
Cs

Table of Contents

Characterization Of Heavy Undefined Fractions

Based on SPE 64996


by Stamataki & Magoulas
Houston Conf 2001

Bitumen

Input:
Molecular Weight
Specific Gravity

595 no units
1.07 no units

Output:
Acentric factor
Critical Temperature
Critical Pressure

1.843 no units
1082.53 deg K
746.50 kPa

Athabasca
Cold Lake
Peace River
Wabasca

Table of Contents

Properties of Bitumens

Molecular Weight

Specific
Gravity @ 15 deg C

595
533
527.5
446.5

1.075
1.024
1.05
1.007

Mining

Table of Contents

A. Ore Grade Bitumen Recovery


Based on Shell's Muskeg River
Input:
Ore Grade

10 wt %

Output:
Bitumen Recovery

88.51 % OOIP

A.

Crude Oil Treating


Determines the Amount of Gas
Needed to Run Treater
Assumes Freewater has been knocked
out, and the water remaining is less
than 10% of the oil
Input:
Vessel Inlet Temperature
Vessel Outlet Temperature
Specific Gravity Oil
Oil Inlet Rate

27
31
0.96
8000

deg C
deg C
fraction
m3/d

Output:
Heat Input Required
Natural Gas Required

3.15E+06 Btu/hr
3.17 MCF/hr

or
or

924
2.14

Table of Contents

kW
e3 m3/d

Example: Minimum Catalyst for Metals Removal


Problem Description: The LC-Fining process, developed by Lummus, can be used to remove metals from bitumens. The vanad
Feed rate
50000 bbl/d
Density
14.6 API
or
968.5147 kg/m3
Feed rate
7699692 kg/d
Assume that the volume of metal sulfides can be approximated as V2S3
Vanadium In
170 ppm
V out
23 ppm
Removal
147 ppm
(Ignore change in mass of oil through primary conversion stage)
Removal rate
1131.855 kg/d V
Mass V sulfide
2198.384 kg/d
Density of V2S3
4700 kg/m3 from CRC Handbook of Physics and Chemistry
Volume of V2S3
0.467741 m3/d
Assume that pores of spent catalyst are full of V sulfide (gives minimum catalyst needed)
Pore volume of catalyst

Minimum catalyst required

0.4
0.4
0.0004
1169

mL/g
L/kg
m3/kg catalyst
kg/d

80% pores filled


1462 kg/d
60% pores filled
1949 kg/d
(The last estimate is probably most reasonable)
Minimum requirement

1169 kg/d of fresh catalyst

s from bitumens. The vanadium and nickel are deposited as metal sulfides on the surface of the catalyst,

hysics and Chemistry

US Value
Can Value
0.9883376
1.0118
0.9925558
1.0075
0.9936407
1.0064
0.9923588
1.0077
0.991375
1.0087
0.9791442
1.0213
0.9791442
1.0213
0.9871668
1.013
0.9871668
1.013
0.995322
1.0047
0.9961152
1.0039
1.0007005
0.9993
0.9941346
1.0059
0.995322
1.0047
1.0015023
0.9985
1.0043186
0.9957
1.0112246
0.9889
1.020929
0.9795
1.0162602
0.984
1.0179153
0.9824
1.017294
0.983
1.0176046
0.9827
1.0127608
0.9874
1.0032103
0.9968
1.0007005
0.9993
1.0044194
0.9956
1.0033109
0.9967
0.9993005
1.0007
0.9992006
1.0008
1.0016026
0.9984
1.0005003
0.9995
0.9961152
1.0039
0.9917683
1.0083
0.9989012
1.0011
1.0009008
0.9991
1.0006004
0.9994
1.0085729
0.9915
1.0239607
0.9766
1.0288066
0.972
1.0334849
0.9676
1.039177
0.9623
1.0347682
0.9664
1.0242753
0.9763
1.0205123
0.9799
1.0137875
0.9864
1.017294
0.983
1.0127608
0.9874
1.0119409
0.9882

Canadian Dollar Value Comp


$1.20
$1.00

$0.80
US Dollar

Date
Jan-71
Feb-71
Mar-71
Apr-71
May-71
Jun-71
Jul-71
Aug-71
Sep-71
Oct-71
Nov-71
Dec-71
Jan-72
Feb-72
Mar-72
Apr-72
May-72
Jun-72
Jul-72
Aug-72
Sep-72
Oct-72
Nov-72
Dec-72
Jan-73
Feb-73
Mar-73
Apr-73
May-73
Jun-73
Jul-73
Aug-73
Sep-73
Oct-73
Nov-73
Dec-73
Jan-74
Feb-74
Mar-74
Apr-74
May-74
Jun-74
Jul-74
Aug-74
Sep-74
Oct-74
Nov-74
Dec-74

$0.60
$0.40
$0.20
$0.00
Jan/71 Jan/76 Jan/81 Jan/86

Jan-75
Feb-75
Mar-75
Apr-75
May-75
Jun-75
Jul-75
Aug-75
Sep-75
Oct-75
Nov-75
Dec-75
Jan-76
Feb-76
Mar-76
Apr-76
May-76
Jun-76
Jul-76
Aug-76
Sep-76
Oct-76
Nov-76
Dec-76
Jan-77
Feb-77
Mar-77
Apr-77
May-77
Jun-77
Jul-77
Aug-77
Sep-77
Oct-77
Nov-77
Dec-77
Jan-78
Feb-78
Mar-78
Apr-78
May-78
Jun-78
Jul-78
Aug-78
Sep-78
Oct-78
Nov-78
Dec-78
Jan-79

1.0052272
0.9996002
0.9995002
0.9891197
0.9721952
0.974279
0.9700262
0.9658103
0.974374
0.9755146
0.9862906
0.9862906
0.993542
1.0065425
1.0143017
1.0166734
1.0202
1.0271159
1.0285949
1.0148163
1.0255358
1.0280662
1.0143017
0.9820289
0.989805
0.9728573
0.9512033
0.9510223
0.9536525
0.9454477
0.9423294
0.9302326
0.931706
0.9100009
0.9014694
0.9113278
0.9081003
0.8984726
0.8882572
0.8758868
0.8939746
0.8914245
0.8892051
0.8768853
0.8573388
0.8454515
0.8524422
0.8476013
0.8404068

0.9948
1.0004
1.0005
1.011
1.0286
1.0264
1.0309
1.0354
1.0263
1.0251
1.0139
1.0139
1.0065
0.9935
0.9859
0.9836
0.9802
0.9736
0.9722
0.9854
0.9751
0.9727
0.9859
1.0183
1.0103
1.0279
1.0513
1.0515
1.0486
1.0577
1.0612
1.075
1.0733
1.0989
1.1093
1.0973
1.1012
1.113
1.1258
1.1417
1.1186
1.1218
1.1246
1.1404
1.1664
1.1828
1.1731
1.1798
1.1899

Feb-79
Mar-79
Apr-79
May-79
Jun-79
Jul-79
Aug-79
Sep-79
Oct-79
Nov-79
Dec-79
Jan-80
Feb-80
Mar-80
Apr-80
May-80
Jun-80
Jul-80
Aug-80
Sep-80
Oct-80
Nov-80
Dec-80
Jan-81
Feb-81
Mar-81
Apr-81
May-81
Jun-81
Jul-81
Aug-81
Sep-81
Oct-81
Nov-81
Dec-81
Jan-82
Feb-82
Mar-82
Apr-82
May-82
Jun-82
Jul-82
Aug-82
Sep-82
Oct-82
Nov-82
Dec-82
Jan-83
Feb-83

0.8364001
0.8518613
0.8722959
0.8653513
0.8529512
0.8591803
0.8542628
0.8581481
0.8507742
0.8476731
0.8547009
0.8591065
0.8654262
0.8524422
0.8430992
0.8517162
0.8683571
0.8678296
0.8626639
0.8585902
0.8553588
0.842886
0.8355615
0.8397011
0.8344459
0.8393487
0.8396306
0.8326395
0.8304958
0.8259684
0.8175278
0.8327781
0.8313243
0.8423181
0.8438106
0.8385041
0.8237232
0.8193363
0.8161933
0.8106355
0.7839448
0.7874016
0.8030838
0.8098477
0.812942
0.8155276
0.8074283
0.8138683
0.8145312

1.1956
1.1739
1.1464
1.1556
1.1724
1.1639
1.1706
1.1653
1.1754
1.1797
1.17
1.164
1.1555
1.1731
1.1861
1.1741
1.1516
1.1523
1.1592
1.1647
1.1691
1.1864
1.1968
1.1909
1.1984
1.1914
1.191
1.201
1.2041
1.2107
1.2232
1.2008
1.2029
1.1872
1.1851
1.1926
1.214
1.2205
1.2252
1.2336
1.2756
1.27
1.2452
1.2348
1.2301
1.2262
1.2385
1.2287
1.2277

Mar-83
Apr-83
May-83
Jun-83
Jul-83
Aug-83
Sep-83
Oct-83
Nov-83
Dec-83
Jan-84
Feb-84
Mar-84
Apr-84
May-84
Jun-84
Jul-84
Aug-84
Sep-84
Oct-84
Nov-84
Dec-84
Jan-85
Feb-85
Mar-85
Apr-85
May-85
Jun-85
Jul-85
Aug-85
Sep-85
Oct-85
Nov-85
Dec-85
Jan-86
Feb-86
Mar-86
Apr-86
May-86
Jun-86
Jul-86
Aug-86
Sep-86
Oct-86
Nov-86
Dec-86
Jan-87
Feb-87
Mar-87

0.8154611
0.811359
0.8135373
0.8114907
0.8114907
0.8105041
0.8112932
0.8116883
0.8086035
0.8019889
0.8010253
0.8012821
0.7875876
0.7814942
0.7725587
0.7668712
0.7554011
0.7671653
0.7607455
0.7581501
0.7594168
0.7575184
0.755287
0.7381708
0.7225434
0.7321716
0.7269555
0.731208
0.7393169
0.7366483
0.7297672
0.7316895
0.7264802
0.716589
0.7107321
0.7120986
0.7138268
0.720513
0.7269027
0.7194762
0.7242178
0.7202017
0.7208246
0.7202017
0.7213446
0.7245852
0.7349699
0.7496252
0.7579203

1.2263
1.2325
1.2292
1.2323
1.2323
1.2338
1.2326
1.232
1.2367
1.2469
1.2484
1.248
1.2697
1.2796
1.2944
1.304
1.3238
1.3035
1.3145
1.319
1.3168
1.3201
1.324
1.3547
1.384
1.3658
1.3756
1.3676
1.3526
1.3575
1.3703
1.3667
1.3765
1.3955
1.407
1.4043
1.4009
1.3879
1.3757
1.3899
1.3808
1.3885
1.3873
1.3885
1.3863
1.3801
1.3606
1.334
1.3194

Apr-87
May-87
Jun-87
Jul-87
Aug-87
Sep-87
Oct-87
Nov-87
Dec-87
Jan-88
Feb-88
Mar-88
Apr-88
May-88
Jun-88
Jul-88
Aug-88
Sep-88
Oct-88
Nov-88
Dec-88
Jan-89
Feb-89
Mar-89
Apr-89
May-89
Jun-89
Jul-89
Aug-89
Sep-89
Oct-89
Nov-89
Dec-89
Jan-90
Feb-90
Mar-90
Apr-90
May-90
Jun-90
Jul-90
Aug-90
Sep-90
Oct-90
Nov-90
Dec-90
Jan-91
Feb-91
Mar-91
Apr-91

0.7580352
0.7456566
0.7469934
0.7540341
0.7543754
0.760225
0.7635336
0.7594744
0.7648184
0.7779074
0.7885192
0.8005123
0.80952
0.8082114
0.8212878
0.8281573
0.8171938
0.8151952
0.8295313
0.8206138
0.8359806
0.8394191
0.8409722
0.8365401
0.8411844
0.8385744
0.8343067
0.8409722
0.8504848
0.8454515
0.8511363
0.8549201
0.8611039
0.8532423
0.835771
0.8474576
0.8590327
0.8512812
0.8525149
0.8643042
0.873515
0.8633342
0.862069
0.8594757
0.8618461
0.8650519
0.8658758
0.8641549
0.8669267

1.3192
1.3411
1.3387
1.3262
1.3256
1.3154
1.3097
1.3167
1.3075
1.2855
1.2682
1.2492
1.2353
1.2373
1.2176
1.2075
1.2237
1.2267
1.2055
1.2186
1.1962
1.1913
1.1891
1.1954
1.1888
1.1925
1.1986
1.1891
1.1758
1.1828
1.1749
1.1697
1.1613
1.172
1.1965
1.18
1.1641
1.1747
1.173
1.157
1.1448
1.1583
1.16
1.1635
1.1603
1.156
1.1549
1.1572
1.1535

May-91
Jun-91
Jul-91
Aug-91
Sep-91
Oct-91
Nov-91
Dec-91
Jan-92
Feb-92
Mar-92
Apr-92
May-92
Jun-92
Jul-92
Aug-92
Sep-92
Oct-92
Nov-92
Dec-92
Jan-93
Feb-93
Mar-93
Apr-93
May-93
Jun-93
Jul-93
Aug-93
Sep-93
Oct-93
Nov-93
Dec-93
Jan-94
Feb-94
Mar-94
Apr-94
May-94
Jun-94
Jul-94
Aug-94
Sep-94
Oct-94
Nov-94
Dec-94
Jan-95
Feb-95
Mar-95
Apr-95
May-95

0.8696408
0.8742023
0.8700948
0.8732099
0.8795075
0.8866034
0.8847992
0.8720677
0.8642295
0.845666
0.8383635
0.8421762
0.8339588
0.8361204
0.8386448
0.8398421
0.8179959
0.8030194
0.7890169
0.7858546
0.7825338
0.7935248
0.8018603
0.7923302
0.7875256
0.781922
0.7800312
0.764526
0.7567159
0.7539772
0.7590709
0.7514277
0.7591285
0.7449344
0.7329229
0.7230658
0.7242178
0.7227522
0.723275
0.7255315
0.7385524
0.7405762
0.7327618
0.7197869
0.7076139
0.7140307
0.7103786
0.7266386
0.7348078

1.1499
1.1439
1.1493
1.1452
1.137
1.1279
1.1302
1.1467
1.1571
1.1825
1.1928
1.1874
1.1991
1.196
1.1924
1.1907
1.2225
1.2453
1.2674
1.2725
1.2779
1.2602
1.2471
1.2621
1.2698
1.2789
1.282
1.308
1.3215
1.3263
1.3174
1.3308
1.3173
1.3424
1.3644
1.383
1.3808
1.3836
1.3826
1.3783
1.354
1.3503
1.3647
1.3893
1.4132
1.4005
1.4077
1.3762
1.3609

Jun-95
Jul-95
Aug-95
Sep-95
Oct-95
Nov-95
Dec-95
Jan-96
Feb-96
Mar-96
Apr-96
May-96
Jun-96
Jul-96
Aug-96
Sep-96
Oct-96
Nov-96
Dec-96
Jan-97
Feb-97
Mar-97
Apr-97
May-97
Jun-97
Jul-97
Aug-97
Sep-97
Oct-97
Nov-97
Dec-97
Jan-98
Feb-98
Mar-98
Apr-98
May-98
Jun-98
Jul-98
Aug-98
Sep-98
Oct-98
Nov-98
Dec-98
Jan-99
Feb-99
Mar-99
Apr-99
May-99
Jun-99

0.7259528
0.7346459
0.7378985
0.7402472
0.7430525
0.7388799
0.7303002
0.7315824
0.727167
0.7322789
0.7357269
0.7303002
0.7321716
0.7300869
0.7287567
0.7302468
0.740302
0.7473283
0.7341066
0.7410701
0.7376807
0.7285974
0.7172572
0.7244277
0.7223868
0.7259528
0.7191658
0.7208766
0.7210325
0.7078143
0.7007217
0.6940107
0.697642
0.7059156
0.6993985
0.6919458
0.682361
0.6725402
0.6516356
0.6571166
0.6471654
0.649182
0.6479622
0.6581545
0.6676905
0.6589352
0.6719978
0.6844159
0.6805036

1.3775
1.3612
1.3552
1.3509
1.3458
1.3534
1.3693
1.3669
1.3752
1.3656
1.3592
1.3693
1.3658
1.3697
1.3722
1.3694
1.3508
1.3381
1.3622
1.3494
1.3556
1.3725
1.3942
1.3804
1.3843
1.3775
1.3905
1.3872
1.3869
1.4128
1.4271
1.4409
1.4334
1.4166
1.4298
1.4452
1.4655
1.4869
1.5346
1.5218
1.5452
1.5404
1.5433
1.5194
1.4977
1.5176
1.4881
1.4611
1.4695

Jul-99
Aug-99
Sep-99
Oct-99
Nov-99
Dec-99
Jan-00
Feb-00
Mar-00
Apr-00
May-00
Jun-00
Jul-00
Aug-00
Sep-00
Oct-00
Nov-00
Dec-00
Jan-01
Feb-01
Mar-01
Apr-01
May-01
Jun-01
Jul-01
Aug-01
Sep-01
Oct-01
Nov-01
Dec-01
Jan-02
Feb-02
Mar-02
Apr-02
May-02
Jun-02
Jul-02
Aug-02
Sep-02
Oct-02
Nov-02
Dec-02
Jan-03
Feb-03
Mar-03
Apr-03
May-03
Jun-03
Jul-03

0.6715917
0.6697027
0.6770022
0.6767731
0.6814774
0.6792555
0.6903217
0.6890849
0.6845564
0.6807815
0.6685833
0.6770481
0.6766816
0.6743998
0.6727664
0.661157
0.6482562
0.6570734
0.6652475
0.6572029
0.6415603
0.6419309
0.6488872
0.6559528
0.6532532
0.6493928
0.6377958
0.6362537
0.6280618
0.6333924
0.6251172
0.6264094
0.6298419
0.6323111
0.6450781
0.6528267
0.6469979
0.6371862
0.6344775
0.6337136
0.6363347
0.6413545
0.6487609
0.6613319
0.6774609
0.685777
0.7401925
0.7393715
0.7235366

1.489
1.4932
1.4771
1.4776
1.4674
1.4722
1.4486
1.4512
1.4608
1.4689
1.4957
1.477
1.4778
1.4828
1.4864
1.5125
1.5426
1.5219
1.5032
1.5216
1.5587
1.5578
1.5411
1.5245
1.5308
1.5399
1.5679
1.5717
1.5922
1.5788
1.5997
1.5964
1.5877
1.5815
1.5502
1.5318
1.5456
1.5694
1.5761
1.578
1.5715
1.5592
1.5414
1.5121
1.4761
1.4582
1.351
1.3525
1.3821

Aug-03
Sep-03
Oct-03
Nov-03
Dec-03
Jan-04
Feb-04
Mar-04
Apr-04
May-04
Jun-04
Jul-04
Aug-04
Sep-04
Oct-04
Nov-04
Dec-04
Jan-05
Feb-05
Mar-05
Apr-05
May-05

0.7161785
0.7334605
0.7565441
0.7618467
0.7617307
0.7716049
0.7524454
0.752672
0.7451565
0.7252158
0.7364855
0.7561437
0.7617887
0.7763372

1.3963
1.3634
1.3218
1.3126
1.3128
1.296
1.329
1.3286
1.342
1.3789
1.3578
1.3225
1.3127
1.2881

ar Value Compared to US $

Jan/86 Jan/91 Jan/96 Jan/01 Jan/06 Jan/11


Date

References:
Books
Author
Abou-Kassem J, S Farouq-Ali, M Islam
Ahmed T
Boberg,T.C
Butler, R.M
Butler, R.M
CHOA
Cholet,H
Cholet,H
CIM
CIM
Dake L
Hong, K.C
Lake, L.W.
Latil M
Meyer, R.F.
Meyer, R.F.
Nickle Carl
Prats, M
SPE
SPE
SPE
SPE
SPE
SPE
Weiss, M

Websites
www.acr-alberta.com/
http://www3.gov.ab.ca/env/index.html
www.arc.ab.ca
www.resdev.gov.ab.ca
aset.worldgate.com
www.api.org
www.apegga.org
www.petroleumplace.com
http://www.landman.ca/index2.html
www.capp.ca

www.choa.ab.ca
www.cnrl.com/
www.conrad.ab.ca/yildirim/
www.cspg.org
www.petsoc.org
www.dailyoilbulletin.com/
www.fe.doe.gov/
http://www.ercb.ca/portal/server.pt?
www.gastechnology.org
www.globeinvestor.com
www.hartenergy.com
www.hydrocarbononline.com
www.ifp.fr/
www.neb.gc.ca
www.nrcan-rncan.gc.ca
www.ornl.gov
www.oilandgasonline.com
www.ogj.pennnet.com/home.cfm
www.opec.org
www.pdvsa.com
www.ptac.org
www.ptrc.ca
http://www.gov.sk.ca/enermine/
www.src.sk.ca
http://www.sec.gov/
www.speca.org
www.spe.org
www.suncor.com
www.syncrude.com
www.landman.ca
www.unfccc.int/2860.php
www.worldoil.com/
http://www.eia.doe.gov/oil_gas/petroleum/info_glance/petroleum.html

Relevant Software
Software
@Risk
Accumap
Canadian PEEP 2000
Cashpot
Decline
Decpro
Earth Vision
Eclipse
Exodus
GCOMP
Geofluids
GeoScout
HYSIS

Imex and Gem


Landmark-Earthcube
OilWat
PANsystems
PC Pump
Portfolio
PRIZE
ResAssist
STARS
Therm
Value Navigator
Well Flo
Well Test
Wellview
Winprop

Relevant Products
Product
BOP's and wellheads
Buckets, Draglines, Shovels
Cogeneration Plant
Coiled Tubing
Compressors
Downhole Gauges
Downhole Oil-Water Separator
Oil - Water Separation
Pipeline Materials
Progressive Cavity Pumps
Progressive Cavity Pumps
Processing Equipment
Shovels, Trucks, Cats
Steam Generators
Sucker Rod Pumps
Trucks, Shovels, Loaders, Excavators
Tubular Goods
Wellheads

Further Courses & Education

Site
www.asp.adelaide.edu.au
programs.bcit.ca/
www.mines.edu
www.tudelft.nl
www.pet.hw.ac.uk
www.ic.ac.uk
www.ite.tu-clausthal.de/index.html

www.keyanoc.ab.ca
www.kfupm.edu.sa/
www.msu.ru
www.eng.lsu.edu
www.engr.mun.ca
wildcat.pete.metu.edu.tr/
www.mtech.edu/petroleum
www.nait.ab.ca
www.nmt.edu/
www.ntnu.no
www.engr.psu.edu
www.sait.ca/
ekofisk.stanford.edu
www.his.no
aggieengineer.tamu.edu
www.coe.ttu.edu
www.fkkksa.utm.my/
www.uaf.edu
www.civil.ualberta.ca
www.bath.ac.uk/chem-eng/undergrad/
www.eng.ucalgary.ca/Chemical/
www.agl.uh.edu
www.ku.edu
www.unileoben.ac.at/
www.kfgi.uni-miskolc.hu/
www.coe.ou.edu
www.pitt.edu
www.uregina.ca/engg/
www.utexas.edu
www.ipt.ntnu.no/english/
www.utulsa.edu
www.science.uwaterloo.ca/earth/
wwweng.uwyo.edu/petroleum/
www.uaeu.ac.ae
www.wvu.edu

Problem Sets
Problem Set #1
Problem Set #2

Steam Generator Operating Conditions

Table of Contents

Books, Websites, Relevant Software & Products,

Title
AOSTRA a 15 Year Portfolio of Achievement
Petroleum Reservoir Simulations: A Basic Approach
Reservoir Engineering Handbook
Thermal Methods of Oil Recovery
Thermal Recovery of Oil and Bitumen
Horizontal Wells for the Recovery of Oil, Gas and Bitumen
Canadian Heavy Oil Association Reservoir Handbook
Progressing Cavity Pumps
Well Production Practical Handbook
Determination of Oil and Gas Reserves
Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology
Practice of Reservoir Engineering
Steamflood Reservoir Management
Enhanced Oil Recovery
Enhanced Oil Recovery
Seventh UNITAR Conference on Heavy Crude and Tar Sands, China
Exploration for Heavy Crude Oil and Natural Bitumen
Nickle's Daily Oil Bulletin
Thermal Recovery
International Heavy Oil Symposium Calgary June 19-21, 1995
Thermal Recovery, Bakersfield
Reservoir Evaluation and Engineering
International Thermal Operations & Heavy Oil Calgary Nov 2002
Heavy Oil Symposium Margarita Islands Venezuela
Journal of Petroleum Technology
Heavy Oil and Bitumen Recovery

Title
Alberta Chamber of Resources
Alberta Environment
Alberta Research Council
Alberta Resource Development
Alberta Society of Engineering Technologists
American Petroleum Institute
APEGGA
Calgary Oil and Gas Companies
Canadian Association of Petroleum Landmen
Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers

Canadian Heavy oil Association


Canadian Natural Resources
Canadian Oilsands Network for Research and Development
Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists
CIM
Nickle's Daily Oil Bulletin
Department of Energy
ERCB
Gas technology Institute
Globe and Mail
Hart Energy
Hydrocarbon Processing
Institut Francais du Petrole
National Energy Board
Natural Resources Canada
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Oil and Gas Industry News
Oil and Gas Journal Online
OPEC
Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A.
Petroleum Technology Alliance Canada
Petroleum Technology Research Centre
Saskatchewan Energy and Mines
Saskatchewan Research Council
US Security and exchange Commission
Society of Petroleum Engineers
Society of Petroleum Engineers
Suncor
Syncrude Canada
Petroleum Land Issues
United nations Kyoto Protocol
World Oil
World Energy Information

Vendor
Palisade
IHS Energy
Geoquest-Schlumberger
Fekete
Geoquest-Schlumberger
Petrosoft
Dynamic Graphics
Geoquest-Schlumberger
Petrostudies
PHH Petroleum Consultants Ltd
Rakhit Petroleum Consulting
geoLogic
Hyprotech

Computer Modelling Group


Landmark Graphics
IHS Energy
Edinburgh Petroleum Services
CFER
Geoquest-Schlumberger
Alberta Research Council
Epic Consulting Services Ltd
Computer Modelling Group
Smedvig Technologies
Energy Navigator
Neotech
Fekete
Pelleton
Computer Modelling Group

Vendor
Cooper Cameron
P&H Mining
Foster Wheeler
BJ Services Company Canada
Propak
Promore
Weatherford
Corlac
Prudential Steel
Weatherford
Baker Hughes
Natco Canada
Caterpillar
Babcock and Wilcox
Lufkin Industries
Hitachi Construction Machinery Canada Limited
Fedmet (Russel Metals)
Stream-Flo

Location
Australian School of Petroleum
British Columbia Institute of Technology
Colorado School of Mines
Delft University of Technology
Heriot Watt University - Edinburgh
Imperial College London
Institut fuer Erdoel und Erdgas - Clausthal, Germany

Keyano College
King Fahd University Saudi Arabia
Lomonsov Moscow State University
Louisana State University-Baton Rouge
Memorial University of Newfoundland
Middle East Technical University- Ankara
Montana Tech
NAIT
New Mexico Tech
Norwegian University of Science and technology
Penn State University-University Park
SAIT
Stanford University
Stavanger University
Texas A & M University-College Station
Texas Tech University- Lubbock
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
University of Alaska- Fairbanks
University of Alberta
University Of Bath
University of Calgary
University of Houston
University of Kansas
Universitat Leoben, Austria
University of Miskolc, Hungary
University of Oklahoma
University of Pittsburgh
University of Regina
University of Texas-Austin
University of Trondheim, Norway
University of Tulsa
University of Waterloo
University of Wyoming
United Arab Emirates University
West Virginia University

Worksheet Numbers
0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7,14, 16, 17, 20, 22,24,25, 42
6, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15,19, 21, plus steam generator problem

Examples of Previous Presentations


Statistical Analysis of PCP Failures
Developing a Thermal Simulator
Heavy Oil Development in Albania
Success of Mircobial Enhanced Recovery
Workovers in the Heavy Oil Industry
Results of the Surmont Decision on SAGD Projects
Reverse Osmosis vs Evaporation

Kyoto Protocol and Heavy Oil Development


SAGD Drilling Wastes
Monitoring CSS wells
Vapex vs SAP
4D seismic mapping for Steam Chamber Growth
Shell's Oil Shale Project
Example of Heavy Oil Upgrading
Fuel Cells-Current Status
Steam Generator Operating Conditions

Further Courses & Education

Publisher

Year

Gulf Publishing
Gulf Publishing
John Wiley
GravDran
CIM
CHOA
Technip,Paris
Technip
CIM
Petroleum Society
Elsevier
Pennwell
Prentice Hall
Gulf Publishing
UNITAR
AAPG, Tulsa Oklahoma
Nickle's Energy Group
SPE Monographs
SPE
SPE
SPE
SPE
SPE
SPE
CD

2006
2000
1988
1998
1994
1991
1998
2000
1994
monthly issue
1994
1994
1989
1980
1998
1987
Daily Issue
1986
1995
1999
monthly issue
2002
2001
monthly issue
2006

Description
Oil Sands Royalties
EIA, land, water, air issues
Research in Oil Sands and Heavy Oil
Royalty Factors, oil sands leases etc
Publications, Salary Survey
Oil News, Tech Repository
Publications, Salary Survey
Careers, Business Developments
Land Issues
Subcommittees, Industry Rep.

Heavy Oil Meetings & Seminars


Project Horizon
Industry Oilsands Research
Seminars, Conferences in Geology
Heavy Oil Meetings & Seminars
Daily Oil News, New Well Locations
US Adminstrative Dept for Oil & Gas
Regulations, Applications & Decisions
Pipelines, CO2, gas supplies
Financial Oil and Gas News
Oil and Gas Developments
Refining and Upgrading
Oil and Gas research
Federal Regulatory Agency
Oil sands processing
R+D in heavy oil
Exploration News
Research Articles. Oil and Gas News
Policies, World Demand
Venezuelan Oil Development
Industry Research
Heavy Oil Research Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan Regulations
Heavy & Conventional Oil Research
Handles US Reserves
Canadian Division
Worldwide Division
Stewart Oil Shales, Project Millenium
Mildred Lake, Aurora Mines
Land Issues
Environmental Issues
Monthly oil news

Description
MonteCarlo Simulations for Reserves
Production, Log/Core Data for W. Canada
US, Western Canadian Full Cycle Economics
Simplified Economic Analysis
Reserve Calculations
Reserve Calculations
3D Seismic Modelling
Thermal Reservoir Simulation
Thermal, ASP Reservoir Models
EOR ASP Simulations
Oil, gas & water chemistry analysis
Well information System
EOR Calculations

Black Oil and Compositional Modeling


3d Seismic Modelling
Oil Material Balance
Well Testing Analysis
Optimize Progressive Cavity Pumps
Reserve Tracking
EOR Screening
Streamflow Waterfloods
Thermal Reservoir Simulation
Thermal Reservoir Simulation
Reserves
Well Flow Modelling
Horizontal/Vertical Well Test Analysis
Drilling+Completions+schematics
Equation of State

Description
Wellhead Equipment
Mining Equipment
Build and Operate Steam Cogen Unit
Drilling, Fracturing
Facility Construction
High Temperature Gauges
Separates oil,water,sand downhole
Skuds
Pipe, Welding
Surface, Electric drive PCPs
Centrilift ESPCP, DHOWS
Separators, Heaters, Treaters, Amine Units
Oil Sands Mining Equipment
Power and Steam Generation
Beam Pumps and various pumping units
Mining Equipment
Tubing, Casing
Wellheads and Christmas Trees

Details
South Australia, Degree Petroleum Eng.
Diploma in Petroleum Engineering
Degree in Petroleum Engineering
Geoscience
Degree in Petroleum Engineering
Petroleum Engineering Degree
Diplom in Petroleum Technology

Mining and Heavy Construction


Degree in Petroleum Engineering
Geology, research
Degree in Petroleum Engineering
Engineering
Degree in Petroleum Engineering
Degree in Petroleum Engineering
Diploma in Petroleum Engineering
Degree in Petroleum Engineering
Petroleum
Degree in Petroleum Engineering
BAPET Program
SUPRI, Heavy Oil Programs
Drilling, reservoir, Production technology
Degree in Petroleum Engineering
Degree in Petroleum Engineering
Degree & Beyond in Petroleum Engineering
Degree in Petroleum/Mining Engineering
Mining and Petroleum Engineering
Postgraduate EOR studies
Oil and Gas Degree
Petroleum and geophysics
CO2 Research
Degree in Petroleum Engineering
Degree & Beyond in Petroleum Engineering
Degree in Petroleum Engineering
CO2 gelling, Petroleum engineering
Petroleum Systems Engineering
Degree & Beyond in Petroleum Engineering
Degree in Petroleum Engineering
Degree in Petroleum Engineering
PMRI, Degree Program
Degree in Petroleum Engineering
Petroleum
Drilling, Natural Gas Engineering

51. Cold_Pumping

C-FER'S PC PUMP
Step #1
Equation (5.1)

Design Pumping Rate


Qact = Required Fluid Rate (m3/day)
N = Volumetric Pumping Efficiency (%)

20
55

Qdesign = Design Pumping Rate (m3/day)

input variable
input variable

36.4

calculation

N = Pump Rotational Speed (RPM)


Qdesign = Design Pumping Rate (m3/day)

120
36.4

input variable
carried forward

Vmin = Required Pump Displacement (m3/day/RPM)

0.303

calculation

Step #2
Equation (5.2)

Required Pump Displacement

Step #2a
Viscosities of Liquid mixture
Cragoes method
Water cut (frac)
Oil cut (frac)
Water density (kg/m3)
Oil density (kg/m3)
U1= viscosity of water (cp)
U2= viscosity of oil (cp)

0.10
0.90
1000.00
974.00
1

input variable
input variable
input variable
input variable
input variable

6000

input variable

Page 314

51. Cold_Pumping

L1 = liquidity

-186.1353

L2 = liquidity

-405.1099

Lm = liquidity

-383.2124

Um= viscosity of mixture = (cp)

3932.217

Step #3
Equation (5.9)

Flow Regime
Q = Fluid Rate (m3/day)
P = Fluid Density (kg/m3)
U = Fluid viscosity (cp)
Dt = Tubing inside diameter (mm)

20
975
3932.217
76

Dr = Rod outside diameter (mm)

25.4

input variable

REannular = Reynolds Number


Note: RE < 2100, flow is laminar
RE > 2100, flow is turbulent

0.71

calculation

carried forward
input variable
carried forward
input variable

Step #4
Flow losses
Equation (5.10 & 5.11)
Well Depth (m)
Sucker Rod length (m)
Sucker Rod coupling length (m)
Number of Sucker rods
Q = Fluid Rate (m3/day)
L = Flow Length equivalent (m)
U = Fluid viscosity (cp)

Rod
Body
830
7.6
0.1016
109
20
818.90
3932.22

(rod body or coupler only)

Page 315

input variable
input variable
input variable
calculation
carried forward
calculation
carried forward

Rod
Coupler
20
11.10
3932.22

51. Cold_Pumping

P = Fluid Density (kg/m3)


Dt = Tubing inside diameter (mm)

975
76

carried forward
carried forward

975
76

Dr = Rod, coupling, Centralizer, Rod Guide outside diameter (mm)

25.4

carried forward

50.8

calculation
calculation

182.5
0.5

Ploss (laminar) = (kPa)


Ploss (turbulent) = (kPa)

Equation (5.1)
Equation (5.11)

2601.0
6.7

Step #5
Pump Lift Requirements
Equation (5.6)
GAS HEAD
Pgas Density (kg/m3)
H = Vertical Column Heigth (m)

0.7
650

input value
input value

Pgas column (kPa)

4.46

calculation

Equation (5.6a)
FLUID HEAD in ANNULUS
Pliquid Density (kg/m3)
H = Vertical Column Heigth (m)

975
100

carried forward
input value

Pliquid column (kPa)

Equation (5.6b)
FLUID HEAD in TUBING
Pliquid Density (kg/m3)
H = Vertical Column Heigth (m)
Pliquid Tubing column (kPa)

956.48

975
830
7938.74

calculation

carried forward
carried forward
calculation

Page 316

51. Cold_Pumping

Equation (5.4)
PUMP INTAKE PRESSURE
PCHP = Casing Head Pressure (kPa)

250

input value

Pgas column (kPa)

4.46

carried forward

Pliquid Annulus column (kPa)

956.5

carried forward

Ptail Pressure loss auxilary components (kPa)


Pintake = Pump intake Pressure (kPa)
Equation (5.5)
PUMP DISCHARGE PRESSURE
PTHP = Tubing Head Pressure (kPa)

input value

1210.9

calculation

2500

input value

Pliquid Tubing column (kPa)

7938.74

carried forward

Plosses Rod Body (kPa)

2600.98

carried forward

Note: if then statement to choose laminar or turbulent flow

Plosses Coupler or Centalizer(kPa)

182.52

carried forward

Note: if then statement to choose laminar or turbulent flow

Pdischarge = Pump discharge Pressure (kPa)

13222.2

calculation

Equation (5.3)
Pintake = Pump intake Pressure (kPa)

1210.9

carried forward

Pdischarge = Pump discharge Pressure (kPa)

13222.2

carried forward

Plift = Net Lift Required (kPa)

12011.31

calculation

Step #6
Sand handling (if you can obtain pump dimensions)
Equation (5.7)
Swept Rotor Angle
P = Stator Pitch Length (mm)
e = Pump Eccentricity (mm)
D = Nominal Rotor Diameter (mm)

75
13
50

input value
input value
input value

Page 317

51. Cold_Pumping

Thetaswept = Swept Rotor angle (o)

13.2

Equation (2.1)
Pump Displacement
P = Stator Pitch Length (mm)
e = Pump Eccentricity (mm)
D = Nominal Rotor Diameter (mm)

75
13
50

V = Pump Displacement (m3/day/RPM)

0.28

calculation

carried forward
carried forward
carried forward
calculation

Equation (5.8)
Cavity Flow Velocity
Q = Fluid Rate (m3/day)
V = Pump Displacement (m 3/day/RPM)
P = Stator Pitch Length (mm)
e = Pump Eccentricity (mm)
D = Nominal Rotor Diameter (mm)

20
0.2808
75
13
50

carried forward
carried forward
carried forward
carried forward
carried forward

Vcavflowt = Pump Cavity Flow Velocity (m/s)

0.391

calculation

Equation (6.1)
Sand Settling Velocity
Dp = Sand Particle Size (mm)

0.25

input value

Ps = Sand Density (kg/m3)

2620

input value

Pf = Fluid Density (kg/m3)


U = Fluid Viscosity (cp)

975
3932

carried forward
carried forward

Vsettling = (m/s)
Equation (6.2)
Fluid Transport Velocity
Q = Fluid Rate (m3/day)

0.00001

20

carried forward

Page 318

51. Cold_Pumping

Dt = Tubing inside diameter (mm)

76

carried forward

Dr = Rod outside diameter (mm)

25.4

carried forward

Vtransport = (m/s)

0.05746

Step #7
Area Uplift Forces
Equation (5.14)
Number of rods
Delta pressure across rods ( pick from turbulent or laminar flow)
Pdelta c = Pressure Difference across Coupling, Centralizer (kPa)

109
2600.98
23.82

carried forward
input value
Note: if then statement to choose laminar or turbulent f
calculation

Dc = Coupler or Centralizer Outside Diameter (mm)

50.8

carried forward

Dr = Rod Body Outside Diameter (mm)

25.4

carried forward

Farea = Area Uplift Force (N) per coupling


Farea = Area Uplift Force (N) per rod string

36.20
3953.8

calculation
calculation

Equation (5.15)
L = Flow Length equivalent (m)
(coupler only)
Q = Fluid Rate (m3/day)
U = Fluid viscosity (cp)
Dr = Rod, coupling, Centralizer, Rod Guide outside diameter (mm)
Dt = Tubing inside diameter (mm)

11.10
20
3932.22
50.8
76

carried forward
carried forward
carried forward
carried forward
carried forward

Fsurface =Surface Uplift Force (N)

-198.08

calculation

Surface Uplift Forces For Coupling

Surface Uplift Forces For Rod Body


Equation (5.15a)
L = Flow Length equivalent (m)
(rod body only)
Q = Fluid Rate (m3/day)
U = Fluid viscosity (cp)
Dr = Rod, coupling, Centralizer, Rod Guide outside diameter (mm)
Dt = Tubing inside diameter (mm)

818.90
20
3932.217384
25.4
76

Page 319

carried forward
carried forward
carried forward
carried forward
carried forward

51. Cold_Pumping

Fsurface =Surface Uplift Force (N)


Total Uplift Forces are (N)

-3398.58
-3596.66

calculation
calculation

Step #8
Resistive Rod String Torque
Equation (5.13)
L = Length (m)
U = Fluid viscosity (cp)
Dr = Rod, coupling, Centralizer, Rod Guide outside diameter (mm)
Dt = Tubing inside diameter (mm)
N = Rotational Speed (RPM)

818.90
3932.217384
25.4
76
120

Tresistive = Resistive Torque (N*M)

carried forward
carried forward
carried forward
carried forward
carried forward

20.56

calculation

275.92

ft*lbs

378.77

ft*lbs

Hydraulic Pump Torque


Equation (2.4)
V = Pump Displacement (m 3/day/RPM)
Plift = Differential Pump Pressure (kPa)
Thydraulic = Hydraulic Pump Torque (N*M)

0.281
12011.31

carried forward
carried forward

374.38

calculation

374.38

carried forward

Rod String Torque


Equation (5.19)
Thydraulic = Hydraulic Pump Torque (N*M)
Tfriction = Pump Friction Torque (N*M)

119

input value

Tresistive = Resistive Torque (N*M)

20.56

carried forward

Trodstring = Rod String Torque (N*M)

513.94

calculation

Step #9
Page 320

15.15

ft*lbs

51. Cold_Pumping

Total Rod Weight


Equation (5.18)
W r = Rod String Weight (kg/m)
Lv = Rod Vertical Length (m)
Lweight = Rod String Weight (N)

3.98
818.90

input value
carried forward

31973.13

calculation

Equation (5.17)
Pdischarge = Pump discharge Pressure (kPa)

13222.2

carried forward

Pintake = Pump intake Pressure (kPa)


D = Nominal Rotor Diameter (mm)
e = Pump Eccentricity (mm)
Drod = Rod String Diameter (mm)

1210.9
50
13
25.4

carried forward
carried forward
carried forward
carried forward

Pump Pressure Load

Lpump = Pump Pressure Load (N)

85231.49

calculation

Equation (5.16)
Lpump = Pump Pressure Load (N)

85231.49

carried forward

Lweight = Rod String Weight (N)


Total Uplift Forces are (N)

31973.13
3596.66

carried forward
carried forward

Lrod string = Rod String Axial Load (N)

113607.97

calculation

Rod String Axial Load

Step #9 cont.
Combined Stress
Equation (5.20)

Page 321

51. Cold_Pumping

Lrod string = Rod String Axial Load (N)

113607.97

carried forward

Trodstring = Rod String Torque (N*M)

513.94

carried forward

25.4

carried forward

Drod = Rod String Diameter (mm)


Oe = Effective Stress (MPa)

356.10

calculation

Step #10
Rod String/Tubing Contact Loading
Standard
Rod
4.4

input value

7.6

input value

40

input value

40

Fgrav = Gracity Induced Contact Load (N)

210.86

calculation

25.22

Equation (5.22 & 5.25)


W r = Rod String Weight (kg/m)
Lcs = Coupling Spacing (m)
Theta = Hole Angle ( )

Standard
Rod
113607.97

Equation (5.23 & 5.26)


Lrodstring = Rod String Tension (N)
Lcs = Coupling Spacing (m)

7.6
o

Cwellbore = Wellbore Curvature ( /30m)

Continuous
Rod
4

Continuous
Rod
carried forward 113607.97
carried forward

input value

Fcurv = Curvature Induced Contact Load (N)

4018.70

calculation

528.78

Equation (5.21 & 5.24)


Fcontact = Net contact Loads (N)

4229.57

calculation

554.00

Step #10 cont.


Equation (5.27)

Page 322

51. Cold_Pumping

Fcontact = Net contact Loads (Standard Rods) (N)


Llb = Coupling/Rod Guide Load Bearing Length (mm)

4229.57
101.6

Fcontact(dist) = Distributed Contact Load (Standard Rods) (N/m)

41629.61

Load Ratio = standard rod/continuous rod

75.1

Step #11
Power Transmission
Wellhead Drive Units
Equation (5.28)
Cr = Thrust Bearing Dynamic Load Rating (N)
Lpolishrod = Polish Rod Axial Load (N)
L10(mrevs) = L10 Life (million revolutions)
Equation (5.29)
Cr = Thrust Bearing Dynamic Load Rating (N)
Lpolishrod = Polish Rod Axial Load (N)
N = Polish Rod Rotational Speed (RPM)
L10(years) = L10 Life (years)

408000
113607.97
70.93

input value
carried forward
calculation

408000

carried forward

113607.97
120

carried forward
carried forward

1.1

calculation

Step #12
Prime Movers
Equation (5.30)
Tpolishrod = Polish Rod Torque (N*m)
N = Polish Rod Rotational Speed (RPM)
Npt = Power Transmission System Efficiency (%)

513.94
120
97

carried forward
carried forward
input value

Page 323

carried forward
input value

51. Cold_Pumping

Ppmo = Required Prime Mover Power Output (kW)

6.66

calculation

60
6

input value
input value

ns = Synchronous Speed (RPM)

1200

calculation

Equation (5.32)
Iline = Line Current (A)
V = Line-to-Line Voltage (V)

70
480

input value
input value

Papp = Apparent Motor Power (kW)

58.20

calculation

Equation (5.33)
Papp = Apparent Motor Power (W)
pf = Motor Power Factor

58195
0.85

carried forward
input value

Pact = Active Motor Power (W)

49466

calculation

Equation (5.34)
Pact = Active Motor Power (kW)

49.5

Equation (5.31)
f = Supply Frequency (Hz)
p = Number of Poles

92

input value

Ppmo = Electric Motor Useful Power Output (kW)

46

calculation

Step #13
70
480
92
0.85

hp

78.0

hp

61.0

hp

carried forward

Nmotor = Nominal Motor Efficiency (%)

Equation (5.35)
Iline = Line Current (A)
V = Line-to-Line Voltage (V)
Nmotor = Nominal Motor Efficiency (%)
pf = Motor Power Factor

8.92

carried forward
carried forward
carried forward
carried forward

Page 324

51. Cold_Pumping

Npt = Power Transmission System Efficiency (%)


N = Polish Rod Rotational Speed (RPM)

97
120

input value
carried forward

Tpolishrod = Polish Rod Torque (N*m)

3503

calculation

Page 325

2582.00

ft*lbs

51. Cold_Pumping

Page 326

51. Cold_Pumping

Page 327

51. Cold_Pumping

Page 328

51. Cold_Pumping

se laminar or turbulent flow

se laminar or turbulent flow

Page 329

51. Cold_Pumping

Page 330

51. Cold_Pumping

tement to choose laminar or turbulent flow

Page 331

Combustion Screening (in Oilfield Units)


Screening for Plover
Inputs
Ar = Air required (scf/cu
350 ft of reservoir)
Input based on experience - light oil 150 - heavy oil up to 450 JPT Paper 97 - 100
AFR = air to fuel ratio
175(scf/lb of oil burned)
based on 11 cubic meters per kg (literature values range from 10.5 - 11.0)
(cubic m/kg x 35.31/2.2)
h = reservoir thickness
25 (ft)
phi = porosity (decimal
0.3 percent)
Tres = reservoir temperature
70
(deg F)
A = Area of infilled 510
spot pattern (acres)
P = percentage of0.55
pattern burned (dec
Recommended
percent) by Moore and Mehta plus Ramey and Gates
Um = minimum flux
(mscfd/ft2 of burned
zone)
0.039
Per JPT
Paper 97-100
(m/d x .00328)
API oil (API unis)

10

Soi = initial oil saturation


0.7 (at start ofEstimated
burn)
Pres = Initial reservoir
200 pressure (psig)
Kres = absolute permeability
2000
in md
Bo = Formation Volume
1.02 Factor
Calculated
a = distance between
467injector and producer
Inverted 5(ft)
spot pattern
1/2
.707 x (A x 43,560)
rm = maximum radius
330 of burn zone (ft)
a x .707
ar = actual radius of
245
burn zone (ft) at xx% burned
P0.5 x rm
iam = minimum air1512
injection rate (mscfd)
2 x pi x Um x ar x h
iamax = maximum
2190
air injection ratePer
(mscfd)
JPY Paper 97-100
4.77 x Um x a x h
Fr = fuel requirement
2.0(lb of oil/cubic ft of reservoir)
Ar/AFR
Sof = saturation of0.11
fuel burned (dec percent)
Fr/(phi*141.5/(131.5+API))/62.5
Som = mobile oil saturation
0.59
(dec percent)
Soi - Sof
Piw = Stabilized Injection
259
PressureNelson
(psia) and McNeil 1961
Piw2 = Pw2 + (ia x visair x Tres) x (ln (a2/rw x vi x t1) - 1.238)

t1 = time to stabilization
110 in days Nelson and McNeil 1961 @ 0.5 ft/day burn rate
ia/(2 x pi x h x Ar x min vel ^2)
Air to Oil Ratio (mcf/bbl)
14.8
Total Oil Recovered
202490
Nelson & McNeil 1961 (includes 40% in unburned volume)
Percentage of Oil 0.72
recovered from Combustion
Production Scheduling
Time in months
Monthly VolTotal
Burned
Volume
Radius
burned
burned
Oil moved Total Air Injected
HC Pore volumes
Oil displaced
of Air injected
mmcf
1
32398
32398
20
1007
11
0.32
389
2
64795
97193
35
3022
34
0.97
1166
3
97193
194385
50
6044
68
1.93
2333
4
129590
323975
64
10073
113
3.22
3888
5
129590
453566
76
14103
159
4.51
5443
6
129590
583156
86
18132
204
5.79
6998
7
129590
712746
95
22161
249
7.08
8553
8
129590
842336
104
26191
295
8.37
10108
9
129590
971926
111
30220
340
9.65
11663
10
129590 1101516
118
34249
386
10.94
13218
11
129590 1231107
125
38279
431
12.23
14773
12
129590 1360697
132
42308
476
13.52
16328
13
129590 1490287
138
46338
522
14.80
17883
14
129590 1619877
144
50367
567
16.09
19438
15
129590 1749467
149
54396
612
17.38
20994
16
129590 1879057
155
58426
658
18.66
22549
17
129590 2008648
160
62455
703
19.95
24104
18
129590 2138238
165
66484
748
21.24
25659
19
129590 2267828
170
70514
794
22.53
27214
20
129590 2397418
175
74543
839
23.81
28769
21
129590 2527008
179
78572
884
25.10
30324
22
129590 2656598
184
82602
930
26.39
31879
23
129590 2786189
188
86631
975
27.67
33434
24
129590 2915779
193
90660
1021
28.96
34989
25
129590 3045369
197
94690
1066
30.25
36544
26
129590 3174959
201
98719
1111
31.54
38099
27
129590 3304549
205
102748
1157
32.82
39654
28
129590 3434140
209
106778
1202
34.11
41209
29
129590 3563730
213
110807
1247
35.40
42765
30
129590 3693320
217
114836
1293
36.68
44320
31
129590 3822910
221
118866
1338
37.97
45875
32
129590 3952500
224
122895
1383
39.26
47430
33
129590 4082090
228
126925
1429
40.55
48985
34
129590 4211681
232
130954
1474
41.83
50540
35
129590 4341271
235
134983
1519
43.12
52095
36
129590 4470861
239
139013
1565
44.41
53650
37
129590 4600451
242
143042
1610
45.69
55205
38
129590 4730041
245
147071
1656
46.98
56760
39
129590 4859631
249
0
0
0.00
0
40
129590 4989222
252
0
0
0.00
0
41
129590 5118812
255
0
0
0.00
0
42
129590 5248402
259
0
0
0.00
0
43
129590 5377992
262
0
0
0.00
0
44
129590 5507582
265
0
0
0.00
0
45
129590 5637172
268
0
0
0.00
0

46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97

129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590

5766763
5896353
6025943
6155533
6285123
6414713
6544304
6673894
6803484
6933074
7062664
7192254
7321845
7451435
7581025
7710615
7840205
7969795
8099386
8228976
8358566
8488156
8617746
8747336
8876927
9006517
9136107
9265697
9395287
9524878
9654468
9784058
9913648
10043238
10172828
10302419
10432009
10561599
10691189
10820779
10950369
11079960
11209550
11339140
11468730
11598320
11727910
11857501
11987091
12116681
12246271
12375861

271
274
277
280
283
286
289
292
294
297
300
303
305
308
311
313
316
319
321
324
326
329
331
334
336
339
341
344
346
348
351
353
355
358
360
362
365
367
369
371
373
376
378
380
382
384
387
389
391
393
395
397

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120

129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590
129590

12505451
12635042
12764632
12894222
13023812
13153402
13282992
13412583
13542173
13671763
13801353
13930943
14060533
14190124
14319714
14449304
14578894
14708484
14838074
14967665
15097255
15226845
15356435

399
401
403
405
407
409
411
413
415
417
419
421
423
425
427
429
431
433
435
437
439
440
442

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

o 450 JPT Paper 97 - 100

e from 10.5 - 11.0)

bopd

cum oil
47
93
140
186
186
186
186
186
186
186
186
186
186
186
186
186
186
186
186
186
186
186
186
186
186
186
186
186
186
186
186
186
186
186
186
186
186
141
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

1396
4188
8377
13961
19545
25130
30714
36299
41883
47468
53052
58636
64221
69805
75390
80974
86559
92143
97727
103312
108896
114481
120065
125650
131234
136818
142403
147987
153572
159156
164741
170325
175909
181494
187078
192663
198247
202490
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Rec Factor
0
1
2
3
5
6
8
9
10
12
13
14
16
17
19
20
21
23
24
25
27
28
29
31
32
34
35
36
38
39
40
42
43
45
46
47
49
50
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

DEEP CUT IN EFFECT "Y" OR "N" N

24-Oct-14
PLANT LIQUID EXTRACTION EFFICIENCY
SHALLOW CUT
ETHANE
PROPANE
BUTANE
PENTANES PLUS
SULPHUR RECOVERY EFF
COMPONENT

N2
He
H2S
CO2
METHANE
ETHANE
PROPANE
BUTANE
PENTANES+
TOTAL

MOLE
%

CONVERSION
CONSTANT
BBLS/MMCF/MF%

0.00
1.00
1.00
2.00
85.00
2.00
4.00
2.00
3.00

DEEP CUT

0%
50%
75%
96%
88%
PLANT
EXTRACT EFF
EFFICIENCY %

0%
75%
97%
99%
99%
LIQUID
LIQUID
YIELD
YIELD
BBLS/MMCF
M3/E3M3

88.00%

6.34
6.55
7.63
9.6

0.00%
50.00%
75.00%
96.00%

100.00

0.00
13.10
11.45
27.65

0.000
0.074
0.065
0.156

52.19

0.294

87.3

REPORTED FUEL AND FLARE (IF ZERO IT WILL BE 1/3 OF PROCESS IN TOTAL)
TOTAL SHRINKAGE
HEATING VALUE OF SALES GAS
SULPHUR YIELD

SHRINKAGE PROGRAM
BASED ON INLET AND PRODUCT VOLUMES
SALES GAS E3M3
COMPONENT

0 NOT APPLICABLE
LIQUID
CONVERSION
PRODUCTION
CONSTANT
VOLUME GAS TO LIQ
M3
E3M3/M3

EQUIVALENT
GAS
E3M3

PROCESS YIELD
SHRINKAGE
%

M3/E3M3

METHANE
ETHANE
PROPANE
BUTANE
PENTANES+
STAB COND
TOTAL

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
-------------0.00

0.2813
0.2723
0.23335
0.2057
0.1463

0.00 #VALUE!
0.00 #VALUE!
0.00 #VALUE!
0.00 #VALUE!
0.00 #VALUE!
------------------------- -------------0.00 #VALUE!

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

ACID GAS CONTENT

REPORTED FUEL AND FLARE (IF ZERO IT WILL BE 1/3 OF PROCESS IN TOTAL)
TOTAL SHRINKAGE (1/3 OF PROCESS IS FUEL GAS ALLOWANCE)

RAW GAS CRITICAL PROPERTY DET


PROCESS
SHRINKAGE
0.00
0.00
1.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
2.00
1.50
2.88

FRACTION
OF RAW SALES GAS
HTG
REMAINING
COMP'N VALUE
N2
He
H2S
CO2
METHANE
ETHANE
PROPANE
BUTANE
PENTANES+

7.38%
5.00%
12.38%
#DIV/0! BTU/FT3
#DIV/0! MJ/M3
0.33 LT/MMCF

0.00
1.00
0.00
2.00
85.00
2.00
2.00
0.50
0.12

#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!

92.62

#DIV/0!

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1009.7
1768.8
2517.5
3257.4
4005.0

SALES
GAS HV
HV x MF
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!

COMPONENT
COMP
MOLE
FRACTION
N2
0.0000
He
0.0100
H2S
0.0100
CO2
0.0200
METHANE 0.8500
ETHANE
0.0200
PROPANE 0.0400
BUTANE
0.0200
PENTANES+ 0.0300
HEXANE
0.0000
HEPTANE
OCTANE

RESERVOIR TEMP
CORRECTED PC
CORRECTED TC

RES PRESS

YIELD

BBLS/MMCF

0.0000
0.0000
1.0000

kPa
17225
20670
24115
27560
31005
34450
37895

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
----------------------#VALUE!
0.00

3.02%
#VALUE!

#VALUE!

S CRITICAL PROPERTY DETERMINATION


COMP
MW

CRITICAL CONSTANTS
PC
TC

MF x MW

MF x PC MF x TC
PSI
DEG R

FRACTION
28.02
4.003
34.08
44.01
16.04
30.07
44.09
58.12
72.15
86.17

492.2
33.2
1306.5
1070.2
673.1
708.3
671.4
539.6
486.65
440.1

227
9.5
672.4
547.5
343.2
549.9
666
750.15
837.9
914.2

0.00
0.04
0.34
0.88
13.63
0.60
1.76
1.16
2.16
0.00

0.00
0.33
13.07
21.40
572.14
14.17
26.86
10.79
14.60
0.00

0.00
0.10
6.72
10.95
291.72
11.00
26.64
15.00
25.14
0.00

100.2
114.2

395.9
362.2

972.4
1024.9

0.00
0.00
20.59

0.00
0.00
673.35

0.00
0.00
387.27

557

SG =

0.711

Pc-N2x1.7+CO2x4.4+H2Sx6

688 PSIA

4741.35

Tc-N2x2.5+CO2x0.8+H2Sx1.3

390 DEG R

216.7594

CALC "Z"
psi
CALC Pr CALC Tr
2500.0 #VALUE! #VALUE!
3000.0
3500.0
4000.0
4500.0
5000.0
5500.0

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

FROM CH
0.76
0.75
0.77
0.80
0.83
0.87
0.91

"P/Z"
CUM PROD
3311
4000
4545
5000
5422
5747
6044

#VALUE! #VALUE!

Sheet

Sheet

1
2
3

5 a)

5b
5c
5d
5e
5f
6
7
14a

14b

16

17

20

22

24

42

10

11
12

13

15
19

21

25

Sheet

Value

0 12Mpa=1740 psi, 200 hp=149.1KW, 1000 GJ=1e12 J, 10kPa/m=0.442 psi/ft,


20 e3m3=0.7098 MMscf
Oil B, OIl B SG=0.934, visc B=10171 cp

1 Yes, for densities greater than 1.076 g/cc. API water =10

2 Higher temp, more tendency to scale

3 Heat capacity 2621 kJ/m3-K


Thermal Cond 1.91 W/m-K
Thermal Diff 0.72919 mm2/s
Graph k vs T, nonlinear decreasing with incr Temp

4 Enbridge specs
Cold Lake dead oil viscosity at 30 deg C is 6632 cp
Strachen condensate viscosity is 0.528 cs
Thus need 0.1035 mole fraction condensate

5 a) Cold lake Crude,


At 13 deg C, viscosity is 103,284 cp, graph mu vs T decr

5b Pb = 1598 kPa

5c Bo = 1.016 m3/m3

5d API vs live oil visc graph

5e GOR = 14.62 m3/m3

5f Cold Lake specific heat 1.7356 kJ/kg-deg K

6 2260 joules/gm water


7 Increasing S decr H

14a Pressure drop


Density = 0.9528 g/cc
Dead oil viscosity = 1760 cp
Live oil viscosity = 455 cp
Prod GOR = 22.34 m3/m3
Press drop = 4.77 kPa

14b Thicksilver Line


Min cost = 335 million
Max cost 373 million

16 Waterflood Diagram
Bo = 1.018
Bg = 0.0185
Bw = 0.998

Rs=10 m3/m3
13-1 229.55 m3/mo
15-1 321.45 m3/mon
5-1 281.3 m3/mo
7-1 560.25 m3/mo
17 BHP
18 API = 0.9465 g/cc
Den water = 0.9973 g/cc
Year 1 Datum Pressure = 4356 kPa
Year 2 Datum Pressure 3759 kPa
Delta P = 597 kPa

20 Reserves
40 acres = 16.187 Ha
3 b/d = 0.4767 m3/d
Bo=1.02
Reserves = 27,232 m3
Exp well Life 24 years
Hyperb well life 37 years
Harm well life 49 years
Diagram

22 Horizontal well
7" casing = 177.8 mm
Length = 3460 m

24 Tubing 89 mm, P=12 Mpa, D=450 m, C=178 mm, Tr=13 deg C


T=30 D, Heatloss=7x10^7 Btu/d

42 MMP
C7 mol weight increase MMP N2
Methane incr decre MMP N2

Pset2
9 water density at 200 deg C is 866.7 kg/m3
Water specific hear = 4.56 kJ/kg-K
Temp 30 m away is 148 deg C

10 k = 2.59 W/mK
Hob =Hf = 2532 kJ/m3K
radius=3m

11 thick=20m

12 pikes peak visc =5000 cp


OSR 1.61 m3/m3

13 combust m 14
n 1.5
R 1.34
Y .91

12

excess air 9.96%


fuel cont 17 kg/m3
air requr 210 m3/m3
water comb .000085
oil consumed .06
air-oil 1095 m3/m3
dist at 2 yr 129 m
vel 11 m3/d

15 choke .442 in

19 resid oil 0.056

steam distrb
alp 3.48 mm/m
L 968 m
L' 1139 m
D 150 mm
del p 2000 kPa
av p 14,000 kPa
del p* 4181 kPa/1000 m or 185 kPa per 1000 m at 7000 kPa
Fp 0.42
Fq 1.7
Q loss 0.06
Qwh 79.9%
21 h=32 m, phi=0.35, So=.7,Tr=12degC,Inj Press=2.8MPa
Oil Grav=10, perm=7.5D,Length=750m
Result SAGD q= 190m3/d
25 visc wat=0.9 implies Orecov=34.5%

10