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2, APRIL 2007

327

With Range Aiding for an Autonomous

Underwater Vehicle

Pan-Mook Lee, Member, IEEE, Bong-Huan Jun, Kihun Kim, Jihong Lee, Member, IEEE, Taro Aoki, and

Tadahiro Hyakudome

for underwater vehicles to improve the performance of a conventional inertial acoustic navigation system by introducing range

measurement. The integrated navigation system is based on a

strapdown inertial navigation system (SDINS) accompanying

range sensor, Doppler velocity log (DVL), magnetic compass, and

depth sensor. Two measurement models of the range sensor are

derived and augmented to the inertial acoustic navigation system,

respectively. A multirate extended Kalman filter (EKF) is adopted

to propagate the error covariance with the inertial sensors, where

the filter updates the measurement errors and the error covariance

and corrects the system states when the external measurements

are available. This paper demonstrates the improvement on the

robustness and convergence of the integrated navigation system

with range aiding (RA). This paper used experimental data obtained from a rotating arm test with a fish model to simulate the

navigational performance. Strong points of the navigation system

are the elimination of initial position errors and the robustness on

the dropout of acoustic signals. The convergence speed and conditions of the initial error removal are examined with Monte Carlo

simulation. In addition, numerical simulations are conducted with

the six-degrees-of-freedom (6-DOF) equations of motion of an

autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) in a boustrophedon survey

mode to illustrate the effectiveness of the integrated navigation

system.

Index TermsAcoustic range sensor, Doppler velocity log

(DVL), inertial measurement unit (IMU), underwater navigation.

I. INTRODUCTION

TRAPDOWN inertial navigation systems (SDINSs) composed of three accelerometers and three gyros are fascinating sensors for the localization and navigation of underwater

Manuscript received February 18, 2006; accepted June 20, 2006. This

work was supported in part by the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries

(MOMAF) of Korea for the development of a deep-sea unmanned underwater

vehicle.

Associate Editor: L. L. Whitcomb.

P.-M. Lee, B.-H. Jun, and K. Kim are with the Maritime and Ocean Engineering Research Institute (MOERI), Korea Ocean Research and Development

Institute (KORDI), Daejeon 305-343, Korea (e-mail: pmlee@moeri.re.kr; bhjeon@moeri.re.kr; shaton@moeri.re.kr).

J. Lee is with the Mechatronics Engineering Department, Chungnam National

University, Daejeon 305-764, Korea (e-mail: jihong@cuvic.cnu.ac.kr).

T. Aoki and T. Hyakudome are with the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth

Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), Kanagawa 237-0061, Japan (e-mail:

aokit@jamstec.go.jp; hyaku@jamstec.go.jp).

Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online

at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/JOE.2006.880585

vehicles. The errors of inertial measurement units (IMUs), however, increase with time elapse due to the inherent bias errors

of gyros and accelerometers. Inertial navigation systems (INSs)

give accurate position information for short-time periods though

bias error accumulates with time. This accumulation leads to

a very large position error requiring that additional sensors be

needed to compensate for the position errors of the INS [1].

Successful surface navigation systems have been developed

by integrating the global positioning system (GPS) with inertial

sensors. GPS is a good positioning sensor for air, land, and maritime vehicles, but it is available only at surface and air. Therefore, using GPS for underwater navigation is limited to the case

of shallow-water operations as a vehicle must surface regularly

to update their position information with GPS [2][6].

An INS, especially a directional gyro, cooperating with a

Doppler velocity log (DVL) is a successful navigation system

for underwater vehicles [7][15]. Dead-reckoning (DR) navigation is useful when it can get the absolute velocity and attitude

of underwater vehicles. Even if the gyro is highly precise, the

navigation system still needs additional reference sensors, such

as GPS, long baseline (LBL), ultrashort baseline (USBL), etc.,

when it is operated in long-term duration, because of the scale

effects of velocity sensors. Furthermore, the initial localization

of an underwater vehicle equipped with an INS, even accompanied by DVL, is difficult to set exactly without additional information. Acoustic positioning systems have no accumulative

error, while they do have high-frequency error and their update

rate is usually low. LBL use is also limited when it comes to

arctic undersea surveys because of difficulties in launching and

recovering the transponders under ice.

USBL is hard to use alone for the accurate navigation and

control of an underwater vehicle [16]. However, USBL is one

of localization sensors, and it can be applicable for underwater

navigation combined with complementary sensors [17]. Jouffroy and Opderbecke [18] developed a trajectory estimation

technique using gyro-Doppler and USBL measurements, which

consists of diffusion-based observers processing a whole trajectory segment.

Larsen [7], Beiter et al. [19], and Uliana [20] successfully

proposed a hybrid navigation system based on an inertial sensor

combined with acoustic velocity sensors. Whitcomb et al.

[8][12] proposed navigation systems integrating a DVL signal

to an LBL system for the enhancement of position accuracy.

Lee et al. [14], [15] proposed an inertial navigation algorithm

assisted by DVL, depth, and heading sensors. The IMU-DVL

328

because of the integration of inherent errors from the sensors.

The error sources of the DVL-based INS are misalignment,

environmental noises, scale effects, and acceleration drifts,

which are directly reflected to the navigation performance.

Range measurement can give useful information to underwater navigation systems having simpler structures than LBLs.

Lasen [7] proposed a synthetic LBL navigation system using a

precise DR navigation system with range measurements from

a single transducer. Gadre and Stilwell [21] proposed underwater navigation systems by utilizing range measurements from

a single location, and showed observability of the method. Lee

et al. [22], [23] proposed hybrid underwater navigation systems based on a strapdown IMU accompanied by one or two

range sonar sensors as well as DVL, depth sensor, and magnetic

compass. The main ideas were to improve the performance of

the IMU-DVL navigation system with range aiding (RA) and

range-phase aiding (RPA).

This paper revises the integrated IMU-DVL navigation

system of an underwater vehicle with one range sensor [22],

and evaluates the navigation performance in the drift characteristics of estimation and the effect of initial position error on

the navigation system. We suppose that one or two transducers

are installed on an underwater vehicle [e.g., autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) or remotely operated vehicles (ROV)]

and measure the distance from the vehicle to an underwater

reference station, where the transducers have been installed,

as shown in Figs. 1 and 2. We can get phase measurement

as well as range by processing the time delay of the arrival

signal with the two transducers on the underwater vehicle.

Hereafter, the proposed navigation system with RA is called

with RPA is called the IMU-DVL-RPA. Two measurement

models for the integrated navigation system including the range

measurements are designed to implement an extended Kalman

filter (EKF) in multirate, where the order of the navigation

system states is 21 and 22, respectively. The multirate EKF

propagates the error covariance with the inertial sensors, and it

updates the measurement errors and the error covariance and

corrects the system states when the external measurements are

available.

Navigational simulations were conducted with experimental

data obtained by a rotating arm test of a small fish model in the

Ocean Engineering Basin (OEB) at the Maritime and Ocean Engineering Research Institute (MOERI), Korea Ocean Research

and Development Institute (KORDI), Daejeon, Korea. The fish

model was equipped with an IMU, a DVL including heading

sensor, and depth sensor, where we can receive the known motion and position data in the basin. Experimental simulations

were conducted with the IMU-DVL-RA navigation system. In

the navigation simulation, the range data is artificially generated. We confirm the effectiveness of the integrated navigation

system with the experimental data and show that the navigation

system reduces the estimation error by eliminating its growth

with time. This paper checks the convergence characteristics of

the integrated navigation system when the initial position error

exists. This paper also surveys the robustness of the navigation system over signal dropout from acoustic sensors. Finally,

numerical simulations were conducted with the 6-DOF equations of motion of an AUV in a boustrophedon survey mode

to demonstrate the effectiveness of the integrated navigation

system with RA.

II. IMU-DVL NAVIGATION WITH RA

A. Navigation Equation of SDINS

For an SDINS, the navigation equation of a vehicle can be obtained with the differential equations from the body frame of the

inertial sensors on board the vehicle calculating the frame rotation. A navigation frame mechanism, earthcenterearth- fixed

reference coordinate, is generally used when underwater vehiis excles maneuver around the earth. The ground speed

pressed in the navigation coordinates of this mechanism. The

with respect to the navigation axes can be

rate of change of

found in terms of its rate of change in the inertial axes as follows

[1], [15]:

(1)

where

(2)

(3)

(4)

The variables and represent the latitude and the longiand

are velocity components of the vetude, and

hicle with respect to the navigation coordinates in the north,

east, and downward directions of the Earth, respectively.

is the Earths rate with respect to the inertial frame, and is

LEE et al.: SIMULATION OF AN INERTIAL ACOUSTIC NAVIGATION SYSTEM WITH RA FOR AN AUV

is the turn rate of the navigation

and

are the

frame with respect to the Earth, and

in the north, east, and downward direction,

components of

respectively.

is the direction cosine matrix between the navis the external

igation coordinate and the body coordinate.

is

acceleration acted to the vehicle in the body frame, while

the gravitational acceleration in the navigation coordinate. The

superscript and denote the components described in the navigation coordinate and the body coordinate, respectively.

When we navigate the vehicle with respect to the body frame,

the turning rate vector of the vehicle takes the following form

:

with the direction cosine matrix

(5)

where

is a skew-symmetric matrix described by the gyro

measurement

and

is a skew-symmetric matrix comand

[1].

posed of

For the SDINS, the rates of change in latitude and longitude

can be expressed in terms of a meridian radius of curvature

and a transverse radius of curvature

of the Earth as follows:

(6)

where

[1].

and represent the mean radius of the Earth, the

major eccentricity of the Earth, and the depth under the sea surface, respectively. The change rate of depth can be expressed as

(7)

In this paper, a perturbation method is used to derive the error

equation of the SDINS algorithm. The perturbation method analyzes the navigation system by defining the error as the difference between the estimated and true values. For a nonlinear

system, this method can be applied when the error is small. Assuming the errors exist in the position, velocity, and attitude

329

(8)(10), as shown at the bottom of the page.

is the attitude error vector:

Here,

and

are the attitude errors of the vehicle with

respect to the navigation coordinate in the north, east, and

downward direction, respectively. denotes the variation of the

and

. By

components. Note

taking the variation for the turn rates (3) and (4), we can derive

the additional variation equations (11)(14), as shown at the

bottom of the page.

Using (8)(14), we can formulate an error model of the

SDINS for the navigation of an underwater vehicle with RA.

The quaternion attitude representation is adopted to calculate

in the navigation algorithm.

the direction cosine matrix

B. Error Model of Sensors

The errors of inertial sensors are mostly measurement errors,

acceleration-dependent biases, scale factor errors, nonlinearity,

axis misalignment, and gyro sensitivity to the force applied.

Various compensation techniques are used to reduce the errors

through alignment, calibration, and initialization in the factory

and in field online calibration [1], [24]. For example, Vik and

Fossen [5] have modeled an IMU with scale factor errors, biases, and Gaussian white noise signals.

The errors of inertial sensors and gyros of an SDINS can generally be modeled as a combination of random bias and random

noise [1]. Some portions of instrumentation error are best represented as a constant but unknown random variable [24]. In this

paper, we assume that the major error of the SDINS is a random

walk bias error and Gaussian random noise. The output errors

and

can be expressed with

of accelerometers and gyros

the summation of random walk bias and white noise vectors as

(15)

(16)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11)

(12)

(13)

(14)

330

and

are assumed

Gaussian white noises that have zero mean and the error variand

, respectively. The unknown constants and

ances

are modeled as [24]

(17)

(18)

Here, the model states that the variables and show random

walk process and have zero initial values and the variances

and

, respectively.

The auxiliary navigation sensors, that is, the depth sensor,

DVL, and the magnetic compass, are good complementary sensors for the inertial sensors. This paper modeled the errors of

the sensors as the summation of random constants and white

noises. We assumed that the random constants of the biases are

unknown but the variances of the initial values are known.

Then, we can express the differences of the estimates from

the SDINS and the measured values from the depth, DVL, and

heading sensors as follows:

(19)

(20)

(21)

is the bias error of the depth sensor,

is the bias

where

represents the heading bias, denotes the

error of the DVL,

Gaussian white noise, and its subscripts, and

, and

denote each component of the measurements. ^ denotes the estimated value. The variance of the depth, the DVL, and the

, and

, respectively.

heading sensors are

In (20),

means the estimated direction cosine related with

that is found as

the true

(22)

where

errors

[1].

improve the navigation performance of the IMU-DVL navigation system. We suppose that a transducer installed on the underwater vehicle sends an interrogation signal and a transponder

installed at a known reference station responds after receiving

the interrogation signal. The vehicle can measure the range

from the vehicle to the reference station by calculating the travel

time. Fig. 1 shows the coordinates of the vehicle.

We can estimate the range with the navigation system, however, this estimate will include estimation error . The estimation error is induced by the accumulation of inertial sensor error

and the inaccuracy of the DVL, depth, and heading measurealso has

ment. On the other hand, the measured range

measurement errors. We assume that the measurement error is

plus random noise.

also composed of deterministic bias error

The bias error is mainly induced by incorrect sound speed, and

by the AUVs motion between transmitting and receiving the

acoustic signal of the range transducers. Then, we can derive

the difference between the estimated distance and the measured

(23)

and

and are the relative

where

positions of the vehicle from the reference station in the global

coordinates. In the range measurement, we can consider that one

is the position error caused

of the sources of the bias error

by the vehicles motion while the acoustic signal travels. The

.

variance of the random noise is defined as

C. IMU-DVL-RA Navigation Model

The IMU-DVL navigation system with RA, called

IMU-DVL-RA navigation, can be modeled as

(24)

where (25)(27), shown at the bottom of the page, hold.

given in the

The components of the system matrix

Appendix are the time-varying system matrix that are derived

from the differential equations of the SDINS (8)(10) and

has 21 error

the variation (11)(14). The state variable

states including the position errors, velocity errors, error of

attitude and heading angles, the bias errors of accelerometers,

gyros, range, depth, DVL, and heading. The system error

(25)

(26)

(27)

LEE et al.: SIMULATION OF AN INERTIAL ACOUSTIC NAVIGATION SYSTEM WITH RA FOR AN AUV

the random walk error of accelerometers and gyros

331

filter propagates the error covariance matrix as [1]:

(35)

(28)

.

which have mean zero and the error variance matrix

For digital implementation, we convert the system equation

to a discrete model with the sampling rate

(29)

and

.

where

The measurements of range, heading, depth, and velocities

provided by the external sensors constitute the Kalman filter

may be

measurement. The measurement difference at time

expressed in terms of the error state variables as

(30)

where (31)(34), shown at the bottom of the page, hold, and

denotes the skew symmetric matrix of the velocity.

Note that the sampling rate of the external measurement is

different from the high-frequency rate of the SDINS. Therefore, the error covariance of the discrete time measurement is

for the external measurement rate . Here, the

.

measurement error variance is

In addition, we note that the navigation (29) and the measurement (30) are observable having full column rank 21 over the ob. When the system state

servability matrix of the pair

is observable, it is possible to estimate the state in a minimum

of discrete-time steps, however, stability and robustness are

not usually guaranteed. Error convergence and robustness will

be discussed in the following sections.

The system matrix (26) is nonlinear and time varying. For

the underwater navigation algorithm, therefore, we implement

an EKF which has optimal performance for linear systems and

ad hoc nonlinear systems. We implemented the EKF [25] with

the system error model (29) and the measurement model (30).

The filter is multirate because of the different sample rates, and

this is achieved in two steps.

The dynamic system errors propagate forward with a highfrequency sample rate when the external measurements are un-

(36)

denotes the expected value of the covariance matrix at

predicted at time . The system integrates the signals

time

from the inertial sensors and calculates the attitude, velocity, and

position of the vehicle with the previous state errors.

When the external measurements are acquired, we can calculate the Kalman filter gain, update the error covariance matrix,

and estimate the system state errors. The estimates of the errors

of the navigation system states are derived using the measurement difference and the Kalman filter gain as follows:

(37)

The Kalman filter gain is calculated and the error covariance

matrix is updated according to

(38)

(39)

Fig. 3 depicts the schematic of the multirate EKF for the inertial acoustic navigation system with RA, namely, the IMUDVL-RA navigation system.

III. IMU-DVL NAVIGATION WITH RPA

This section presents an inertial acoustic navigation system

with range and phasing aiding. We assume that two range transand ,

ducers are installed on the upper side of an AUV,

respectively, and that a transponder is installed at a reference

station moored on the seafloor as shown in Fig. 2. The range

transmits an interrogation and the transponder at

transducer

responds after receiving the interrogathe reference station

tion signal. By receiving the response signal and calculating the

arrival time differences of the two range transducers, we can

measure the distance and the incident angle of the AUV

from the station.

in global

We suppose that the AUV is located at

is installed at

coordinate, and that the range transducer

(31)

(32)

(33)

(34)

332

frame. Then, we can calculate s position in the global frame

from

, where

, and

are

(40)

is the th row and th column component of

.

and

and the range

The distance between the reference station

is

. If the range transtransducer

ducer is installed at the rear of the AUV separated by distance

from

along the -axis as depicted in Fig. 2, we can denote

. Then, the incident angle can be de, where

fined with

and is confined to

. For simple notation, let

and

; then, the

incident angle is reduced to

(41)

This section derives a measurement error model for the range

and phase of the vehicle. Let

represent the bias error and

represent the random error of the range transducer . As

and

can be

in the previous section, the difference of

reduced to the first order as

(42)

and . This is the same

using the partial derivatives with

form as (23).

The estimated incident angle also includes estimation error

due to the error of the estimated position and attitude of the

AUV in a navigation system. The estimated incident angle can

where is the true incident angle.

be modeled as

The incident angle measurement also includes bias error and

random error similar to the range measurement model. Let

represent the bias error and

represent the random error of

the incident angle. Then, the measured incident angle can be

.

modeled as

can be obtained

The estimation error of the incident angle

and .

using (40) and (41) and partial derivatives with

The difference of and

is obtained to first order as

(43)

where

the measurement equation of the navigation system.

If the AUV is far off from the reference station, then

and we can measure the incident angle with the arrival time

difference of the two range transducers as follows:

(44)

It is noted that the noise

is dependent on the incident angle

because is the inverse cosine function of the ratio of the range

difference.

We can derive the error model for the navigational system of

the SDINS with range and phase aiding, IMU-DVL-RPA navigation. Augmenting the bias error terms for the range and incident angle additionally, the error model of the navigation equation is derived as follows:

(45)

where (46), shown at the bottom of the page, holds.

The state variable

has 22 error states:

is the bias

and

is the bias error of the

error of the range transducer

incident angle. The others are the same as (25). The system

is the noise of the accelerometers and gyros, which

error

. The system matrices

has mean zero and error covariance

and

have the same structure with

and

,

respectively, but the system order is different.

The measurements (19)(21), (42), and (43) of range, incident angle, depth, velocities, and heading are provided by the

external sensors and constitute the Kalman filter measurement.

may be expressed in

The measurement difference at time

terms of the error state variables as follows:

(47)

where (48)(50), shown at the bottom of the next page, hold,

and

denotes the measurement noise and the subscripts

denote each measurement.

We note that the navigation system IMU-DVL-RPA is observable having full rank 22 over the observability matrix. On

the other hand, the error variance of the incident angle is not

constant. As shown in (45), the phase error variance depends

on the incident angle even if the error variance of the range difference is constant. In addition, the measurement is noisy when

the incident angle is near to zero or . It is necessary to increase

(46)

LEE et al.: SIMULATION OF AN INERTIAL ACOUSTIC NAVIGATION SYSTEM WITH RA FOR AN AUV

333

Fig. 4. Rotating arm test setup with an artificial fish model equipped with IMU,

DVL, and depth sensor.

Fig. 3. Schematic diagram of the multirate EKF of the inertial acoustic navigation with RA.

estimate of incident angle is near to zero or .

After converting (47) into a discrete system, we can implement the EKF with the discrete system error model and the

measurement model (47), the same as in the previous navigation

system DVL-IMU-RA. The system errors propagate forward

with the high-frequency sampling rate when the external measurements are unavailable. When the external measurements

are acquired, the navigation system calculates the Kalman filter

gain, updates the error covariance matrix, and estimates the

system state errors.

IV. SIMULATION WITH ROTATING ARM EXPERIMENT

A. Navigation Sensors and Rotating Arm Experiment

A rotating arm experiment was performed to get the known

motion, position, and inertial data of an underwater vehicle, and

to simulate the IMU-DVL-RA navigation system with the measured data. Experiments were performed in the OEB of MOERI,

.

KORDI, of which the size is 50 30 3.5 m in

An artificial small fish was attached to a rotating arm via a vertical strut so that it could make exact circular motions at various

speeds. The rotating arm was fixed at the center of the carriage

moving over the OEB. Its total length is 10 m and the fish model

was installed under the arm 8.0 m from the rotating center. Fig. 4

shows the rotating arm and the fish.

An IMU, a DVL, and a depth sensor were installed inside

the fish model. The inertial sensor used for the experiment is a

Honeywell IMU, HG1700AG11 [26]. It consists of three ring

laser gyros and three accelerometers of the resonant beam type.

The IMU has good performance for inertial measurements: the

bias, random noise, velocity random walk of the accelerometers

are 1 mg, 0.8 ft/s , 0.065 ft/s h, respectively, and the bias,

random noises, angular random walk of the gyros are 1 /h, 8

h, respectively. The output frequency is 100

mrad/s, 0.125

Hz. The DVL is a workhorse navigator (WHN) 300 from RD

Instruments, Inc., Poway, CA [27] and its operating frequency

is 300 kHz. It has four transducers in the Janus configuration

that make it possible to measure three directional velocities. It

has excellent performance of which the accuracy is 3 mm/s at

1-m/s vehicle speed and the maximum sample rate is 7 Hz. The

DVL includes a magnetic compass and a tilt sensor to measure

heading, roll, and pitch.

(48)

(49)

(50)

334

TABLE I

SENSOR MODEL IN THE IMU-DVL NAVIGATION SYSTEM

WITH RANGE MEASUREMENT

The rotating experiment was performed for 23 min with constant speed of the fish at 0.5 m/s, and the sampling rate of the

IMU and the DVL at 100 and 2 Hz, respectively. The higher

sample frequency is desired to get better precision. Since the

experiment was conducted in the rectangular basin OEB, the

walls and bottom of the basin reflected the acoustic signals well.

Therefore, we have fixed the DVL sample rate at 2 Hz to get

stable data. During the first 20 s, the fish was stationary at the

initial position for the navigation system to process the initial

alignment of the inertial sensors. After 20 s, its rotating speed

was gradually increased until the fish speed reached 0.5 m/s.

As the speed of the vehicle increased, the noise level of the

gyros and the accelerometers from the IMU sensor increased

due to the vortex-induced vibration around the fish and the submerged parts of the strut. The rotating arm and the strut were

made of steel, but their lengths were long, therefore, it was hard

to make pure motions without vibratory random noise from the

fish connected to the flexible structure. We selected the measurement error variances of the gyros and the accelerometers from

the experiment as shown in Table I.

The measured heading signal showed distorted change during

the continuous rotation because of the magnetic fields variation

around the steel-structured carriage of the basin. The maximum

difference was 15 in heading angle. The magnetic compass

provides a heading reference with 0.1 accuracy but it is apt to

be contaminated by nearby magnetic bodies. Bias of the heading

sensor was set to 10 and bias of a depth sensor to 0.5 m. Tilt angles obtained from the DVL were inclined due to the centrifugal

force. The DVL signal also showed noisy data due to the vibratory motion of the fish and the attitude errors. We selected the

DVL error variances from the experiment as shown in Table I.

We simulated the inertial acoustic navigation with the error

variances of the sensors. Table I also depicts the bias errors and

random noises of the other sensors to simulate the navigation

system. The variances of each sensor are bigger than the specification of the sensor in factory.

The range sonar can measure the distance without bias error

in the stationary condition. In the real world, however, the bias

error of the range measurement will increase due to the motion

of the vehicle and environmental noise. We suppose the sample

rate of the range sensor is two samples per second. Since the

speed of the vehicle is 0.5 m/s and the time interval of the range

signal is 0.5 s, we conservatively set the bias error of the range

measurement to 0.25 m root mean square (rms) and the random

errors to 0.5 m rms.

Fig. 5. Estimated position and navigation errors with the IMU-DVL navigation

system excluding range measurement. (a) Estimated position in - plane.

(b) Estimation errors in - plane and 3-D space.

XY

XY

range measurement sensor, where the reference in the global

coordinate was located at ( 30.0, 30.0, 10.0) m from the initial

position (0.0, 0.0, 0.0) of the fish model. After generating the

constant bias errors and random noises for the range, the measurement range was obtained by adding them to the true range

of the vehicle.

B. IMU-DVL Navigation

Before simulating the proposed navigation algorithm, the

conventional IMU-DVL navigation system [15] was tested to

compare the navigation performance. Fig. 5 shows the estimated position in the global coordinate, - plane and the

navigation error for the conventional navigation system. The

navigation system updated the error covariance and revised

the state variables using 2-Hz measurement signals from the

DVL, magnetic compass, and depth sensor. The IMU-DVL

navigation system corrected the error covariance and updated

the system state variables whenever the external measurements

were obtained.

It is shown that the estimated error of the inertial-Doppler

hybrid navigation system is confined to within 1.3 m position

errors during the 23 min of a circular motion. However, the estimation errors of the navigation system oscillate as time elapses,

where the oscillatory drift is mainly caused by the errors of the

LEE et al.: SIMULATION OF AN INERTIAL ACOUSTIC NAVIGATION SYSTEM WITH RA FOR AN AUV

335

Fig. 8. Estimated position errors of the fish with the IMU-DVL-RA navigation

system.

system.

X -Y

accelerometers in the IMU [1]. While the vertical position estimation is directly corrected by the measured depth, the horizontal positions are indirectly updated with the DVL information. The DVL corrects the velocity so that the navigation

system includes integral effect of the bias error and the scale

effects of the velocity in the navigation algorithm. More precise DVL and IMU measurement are required to reduce the drift

of the navigation system, but the increment of the estimation

error with time elapse is unavoidable without eternal position

correction.

C. DR Navigation

DR navigation was performed to compare the performance

of the IMU-DVL and the IMU-DVL-RA navigation systems.

The DR navigation estimates position by integrating the measured velocity after transforming the measured velocity to the

navigation coordinates. Integration was performed with Eulers

method at every DVL sampling time, which is 0.5 s in this experiment. Fig. 6 shows the estimation error of the vehicle with the

DR navigation. The result indicates very similar performance to

the conventional IMU-DVL navigation system. Therefore, the

DR navigation is also a good navigation method when we get

exact initial position and can measure absolute velocity with the

DVL. On the other hand, the performance of the DR navigation

system can only be improved with a higher sample rate of the

DVL, such as 5 Hz.

D. IMU-DVL-RA Navigation

Simulation of the IMU-DVL-RA navigation system was performed. The error variance matrices of the system model and the

measurement model were defined with the standard deviations

of the sensors shown in Table I. The relative distance of the vehicle to the reference station was estimated using the estimated

position whenever the vehicle received the range information,

and it is updated into the measurement matrix (30). Every 0.5 s,

the navigational states and parameters in (29) were updated and

corrected with the range data. We updated the navigational states

and parameters using range information and DVL data at the

same time to meet the convenience of simulation, however, it is

not necessary to synchronize the two data acquisition systems.

Fig. 7 depicts the tracking errors of the IMU-DVL-RA navigation system. The navigation system with RA finely estimates

the position of the underwater vehicle in general. The position

error is increased due to the bias error of the range measurement. The estimation error of the proposed navigation system

with range measurement does not increase as time passes and

the error is less than 1.1 m along the whole simulation time. The

horizontal position error of the IMU-DVL navigation system assisted by the range information is less than the error of the conventional IMU-DVL and the DR navigation systems.

The accuracy of the IMU-DVL-RA navigation is independent

of time elapse. The strong point of the navigation with RA is that

it is able to eliminate the error accumulation of the conventional

IMU-DVL navigation system, which is unavoidable for conventional inertial acoustic navigation systems.

Note that the error slightly increased at around 1000 s. This

was caused by the estimation drift along the tangential line of a

circle centered at the reference station. Here, we define the circle

as range circle, of which the radius is the horizontal distance

between the reference station and the vehicle projected into the

- plane. In this case, the range circle is centered at ( 30, 30,

0) and its radius is 30 2 m. After the estimated position of the

vehicle reaches a point on the range circle, the range information does not affect the error correction in the navigation algorithm any more. This phenomenon is obvious especially when

the vehicle is in a stationary condition or moves along the range

circle. Sometimes it may generate wrong correction data in these

conditions.

336

Fig. 9. Estimated position with the IMU-DVL-RA navigation system under 1-min dropout of DVL and range.

large. The estimation error drifts along the tangential line. Since

the vehicle moves in rotation and changes position in this simulation, the tangential drift cannot grow due to the range change

and the navigation system correct estimate of the position towards reducing the estimation error. In a stationary condition,

the correction mechanism works similarly as well, however, the

IMU-DVL-RA navigation system shows errors in the estimated

position. The estimation error of IMU-DVL-RA increases along

the range circle with the amount of the projected components to

the tangential line of the range circle among the estimation error

of the IMU-DVL navigation system.

E. IMU-DVL-RA Navigation With Acoustic Signal Dropout

Acoustic equipment is apt to lose reception signals due to environmental noises and to receiving wrong data caused by unstructured disturbances and multipath responses of acoustic signals. This section considers practical problems such as outliers,

outages, and dropouts of signals. These phenomena can lead to

catastrophic effects in the navigation system with complementary acoustic sensors.

We can make a watch circle and remove the outliers of the

range data when it shows abrupt change in range measurement

compared to the stochastic characteristics of the sensor and vehicle dynamics. We can make another filter for the DVL to get

rid of velocity outliers as well. However, we cannot eliminate

the influence of the outages and dropouts from the filter.

In this section, we simulate the influence of intermittent

outliers and short-duration dropouts of the range sensor and

the DVL in the integrated navigation system IMU-DVL-RA.

system to discard the unreliable data and to keep the old data

in its memory. The IMU-DVL-RA navigation system changes

the error variances of the failed sensors to reduce the influence

of the wrong signals when sequential failures occur in the

range sensor or the DVL. In cases when two or more sequential

failures happen, in this paper, we select the noise level of the

DVL and the range sensor as 10 m/s and 50 m, respectively,

and

than

which are 10 000 times larger variances

the normal ones. If we use the same variances under dropout

conditions, the navigation filter can make the system unstable.

The error variances are returned to their original values after

recovering the acoustic signals.

Fig. 9 shows the - plane trajectory of the integrated navigation system IMU-DVL-RA for a 1-min dropout. The dropouts

of the DVL and the range sonar simultaneously happen at 600 s

(o mark) for 60 s, and the sensors recover the measurements

after 660 s (x mark). When the dropout occurs, the range and

velocity data are fixed to their previous normal values and the

navigation system increases the failed DVL and range components among the covariance matrix in (36). During the dropout,

IMU-DVL-RA estimates the position with only the IMU accompanying nonacoustic measurements of depth and heading.

The navigation system estimates the wrong position that drifts

along the range circle as shown in Fig. 9, because the stored

range is not updated. The direction and magnitude of the drift

depends on the system states before the dropout. After resuming

the measurements, IMU-DVL-RA compensates the range and

velocity errors with the recovered error variances. The navigation system can give true trajectory within 110 s after return

from the dropout.

LEE et al.: SIMULATION OF AN INERTIAL ACOUSTIC NAVIGATION SYSTEM WITH RA FOR AN AUV

337

Fig. 10. Estimated position with the IMU-DVL-RA navigation system under 2-min dropout of DVL and range.

Fig. 11. Estimated position errors with the IMU-DVL-RA navigation system when dropout occurs.

dropout. The drift along the range circle is larger than the

previous one and the direction is variable depending on

the heading angle of the AUV. After resuming the measurements, the navigation system compensates the range

and velocity errors and exponentially converges to the true

trajectory. In this simulation with the 2-min dropout, however, the position error is still 5 m after 6 min of resuming

the acoustic signals. For the application with the navigation system over the guidance and control of AUVs, it is

needed to keep the stabilizing time zone for a long time

when a long-duration dropout, longer than 1 min, happens.

338

Fig. 13. Estimated position of the IMU-DVL-RA navigation system with initial

position error ( 3.7884, 9.1459, 0.0).

than 5-s dropouts, or outliers of the acoustic signal without degrading the navigational performance. On the other hand, for

the 10-s dropout, the error is 5.65 m and it takes 110 s to converge within the 1.0-m errors. It also takes 110 s to recover the

trajectory for the 1-min dropout. The 30-s dropout shows similar result with the 1-min dropout. IMU-DVL-RA suffered from

1 min or less dropout and needs two more minutes to recover

the true trajectory.

V. EFFECTS ON INITIAL LOCALIZATION ERROR

Initial localization is required to get exact global position

when underwater vehicles begin navigation. Special techniques,

equipment, and times are required for the initialization of the

vehicle. The IMU-DVL-RA navigation system can regulate

the initial positioning error with range information. This paper

checks the sensitivity of IMU-DVL-RA to initial position errors

and convergence characteristics by Monte Carlo simulation.

To verify the convergence and stability of IMU-DVL-RA with

initial position error in local and global areas, we specify two

groups: the initial errors are small around the true position, and

the other errors are large (even located at the other side of the

reference station).

A. Convergence of Initial Errors Around True Position

Fig. 12. Estimated results of the IMU-DVL-RA navigation system with initial

position error ( 7.0, 7.0, 0.0). (a) Estimated position. (b) Trajectory of the position error. (c) Estimated position error.

position tracking devices.

Fig. 11 shows the convergence trend of the errors for the various durations of dropout. For the 5-s dropout, the error is 2.0 m

and it takes 5 s to converge 1.0-m error bound. IMU-DVL-RA

can give in-flight self-alignment for the short-time dropout, less

Eleven points, having the same range 9.90 m apart from the

origin in - plane are selected to make clear comparisons

with their convergence characteristics. Fig. 12 shows the navigation results when the initial position error of the vehicle is

( 7.0, 7.0, 0.0) relative to the true position, which is located on

the parallel direction to reference points being 0.0 . Fig. 12(a)

shows the estimated trajectory of the vehicle, Fig. 12(b) the position error, and Fig. 12(c) the magnitude of the error. The initial

error exponentially converges to zero and tracks the true trajectory of the rotational motion of the vehicle. The range information corrects the 3-D position of IMU-DVL-RA augmented with

a depth sensor. The navigation system is strongly robust to the

LEE et al.: SIMULATION OF AN INERTIAL ACOUSTIC NAVIGATION SYSTEM WITH RA FOR AN AUV

339

TABLE II

INITIALLY ESTIMATED POSITIONS OF THE VEHICLE

Fig. 14. Trajectories of the estimation errors with initial position errors.

Fig. 15. Convergence rates of the position error of the vehicle with initial

errors.

phases. All the initial position errors exponentially converge to

the range circle in the radial direction and slowly decrease the

errors along the tangential line of the range circle. The radial

position errors converge to zero within 2 min. Along the range

circle, the convergence speed of the estimation error depends

on the magnitude of the distance to the true position. As the

error along the tangential direction is larger, the converging time

becomes longer. It takes a maximum of 20 min to converge with

a 2.0-m position error when the initial error is about 10 m in

all directions. There is a slow drift of the estimate near the true

position along the tangential direction of the range circle, which

is caused by the uncertainties of the inertial sensors.

From the simulation with IMU-DVL-RA, therefore, the performance of the conventional IMU-DVL navigation system can

be improved by introducing range measurements and the navigation system can estimate the true position having initial position error. Thus, we can operate underwater vehicles by using

the inertial acoustic navigation system IMU-DVL-RA without

a special initialization process.

B. Convergence of Large Initial Errors

initial position error of the vehicle, where the offset error converges into 1.0-m spherical error radius within 2 min.

Fig. 13 shows the estimated trajectory when the initial position error of the vehicle is ( 3.7884, 9.1459, 0.0) in relative,

which is located on the direction with 22.5 counterclockwise.

The initial error exponentially converges to the range circle, and

then slowly converges to the true position. While the vehicle

moves in rotation, the range information corrects the position

error to zero along the tangential direction of the range circle.

The navigation system is also robust to the initial position error

of the vehicle, and the offset error converges into 1.0 m after

7 min.

Fig. 14 shows the position error trajectories from the 11 initial

error points around the true position, and Fig. 15 depicts the

convergence rates of the initial position errors in the first phase.

initial position errors. We suppose that the vehicle is located

at

and the reference station is

at (0, 0, 0). Twelve estimated positions

are arbitrarily

selected around the reference station as shown in Table II.

Those positions are representative of all the directions against

the reference station, where are the opposite side of the

true position against the reference station. Radial errors are

selected randomly to demonstrate the effectiveness of the range

measurement.

Note that we derive the navigation error equation under the

small variation assumption in Section II. Thus, we essentially

need initialization process for the inertial sensors (i.e., gyros

and accelerations). When the inertial errors are large, the system

cannot estimate the true position and attitude. Before starting

the IMU-DVL-RA, we have to conduct the IMU initialization:

340

Fig. 16. Estimated position of the IMU-DVL-RA navigation system with the

initial position P ( 12.0, 24.0, 10.0) over the reference station (0.0, 0.0, 0.0):

the true position of the fish is (30.0, 30.0, 10.0).

decreases in general.

Fig. 17 depicts the integrated trajectories of estimation of the

IMU-DVL-RA for the initial position errors . All the

position errors directly reach the range circle with their radial

direction toward the reference station, and converge to the true

position along the tangential line of the range circle.

When the initial estimation is on the opposite side of the reference station at or , theoretically, the navigation system just

finds the imaginary position for a stationary vehicle and stays at

that position. In this simulation, since the vehicle continuously

moves along a circle and changes position, IMU-DVL-RA updates the estimate with the range information and can break out

from the imaginary position. The estimation also converges to

the true position along the range circle after coming out from

the wrong position. The convergence speed gradually decreases

as the estimation approaches the true position.

is on the reference station,

When the initial estimation

the initial radial direction to the range circle depends on the

moving direction of the vehicle. In this simulation, the initial

moving direction is parallel with the range circle, so that the position change is insensitive to the range variation of the INUDVL-RA. When the navigation system senses the range mismatching caused by the initial position error, the vehicle is on

the other position. The estimation moves toward the range circle

where it is noticeable on the range mismatching.

The convergence rate is relatively high at the long distance

from the true position. On the other hand, larger oscillation of

the estimation occurs in the long-distance error along the range

circle. Considering the amount of error on the range circle and

the convergence speed, we expect the estimation of the IMUDVL-RA to converge to the true position after a 1-h navigation

over any erroneous initial position.

C. Sensitivity of Range Distance

Fig. 17. Trajectories of the position errors with the IMU-DVL-RA navigation

system when the initial location of the fish is (30, 30, 10).

other hand, position can be compensated by the range measurement externally without losing the assumption of the small variation. Even for the large initial errors in position, IMU-DVL-RA

can compensate the error by using the range information after

knowing the inertial information.

Fig. 16 shows the trajectory of the estimated position of the

vehicle with the IMU-DVL-RA navigation system for the

initial erroneous position. In the early stage of the navigation,

the estimated position error grows up to the range circle along

its radial direction with the initial orientation. After reaching the

range circle, the estimation gradually slides to the true position

along the tangential line of the range circle, where the circular

motion is heavily distorted due to the oscillation of the estimated

position. As the estimated position approaches to the true position, the amount of the oscillation decreases. After 23 min of

and the reference station affects the convergence characteristics

for initial position errors with the IMU-DVL-RA. Two additional simulations are conducted with half and double the range

of the previous one.

For the first case study, we suppose that the vehicle is at

(15, 15, 5) and the reference station is at the same origin.

the reference station and have the same orientations and radial

error ratios of . For the first case study, we suppose that

the vehicle is at (60, 60, 20) and the reference station is at the

points in

same position. Similar to the half-range case,

Table II are double distance from the reference station and have

the same orientations and radial error ratios of . The

same motion data of the rotating arm experiment and the same

characteristics of the range sensor are used in these simulations

of the IMU-DVL-RA. Figs. 18 and 19 show the navigational

results for half and double the range of the previous one,

respectively.

and

converge

In Fig. 18, all the initial errors including

to the true position with a 2-m error bound for a 23-min navigation. The convergence speed is also better than the previous

one. A relatively large circular motion can reduce the drift along

LEE et al.: SIMULATION OF AN INERTIAL ACOUSTIC NAVIGATION SYSTEM WITH RA FOR AN AUV

341

Fig. 18. Trajectories of the position errors with the IMU-DVL-RA navigation

system when the initial location of the fish is (15, 15, 5).

initial position errors, and it can localize the underwater vehicle

to the true position with a known reference station.

VI. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF AUV NAVIGATION

Fig. 19. Trajectories of the position errors with the IMU-DVL-RA navigation

system when the initial location of the fish is (60, 60, 20).

the range circle around the true position and improve the convergence rate. As the vehicle operates near the reference station,

the range sensor becomes more effective for the initial position

errors.

In Fig. 19, effectiveness of the range sensor can be found in

general; however, almost all the initial position errors are still

converging to the true position and it takes a longer time than

cases due to the larger range. The opposite side posithe

tions

and

are stagnated around the imaginary point of the

shows a large drift of 5 m after

true position. Furthermore,

converging to the true position. As the range becomes larger,

the range circle proportionally increases and the estimated position near true position becomes insensitive for the tangential

variation along the range circle. A larger circular motion of the

vehicle is required to reduce the drift of the estimated position

and to avoid stagnation around the opposite side area.

Numerical simulation was performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the IMU-DVL-RA and its application to AUVs.

A 6-DOF mathematical model of the AUV [28], [29] was used

to generate accelerations, angular velocities, directional velocities, heading angle, depth, and range data. The vehicle was stationary at first at the center of the navigation coordinate and went

forward to the north. We supposed that the AUV moved in a

lawn-mowing survey mode and changed depth 5 m in the middle

of the straight courses with a forward speed at 3.0 kn. The vehicle changed depth 5 m at 30, 150, 270, and 390 second lapse,

and changed heading at 100, 120, 230, 250, 340, and 360 time

lapse to generate a boustrophedon trajectory. Depth and heading

controls were performed with a linear quadratic (LQ) controller.

Total simulation time was 500 s.

The sample rate of the IMU and the DVL was 100 and 2 Hz,

respectively, for the rotating arm experiment. The sample rate

of the range sonar was two samples per second. For range data

generation, we supposed that the reference station was located

342

the water-track relative velocity measurement.

system, where the moving path of the AUV is the dotted line

and the estimated position is the solid line, which is very similar

to those of the DR navigation. The IMU-DVL-RA navigation

system finely estimates the position of the AUV in general. The

position error is increased only when the AUV changes depth

5 m after 30-s lapse, where lateral bias is shown at this time

due to the range variation caused by the depth change. After

updating the range, the IMU-DVL-RA navigation system keeps

the error within 1.2 m evenly.

When we cannot set the initial position of the vehicle exactly, the DVL-IMU-RA navigation system can regulate the initial error with the range information. On the other hand, the

DR navigation cannot exclude the error and the position of the

vehicle is biased all the way. Fig. 22 shows the results of the

IMU-DVL-RA navigation system of the vehicle with the initial

error. The IMU-DVL-RA navigation system updates the range

information and corrects the position. Fig. 22(a) shows the trajectories of the AUV in the - plane. In this simulation, the

initial error converges within 2 m after 175 s and within 1.0 m

after 400 s as shown in Fig. 22(b).

The strong point of the IMU-DVL-RA navigation system is

that it is able to eliminate the initial position error and the error

accumulation of the conventional inertial acoustic navigation

system, which is unavoidable for the accelerometer and gyro

bias as well as scale effect of DVL.

Fig. 22. Simulation results with the IMU-DVL-RA navigation system when

initial localization error exists. (a) Estimated trajectory. (b) Estimation error.

at (0, 50) m in the navigation coordinate. The bias and measurement errors of the range sonar were set to 0.25 and 0.5 m, respectively. After generating the constant bias errors and random

noises for each sensor, measurement signals were obtained by

adding them to the simulated data.

DR navigation was performed to check the validity of the

generated data and to compare the performance with the IMUDVL-RA navigation system. Fig. 20 shows the DR navigation

results. The moving path of the AUV is the dotted line and

the estimated position is the solid line in horizontal plane plot.

Fig. 20(a) and (b) shows the tracking errors with the DR navigation. The navigation system appropriately estimates the AUV

position. The position estimation error is within 2.0 m for the

500-s maneuvering.

Navigational simulation was performed to demonstrate the

effectiveness of the IMU-DVL-RPA. The integrated navigation

system with range and phase aiding can be extended to the case

when only the relative velocity of the AUV is available. The

simulation conditions are all the same as those of the previous

section except the water-track relative velocity sensing and the

two range measurements. We assumed that the reference station is located at (50, 50, 0) m in the global frame, and the

and

are located at (0.5, 0, 0.3) and

range transducers

( 0.5, 0, 0.3) m in the body-fixed frame of the AUV, respecand

and the incident angle were gentively. The range

erated every 0.5 s considering the attitude and position of the

and .

AUV and the offset of the range transducers

Fig. 23 shows the tracking errors of the integrated navigation system with two range transducers. The IMU-DVL-RPA

finely estimates the position of the AUV in general, even with

the water-tracked relative velocity measurement. Since the ref-

LEE et al.: SIMULATION OF AN INERTIAL ACOUSTIC NAVIGATION SYSTEM WITH RA FOR AN AUV

zero when the AUV turns for the adjacent parallel track. When

the incident angle is small, the measurement error increases

and the navigation system cannot compensate the position error

exactly. Thus, the position estimation shows erroneous results

when the AUV turns around. After turning the AUV and keeping

the normal range of the incident angle, the navigation system

can stably estimate the position. In Fig. 23, the estimation error

is larger than those of the IMU-DVL-RA shown in Fig. 22, however, it can track the path with the 5-m accuracy for the 10-min

maneuvering by using the relative velocity of the AUV.

When the DVL cannot catch the bottom reflection and only

the water-track relative velocity is available, the range-phase

information can keep the navigation system from drifting and

correct drift errors induced by the relative velocity information.

Therefore, we can extend the operational condition of the AUV

with the IMU-DVL-RPA.

VII. CONCLUSION

This paper presents an inertial acoustic underwater navigation system augmented with complementary range information.

Two measurement models of the range sensor were derived

and added to the conventional IMU-DVL navigation system

to improve the navigation performance. A multirate EKF was

adopted to propagate the error covariance with the inertial

sensors, where the filter updates the measurement errors and

the error covariance and corrects the system states when the

343

navigation system with RA stably estimates the position of underwater vehicles. Monte Carlo simulation with experimental

data and numerical model demonstrates the effectiveness of

the inertial acoustic navigation system with RA. This paper

simulates the influence of intermittent outliers, the short-duration dropouts of the range sensor and the DVL to the integrated

navigation system. This paper also examines the convergence

characteristics for the initial error removal. We can operate the

underwater vehicles by using the navigation system without a

special process for initialization. The strong point of the inertial

acoustic navigation system with range measurement is that it

is able to eliminate the error accumulation and remove initial

position errors and the dropout of acoustic signals.

APPENDIX

The system matrices

of the navigation system error model

(26) are as shown in the equation at the top of the page.

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Pan-Mook Lee (A95M99) received the B.S. degree from Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea, and the

M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon,

Korea, in 1983, 1985, and 1998, respectively, all in

mechanical engineering.

Since 1985, he has been a Principal Researcher

with the Maritime and Ocean Engineering Research

Institute, Korea Ocean Research and Development

Institute (KORDI), Daejeon, Korea. He was a

Visiting Researcher with the University of Hawaii,

Manoa, in 1998. His research interests include navigation, guidance, control of

underwater vehicles, and signal processing.

Dr. Lee is a member of the Korea Ocean Engineering Society (KSOE) and

the Institute of Control Automation System Engineers (ICASE) in Korea, and a

member of the Oceanic Engineering, Automatic Control, Industrial Electronics,

and Robotics and Automation Societies of IEEE.

in mechanical engineering from the Pukyong National University, Busan, Korea, in 1994 and 1996,

respectively, and the Ph.D. degree in the Department

of Mechatronics Engineering, Chungnam National

University, Daejeon, Korea, in 2006.

He joined the Ocean System Development Laboratory of the Maritime and Ocean Engineering Research Institute, Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute (KORDI), in 1996 as a Research Scientist. His research interests include navigation guidance and control of underwater vehicles, analysis and motion planning of underwater manipulators.

Dr. Jun is a member of the Korea Ocean Engineering Society (KSOE) and

the Institute of Control Automation System Engineers (ICASE) in Korea.

degrees in naval architecture and ocean engineering

from Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea, in

1998, 2000, and 2005, respectively.

Since 2005, he has been a Researcher in the

Maritime and Ocean Engineering Research Institute

of Ships and Ocean Engineering, Korea Ocean

Research and Development Institute (KORDI),

Daejeon, Korea. His research specializes in hydrodynamics, navigation and control, system identification,

and estimation of hydrodynamic coefficients for

autonomous underwater vehicles.

Dr. Kim is a member of the Society of Naval Architect of Korea.

Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea, in 1983 and

the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from the Korea Advanced

Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon, Korea, in 1985 and 1991, respectively, all in

electrical and electronics engineering.

Since 2001, he has been a Professor in the

Mechatronics Engineering Department, Chungnam

National University, Daejeon, Korea. His research

interests include robotics, control system, and artificial intelligence with neural network and fuzzy logic

system.

Prof. Lee is a member of the Institute of Electronics Engineering of Korea

(IEEK) and the Institute of Control Automation System Engineers (ICASE) in

Korea, and a member of the Automatic Control and the Robotics and Automation Societies of IEEE.

LEE et al.: SIMULATION OF AN INERTIAL ACOUSTIC NAVIGATION SYSTEM WITH RA FOR AN AUV

Taro Aoki received the B.S. degree from the University of Electro-communications, Tokyo, Japan, in

1972.

Since 1978, he has been a Senior Researcher

with the Marine Technology Department of the

Japan Agency for Marine-Science and Technology

(JAMSTEC), Kanagawa, Japan, and he is currently

Program Director of the Marine Technology Research and Development Program of JAMSTEC. He

has a lot of experience in research and development

of underwater vehicles in JAMSTEC. He has taken

charge of the development of Dolphin 3K, UROV7K, 11 000-m-depth-rated

ROV KAIKO, a working AUV MR-X1, and a 3000-m-depth-rated AUV

URASHIMA.

345

from the Department of Computer Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology,

Kyushu, Japan, in 1995 and the M.S. and Ph.D.

degrees from the Interdisciplinary Graduate School

of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, in 1997

and 2000, respectively.

Since 2004, he has been a Researcher with the Marine Technology Research and Development Program

of the Japan Agency for Marine-Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), Kanagawa, Japan. His research

interests are the research and development of the navigation, control, and power

systems of a 300-km-long-range AUV, URASHIMA.

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