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11 2345
6$-7,897%,: ;,< 6-7.=( 0>77?:@@7"#(+<8$=(?<.9<(=@
-7.A@(-7.=( 5
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i. Defniiions of Naiuial Gas, Gas Reseivoii, Gas Diilling
and Gas pioduciion (Pengeiiian gas alam, gas ieseivoii,
gas diilling, dan piodulsi gas)
:. Oveiview of Gas Plani Piocessing (Oveiview Sisiem
Pemiosesan Gas) and Gas Field Opeiaiions and Inlei
Receiving (Opeiasi Lapangan Gas dan Peneiimaan Inlei)
. Gas Tieaiing: Clemical Tieaimenis (Pengolalan Gas:
secaia limia) and Soui Gas Tieaiing (Pengolalan Gas
(. Gas Tieaiing: Plysical Tieaimenis (Pengolalan Gas:
secaia fsila)
. Gas Delydiaiion (Delidiasi Gas)
6. Gas Delydiaiion (Delidiasi Gas)
y. Hydiocaibons Recoveiy (Pengambilan Hidiolaibon)
3456( 47 89( /59:;(
! !"#$%&'()*+ *- .'/ (* &"%01" 1*&&*/)*+ '+% (* 2&"3"+(
.'/ #$%&'(" -*&4'()*+. Tlese planis commonly aie found
on osloie plaifoims, wleie associaied gas is sepaiaied fiom
oil and delydiaied. Depending upon pipeline infiasiiuciuie,
ile gas may be iecombined wiil ile oil befoie ii is pui inio a
pipeline io sloie.
! 5//*1)'("% *)6 /('7)6)8'()*+. Tle pioduced gas is ieinjecied
inio ile foimaiion io enlance oil iecoveiy.
! 9'&7*+ %)*:)%" *& +)(&*."+ &"1*3"&$ -*& "+#'+1"% *)6
&"1*3"&$ ;<=>?. Tlese planis sepaiaie naiuial gas fiom ile
CO: oi N:; ile naiuial gas is maileied and ile CO: oi N:
aie ieinjecied inio foimaiions. In N: piojecis, an aii plani
may be consiiucied on siie io piovide addiiional N: ai ile
beginning of ile piojeci.
! @2.&'%)+. /07A0'6)($ .'/. To male ile gas maileiable, ile
undesiied diluenis N:, H:S, and CO: aie iemoved. Of ile iliee
componenis, N: is ile mosi diculi io iemove because ii
iequiies ciyogenic piocessing wlen laige volumes aie
! B"6)04 &"1*3"&$. Few planis aie dedicaied piimaiily io
lelium iecoveiy. Tleiefoie, ilis faciliiy is iypically an addiiion
io a gas plani. Naiuial gas is ile piimaiy souice of lelium.
! C)A0"-'1()*+. Some gas planis aie dedicaied io ile pioduciion
of lydiocaibon liquids and a naiuial gas siieam io male
liquefed naiuial gas (LNG). Tlese planis aie in locaiions wiil
laige gas ieseives and no pipelines io mailei.
8+% /*+<0
7>&*@ 4A&$+B"<% +<@ C<*&0 3&=&>D><?
! All planis lave D"&= %?",.7(%$- and a $"7E%,# %A
?(?"&($"- ilai feed ile iaw naiuial gas and liquids inio
ile plani.
! F("&= %?",.7(%$- may include: delydiaiion, CO: and H:S
iemoval, and compiession.
! Unless ile gas is compleiely fiee of any liquids, once ii
enieis ile plani, ile gas and liquids go inio inlei ieceiving,
wleie ile iniiial gas-liquid sepaiaiion is made.
! G%$="$-"= E.7",H >I=,%9.,J%$ &(K8(=-H .$= -%&(=- aie
! L.7", .$= -%&(=- aie piocessed foi disposal, and ile
lydiocaibon liquids go on io liquids piocessing
C<*&0 !"EA$&%%>"<
! Mosi planis lave inlei compiession, bui compiession
iequiiemenis vaiy.
! Higl piessuie is ciiiical, as ii diives ile ciyogenic-
liquids iecoveiy piocess.
! Foi inlei piessuies of aiound i,ooo psi (yo bai) oi
liglei, only gas coming fiom ile liquids piocessing
siep needs compiession.
! Howevei, mosi onsloie gas planis in ile discusses
compiession. Tle same iypes of compiessois aie used
foi feld and ouilei compiession.
8+% ;$&+B<?
! Mosi planis lave a gas iieaiing siep 7% ,"+%M" 7>"
.9(= '.-"- NOP .$= GQOH .&%$' E(7> %7>", -8&A8,
! Mosi planis use E.7",RJ.-"= .J-%,J"$7- io iemove
ile impuiiiies, bui oilei solvenis and piocesses aie
! Nexi seciion explains vaiious meilods foi iemoval of
ilese componenis.
! Neaily all planis uiilize a delydiaiion siep because
ile gas ilai leaves ile gas iieaiing siep is 8-8.&&I
E.7", -.78,.7"=.
! Even if no waiei-based gas iieaiing is iequiied, mosi
gas siieams 9%$7.($ 7%% +89> E.7", io meei
pipeline specifcaiions oi io eniei ile ciyogenic
seciion of ile plani.
! Field opeiaiions someiimes diy ile gas 7% .M%(= '.-
>I=,.7" A%,+.7(%$ as well as io ,"=89" 9%,,%-(%$.
! Nexi Seciion piovides deiails on ile commonly used
delydiaiion piocesses
H)@$"=+$,"<% 3&="D&$)
! Any plani ilai piocesses naiuial gas io pioduce
>I=,%9.,J%$ &(K8(=- 0S/T5 oi LNG uiilizes a
lydiocaibon iecoveiy siep.
! Tlis siep usually involves 9,I%'"$(9 -"?.,.7(%$ io
iecovei ile eilane and leaviei lydiocaibons.
! Hydiocaibon iecoveiy ofien plays an impoiiani iole
in feld opeiaiions, wleie ii is used foi fuel gas
condiiioning and io aliei gas condensaiion
:>0$"?&< 3&I&=B"<
! Alilougl a less common piocess in ile gas indusiiy,
niiiogen iejeciion will become moie impoiiani as we
slifi io lowei-qualiiy gas feedsiocl.
! Tlis piocess is iypically ciyogenic, alilougl
membiane and absoibeni ieclnology aie becoming
H&*>#E 3&="D&$)
! Helium iecoveiy is uncommon, unless ile lelium
conieni is .J%M" U<2 M%&V<
! Tieaimeni of oilei iiace componenis, including
BTEX (benzene, ioluene, eilylbenzene, and xylenes)
emissions and meicuiy is iequiied.
! W!BX (- ?,(+.,(&I .$ "$M(,%$+"$7.& 9%$9",$
because of possible emissions fiom glycol delydiaiion
! Alilougl ai exiiemely low conceniiaiions in ile gas,
elemenial meicuiy can cause meclanical failuie in
aluminum leai exclangeis.
4#0*&0 !"EA$&%%>"<
! Mosi planis musi compiess ile gas befoie ii goes io
ile pipeline.
! Tle majoiiiy planis ilai lave ciyogenic lydiocaibon
iecoveiy use iuibo-expandeis io piovide iefiigeiaiion
in ile ciyogenic seciion.
! Woil geneiaied in expansion is used io iecompiess
ile ouilei gas.
! Howevei, .==(7(%$.& 9%+?,"--(%$ (- 8-8.&&I
! Nexi Seciion discusses iuibo-expandeis coupled wiil
compiessois, and siand-alone compiessoi
5>J#>@ /$"=&%%><?
! Liquids piocessing occuis wlenevei S/T (- .
! Tle piocessing iequiied in ile siep depends upon
ile liquid conieni of ile inlei gas and desiied pioduci
! Liquid piocessing involves: sweeiening, diying and
fiaciionaiing ile liquid
(#*K#$ 3&="D&$)
! Any plani ai wlicl H
S iemoval is iequiied, uiilizes a
sulfui-iecoveiy piocess if veniing ile H
S will exceed
enviionmenial limiis.
! Tle common iecoveiy piocesses including iail gas
(A&=>L=+B"<% K"$ />A&*><& M#+*>0) 8+%
7C65F 4/639;C4:(- !"##$"%&
! Welllead
! Gas-liquid sepaiaioi
! Insiiumeni sled
! Condensaie Tanl
! If ile gas is non-associaied, lydiocaibon
liquids lnocled oui in ile sepaiaioi may
be iemixed wiil ile gas oi sioied in a
ianl and iemoved by iiucl
7C65F 4/639;C4:(- /0)0-1
! =D/#*&" E&*%01()*+:
! Many wells aie 7("= J.9# 7% ?&.7A%,+
! Gas fiom muliiple plaifoims aie 7("= 7%'"7>", ($7% &.,'" ?(?"&($"
ilai go io ile gas plani (usually onsloie)
! =+/#*&" E&*%01()*+:
! Foim an exiensive neiwoil of small lines fiom individual wells
! Tie inio incieasingly laigei lines
! Tle smallei gaileiing lines may be abovegiound oi buiied
! Laigei lines aie always buiied
! Abovegiound lines aie mucl easiei io mainiain bui aie exposed io ile
! Suiface coaiing foi coiiosion pieveniion and possibly insulaiion may
be iequiied
7C65F 4/639;C4:(- 2,3)*"..0,-
! Onsloie compiession siaiion ! 7**/("& /('()*+
! Boosiei siaiions aie iaiely used in osloie pioduciion
! )+6"( /01()*+ /"2'&'(*&/ (sciubbeis) io iemove
condensed liquids
! !"#$%&'()*+ -'1)6)()"/ ! io ieduce coiiosion and
miiigaie lydiaie foimaiion.
! Wlen iequiied, 1#"4)1'6 )+#)7)(*&/ foi coiiosion
and gas lydiaie pieveniion aie injecied inio ile
disclaiged gas; meieiing pumps aie used io coniiol
injeciion iaies
H"N 0" G+<@*& ="<@&<%&@ *>J#>@%
+0 ,""%0&$ %0+B"<%O
! Liquids colleciion iequiies ('+F'." '+% (&01F)+. io move ile
liquids io ile plani.
! Tle benefis aie #).#"& 6)+" 1'2'1)($G &"%01"% 1*&&*/)*+
&'("/G '+% &"%01"% 1#"4)1'6 #$%&'(" '+% 1*&&*/)*+
)+#)7)(*& )+H"1()*+ &'("/.
! E)..)+. iequiiemenis aie ieduced, as well as ile poieniial foi
laige liquid slugs enieiing ile plani.
! E0(()+. 6)A0)%/ 7'1F )+(* (#" 2)2"6)+" eliminaies ile need
foi ianls and iiucling bui incieases clemical cosis, puis moie
impoiiance on good pigging, and piobably incieases pipeline
mainienance cosis.
! 9*42&"//*& 2*I"& &"A0)&"4"+(/ depend upon gas ow and
piessuie iaiio
! J**/("&K/('()*+ #*&/"2*I"& &'+."/ fiom ile ieens io
ile ilousands.
! 9*42&"//*&/ aie diiven by eleciiic moiois, inieinal-
combusiion engines, and gas iuibines. Hoisepowei
iequiiemenis and availabiliiy of fuel diciaie ile besi
! Some compiessoi diiveis aie inieinal-combusiion engines
ilai lave been in seivice foi o oi moie yeais and lave
been iebuili many iimes.
! Compiessoi engines aie usually -0"6"% I)(# +'(0&'6 .'/.
Tle besi fuel is sales gas fiom ile plani because ii is clean
and las a consiani leaiing value.
! Howevei, ilis iype of fueling iequiies iunning pipe
beiween ile plani and boosiei siaiions.
7C65F 4/639;C4:(- /0110-1
! E)..)+. is ile 2&*1"// *- -*&1)+. ' /*6)% *7H"1( (#&*0.# '
! Tle piocess involves inseiiing ile pig, via ' 2). 6'0+1#"&, inio
ile pipelines and iemoving ii by use of ' 2). &"1")3"&.
! Pigging is used io peifoim any of ile following funciions:
! Piovide a 7'&&)"& beiween liquid pioducis ilai use ile same
! 9#"1F I'66 (#)1F+"// and M+% %'4'."% seciions of lines
! >"4*3" %"7&)/ sucl as diii and wax fiom lines
! Piovide a F+*I+ 3*604" foi calibiaiing ow meieis
! 9*'( )++"& 2)2" I'66/ wiil inlibiiois
! >"4*3" 1*+%"+/"% #$%&*1'&7*+ 6)A0)%/ and waiei in iwo
plase pipelines
! Field opeiaiions musi follow ' &).*&*0/ 2)..)+.
/1#"%06" io pieveni ile plani fiom being lii by laige
slugs of liquid ilai would ood inlei ieceiving and
caiiy liquids inio ile gas-piocessing uniis.
! Foiiunaiely, plani opeiaiois usually lnow wlen a
"F)66"& 2)." is coming, and iley diaw down liquid
levels in inlei ieceiving.
! To pioieci ile plani fiom laige liquid suiges,
opeiaiois iespond by sluiiing in gas, wlicl sluis
down feld compiessois and upseis ile plani wiil ile
poieniial foi pioducing o-spec pioducis.
(G+A&% "K K"+E %AG&$& +<@ A>?%
! N*'4 /2#"&"/, lile ilose slown in ile lefi-fioni of
Figuie ., aie moie commonly used in gaileiing lines
because muliiple spleies can be loaded inio a pig
launclei foi iemoie launcling.
! Tle 6'0+1#"&/ iypically lold iliee io fve spleies
and aie inclined so ilai spleies can be inseiied
iemoiely by giaviiy feed
! O2#"&"/ -*& +*4)+'6 P (* Q )+1# ;RS (* TSS 44?
diameiei lines aie solid, wleieas laigei ones aie
inaied, usually wiil waiei oi eilylene glycol-waiei
(AG&$& *+#<=G&$ #<>0
! Ai ile end of ile iun, ile spleie is caugli in a /2#"&"
1'(1#"& (usually called a pig caiclei even if spleies aie
! Boil launcleis and ieceiveis aie on (#" /(&').#( &0+ *- '
2)2" ("".
! E&"//0&" %)D"&"+()'6 diives ile spleie iliougl ile line.
! Howevei, ii usually siops inieimiiienily wlen ii comes io
low poinis wleie pools of liquid accumulaie.
! Field and plani opeiaiois leain ile iypical iun iimes foi
spleies in a line, and inline deieciois signal a spleie's
89( HPF39;6(
! E)2"6)+" 76*1F'." is usually caused by:
! U': '+% '/2#'6("+" /*6)%/ %"2*/)()*+ (lacl)
! O1'6" ;)+*&.'+)1 /'6(? %"2*/)()*+
! V'/ #$%&'(" /*6)%/ -*&4'()*+
! Fiisi, #$%&'(" 260./ 1'+ *110& I)(#)+ 4)+0("/ wiiloui
piioi waining, wlile ile oilei solids iale weels, monils,
oi yeais io cause plugging and aie usually deiecied by
incieased line-piessuie diop.
! Second, alilougl lydiaie foimaiion can be inlibiied in a
numbei of ways, injeciion pump failuie, sepaiaioi failuie,
and piocess upseis can suddenly male pipeline conienis
vulneiable io lydiaie foimaiion.
/$"A&$B&% "K 8+% H)@$+0&%
! Gas lydiaies aie a class of solid, nonsioicliomeiiic
compounds called 9&.7>,.7"-.
! Tley foim wlen a losi maieiial, waiei foi lydiaies
iliougl #$%&*."+ 7*+%)+., foims ' 1'."%
/(&01(0&" ilai coniains guesi molecules, sucl as
! Boil losi and guesi musi be pieseni foi ile solid io
foim, bui noi all of ile cages will be occupied.
! Gas lydiaies slould noi be confused wiil sali
lydiaies, wlicl foim sioicliomeiiic compounds.
HPF39;6 743Q9;C4:
! Tleimodynamics piovides a poweiful iool foi
piediciion of ile iempeiaiuie and piessuie foi
lydiaie foimaiion on ile basis of gas composiiion.
! Hydiaie foimaiion lineiics is complex and pooily
undeisiood, paiily because ile ciysial giowil piocess
is iandom
! Foi below i,ooo psi (yo bai),
! Tle specifc giaviiy is defned as ile iaiio of ile mass
of a given volume of a gas io ilai of an equal volume
of aii; boil volumes aie measuied ai i(.y psia and
6oF (i.oi bai and i.6C).
! Foi an ideal gas, ile specifc giaviiy is molai mass of
ile gas divided by ile molai mass of aii (:S.q6).
! Gas composiiion:
! Esiimaie ile lydiaie-foimaiion iempeiaiuie ai :
psia (::.( bai) foi ile above gas composiiion?
! Tle specifc giaviiy = molai mass gas ]molai mass aii
= :o.oS]:S.q6 = o.6q.
! i = -i6. - 6.S](o.6q): + i.S ln(:) = (qF.
HPF39;6 C:HCRC;C4:
! Tliee ways exisi io avoid lydiaie foimaiion in naiuial gas
! =2"&'(" *0(/)%" (#" #$%&'(" -*&4'()*+ &".)*+.
! !"#$%&'(" (#" .'/.
! 5%% #$%&'(" )+#)7)(*& (')* ",-' &,"",.(/ 0-*1)
! Regaiding delydiaiion, low diy a gas slould be io
pieveni lydiaie foimaiion is unceiiain.
! Tle gas obviously slould lave a waiei dew poini below
ile lowesi opeiaiing iempeiaiuie io avoid waiei
! Tleimodynamics piedicis ilai lydiaies can foim even
wlen ile gas plase is unsaiuiaied wiil waiei.
! @/" *- 1#"4)1'6 )+#)7)(*&/ is ile leasi aiiiaciive
lydiaie inlibiiion meilod foi seveial ieasons:
! Tle 2&*2"& )+#)7)(*& %*/'." musi be lnown io avoid plugging oi
needless clemical cosis, bui ofieniimes ii is deieimined
! Tle 1#"4)1'6 1*/(, alilougl ii is usually a small fiaciion of oveiall
opeiaiing cosis.
! Tle ieliabiliiy of inlibiioi injeciion can be a pioblem because of
malfunciioning injeciion pumps and depleied inlibiioi ieseivoiis,
especially ai iemoie siies.
! Tle 2*//)76" )+("&'1()*+ 7"(I""+ #$%&'(" )+#)7)(*&/ '+%
*(#"& '%%)()3"/ ieduces ile eeciiveness of some of addiiives, an
eeci ilai is usually deieimined empiiically.
!G&E>=+* G)@$+0& ><G>,>0"$% ;)A&%
! 5+()'..6*4"&'("/ ;55? ! TWWS/
! X)+"()1 ;XBY? ! TWWS/
! Z#"&4*%$+'4)1
! Aniiagglomeiaies 2&"3"+( /4'66 #$%&'(" 2'&()16"/
-&*4 '..6*4"&'()+. )+(* 6'&."& /)8"/ io pioduce a
! Tle inlibiiois ieside in ile liquid lydiocaibon plase
and aie mosi ofien used in pipelines wleie gas is
dissolved in oil.
! Tley iequiie iesiing io ensuie piopei conceniiaiions.
S><&B= C<G>,>0"$%
! Kineiic inlibiiois /6*I 1&$/('6 -*&4'()*+ by
inieifeiing wiil ile consiiuciion of ile cages.
! Tleii advaniage is ilai iley can be used ai
conceniiaiions in ile i wi% iange in ile aqueous
plase, and iley aie +*+3*6'()6".
! Tleii disadvaniage is ilai (#" 2&*2"& %*/'." musi
be deieimined empiiically, as ioo mucl inlibiioi may
enlance lydiaie foimaiion iaies.
! Tlese inlibiiois aie limiied io a subcooling
(dieience beiween desiied opeiaiing iempeiaiuie
and lydiaie foimaiion iempeiaiuie ai consiani
piessuie) of :SF (i.C).
;G&$E"@)<+E>= C<G>,>0"$
! Tleimodynamic inlibiiois, mainly 4"(#'+*6 and
"(#$6"+" .6$1*6, aie widely used as '+()-&""8".
! Inoiganic salis aie eeciive bui iaiely used, and
fuiilei discussion ielaies only io meilanol and
eilylene glycol.
! Tle iequiied dosage of ileimodynamic inlibiiois is
piediciable, bui ile conceniiaiions can be ligl, ovei
o wi% of ile waiei plase.
! A numbei of empiiical coiielaiions, on ile basis of
ileimodynamic piopeiiies of soluiions, piedici ile
amouni of any lydiaie inlibiioi iequiied io depiess
lydiaie foimaiion iempeiaiuies.
H+EE&$%=GE>@0 6J#+B"<%
! wleie i is ile lydiaie-depiession iempeiaiuie,F,
! Xi is ile mass fiaciion of inlibiioi in ile fiee-waiei
plase, and
! MW
is ile moleculai weigli of ile inlibiioi.
! Nielsen and Bucllin Equaiion:
! A'2345 6 789:;< (. =
! x
is ile mole fiaciion of waiei in ile aqueous plase
C:56; 36!6CTC:8
! Gas and liquids ilai eniei ile gas plani pass
"4"&."+1$ /#0(%*I+ 3'63"/, wlicl isolaie ile
plani fiom incoming siieams and pig ieceiveis, and
ilen go io )+6"( &"1")3)+., wleie condensed plases
diop oui
! Gas fiom inlei ieceiving goes io )+6"( 1*42&"//)*+
(if necessaiy), and ile 6)A0)%/ .* (* /(*&'." foi
! Tle iniiial gas-liquid sepaiaiion occuis in a slug
(6/939;43 /3C:!C/56(- 8+%U
5>J#>@ (&A+$+B"<
! Sepaiaioi vessel oiieniaiion can be 3"&()1'6 oi #*&)8*+('6L
! ["&()1'6 /"2'&'(*&/ aie :
! mosi commonly used I#"+ (#" 6)A0)%K(*K.'/ &'()* )/ 6*I *& .'/ \*I
&'("/ '&" 6*I.
! Foi osloie due io less plaifoim aiea.
! Howevei, gas ow is upwaids and opposes ile ow of liquid
! Tleiefoie, veiiical sepaiaiois can be biggei and, ilus, 4*&" 1*/(6$
(#'+ #*&)8*+('6 /"2'&'(*&/.
! B*&)8*+('6 /"2'&'(*&/ aie :
! favoied foi laige liquid volumes oi if ile liquid-io-gas iaiio is ligl.
! Lowei gas ow iaies and incieased iesidence iimes oei beiiei
liquid diopoui.
! Tle laigei suiface aiea piovides beiiei degassing and moie siable
liquid level as well
/$>E+$) (&A+$+B"<
! Piimaiy sepaiaiion is accomplisled by uiilizing ile
%)D"&"+1" )+ 4*4"+(04 7"(I""+ .'/ '+% 6)A0)%.
! Laigei liquid diopleis fail io male ile slaip iuin and
impinge on ile inlei wall.
! Tlis aciion coalesces fnei diopleis so ilai iley diop
oui quiclly.
! Alilougl inlei geomeiiies vaiy, mosi sepaiaiois use
ilis appioacl io lnocl oui a majoi poiiion of ile
incoming liquid.
8$+D>0) (&V*><?
! Giaviiy seiiling iequiies 6*I .'/ 3"6*1)()"/ wiil
minimal iuibulence io peimii dioplei falloui.
! Tle ("&4)+'6K/"((6)+. 3"6*1)($, V
, foi a spleie
falling iliougl a siagnani uid is goveined by paiiicle
diameiei, densiiy dieiences, gas viscosiiy, and a diag
coecieni ilai is a funciion of boil dioplei slape
and Reynolds numbei.
! Reynold Numbei:
! wleie D
is paiiicle diameiei, i
is ile densiiy, and m

is ile viscosiiy. Tlus, calculaiions foi V
aie an
iieiaiive piocess.
! Foi 6'&." 2'&()16"/ (i,ooo io -yo,ooo micion), ile
ieiminal velociiy is compuied by ile equaiion
(Re>oo :
! If ile 2'&()16" /)8" )/ (** 6'&.", excessive
iuibulence :
! wiil KCR = iS.i and :.6( foi engineeiing and meiiic
uniis, iespeciively,
Newion's Law
! ile \*I )/ 6'4)+'& ;SY" Z O5H ?',@*-A (%B %##(!*-C
Biiiisl Unii
! Tle coalescing seciion coniains an inseii ilai -*&1"/
(#" .'/ (#&*0.# ' (*&(0&*0/ 2'(# io biing small
misi paiiicles iogeilei as iley colleci on ile inseii
5>J#>@ !"**&=B"<
! Tle liquid colleciion seciion acis as a loldei foi ile
liquids iemoved fiom ile gas in ile above iliee
sepaiaiion seciions.
! Tlis seciion also piovides foi degassing of ile liquid
and foi waiei and solids sepaiaiion fiom ile
lydiocaibon plase.
! If a laige amouni of waiei is pieseni, sepaiaiois ofien
lave a "7**(," as slown in ile loiizonial sepaiaioi,
ai ile boiiom of ile sepaiaioi foi ile waiei io colleci.