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# "BOEF" --- BEAM ON ELASTIC FOUNDATION ANALYSIS

Program Description:
"BOEF" is a spreadsheet program written in MS-Excel for the purpose of analysis a finite length beam with free ends
supported continuously on an elastic foundation. This program is ideally suited for analyzing a soil supported beam,
a combined footing, or a strip of a slab or a mat. Specifically, the beam shear, moment, deflection, and soil bearing
pressure are calculated for 100 equal beam segments, as well as the maximum values. Plots of both the shear,
moment, and soil bearing pressure diagrams are produced, as well as a tabulation of the shear, moment,
deflection, and bearing pressure for the beam.
This program is a workbook consisting of three (3) worksheets, described as follows:
Worksheet Name Description
Doc This documentation sheet
Beam on Elastic Fdn. (English) Beam on elastic foundation analysis (English units)
Beam on Elastic Fdn. (metric) Beam on elastic foundation analysis (metric units)
Program Assumptions and Limitations:
1. The following reference was used in the development of this program (see below):
"Formulas for Stress and Strain" - Fifth Edition
by Raymond R. Roark and Warren C. Young, McGraw-Hill Book Company (1975), pages 128 to 146.
2. This program uses the equations for a "finite-length" beam in the analysis. This usually gives very similar to
exact results for a "semi-infinite" beam which has had end-corrections applied to "force" the moment and shear
values to be equal to zero at the ends. (Note: a "semi-infinite" beam is defined as one that has a b*L value > 6.)
3. This program uses the five (5) additional following assumptions as a basis for analysis:
a. Beam must be of constant cross section (E and I are constant for entire length, L).
b. Beam must have both ends "free". ("Pinned" or "fixed" ends are not permitted.)
c. Elastic support medium (soil) has a constant modulus of subgrade, K, along entire length of beam.
d. Applied loads are located in the center of the width, B, of the beam and act along a centroidal line of the
beam-soil contact area.
e. Bearing pressure is linearly proportional to the deflection, and varies as a function of subgrade modulus, K.
4. This program can handle up to twelve (12) concentrated (point) loads, a full uniformly distributed load with up to
six (6) additional full or partial uniformly distributed loads, and up to four (4) externally applied moments.
5. Beam self-weight is NOT automatically included in the program analysis, but may be accounted for as a full
uniformly distributed applied load. Beam self-weight will only affect the deflection and bearing pressure, and not
the moment or shear.
6. This program will calculate the maximum positive and negative shears, the maximum positive and negative
moments, the maximum negative deflection, and the maximum soil bearing pressure. The calculated values
for the maximum shears, maximum moments, deflection, and bearing pressure are determined from dividing
the beam into 100 equal segments with 101 points, and including all of the point load and applied moment
locations as well.
7. The user is given the ability to input four (4) specific locations from the left end of the beam to calculate the
shear, moment, deflection, and bearing pressure.
8. The plots of the shear, moment, and bearing pressure diagrams as well as the displayed tabulation of shear,
moment, deflection, and bearing pressure are based on the beam being divided up into 100 equal segments
with 101 points.
9. This program contains numerous comment boxes which contain a wide variety of information including
explanations of input or output items, equations used, data tables, etc. (Note: presence of a comment box
is denoted by a red triangle in the upper right-hand corner of a cell. Merely move the mouse pointer to the
desired cell to view the contents of that particular "comment box".)
Formulas Used to Determine Shear, Moment, Slope, Deflection, and Pressure in Beam on Elastic Foundation
General Constants and Functions:
I = B*T^3/12
b = ((K*B)/(4*E*I))^(1/4) (Note: units of 'K' are "kcf" for English units.)
F1 = COSH(b*x)*COS(b*x)
F2 = COSH(b*x)*SIN(b*x) + SINH(b*x)*COS(b*x)
F3 = SINH(b*x)*SIN(b*x)
F4 = COSH(b*x)*SIN(b*x) - SINH(b*x)*COS(b*x)
C1 = COSH(b*L)*COS(b*L)
C2 = COSH(b*L)*SIN(b*L) + SINH(b*L)*COS(b*L)
C3 = SINH(b*L)*SIN(b*L)
C4 = COSH(b*L)*SIN(b*L) - SINH(b*L)*COS(b*L)
C11 = SINH(b*L)^2 - SIN(b*L)^2
For Full Uniform or Distributed Loads:
Specific Constants and Functions:
Ca2 = COSH(b*(L-b))*SIN(b*(L-b)) + SINH(b*(L-b))*COS(b*(L-b))
Ca3 = SINH(b*(L-b))*SIN(b*(L-b))
Cb2 = COSH(b*(L-e))*SIN(b*(L-e)) + SINH(b*(L-e))*COS(b*(L-e))
Cb3 = SINH(b*(L-e))*SIN(b*(L-e))
If x > b:
Fa1 = COSH(b*(x-b))*COS(b*(x-b)) else: Fa1 = 0
Fa2 = COSH(b*(x-b))*SIN(b*(x-b)) + SINH(b*(x-b))*COS(b*(x-b)) else: Fa2 = 0
Fa3 = SINH(b*(x-b))*SIN(b*(x-b)) else: Fa3 = 0
Fa4 = COSH(b*(x-b))*SIN(b*(x-b)) - SINH(b*(x-b))*COS(b*(x-b)) else: Fa4 = 0
Fa5 = 1- Fa1 else: Fa5 = -Fa1
If x > e:
Fb1 = COSH(b*(x-e))*COS(b*(x-e)) else: Fb1 = 0
Fb2 = COSH(b*(x-e))*SIN(b*(x-e)) + SINH(b*(x-e))*COS(b*(x-e)) else: Fb2 = 0
Fb3 = SINH(b*(x-e))*SIN(b*(x-e)) else: Fb3 = 0
Fb4 = COSH(b*(x-e))*SIN(b*(x-e)) - SINH(b*(x-e))*COS(b*(x-e)) else: Fb4 = 0
Fb5 = 1- Fb1 else: Fb5 = -Fb1
Loading functions for each uniform or distributed load evaluated at distance x = L from left end of beam:
Va = 0
Ma = 0
qa = w/(2*E*I*b^3)*(C2*Ca3-C3*Ca2)/C11
Da = w/(4*E*I*b^4)*(C4*Ca2-2*C3*Ca3)/C11
Loading functions for each uniform or distributed load evaluated at distance = x from left end of beam:
Fvx = Va*F1 - Da*2*E*I*b^3*F2 - qa*2*E*I*b^2*F3 - Ma*b*F4 - w/(2*b)*Fa2
Fmx = Ma*F1 + Va/(2*b)*F2 - Da*2*E*I*b^2*F3 - qa*E*I*b*F4 - w/(2*b^2)*Fa3
Fqx = qa*F1 + Ma/(2*E*I*b)*F2 + Va/(2*E*I*b^2)*F3 - Da*b*F4 - w/(4*E*I*b^3)*Fa4
FDx = Da*F1 + qa/(2*b)*F2 + Ma/(2*E*I*b^2)*F3 + Va/(4*E*I*b^3)*F4 - w/(4*E*I*b^4)*Fa5
Specific Constants and Functions:
Ca1 = COSH(b*(L-a))*COS(b*(L-a))
Ca2 = COSH(b*(L-a))*SIN(b*(L-a)) + SINH(b*(L-a))*COS(b*(L-a))
If x > a:
Fa1 = COSH(b*(x-a))*COS(b*(x-a)) else: Fa1 = 0
Fa2 = COSH(b*(x-a))*SIN(b*(x-a)) + SINH(b*(x-a))*COS(b*(x-a)) else: Fa2 = 0
Fa3 = SINH(b*(x-a))*SIN(b*(x-a)) else: Fa3 = 0
Fa4 = COSH(b*(x-a))*SIN(b*(x-a)) - SINH(b*(x-a))*COS(b*(x-a)) else: Fa4 = 0
Loading functions for each point load evaluated at distance x = L from left end of beam:
Va = 0
Ma = 0
qa = P/(2*E*I*b^2)*(C2*Ca2-2*C3*Ca1)/C11
Da = P/(2*E*I*b^3)*(C4*Ca1-C3*Ca2)/C11
Loading functions for each point load evaluated at distance = x from left end of beam:
Fvx = Va*F1 - Da*2*E*I*b^3*F2 - qa*2*E*I*b^2*F3 - Ma*b*F4 - P*Fa1
Fmx = Ma*F1 + Va/(2*b)*F2 - Da*2*E*I*b^2*F3 - qa*E*I*b*F4 - P/(2*b)*Fa2
Fqx = qa*F1 + Ma/(2*E*I*b)*F2 + Va/(2*E*I*b^2)*F3 - Da*b*F4 - P/(2*E*I*b^2)*Fa3
FDx = Da*F1 + qa/(2*b)*F2 + Ma/(2*E*I*b^2)*F3 + Va/(4*E*I*b^3)*F4 - P/(4*E*I*b^3)*Fa4
For Applied Moments:
Specific Constants and Functions:
Ca1 = COSH(b*(L-c))*COS(b*(L-c))
Ca4 = COSH(b*(L-c))*SIN(b*(L-c)) - SINH(b*(L-c))*COS(b*(L-c))
If x > c:
Fa1 = COSH(b*(x-c))*COS(b*(x-c)) else: Fa1 = 0
Fa2 = COSH(b*(x-c))*SIN(b*(x-c)) + SINH(b*(x-c))*COS(b*(x-c)) else: Fa2 = 0
Fa3 = SINH(b*(x-c))*SIN(b*(x-c)) else: Fa3 = 0
Fa4 = COSH(b*(x-c))*SIN(b*(x-c)) - SINH(b*(x-c))*COS(b*(x-c)) else: Fa4 = 0
Loading functions for each applied moment evaluated at distance x = L from left end of beam:
Va = 0
Ma = 0
qa = -M/(E*I*b)*(C3*Ca4+C2*Ca1)/C11
Da = M/(2*E*I*b^2)*(2*C3*Ca1+C4*Ca4)/C11
Loading functions for each applied moment evaluated at distance = x from left end of beam:
Fvx = Va*F1 - Da*2*E*I*b^3*F2 - qa*2*E*I*b^2*F3 - Ma*b*F4 - M/(2*b)*Fa2
Fmx = Ma*F1 + Va/(2*b)*F2 - Da*2*E*I*b^2*F3 - qa*E*I*b*F4 - M*Fa1
Fqx = qa*F1 + Ma/(2*E*I*b)*F2 + Va/(2*E*I*b^2)*F3 - Da*b*F4 - M/(2*E*I*b)*Fa2
FDx = Da*F1 + qa/(2*b)*F2 + Ma/(2*E*I*b^2)*F3 + Va/(4*E*I*b^3)*F4 - M/(2*E*I*b^2)*Fa3
Summations of shear, moment, slope, and deflection at distance = x from left end of beam:
Shear: Vx = S(Fvx)
Moment: Mx = S(Fmx)
Slope: qx = S(Fqx)
Deflection: Dx = S(FDx)
Pressure: Qx = Dx*K
"BOEF.xls" Program
Version 1.6
BEAM ON ELASTIC FOUNDATION ANALYSIS
For Soil Supported Beam, Combined Footing, Slab Strip or Mat Strip
of Assumed Finite Length with Both Ends Free
Job Name: Subject: Caution: User should make sure to
Job Number: Originator: Checker:
Input Data:
Beam Data:
Length, L = 25.0000 ft.
Width, B = 4.0000 ft.
Thickness, T = 0.7500 ft.
Modulus, E = 3600 ksi
Subgrade, ks = 100 pci
Full Uniform:
w = 0.4500 kips/ft. Results:
Start End Beam Flexibility Criteria:
Distributed: b (ft.) wb (kips/ft.) e (ft.) we (kips/ft.) for b*L <= p/4 beam is rigid
#1: for p/4 < b*L < p beam is semi-rigid
#2: for b*L >= p beam is flexible
#3: for b*L >= 6 beam is semi-infinite long
#4:
#5: Inertia, I = 0.1406 ft.^4 I = B*T^3/12
#6: b = 0.221 b = ((ks*B)/(4*E*I))^(1/4)
b*L = 5.516 b*L = Flexibility Factor
Point Loads: a (ft.) P (kips)
#1: 5.0000 8.00
#2: 20.0000 12.00
#3: Max. Shears and Locations:
#4: +V(max) = 6.27 k @ x = 20.00 ft.
#5: -V(max) = -5.73 k @ x = 20.00 ft.
#6:
#7: Max. Moments and Locations:
#8: +M(max) = 13.00 ft-k @ x = 20.00 ft.
#9: -M(max) = -4.95 ft-k @ x = 12.75 ft.
#10:
#11: Max. Deflection and Location:
#12: D(max) = -0.03167 in. @ x = 20.25 ft.
Moments: c (ft.) M (ft-kips) Soil Pressures, Locations, and %Brg. Area:
#1: Q(max) = 0.456 ksf @ x = 20.25 ft.
#2: Q(min) = 0.202 ksf @ x = 11.75 ft.
#3: %Brg. Area = 100.00 %
#4:
Beam is flexible
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E, I L
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Nomenclature
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"BOEF.xls" Program
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5 of 7 10/26/2014 7:40 AM
"BOEF.xls" Program
Version 1.6
BEAM ON ELASTIC FOUNDATION ANALYSIS
For Soil Supported Beam, Combined Footing, Slab Strip or Mat Strip
of Assumed Finite Length with Both Ends Free
Job Name: Subject: Caution: User should make sure to
Job Number: Originator: Checker:
Input Data:
Beam Data:
Length, L = 7.6200 m
Width, B = 1.2192 m
Thickness, T = 0.2286 m
Modulus, E = 24870 MPa
Subgrade, ks = 27145 kN/m^3
Full Uniform:
w = 6.5673 kN/m Results:
Start End Beam Flexibility Criteria:
Distributed: b (m) wb (kN/m) e (m) we (kN/m) for b*L <= p/4 beam is rigid
#1: for p/4 < b*L < p beam is semi-rigid
#2: for b*L >= p beam is flexible
#3: for b*L >= 6 beam is semi-infinite long
#4:
#5: Inertia, I = 0.00121 m^4 I = B*T^3/12
#6: b = 0.724 b = ((ks*B)/(4*E*I))^(1/4)
b*L = 5.514 b*L = Flexibility Factor
Point Loads: a (m) P (kN)
#1: 1.5240 35.59
#2: 6.0960 53.38
#3: Max. Shears and Locations:
#4: +V(max) = 27.87 kN @ x = 6.10 m
#5: -V(max) = -25.51 kN @ x = 6.10 m
#6:
#7: Max. Moments and Locations:
#8: +M(max) = 17.63 kN-m @ x = 6.10 m
#9: -M(max) = -6.71 kN-m @ x = 3.89 m
#10:
#11: Max. Deflection and Location:
#12: D(max) = -0.804 mm @ x = 6.17 m
Moments: c (m) M (kN-m) Soil Pressures, Locations, and %Brg. Area:
#1: Q(max) = 21.825 kPa @ x = 6.17 m
#2: Q(min) = 9.664 kPa @ x = 3.51 m
#3: %Brg. Area = 100.00 %
#4:
Beam is flexible
c
e
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a
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+wb +we +M +w
T
E, I L
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Nomenclature
6 of 7 10/26/2014 7:40 AM
"BOEF.xls" Program
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Bearing Pressure Diagram
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