Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 4

Communicable diseases are diseases that you can "catch" from someone or

something else. Some people may use the words contagious or infectious when
talking about communicable diseases.
1. Influenza, commonly referred to as the flu, is an infectious disease caused
by RNAviruses of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses), that
affects birds and mammals.
SYMPTOMS
Chills
Fever
sore throat
muscle pains
severe headache
coughing
weakness/fatigue
general discomfort
CAUSE
pneumonia, which can be fatal, particularly for the young and the elderly
TREATMENT
When to seek help Most people with the flu recover within one to two weeks
without treatment. However, serious complications of the flu can occur. Call your
doctor or nurse immediately if:
You feel short of breath or have trouble breathing
You have pain or pressure in your chest or stomach
You have signs of being dehydrated, such as dizziness when standing or not
passing urine
You feel confused
You cannot stop vomiting or you cannot drink enough fluids
In children, you should seek help if the child has any of the above or if the child:
Has blue or purplish skin color
Is so irritable that he or she does not want to be held
Does not have tears when crying (in infants)
Has a fever with a rash
Does not wake up easily
2. Tuberculosis, also known as TB, is a disease caused by bacteria spread
through the AIR FROM ONE PERSON TO ANOTHER.
SYMPTOMS:
Nausea or vomiting
Jaundice yellowish skin or eyes, dark urine (orange/red urine is a normal side
effect and is not harmful)
Unexplained fever or tiredness
Tingling or numbness of hands or feet, or joint pains
Skin rash, itching skin or bruising
Visual changes or change in red-green colour vision.

CAUSES
bacteria that spread from person to person through microscopic droplets released
into the air. This can happen when someone with the untreated, active form of
tuberculosis coughs, speaks, sneezes, spits, laughs or sings.
TREATMENTS (drug types, a doctor may prescribe multiple medications, including)
isoniazid
ethambutol (Myambutol)
pyrazinamide
rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane)









3. Malaria is a preventable parasitic disease transmitted by mosquitoes.
Symptoms
Fever.
Chills.
Headache.
Sweats.
Fatigue.
Nausea and vomiting.
Dry (nonproductive)
cough.
Muscle and/or back
pain.
Enlarged spleen
CAUSES
The release of merozoites into the bloodstream
Anemia resulting from the destruction of the red blood cells
Large amounts of free hemoglobin being released into circulation after red blood cells break
open
TREATMENT
The combination of quinidine or quinine plus doxycycline, tetracycline, or clindamycin
Atovaquone plus proguanil (Malarone)
Mefloquine or artesunate
The combination of pyrimethamine and sulfadoxine (Fansidar)


4. Polio, short for Poliomyelitis, is an infectious disease caused by a virus that
invades the nervous system.
CAUSES
Direct person-to-person contact
Contact with infected mucus or phlegm from the nose or mouth
Contact with infected feces

SYMPTOMS
headache
sore, red throat
slight fever
vomiting
general discomfort
abnormal reflexes
problems swallowing and/or
breathing
back and neck pain and stiffness,
particularly neck stiffness with
forward flexion of the neck
arm and leg pain or stiffness
muscle tenderness and spasms

TREATMENTS
rest
painkillers to relieve headaches, muscle aches, and muscle spasms
antibiotics for urinary tract infections
portable ventilators to help with breathing
physical therapy and/or corrective braces to help with walking
heating pads or warm towels to ease muscle aches and spasms


5. HEPATITIS is swelling and inflammation of the liver.

SYMPTOMS
fatigue
flu-like symptoms
dark urine
pale-colored stool
abdominal pain
loss of appetite
unexplained weight loss
yellow skin and eyes (may be signs of jaundice)
CAUSE
liver damage from excessive alcohol consumption

TREATMENT
Most children receive the vaccination between ages 12 and 18 months.
Vaccination is also available for adults