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CIV3703 Transport Engineering

Module 10 Part 2

Managing Road Traffic
10.7 Traffic Control Signals
Basic Principle: Allocation of green time to
vehicle movements in proportion to volumes
entering.
Design (Australia): Austroads Traffic Signals
A Guide to the Design of Traffic Signal
Installations.

Signal
Source: http://www.miataturbo.net/insert-bs-here-4/random-pictures-thread-only-rule-post-here-more-entertain-me-
54469/page634/
Basic Design Process
Collection of preliminary data.
Determination of geometric requirements.
Computation of phasing schemes.
Selection of signal displays.
Selection of detection system and controller.
Selection of signal hardware.
Preparation of electrical designs, time settings and
operational features.
Major Components
Signal lanterns
Lantern supports
Power reticulation
Signal controller
Traffic detectors
10.7.1 Types of Traffic Signal Control
Terms:
Signal phase a state of the signals during
which one or more movements receive right
of way.

Signal cycle one complete sequence of
signal phases.

Intergreen period the time taken by a
combination of amber and all-red displays.
A typical phasing at an intersection
Cycle time

Types of Controllers
Fixed Time Controllers
No detectors
Fixed sequence
Relatively cheap but inflexible

Semi Traffic Actuated Controllers
Use detectors on minor approaches

Traffic Actuated Controllers
Detectors on all approaches
Responsive to changing conditions
10.7.2 SIDRA
Signalised Intersection Design and Research Aid

Computer software package originally developed
by ARRB Transport Research Ltd.
Aids in the design and evaluation of signalised
intersections, roundabouts and stop sign
controlled intersections.
Widely used in Australia and overseas.
10.7.3 Co-ordination of Traffic Signals
Urban areas traffic signals may be in close proximity.
Traffic operation enhanced if signal sets can be coordinated.
Simplest case single arterial road with cross intersection
at constant spacing.
Complex cases network of roads and streets
Co-ordination of Traffic Signals

Arterial road

Area

Freeway entry
Task: Coordination of Parameters
Cycle time: All signals within a particular area must
operate at one common cycle length.
Green split: Relative proportions of the cycle length
must be specified for each phase at each
intersection.
Offsets: Relative timing of signals on main roads
must be such that vehicles travelling along the road
do so with minimum stops and delay.
10.7.4 SCATS
Sydney Coordinated Adaptive Traffic System.

Developed by RTA (now RMS) in NSW (early 70s).
Now in 142 cities in 24 countries worldwide.

Real time traffic signal coordination, in which cycle
length, green split and offset calculation is based
upon measured traffic data.
Central monitoring System
The SCATS includes production of traffic
performance reports and event/incident reports.

The SCATS Default Configuration will be
programmed to the following settings:
Maximum number of workstation connections to the SCATS Central Manager = 50
Maximum number of workstation connections to each SCATS Region = 20;
Maximum number of ITS Ports = 15


System hierarchy
Australia
STREAMS (Synergised Transport Resources
Ensuring an Advance Management System) -
Queensland - 17 locations

SCATS (Sydney Coordinated Adaptive Traffic
System)

Computer softwares
HCM&TRANSYT-7F, SYNCHRO, PASSER, SOAP,
NETSIM
The magic roundabout, Swindon, England
10.8 Aim of Traffic Management
Definition:
The application of a defined traffic control policy to an
area or an extended length of road, with the aim of
achieving a specified set of community objectives.


(Traffic management distinguishable from a traffic
control action which applies to a particular
intersection or trouble spot).
Types of Traffic Management Objectives
Improvement of physical conditions, e.g. reduction
of congestion
Improvement of physical environment, e.g.
reduction in noise pollution
Improvement of access, e.g. to commercial areas
Improvement of safety, e.g. slowing of vehicles to
improve child safety
Reduction of parking problems
Implementation
Usually involves alteration of traffic flow
pattern.
Some roads will have lower volumes, some
will have higher volumes.
Trade-off situation.
Community involvement
Trials
Traffic Calming
A particular thrust of traffic management.

Objectives usually include:
Reduction of vehicle speeds.
Encouragement of calm driving.
Removal of unnecessary traffic.
Enhancement of the environment.
Improvement of road safety.
Levels of Traffic Calming
Level I
Local level restrain traffic speeds & lessen impacts
Levels of service and capacity not an issue
(Example: local area traffic management)
Level II
Corridor level restrain speeds and lessen impacts
Levels of service and capacity important
(e.g., calming of an arterial road section)
Level III
Area level lessen volumes and impacts area wide
(e.g, reducing travel, reducing speed in particular
at critical locations)
10.9 Traffic Management Principles
Basic design principle:
decide where the traffic is to go,
and where it is not to go,
and apply measures to achieve the desired distribution
and flow characteristics.

Defined road hierarchy needed to implement
traffic management.
Each road:
Balance of traffic function and access function.
Access Vs. Mobility
10.10 Functional Classification of Roads and Streets
Typical system in
Brisbane:
Type A - Access roads (cul-de-
sac, minor roads)
Type B - Collector roads
Type C - Distributor roads
Type D - Sub-arterial roads
Type E - Arterial roads
Type F - Industrial roads
Typical road design criteria for residential areas
10.11 Traffic Management Strategies
a) Define the area of the network for which a traffic management strategy is to be
developed.
b) Conduct a survey of the study area, including traffic volumes, travel times, traffic
problem locations, identification of different interest groups, views of interest
groups, etc.
c) Identify the desired objectives of the traffic management scheme, together with
measures of their achievement.
d) Develop alternative proposals to achieve the desired objectives.
e) Carry out initial assessment of the various proposals, including prediction of
changed traffic flows, impacts on all relevant groups, and general performance of
each scheme relative to the stated objectives.
f) Select the preferred scheme and undertake more detailed design and analysis.
g) Implement the scheme on a trial basis, monitoring feedback and modifying the
scheme as appropriate.
10.12 Major Urban Road Networks
Aim:
seek to make travel on major road system as attractive as
possible so as to encourage their use.
Various measures to achieve this.
Measures to Encourage Travel on Major Roads
Parking bans
Prohibition on parking
Introduction of clearways
Provide additional traffic
lanes without construction
work (remarking?)
Disbenefit to adjacent
landholders
Require appropriate level of
enforcement

Measures to Encourage Travel on Major Roads
Access control and reduction
Major road traffic has absolute priority
Eg., Stop or Give-Way signs can be used
Limiting number of intersections at which access to the major road is
possible
Measures to Encourage Travel on Major Roads
Intersection improvements
flaring of approaches
provision of separate
turning lanes
channelisation
turn restrictions
traffic signal installation
Measures to Encourage Travel on Major Roads
Coordination of traffic signals
Measures to Encourage Travel on Major Roads

Designation of
heavy vehicle
routes
Measures to Encourage Travel on Major Roads
When the major roads are considered
as people movers than vehicle
movers, then

Encouraging public transport
operation
Exclusive right-of-way
Bus priority lanes
Traffic signal priority
Movement ban exemptions
Preferential access to freeways
10.13 Traffic Management for Residential Areas
Preparation of scheme must be done considering
big picture.
Local traffic area usually bounded by arterial roads.
Areas generally of residential nature, but may not
be exclusively residential.
Treatments for Local Areas
Reduction of intersection conflicts by the use of Stop
or Give Way signs.
Treatments for Local Areas
Reduction of statutory
speeds.
Treatments for Local Areas
Reduction of street
connectivity by full or
partial intersection
closure.
Treatments for Local Areas

Reduction of local street connectivity by partial
prevention of access from major roads.
Treatments for Local Areas

Discouragement of through traffic by reducing
the width of intersection openings from
major roads.
Treatments for Local Areas
Reduction of speeds by changes of road format.
Treatments for Local Areas
Discouragement of through
traffic by change of the
nature of street
entrance.
Treatments for Local Areas
Reduction of intersection
speeds by the use of
roundabouts.
Treatments for Local Areas

Reduction of speeds by physical speed control devices,
e.g. humps, rumble strips, etc.
Treatments for Local Areas
Prohibition of large vehicles.
10.14 Traffic Management for Rural Roads
Objectives:
Capacity (if capacity is a problem then add auxiliary lanes)
Safety consistent level of safety along the road is
important (drivers perception of relative safety)
Quality of service - linked to safety

End Module 10