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CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................................1
2. SYSTEM CHARACTERISTIC...........................................................................................................1
3. DATA ACQUISITION..........................................................................................................................2
4. HAZEN WILLIAM C VALUE AND PUMP DUTY POINT..........................................................4
5. CONCLUSION......................................................................................................................................6
List of Graphs
Graph 1: Flows against Time Plot........................................................................................3
Graph 2: - Pressure VS Flow
1.85
...........................................................................................4
Graph 3: - Sstem !hara"teristi" !ur#e..............................................................................5

Appendix A: - Pressures and Flow Recordins
Appendix !: - Pipe Pro"le #$ Site Sur%e$
1. Introduction
$ew pumps are propose% to &e installe% to in"rease the 'lows 'rom (elutong reser#oir to
)i"om reser#oir. !urrentl* the 'low to (elutong reser#oir to )i"om reser#oir is &
gra#it. To ensure that the re+uire% %esign 'lows "an &e a"hie#e% with the new pumps* the
e,isting sstems "hara"teristi" nee% to &e esta&lishe%. The parameters re+uire% to "on'irm
sstem "hara"teristi" are the pipeline parameters* pump "hara"teristi" "ur#es an% stati"
li'ts. There'ore* this report shall in#estigate the a#aila&ilit o' e,isting %ata an% "arr out
ne"essar tests* i' ne"essar* to "olle"t the missing %ata to esta&lish the sstem
"hara"teristi" "ur#e to "on'irm the a"hie#a&le %ut 'lows 'rom the propose% new pumps.
2. System Characteristic
For a gra#it sstem* the 'low rate is the 'low that is pushe% through the "on#eing pipes
'rom start en% to %eli#er en%* against the total hea%* whi"h is the 'ri"tion loss in the
"on#eing pipes. There'ore* the sstem "hara"teristi" parameters are re+uire% to
%etermine the 'low through the sstem. The sstem "hara"teristi" is a 'un"tion o' #arious
parameters as %es"ri&e% &elow:
a- Pipe si.e / the si.e o' pipe or pipes i' there are man %i''erent si.es in#ol#e%
&- Pipe length / the length o' the pipeline 'rom pump en% to re"ei#ing reser#oirs.
"- Pipe 'ri"tion 'a"tor / using )a.en 0illiam 'ormula* this 'a"tor is terme% as 1!2.
%- Stati" hea% / the %i''erent in water le#els &etween su"tion an% %eli#er.
The pipe 'ri"tional hea% loss is gi#en & )a.en 0illiam 'ormula as:
83 . 4 85 . 1
85 . 1
4
4 4 53 . 16
d C
Q L
H
l
= -----------------------------71-
0here*
8 / length o' pipe in m
9 / Flow rate in m
3
:se"
% / Pipe %iameter in m
1
! / )a.en 0illiam 'ri"tion 'a"tor
8et
83 . 4 85 . 1
4
4 53 . 16
d C
L
K =
85 . 1
4Q K H
t
= ---------------------------------73-
0hi"h is in the 'orm o' ; m, < " = where " is .ero 76-
There'ore* the plot o' Ht against Q
1.85
will &e a straight line* where the -inter"ept will &e
the origin* an% with gra%ient >. The )a.en 0illiam ! "an &e "al"ulate% as shown &elow.
85 . 1
83 . 4
4
4 53 . 16
d K
L
C = -------------------------------------74-
)en"e* the #al#e o' ! will %epen% on 8 / length o' pipe an% % / %iameter o' the pipe. ?'
the pumping main ha#e mi, o' pipe si.es in parallel an%:or series* the a"tual ! #al#e o'
ea"h pipe "annot &e %etermine%. @ut the %ut point still "an &e %etermine% &ase on
sstem "hara"teristi" e+uation 73-* with > as the "om&ine% pipe "hara"teristi"* pro#i%e%
the 'iel% measurements are a""urate.
3. Data Acquisition
?n Se"tion 2 a&o#e* to o&tain the ! #al#e* the 'low against the pressure rea%ings at the
pipes are re+uire% 7at least 3 point to "on'irm the set is straight line-. Aata "olle"tion
worB shall &e "arrie% out & installing the "orrespon%ing measuring e+uipments at the
'ollowing lo"ation:
a- Ceser#oir 8e#el at (elutong Ceser#oir
&- Pipe ?n#ert 8e#el 1 at (elutong Dut'low meter 7Point 1-
"- @ellmouth 8e#el at )?!DE Ceser#oir inlet 7Point 2-
%- Pressure at (elutong Ceser#oir outlet 7Point ?-
e- Pressure at )?!DE Ceser#oir inlet 7Point 2-
'- Flowrate at (elutong Ceser#oir Flowmeter 7Point 1-
The %ata "olle"tion inter#al shall &e "arrie% out in a""or%an"e to the ta&le summar
&elow:
2
In!" P#$#%&"&$' D#"# C())&*"+(n
M&",(-
.$&/!&n*0
Ceser#oir 8e#el F (elutong
Ceser#oir
)%rostati" 8e#el
Eonitoring Gnit
H#er 15 minutes
73 %as-
Pipe ?n#ert 8e#el 1 F (elutong
Dut'low meter 7Point 1-
!olle"t Aata 'rom
Sur#eor
Dn"e
@ellmouth 8e#el F )?!DE
Ceser#oir inlet 7Point 2-
!olle"t Aata 'rom
Sur#eor
Dn"e
Pressure F (elutong Ceser#oir
outlet 7Point ?-
Pressure
Sensor:Trans%u"er
H#er 15 minutes
73 %as-
Pressure F )?!DE Ceser#oir
inlet 7Point 2-
Pressure
Sensor:Trans%u"er
H#er 15 minutes
73 %as-
Flowrate F (elutong Ceser#oir
Flowmeter 7Point 1-
!lamp-on Gltrasoni"
Flowmeter
H#er 15 minutes
73 %as-
The 'lows an% pressures rea%ings against time %ata "olle"te% are shown in Ippen%i, I.
The re%u"e% le#els at (elutong reser#oir an% )i"om reser#oir are 5J.56m an% 54.88m
respe"ti#el. I total o' J6 hours o' rea%ing 'rom 5:66 pm on J
th
o' D"to&er till J:36 am on
13
th
o' D"to&er were re"or%e%. The plot o' 'low rates against time is shown in Graph 1*
whi"h shows that the 'low rate is re%u"ing a'ter 53 hours an% re"o#ere% a'ter 53 hours.
1$#, 12 .)(3' #4#+n'" T+%& P)("
I "he"B on the water le#el
insi%e (elutong reser#oir an%
also the pressure at point 1*
ha#e "on'irme% that the
reser#oir is empt &etween
these times. The 'low in the
pipe ma not 'low 'ull when the
reser#oir is emptie%= there'ore*
%ata &etween 53 hours to 53
hours are omitte% in this stu%.

3
4. Hazen Wiiam !C" #aue and $ump Duty $oint
Is-&uilt %rawings on the pipelines are not a#aila&le* an% a sur#e was "arrie% out to
esta&lish the pipe pro'ile o' the pipe line. I total o' 26 points along the pipeline route
were sur#ee% to o&tain the groun% le#els with un%er groun% pipe %ete"tion e+uipment to
%etermine the %epth o' the pipeline. The lo"ations o' the points sur#ee% together with the
pipe pro'ile plot are shown in Ippen%i, @.
@ase% on the 'low an% pressures rea%ings re"or%e% at (elutong reser#oir an% )i"om
reser#oir the hea% loss 7)- &etween the rea%ing points is "al"ulate% as the sum o' the
%i''erent in pressures rea%ing an% the %i''erent in ele#ations. The analsis o' the 'low-
pressure rea%ings an% the graph o' pressure against 'low
1.85
are plotte% in Graph 2.
1$#, 22 5 P$&''!$& VS .)(3
1.65

4
The point "lusters in Graph 2 shows a general tren% o' a straight line to war%s the origin
with &est 'it gra%ient o' 4.55. There'ore* &ase% on the gra%ient o' 4.55* pipe %iameter o'
1.5m an% total pipe length o' 13826m* the "al"ulate% ! 'or this pipeline is J6.35. The
re"or%e% 'low %ata ha#e shown that the 'low rates are "onstantl "hanging* %ue to the
"hange o' water le#el insi%e the (elutong reser#oir. The water le#el insi%e the (elutong
reser#oir is "hanging is &e"ause o' "onstant +uantit o' water 'lowing in:out o' the
reser#oir with respe"t with time. In% pro&a&l %ue to long pipeline= the "ompressi&ilit
o' water an% elasti"it pipe that "ause the 'low in the pipe are not the same at %i''erent
se"tion o' the pipe at an one time* although the "ontinuit o' 'low is maintaine%. This
has a''e"te% the points "lusters to iel% a weaB the "orrelation 'a"tor 7C
2
- o' 6.213J.
@ase% on the "ompute% ! #alue o' J1* the sstem "ur#es are plotte% on the pump "ur#es
as shown in Graph 2* to %etermine the pumps %ut points
1$#, 32 5 S0'"&% C,#$#*"&$+'"+* C!$7&
The minimum %ut 'low rate is 24J1 l:s 7;215 ml%- when 'our 72- pumps are running
when the water le#el at (elutong reser#oir is at @08 o' 56.51m. The 'low will in"rease%
5
to 2332 l:s 7;235 ml%-* i' the water le#el at (elutong reser#oir is at T08 o' 5J.21m.
)en"e* the sele"te% pumps are a&le to %eli#er the target 'low.
%. Concusion
?%eall* all the %ata 'or estimation o' pump %ut 'lows shoul% &e a#aila&le 'rom re"or%
%rawings or in#entor %ata&ase. @ut almost non are a#aila&le* an% these %ata are o&taine%
& means o' estimation. There'ore* the a""ura" o' the "ompute% %ut points "oul% &e
"ompromise%. )owe#er* &ase% on the "ompute% 1!K #alue o' J1* the pumps are a&le to
%eli#er the re+uire% 'low o' 215 ml% un%er the worst s"enario.
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