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University of Medicine and Health Sciences

1. Abreaction- the expression and
consequent release of a previously
repressed emotion, achieved through
reliving the experience that caused it
(typically through hypnosis or
2. Abstract- existing in thought or as an
idea but not having a physical or
concrete existence
3. Abulia- an absence of willpower or an
inability to act decisively, as a symptom
of mental illness.
4. Acrephobia- extreme or irrational fear of
5. Acting out- a (usually irritating) impulsive
and uncontrollable outburst by a
problem child or a neurotic adult
6. Adiadochokinesia- Adiadochokinesia is
a dyskinesia consisting of inability to
perform the rapid alternating
movements of diadochokinesia. Called
also adiadochocinesia,
adiadochokinesis, and adiadokokinesia.
Diadochokinesia or diadochokinesis is
the ability to make antagonistic
movements in quick succession,
alternately bringing a limb into opposite
positions, as of flexion and extension or
of pronation and supination
7. Affect- have an effect on; make a
difference to.
8. Aggression- hostile or violent behavior
or attitudes toward another; readiness to
attack or confront.
9. Agitation- a state of anxiety or nervous
10. Agnosia- inability to interpret sensations
and hence to recognize things, typically
as a result of brain damage.
11. Agoraphobia- extreme or irrational fear
of crowded spaces or enclosed public
12. Agraphia- a loss of the ability to write or
to express thoughts in writing because
of a brain lesion
13. Akinesia- loss or impairment of the
power of voluntary movement.
14. Alexia- the inability to see words or to
read, caused by a defect of the brain.
15. Alexithymia- personality construct
characterized by the sub-clinical inability
to identify and describe emotions in the
16. Alogia- or poverty of speech, is a
general lack of additional, unprompted
content seen in normal speech
17. Ambivalence- the state of having mixed
feelings or contradictory ideas about
something or someone.
18. Amnesia- a partial or total loss of
19. Anaclitic- relating to or characterized by
a strong emotional dependence on
another or others.
20. Analgesia- the inability to feel pain.
21. Androgyny- showing characteristics of
both sexes
22. Anergia- abnormal lack of energy.
23. Anhedonia- inability to feel pleasure.
24. Anorexia- a lack or loss of appetite for
food (as a medical condition).
25. Anosognosia- viewed as a deficit of self-
awareness, a condition in which a
person who suffers certain disability
seems unaware of the existence of his
or her disability
26. Antrograde amnesia- loss of memory for
events immediately following a trauma;
sometimes in effect for events during
and for a long time following the trauma
27. Anxiety- a feeling of worry, nervousness,
or unease, typically about an imminent
event or something with an uncertain
28. Apathy- lack of interest, enthusiasm, or
29. Aphasia- loss of ability to understand or
express speech, caused by brain
30. Aphonia- loss of ability to speak through
disease of or damage to the larynx or
31. Apperception- the mental process by
which a person makes sense of an idea
by assimilating it to the body of ideas he
or she already possesses.
32. Appropriate affect- Expressing a full
range of normal emotion which makes
sense in the current situation.
Example: She cried at her mothers funeral, but
something must be wrong with her brother,
because he was laughing the entire time.
33. Apraxia- inability to execute learned
purposeful movements, despite having
the desire and the physical capacity
34. Astereognosis- is the inability to identify
an object by active touch of the hands
without other sensory input.
35. Ataxia- the loss of full control of bodily
36. Attention- notice taken of someone or
something; the regarding of someone or
something as interesting or important.
37. Auditory hallucination- illusory auditory
perception of strange nonverbal sounds
38. Aura- A brief perceptual disturbance,
such as a strange light or unpleasant
smell. Can be beneficial, as they can
give people advance warning before the
onset of a migraine or seizure.
Example: A woman sees flashing colored lights
to her left for a few minutes before the onset of a
severe epileptic seizure.
39. Autistic thinking- Logical structures
supporting a totally private view of
reality. The patient exists in a universe
whose facts, circumstances, and logic
are markedly original and grossly
Example: The patient religiously avoids stepping
on cracks in the pavement when walking outside,
because he is convinced the car accident he
witnessed two years ago was caused by this.
40. Bereavement- diagnosed when the
focus of clinical attention is a reaction to
the death or loss of a loved one. As part
of their reaction to the loss, some
grieving individuals present with
symptoms characteristic of aMajor
Depressive Episode (e.g., feelings of
sadness and associated symptoms such
as insomnia, poor appetite, and weight

41. Blackout- Amnesia for events which
occurred while one was drunk
42. Blocking- A sudden inability to finish a
thought, or to recall what the thought
was. Often indicates the presence of a
mental illness such as schizophrenia.
43. Blunted affect- A striking poverty of
emotional response from an individual.
Example: A man tells a dramatic tale of his
combat experiences, expressing little emotion
even though some of his listeners are crying.
44. Bradykinesia- Marked slowing of
movement; a key symptom of
Parkinsons disease.
45. Bruxism- the involuntary or habitual
grinding of the teeth, typically during
46. Catalepsy- a medical condition
characterized by a trance or seizure with
a loss of sensation and consciousness
accompanied by rigidity of the body.
47. Cataplexy- a medical condition in which
strong emotion or laughter causes a
person to suffer sudden physical
collapse though remaining conscious.
48. Catatonic excitement- Purposeless
motor activity and agitation.
Example: The patient runs aimlessly through the
lunchroom due to an episode of catatonic
excitement, knocking over objects without
apparent regard, and ignoring all outside
attempts to stop or redirect her.
49. Cereaflexibitas- rigidity of the body in
which the patient maintains whatever
position he is placed in, the limbs having
a heavy waxy malleability.
50. Circumstantiality- a disturbed pattern of
speech or writing characterized by delay
in getting to the point because of the
interpolation of unnecessary details and
irrelevant parenthetical remarks.
51. Clang association- Psychic associations
resulting from sounds, often observed in
the manic phase of manic-depressive
52. Claustrophobia- irrational fear of being
shut in, of closed places.
53. Clouding of consciousness- a lowered
level of consciousness marked by loss
of perception or comprehension of the
environment, with loss of ability to
respond properly to external stimuli.
54. Cognition- that operation of the mind
process by which we become aware of
objects of thought and perception,
including all aspects of perceiving,
thinking, and remembering.cognitive
55. Coma- Coma, from the Greek word
"koma," meaning deep sleep, is a state
of extreme unresponsiveness, in which
an individual exhibits no voluntary
movement or behavior. Furthermore, in
a deep coma, even painful stimuli
(actions which, when performed on a
healthy individual, result in reactions)
are unable to affect any response, and
normal reflexes may be lost.
56. Compulsion- an overwhelming urge to
perform an irrational act or ritual
57. Concrete thinking- Thinking
characterized by a predominance of
actual objects and events and the
absence of concepts and
58. Confabulation- unconscious filling in of
gaps in memory by telling imaginary
59. Confusion- disturbed orientation in
regard to time, place, or person,
sometimes accompanied by disordered
60. Consciousness- subjective awareness
of the aspects of cognitive processing
and the content of the mind.
61. Constricted affect- the external
expression of emotion attached to ideas
or mental representations of objects.
62. Conversion phenomena- causes
patients to suffer from neurological
symptoms, such
as numbness, blindness,paralysis,
or fits without a definable organic cause.
It is thought that symptoms arise in
response to stressful situations affecting
a patient's mental health. Conversion
disorder is considered a psychiatric
disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical
Manual of Mental Disorders fifth edition

Formerly known as "hysteria",
63. Coprolalia- Involuntarily making
obscene or inappropriate utterances and
remarks. It has been described as parrot
like or repetitious in nature and it can be
traced back to childhood. Some signs of
a child that may develop this issue are
tics, grunting/groaning noises and
shouting as well as compulsive
movements of the arms. It can be, but is
not always, a characteristic of Tourette
syndrome. It can also (upon rare
occasion) be a sign of schizophrenia.
64. Coprophagia- consumption of feces
65. Decompensation- in psychiatry, failure
of defense mechanisms resulting in
progressive personality disintegration.
66. Dj vu- literally "already seen", is
thephenomenon of having the strong
sensation that an event or experience
currently being experienced has been
experienced in the past, whether it has
actually happened or not.
67. Delirium- acute confusional state, is a
syndrome that presents as severe
confusion and disorientation, developing
with relatively rapid onset and
fluctuating in intensity
68. Delirium tremens- Delirium tremens is a
severe form of alcohol withdrawal that
involves sudden and severe mental or
nervous system changes.
69. Delusion- an abnormal mental state
characterized by the occurrence of
psychotic delusions 2: a false belief
regarding the self or persons or objects
outside the self that persists despite the
facts and occurs in some psychotic
70. Dementia- a usually progressive
condition (as Alzheimer's disease)
marked by the development of multiple
cognitive deficits (as memory
impairment, aphasia, and inability to
plan and initiate complex behavior)
71. Denial- a psychological defense
mechanism in which confrontation with a
personal problem or with reality is
avoided by denying the existence of the
problem or reality
72. Depersonalization- the act or process of
causing or the state resulting from loss
of the sense of personal
identity; especially : a
psychopathological syndrome
characterized by loss of identity and
feelings of unreality or strangeness
about one's own behavior
73. Derailment- a thought
disorder characterized
by discourse consisting of a sequence
of unrelated or only remotely
related ideas. The frame of reference
often changes from one sentence to the

In a mild manifestation, this thought disorder is
characterized by slippage of ideas further and
further from the point of a discussion
74. Dereism- thinking directed away from
reality and not following ordinary rules of
75. Disinhibition- to cause the loss or
reduction of an inhibition
76. Disorientation- a usually transient state
of confusion especially as to time, place,
or identity often as a result of disease or
77. Displacement- the redirection of an
emotion or impulse from its original
object (as an idea or person) to
something that is more
acceptable b: SUBLIMATION 2 c: the
substitution of another form of behavior
for what is usual or expected especially
when the usual response is nonadaptive
78. Dissociation- the separation of whole
segments of the personality (as in
multiple personality disorder) or of
discrete mental processes (as in the
schizophrenias) from the mainstream of
consciousness or of behavior with loss
of integrated awareness and
autonomous functioning of the
separated segments or parts
79. Dysarthria- difficulty in articulating words
due to disease of the central nervous
80. Dyscalculia- impairment of mathematical
ability due to an organic condition of the
81. Dyslexia- a variable often familial
learning disability involving difficulties in
acquiring and processing language that
is typically manifested by a lack of
proficiency in reading, spelling, and
82. Dyspareunia- difficult or painful sexual
83. Dysphagia- difficulty in swallowing
84. Dysphasia- loss of or deficiency in the
power to use or understand language as
a result of injury to or disease of the
85. Encopresis- involuntary passage of
86. Enuresis- an involuntary discharge of
urine : incontinence of urine
87. Erotomania- excessive sexual
desire 2: a psychological disorder
marked by the delusional belief that one
is the object of another person's love or
sexual desire
88. Euphoria- a feeling of well-being or
89. Euthymia- normal non-depressed,
reasonably positive mood
90. Disphoria- a feeling of emotional and
mental discomfort as a symptom
of discontentment, restlessness,
dissatisfaction, malaise, depression, anx
iety or indifference.
91. Dysprosody- refers to a disorder in
which one or more of the prosodic
functions are either compromised or
eliminated completely.

Prosody refers to the variations in melody,
intonation, pauses, stresses, intensity, vocal
quality and accents of speech
92. Distonia- (Dystoria?)
neurologicalmovement disorder, in
which sustained muscle contractions
cause twisting and repetitive
movements or abnormal postures
93. Echolalia- automaticrepetition of
vocalizations made by another person
94. Ego-syntonic- psychological term
referring to behaviors, values, feelings
that are in harmony with or acceptable
to the needs and goals of the ego, or
consistent with one's ideal self-image.
95. Egocentric- Holding the view that the
ego is the center, object, and norm of all
96. Eidetic image- identified in psychological
literature as a vision, as a source for
new thought and feeling, as a material
picture in the mind which can be
scanned by the person as he would
scan a real current event in his
environment, and as a potent, highly
significant stimulus which arises from
within the mind and throws it into a
series of self-revealing imagery effects
97. Emotional insight-
98. Emotionallabilitya condition of excessive
emotional reactions and frequent mood
99. Extroversion- direction of one's
energies and attention outward from the
100. Folie deux- A condition in which
symptoms of a mental disorder occur
simultaneously in two individuals who
share a close relationship or association.
101. Formal thought disorder- refers to
disorganized thinking as evidenced by
disorganized speech
102. Formication- term for a sensation that
exactly resembles that of
smallinsects crawling on (or under) the
103. Flight of ideas- nearly continuous flow
of rapid speech that jumps from topic to
topic, usually based on discernible
associations, distractions, or plays on
words, but sometimes disorganized and
104. Fugue- pathological state of altered
consciousness in which an individual
may act and wander around as though
conscious but their behavior is not
directed by their complete normal
personality and is not remembered after
the fugue ends.
105. Galactorrhea- spontaneous flow
of milk from the breast, unassociated
with childbirth or nursing.
106. Glossolalia- speaking in tongues is
the fluid vocalizing (or less commonly
the writing) of speech-like syllables that
lack any readily comprehended meaning,
in some cases as part of religious
107. Grandiosity- An exaggerated belief or
claim of ones importance or identity,
manifest by delusions of wealth, power,
or fame
108. Grief- normal emotional response to an
external and consciously recognized
109. Gustatory hallucination-
Etymology: L, gustare, to
taste, alucinari, wandering mind
a false taste sensation of either food or
beverage on the mucous membrane lining the
empty mouth.
110. Gynecomastia- is the benign
enlargement of breast tissue in males
111. Hallucination- a sense perception (sight,
touch, sound, smell, or taste) that has
no basis in external stimulation
112. Hypersomnia- excessive sleeping or
113. Hypnagogic- the experience of the
transitional state from wakefulness to
sleep: the hypnagogic state of
114. Hypnopompic- state of
consciousnessleading out of sleep
115. Hypomania- mood state characterized
by persistent and pervasive elevated
(euphoric) or irritable mood, as well as
thoughts and behaviors that are
consistent with such a mood state
116. Idea of reference- Delusions
where one interprets innocuous events
as highly personally significant. Strongly
held ideas of reference can indicate a
sign of mental illness (schizophrenia, for
Example: A woman rarely leaves her house,
because she experiences all conversation or
laughter she hears as directed at herself.
117. Impaired judgment- unable to make
good decisions. It can be a sign or
symptom of a serious medical
condition such as Alzheimer's disease.
People who have Alzheimer's tend to
make decisions that may seem silly,
irresponsible, or inappropriate to others.
118. Inappropriate affect- An
emotional expression disharmonious in
quality or intensity with the person,
event, or idea that provoked it.
Example: A woman smiles sweetly and appears
unperturbed as she describes how she was
abducted and raped.
119. Insight- the patient's awareness and
understanding of their attitudes, feelings,
behavior, and disturbing symptoms; self-
understanding as to the motives and
reasons behind one's own actions or
those of another's.
120. Intelligence- the potential ability to
acquire, retain, and apply experience,
understanding, knowledge, reasoning,
and judgment in coping with new
experiences and in solving problems.
121. Introspection- contemplation or
observation of one's own thoughts and
feelings; self-analysis.introspective
122. Introversion- a personality
trait characterized by a focus on one's
own inner world rather than the outside
world and a tendency to be reserved
and to avoid social situations.
123. Jamais vu- the sensation of being a
stranger when with a person one knows
or when in a familiar place. The
phenomenon occurs occasionally in
healthy people but more frequently in
those who have temporal lobe epilepsy
124. Judgement- the ability to recognize the
relationships of ideas and to form
correct conclusions from those data as
well as from those acquired from
125. La belle indifference- an inappropriately
complacent attitude towards their
condition and physical symptoms, seen
in patients withconversion disorder.
126. Labile affect- characterized by rapid
changes in emotion unrelated to
external events or stimuli. Rapid shifts in
outward emotional expressions; often
associated with organic brain
syndromes such as intoxication
127. Logorrhea- pressured speech;
excessive and rapid speech, seen in
certain mental disorders. Excessive use
of words.
128. Loosening of associations- a disorder
of thinking in which associations of
ideas become so shortened, fragmented,
and disturbed as to lack logical
129. Malingering- act of intentionally
feigning or exaggerating physical or
psychological symptoms for personal
130. Mania- abnormally elated mental state,
typically characterized by feelings of
euphoria, lack of inhibitions, racing
thoughts, diminished need for sleep,
talkativeness, risk taking, and irritability.
In extreme cases, mania can
induce hallucinations and
other psychotic symptoms.
131. Memory- The mental faculty of
retaining and recalling past experience
based on the mental processes of
learning, retention, recall, and
132. Microcephaly- abnormal smallness of
the head.
133. Mood- the emotional state or state of
mind of an individual.
134. Mood-congruent hallucination-
hallucination in which the content is
mood appropriate.
135. Motor aphasia- Broca's or nonfluent
aphasia; that in which the ability to
speak and write is impaired, due to a
lesion in the insula and surrounding
136. Mydriasis- Prolonged abnormal dilation
of the pupil of the eye induced by a drug
or caused by disease.
137. Narcissism- dominant interest in one's
self; the state in which the ego is
invested in oneself rather than in
another person; self-love.narcissistic
138. Negative signs- the symbol (-) used to
indicate a negative quantity or a
subtraction; minus sign
139. Neologism- The invention of new words
regarded as a symptom of
certain psychotic disorders, such as
140. Nihilism- the belief that existence is not
real and that there can be no objective
basis of truth, a form of extreme
skepticism. total rejection of established
attitudes, practices, and institutions.
141. Obsession- Compulsive preoccupation
with a fixed idea or an unwanted feeling
or emotion, often accompanied by
symptoms of anxiety.
142. Orientation- the knowledge of one's
own temporal, social, and practical
circumstances in life
143. Paresis- Slight or partial paralysis.
144. Paresthesia- A skin sensation, such as
burning, prickling, itching, or tingling,
with no apparent physical cause.
145. Perception- becoming aware of
something via the senses
146. Perseveration- Uncontrollable
repetition of a particular response, such
as a word, phrase, or gesture, despite
the absence or cessation of a stimulus.
147. Phobia- A persistent, abnormal, and
irrational fear of a specific thing or
situation that compels one to avoid it,
despite the awareness and reassurance
that it is not dangerous.
148. Positive signs- the sign [+]
denoting plus, or more, or addition.
149. Poverty of speech- an inability to speak,
especially as the result of a brain lesion.
150. Pressured speech- rapid, virtually
nonstop, often loud and emphatic,
seemingly driven, and usually hard to
interrupt. allmark symptom of mania or
hypomania in bipolar disorder.
151. Projection- the attribution of one's own
attitudes, feelings, or desires to
someone or something as a naive or
unconscious defense against anxiety or
152. Prosopagnosia- an inability to
recognize the faces of familiar people,
typically as a result of damage to the
153. Pseudodementia- state of general
apathy resembling dementia, but due to
a psychiatric disorder rather than
organic brain disease and potentially
154. Psychosis- A severe mental disorder,
with or without organic damage,
characterized by derangement of
personality and loss of contact with
reality and causing deterioration of
normal social functioning.
155. Rationalization- Any action that
increases the effectiveness of allied
forces through more efficient or effective
use of defense resources committed to
the alliance.
156. Reaction formation- A psychological
defense mechanism by which an
objectionable impulse is expressed in an
opposite or contrasting behavior.
157. Reality testing- psychotherapeutic
function by which the objective or real
world and one's relationship to it are
reflected on and evaluated by the
158. Regression- Relapse to a less perfect
or developed state.
159. Repression- the suppression from
consciousness of distressing or
disagreeable ideas, memories, feelings,
or impulses.
160. Restricted affect- Having a far
narrower range of emotional expression
than would be expected; muted
emotional reactivity.
Example: A woman describes a severely painful
experience, but conveys only minor grief rather
than anguish or outrage.
161. Retrograde amnesia- The interesting
thing about this form of amnesia is that
new information is still able to go
through the storage, recollection etc
process while the older memories
before the trauma cannot be recalled.
162. Sensorium- The part of the brain that
receives and coordinates all the stimuli
conveyed to various sensory centers.
163. Somatopagnosia- inability to localize
and orient different parts of the body.
164. Stereotypy- Excessive repetition or lack
of variation in movements, ideas, or
patterns of speech, especially when
viewed as a symptom of certain
developmental or psychiatric disorders.
165. Sublimation- modifying the natural
expression of an impulse or instinct
(especially a sexual one) to one that is
socially acceptable
166. Suppression- Conscious exclusion of
unacceptable desires, thoughts, or
memories from the mind.
167. Synesthesia- the production of a sense
impression relating to one sense or part
of the body by stimulation of another
sense or part of the body.
168. Tangentiality- a pattern of speech
characterized by oblique, digressive, or
irrelevant replies to questions; the
responses never approach the point of
the questions.
169. Terminal insomnia- a chronic sleep
disturbance occurring at the end of a
sleep period. It may be indicative of an
underlying depressive disorder and
treated with an antidepressant.
170. Thought broadcasting- the feeling that
one's thoughts are being broadcast to
the environment.
171. Thought disorder- a disturbance in the
thought process that is most narrowly
defined as disorganized thinking with
altered associations, as is characteristic
of schizophrenia. The term is often used
much more broadly to include any
disturbance of thought, such as
confusion, hallucinations, or delusions,
which affects possession, quantity, or
content of thought.
172. Thought insertion- the delusion that
thoughts that are not one's own are
being inserted into one's mind.
173. Thought withdrawal- the delusion that
someone or something is removing
thoughts from one's mind.
174. Tie disorders-
Tic disorders- defined in the DSM based
on type (motor or phonic) and duration
of tics (sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic
175. Unconscious- Lacking awareness and
the capacity for sensory perception.
176. Undoing- The act of reversing or
annulling something accomplished; a
177. Vegetative signs- correspond to a
distinctive pattern of damage to different
parts of the brain.
178. Vertigo- a sensation of whirling and
loss of balance, associated particularly
with looking down from a great height,
or caused by disease affecting the inner
ear or the vestibular nerve; giddiness.
179. Word salad- a confused or unintelligible
mixture of seemingly random words and
phrases, specifically (in psychiatry) as a
form of speech indicative of advanced
180. Xenophobia- intense or irrational dislike
or fear of people from other countries.