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Operations with Notations of a Statistical Analysis

Let
1 2 n
x , x , ............,x
be a set of values of a quantitative variable x. In this section, we presented some
mathematical operations with this set of values of the variable x.
The

(Summation)} Notation
(1) The sum of values of the variable x is iven b!"
1 2 n
1
x # x # ............#x x
n
i
i=
=

(2) If each value


x
i
$ (i % 1, 2, &&&&.,n) of the variable x, is multiplied or weihted b! a number
i
f
,
then the sum is iven b!$
1 1 2 2 n n i
1
x f # x f # ............#x f x f
n
i
i=
=

(') If each value


x
i
$ (i % 1, 2, &&&&.,n) of the variable x, is multiplied or weihted b! a constant
number (c) then the sum is iven b!$
[ ]
1 2 n 1 2 n
1
x c# x c# ............#x x # x # ............#x x
n
i
i
c c c
=
= =

(*) The sum of a constant number (c) in +n+ times is iven b!$
c#c# ............#c nc =
(,) If a constant (c) is added to each values of the variable x, then the summation is iven b!$
1 2 n
1
1 1
1
(x #c)# (x #c)# ............#(x c)
(x c)
% x c
x
n
i
i
n n
i
i i
n
i
i
nc
=
= =
=
+
= +
+
= +

(-) If each value


x
i
$ (i % 1, 2, &&&&.,n) of the variable x is raised to a power r (sa!) where, r is a
constant ( r % 1, 2, .....) the summation of the power series is iven b!$
r r r r
1 2 n i
1
x # x # ............#x x
n
i=
=

(.) If the mean value x of the variable x, is subtracted from it/s each value, then the summation of these
deviations is iven b!$
1 2 n
i
1
(x 0x)# (x 0x)# ............#(x x)
(x x)
x0nx
%1
n
i
n
=

=
=

(2) If the mean value x of the variable x, is subtracted from it/s each value, then the summation of the
squared of these deviations is iven b!$
1
2 2 n
1 2 n
2
i
1
2 2
i i
1
n
2 2
i i
1 i%1
2 2 2
i
1
2 2
i
1
(x 0x) # (x 0x) # ............#(x x)
(x x)
(x 2x x#x )
x 2x x #nx
% x 2 x #nx
x x
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
n
=
=
=
=
=

=
=
=

(3) Let
1 2 m
! , ! , ..........,!
be a set of values of another quantitative variable !. Then the summation of the
values of these two variables is iven b!$
1 2 n 1 2 m
n m
i i
i%1 i%1
x # x # ............#x # ! # ! # ...........# !
% x y +

(3) If each value
x
i
$ (i % 1, 2, &&&&.,n) of the variable x is multiplied b! a number
i
f
and each
value
4
y
of the variable ! is multiplied b! a number
j
w
then the summation of the values of the two
variables is iven b!$
1 1 2 2 n n 1 1 2 2 m m
n n
i i 4 4
i%1 i%1
x f # x f #.............# x f # ! w # ! w # ...........# ! w
% x f # y w

(11) If the values of the variable x is multiplied b! a constant number (c) and the values of the variable
! is multiplied b! a another constant number (b) then the summation of the values of the two variables
is iven b!$
1 2 n 1 2 m
1 2 n 1 2 m
n n
i 4
i%1 i%1
x c# x c#.............# x c# ! b# ! b # ...........# ! b
%c(x # x #.............# x )#b( ! # ! # ...........# ! )
%c x #b y

1 1 2 2 n n 1 1 2 2 m m
n n
i i 4 4
i%1 i%1
x f # x f #.............# x f # ! w # ! w # ...........# ! w
% x f # y w

(11) 5or a set of paired values
i i
(x ,! $ i % 1, 2, ........,n)
of the variables x and !, then the summation of
their squared differences is iven b!$
2 2 2
1 1 2 2 n n
n
2
i i
i%1
n n n
2 2
i i i i
i%1 i%1 i%1
(x 0! ) # (x 0! ) #.............# (x 0! )
% (x 0! )
x 2 x ! ! = +


2
The

(6roduct) 7otation
(1) The product of a set of values
1 2 n
x ,x ,............., x
of the variable x is iven b!$
1 2 n
i
1
x x ............. x
x
n
i=

=

(1) If each value


x
i
$ (i % 1, 2, &&&&.,n) of the variable x, is multiplied or weihted b! a
correspondin
number
i
f
, then the product of the values of the variable can be represented as follows$
1 1 2 2 n n
i n
1
x f x f ............. x f
x f
n
i=

=

(') If each value is multiplied or weihted b! a constant number (c) then the product is iven b!$
1 2 n
1 2 n
n
i
1
x x ............. x
(x x ............. x )
%c x
n
n
i
c c c
c
=

=

(2) The product of a set of paired values


i i
(x ,! $ i % 1, 2, ........,n)
of the variables x and !, is iven b!$
1 1 2 2 n n
i i
1
x ! # x ! #.............# x !
x !
n
i=
=