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TanzaniaCasestudy.

EmmaWhite

ThecountryofTanzaniaismadeupoftheformerTanganyikaandthetwoZanzibar
Islands.Itisthe13thbiggestcountryintermsofareainAfricaandhasapopulationofover34.6
millionpeople.ThehistoryofcolonialruleinTanzaniaiscomplex.MainlandTanzaniawas
conqueredinitiallybyImperialGermanyinthe19thcenturyandGermanruleremaineduntilthe
endofWorldWarOnewhenitbecameaBritishterritoryunderamandateoftheLeagueof
Nations.Colonialrulelasteduntil1961,untiltheemergenceofanextremelystrongnationalist
movementunderthebanneroftheTANUledbyamannamedJuliusNyerere.Tanzanias
transitiontoindependencewas,toalargeextent,peacefulanduncomplicated.Apartfromthe
easilysuppressedarmymutinyin1964,Tanzaniamovedsmoothlyintoitspostcolonialera.Five
decadeshavepassedsincethissuccessandTanzaniahasseenremarkablelevelsofpeace
andstability,remarkablegiventhelocationofTanzaniaintheunstableandviolentEasternregion
ofAfrica.Tanzaniahasbeendescribedasanoasisofpeace,however,ithashaditssetbacks.
LikeallAfricancountrys,colonialismleftanindeliblemark.Changeshadtobemadetoallowfor
thispeaceandstabilitytooccur.ByexploringthestructuresinplaceduringGermanandBritish
rule,comparingthemtothoseadoptedpostindependence,wecanseethetruelegacyof
colonialism.
TheregionwasfirstconqueredbytheGermansin1895,immediately,theimperialpower
wentaboutestablishingitsauthority.TheGermanscreatedacolonialorderthatweakenedthe
political,economicandmilitarystructuresofthecountrythatwouldremaininthepostcolonial
era.Politically,Tanzaniawassplitinto22administrativedistricts.Thishadtheeffectofstripping
traditionalauthoritiesoftheirpower.Thesedistrictswererunwithamixtureofsemiindirect
anddirectrule.SemidirectruleoccuredwhentheGermansstillusedthetraditionalchiefsbut
limitedtheirpoweranddirectrulewasappliedinareaswherenostrongtraditionalrulersexisted.
Tobeginwith,theGermantookovertheSultanofZanzibarsofficialsandusedthemtorulebut
latertheybegantoreplacethemwithGermanofficialsandyoungerAfricangraduates.This
removedtraditionalauthoritiesfromthepoliticalrealmandsostrippedTanzaniaofitstrue
politicalidentity.Civilservantsweretakenonfromavarietyofethnicgroupsthisrestructured
theentireprecolonialsystem.OneelementthattheGermansintroducedthatcanbeseenasa
positivewastheiradoptionofSwahiliasthenationallanguage,thiswouldlaterbecomeasymbol
ofTanzanianidentity.
WhentheBritishweregrantedauthorityin1919theyreinforcedexistingpolitical
structures.TheyreintroducedIndirectrule,yet,traditionalauthoritiesremainedweak.Indirectrule
meanttheintegrationofindigenouspoliticalsystemsintothecolonialadministrationthroughthe
establishmentofanativeauthority.Itbroughtacombinationofchiefsandcouncilswithanative
courtsystemandtreasury.TherewasmajorsocialreorganizationasaresultasEuropeansand
Africanscombinedtocreatethisnewpoliticalordermodeledonamythicalhistory.
WhenIndependencewasreachedvastpoliticalchangesweremadeinTanzania.
Colonialrulehadleftafavorablelegacy,forexample,fragmentationbetweenindigenousgroups
waslowincomparisonyetTanzaniawasnotselfsufficientnorpoliticallyorganizedinamanner
thatwouldensurestability.ThemainpoliticalchangewastheconsolidationofTANUasthe
powerfulrulingparty.Thepartywasabletodothisbyamixtureofhavingcentralisedauthority
andinclusivecooperation.TANUdevelopedanoriginalsetofpoliticalinstitutionsthatwere
sufficientlyparticipatoryanddemocraticsotheriskofcorruptionandtheestablishmentofan
authoritarianregimewaslimited.Theremovaloftheinstitutionsofindirectrule,establishedinthe
colonialera,wasamajorstepindevelopingthecentralizedauthority.Thiscamein1962.Chiefs
lostallpowerwiththeintroductionofdistrictcouncilsandtheappointmentofregionalandarea
commissioners.Thebalanceofpowershifted.ThereorganizationofTANUspartystructurewas
instrumentalintheirsuccessandcanalsobeseenasamajorchangefromthecolonialperiod.
Thepartydevelopeditselfasabureaucracyandintegratedwithotherbureaucraciessuchasthe
hierarchyofregionalanddistrictcommissioners.Theybecameorganizedandcohesive,this
enabledTanzaniatoofficiallybecomeaonepartystatein1965.TANUalsoadoptedapolicyof
inclusiveness,thisallowedthemtobecomeevenmorepowerful.ThistransformedTanzaniainto
aonepartystatethatwasdemocraticasitallowedforinnerpartyelectoralcompetitionand
maintainedaninclusiveelitecoalition.Theirresistanceofracialorethnicfavoritismintheparty
alsoallowedforallethnic,regionalandreligiousdemographicstofeelrepresented,thiswasa
majorchangefromthepoliticsduringcolonialism.ThisisoneofthenumerousreasonsNyerere
andTANUfavoredaonepartystate,thecolonialexperiencewasverymuchstainedwithracial
inequalityandexploitation,thenewgovernmentneverwantedtoseearepeatofthis.Nyerere
wasalsoinfluencedbytheColdWar,itshowedhimthatdevelopingnationswithmorethanone
politicalpartyusuallyexperiencedmoreinterventionfromWesterngovernments,hewasalsoa
philosophicalmananddisagreedwiththeWesternideathatoppositioninpoliticswas
necessary.
TheIndependentgovernmentofTanzaniacertainlytookastepawayfromthecolonial
legacy.TheabandonmentoftheBritishparliamentarymodelisclearcutevidenceofthis.The
actofdoingthisspeaksveryclearlyaboutthelegacyofcolonialisminTanzania.Clearlycolonial
ruledidnotwork.ColonialismleftTanzaniainadifficultsocialandeconomicsituation.Poverty
waseverywhere,unemploymenthadskyrocketedandliteracylevelswerelow.Tanzanianeeded
developmentandsofrom19611964thegovernmentwasundertaken,recommendedbythe
WorldBank.Theplansaimwastoimproveeducation,developcommunicationinfrastructure
andincreaseagriculture.TANUadoptedasocialistcourseofdevelopmentbecauseover80%of
thepopulationliveinruralareas.Thepolicywastofocusonthedevelopmentoffarming
cooperatives,itbecameknownastheUjamaapolicyandwasintroducedofficiallybytheArusha
Declarationin1967.ColonialismhadleftTanzaniareliantonforeignaid,Ujamaasoughttomove
awayfromthis.Selfreliancewasthegoal.Thecentralcomponentoftheprogrammewas
bringingthescatteredruralcommunitiesintovillagesthatwouldbelargeenoughtoreach
economiesofscale.Thepeasants,however,werenoteasilypersuadedtomovetothese
villages.Theprogrammewasmetwithresistance:sabotageanddisengagementoccured.
Colonialismhadleftthepeopleuneducated,perhapsthisiswhytheprogrammefailedinitially.
ThelengthsthenewgovernmenthadtogototodevelopTanzaniaisaclearindicationof
thenegativeeffectscolonialismhad.ThelackofforesightboththeGermansandBritishhad
crippledTanzaniashopetojointheglobaleconomy,leavingthecountrypoorlyequippedfora
strongfuture.

Bibliography.
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http://www.dpmf.org/Publications/Occassional%20Papers/occasionalpaper10.pdf[PDFdocument,
opensnewwindow](accessed19Oct2014).
LindemannSandPutzel,J,StateResilienceinTanzaniaDraftAnalyticalNarrative
http://www.lse.ac.uk/internationalDevelopment/research/crisisStates/download/seminars/PutzelLind
emannTanzaniaApr30.pdf(accessed19Oct2014).