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ISSN 0331-1988

A Journal of Intellectual,
Scientific and Cultural
Humanities Edition
Vol.10, Number 1, a!, "000#"001
$%I&'(IA) *'A(%
,. A. -.A%(I
'. A. 'motes+o (Science Edition)
S.&. *abatunde (Humanities Edition)
embers (Humanities)
J. A. *amiduro
S. . Abdulra/a0
1. '. 'laseinde-2illiams
I. 3. Alia4an
1. Centre5oint is an interdisci5linar! 6ournal of intellectual, scientific and
cultural interest 7it+ 5articular reference to Africa.
". Contributions 7ritten in $n4lis+ s+ould be submitted in four co5ies t!5ed
double s5ace 7it+ am5le mar4ins on bot+ sides.
3. Articles s+ould not e8ceed t7ent! double-s5aced 5a4es on A9 5a5er.
9. Notes and references s+ould be carefull! listed at t+e end of eac+ article.
(eferences s+ould be arran4ed al5+abeticall!.
:. (eferences 7it+in t+e te8t s+ould be cited in ;ar<ard st!le, b! aut+or and
!ear. &7o 5a5ers 5ublis+ed in t+e same !ear s+ould be 4i<en identif!in4
lo7er case letters, bot+ in t+e te8t and in t+e reference list.
=. Aut+ors s+ould submit a 5rinted co5! and com5uter dis0 follo7in4 t+is
? .se eit+er a :.":@ or 3.:@ dis0 ;%#%%
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? State t+e file name.
? Dee5 a bac0u5 dis0 for reference and safet!.
The views expressed in this journal are those of the contributors and not necessarily those of
the Editorial Board..
Ni4eria> Indi<idual Subscribers - N":0 5er co5!
(Excludin !ostae) Institution or )ibrar! -
N:00 5er co5! ("ncludin !ostae)
Africa> E": 5er co5! ("ncludin !ostae)
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't+er Continents> E30 5er co5! AIncludin4 Bosta4eC
#ll correspondence should be addressed to$
&+e $ditor-in-C+ief
1acult! of Arts
.ni<ersit! of Ilorin,
Ilorin, Ni4eria.
&+e "000#"001 issue of C$N&($B'IN& A;umanities $ditionC +as nine articles
7+ic+ e85ectedl! d7ell on matters concernin4 t+e ;umanities based faculties. &+e first
article b! S. &. *abatunde e8amines t+e conte8t of teac+in4 t+e use of $n4lis+ A.S$C courses
in t+e tertiar! institutions in Ni4eria. At t+e end of t+e discussion, it becomes clear t+at
5ertinent as5ects of t+e uncondusi<e conte8t are res5onsible for t+e lo7 le<el of com5etence
demonstrated b! t+e .S$ students.
&+e second article does a formal-functional anal!sis of Imam ;adrat AlliFs @&+e *rilliant
Sermon.@ . A. ,unus submits t+at t+e success of t+e sermon 7as 5redicated u5on an
unrelentin4 reco4nition and e85loitation of t+e common 4round bet7een t+e 5reac+er and
+is audience. Ne8t is . S. Abdula+i Idia4bonFs article on t+e st!lo- r+etorical de<ices
em5lo!ed b! C+ief *ola I4e in t+e column in t+e Sunday Tribune. ;e o5ines t+at t+e
columnistFs communicati<e success is informed b! +is deftness in t+e use of lan4ua4e, +is
ar4umentati<e and lo4ical a55roac+ and +is deliberate a<oidance of affectation.
1rida!-'tun, in t+e fourt+ article in t+is issue ar4ues t+at *o0!i )an4ua4e clearl!
attests not onl! t+e redu5lication of certain mor5+emes, but also demonstrates t+e tri5le
re5etition of root or base mor5+emes. &+e 5a5er refers to t+is 5rocess as retri5lication.
(etri5lication is also said to be 5resent in ,oruba.
&+e anal!sis of t+e im5act of sales 5romotion on sales <olume in t+e be<era4e
industr! in Ni4eria is t+e focus of J. A. *amiduro in +is articles. &+e sur<e! re<eals t+at t+e
effecti<e im5lementation of sales 5romotion clearl! increases t+e consum5tion rate of soft
drin0 5roducts and conseGuentl! sales <olume.
&+e si8t+ article b! J. A . 'ladi5o e8amines staff 5ostin4 in t+e D7ara state inistr!
of ;ealt+ usin4 an inte4ar 4oal 5ro4rammin4 a55roac+. &+e 5a5er submits t+at t+e use of
t+is a55roac+ 7ill ensure t+at staff 5ostin4 is done in line 7it+ needs and ot+er rational
considerations. &+is is belie<ed to ensure effecti<e and efficient o5erations.
,usuf Noa+Fs article e8amines t+e incidence and dimension of <iolence a4ainst
7omen in t+e Ni4erian societ!, usin4 Ilorin to7ns+i5 as a case stud!. &+e em5irical stud!
carried out re<ealed t+at men are lar4el! +eld res5onsible for most of t+e <iolent acts
committed a4ainst t+e 7omen. &+e 5a5er ends b! a55ealin4 for 7ides5read cam5ai4n
a4ainst t+e e<il of <iolence bein4 e85erienced b! 7omen in t+e societ!.
;a0eem I6ai!aFs article in<esti4ates t+e 5roblem of t+e o7ners+i5 and control of
mineral oil resources in 'B$C. &+e 5a5er submits t+at rele<ant international or4anisations
s+ould ensure t+at t+e reco4nised so<erei4nt! of nations o<er t+eir mineral resources is
actuali/ed. At t+e same time rele<ant tec+nical assistance a4reements s+ould be entered into
b! +ost nations and multinational o5erators of t+e industr! to ensure effecti<e control and
efficient mana4ement of t+e mineral resources.
&+e last article does an anal!sis of &arafa+Fs 5oems on deat+. &arafa+, one of t+e
famous 5re-Islamic 5oets, 5ercei<ed deat+ as inesca5able and ine<itable for e<er! man.
an s+ould +o7e<er not li<e a care free and rec0less life. &arafa+ did not ta0e refu4e in
+is 4od-4i<en 7isdom, to imbibe t+e 7isdom of careful and 5ur5oseful li<in4.
1rustratin4 situations in life s+ould be +andled 7it+ coura4e and 7isdom.
Professor Y. A. uadri
Editor%in%&hief and &hairman
)ibrar! and Bublications
&+e conte8t of &eac+in4 t+e .se of $n4lis+ Courses in t+e &ertiar!
Institutions in Ni4eria> &+e .nilorin $8am5le - S. &. *abatundeHHHHH 1
Interactin4 from t+e Bul5it> An Illustration 7it+ @&+e *rilliant Sermon@
&+e St!lo-(+etorical %e<ices in F.ncle *olaFs ColumnF in t+e Sunday Tribune
-.S. Abdulla+i I Idia4bonHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH. ""
(edu5lication and (+etorical (etri5lication in *o0!i )an4ua4e
- J. '. 1rida!- 'tunHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH..H 3"
An Anal!sis of Sales Bromotion on Sales Volume in t+e *e<era4e Industr!>
&+e Case of Ni4eria *ottlin4 B)C -J. A. *amiduroHHHHHHHHHHH. 90
An Inte4er Joal Bro4rammin4 A55roac+ to Staff Bostin4 in t+e D7ara State
inistr! of ;ealt+ -J.A. 'ladi5oHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH..HHH :"
Incidence and %imension of Violence A4ainst 2omen in t+e Ni4erian
Societ!> A Case Stud! of Ilorin &o7ns+i5 - ,usuf Noa+HHHHHHHHHH =:
&+e Broblem of '7ners+i5 and Control of ineral 'il (esources in t+e
'r4ani/ation of Betroleum $85ortin4 Countries - ;a0eem I6ai!a, $sGHHH.H KK
%eat+ and Its Aftermat+> An Anal!sis of &arafa+Fs Boems on %eat+
%Badmus '. (usuf))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) *+
Bamiduro ,.#.
-epartment of Business #dministration.
/niversity of "lorin. "lorin. 0ieria
A lot of be<era4es manufacturin4 com5anies in Ni4eria are sufferin4 from t+e 5ilin4 u5
of unsold stoc0s. In recent !ears, Ni4eria 7itnessed sales 5romotions b! most be<era4e industries
suc+ as Ni4eria *ottlin4 Com5an! Blc, Ku5 *ottlin4 Com5an!, Ni4erian *re7eries and Juinness
Ni4eria Blc., etc. *e<era4e industr! suc+ as N*C Blc. uses sales 5romotion for se<eral reasons>
to 4enerate Guic0 sales bursts, to build lon4-term a7areness and maintain stead! mar0et s+ares,
to 4ain increase in s+elf s5ace and better in-store dis5la!, etc. %oes t+e success of sales
5romotional 5ro4ramme reall! 6ustif! t+e 5romoterFs efforts in terms of time, cost and benefitsL
&+e ob6ecti<e of t+is stud! is to e8amine t+e effect of sales 5romotion on t+e sales
<olume of t+e be<era4e industr! and su44est 7a!s sales 5romotional tools and tec+niGues could
en+ance sales <olume.
&+e data for t+is stud! 7as collected from bot+ 5rimar! and secondar! sources.
-uestionnaire administration 7as t+e ma6or instrument for 5rimar! data collection. %ata 7as
collected from 7+olesales and retail distributors of t+e 5roduct and t+e ultimate consumers. &+e
data 7as anal!/ed usin4 freGuenc! and c+i-sGuare statistical met+od to test t+e +!5ot+eses raised
for t+is stud!.
&+e stud! re<ealed t+at effecti<e im5lementation of sales 5romotion amon4 ot+er
5romotional tec+niGues increases t+e consum5tion rate of soft drin0 5roducts as 7ell as t+e sales
<olume of t+e be<era4e industr!.
Sales 5romotion acti<ities are im5ersonal and usuall! non-recurrin4 and are directed to
ultimate consumers, industrial users and middlemen. &+e final element of t+e mar0etin4 mi8 is
5romotion. Bromotion is essentiall! seen as industr!Fs sales efforts to current and 5ros5ecti<e
customers. Its 5rimar! 5ur5ose is to increase 5rofits b! increasin4 sales <olume, ADotler "001C.
Sales 5romotion consists of t+ose seller-initiated acti<ities t+at su55lement bot+
ad<ertisin4 and 5ersonal sellin4 and render t+em into a more effecti<e 5ersuasi<e force A'lu6ide,
"00"C. Sales 5romotion t+erefore co<ers a 7ide <ariet! of s+ort term incenti<e tools aimed at
stimulatin4 consumers, t+e c+ains of distribution and t+e or4anisationFs sales force. It could ta0e
different forms suc+ as 4i<in4 a7a! free sam5les of 5roduct, reducin4 t+e usual 5rice ta4, etc.
&+us, sales 5romotion +as been an effecti<e tool used b! com5anies in effectin4 increase +i sales
es5eciall! +i t+e face of com5etition and in an ailin4 econom!. In Ni4eria 5resentl!, t+e c+an4in4
socio-5olitical and economic en<ironment ma! ma0e 5roducts t+at +it+erto +ad been sellin4 li0e
+ot ca0e to suddenl! lose t+eir attraction. Sales 5romotion is a ma6or force in mar0etin4 toda!.
Cou5ons, rebates, free sam5le, 5oint of 5urc+ase tec+niGues are some of t+e 5romotional
strate4ies bein4 em5lo!ed toda!. &+us, an anal!sis of t+e sales 5romotion on sales <olume 7ould
C$N&($B'IN& V') 10, No. 1, "000#"001
+el5 mar0eters to 5ro4nosticate into t+e future about t+e e85ected returns on t+is im5ortant
mar0etin4 tool.
Sales 5romotion, 7+ic+ is a <ital as5ect of 5roduct mi8, is 7idel! ado5ted b! be<era4e
drin0 industries in Ni4eria. ;o7e<er, as Ni4eria is 7itnessin4 a de5ressed econom!, t+ere +a<e
been increases in 5rices of consumer 4oods t+at also lead to an increase in be<era4e drin0s co<er
5rices. &+e im5ortance of e8cessi<e 5romotion in a com5etiti<e mar0et en<ironment +as
4enerated a lot of interest in mar0eters and firms to de<elo5 numerous com5re+ensi<e
5romotional a55roac+es. &o 7+at e8tent +a<e t+e <arious sales 5romotional strate4ies affect t+e
sales <olume and 5rofitabilit! of t+e Ni4erian *ottlin4 Blc.L %oes t+e success of sales
5romotional 5ro4ramme reall! 6ustif! t+e 5romoterFs efforts in terms of time, cost and benefitsL
A 7ell-desi4ned 5romotion can +el5 to sol<e certain s5ecific mar0etin4 5roblems and
to4et+er 7it+ t+e mar0etin4 mi8 +el5 to ac+ie<e mar0etin4 ob6ecti<es. &+e ma6or ob6ecti<e of t+e
stud! 7ould be to e8amine t+e effect of sales 5romotion on t+e sales <olume of Ni4erian *ottlin4
Blc. be<era4e industr!. &+e stud! e8amines t+e e8tent to 7+ic+ sales 5romotion em5lo!ed b!
Ni4erian *ottlin4 Blc. could 4o to ac+ie<e its ob6ecti<es for creatin4 a7areness of t+e 5roduct,
increasin4 consum5tion rate and en+ancin4 5rofitabilit! of t+e com5an!.
'r4ani/ations 5romote t+eir 4oods or ser<ices to t+e mar0et usin4 a <ariet! of
5romotional strate4ies. Bromotion is used to communicate and 5ersuade 5otential customers to
t+e ad<anta4e of t+e offer. &+erefore t+e t!5ical 4oals of 5romotional strate4! are to induce
a7areness, trial, acce5tance and 5reference. All t+ose acti<ities t+at directl! or indirectl! or b!
ot+er means 7+ic+ +el5 to increase t+e sales are included in sales 5romotion. Accordin4l!, sales
5romotion are t+ose acti<ities, ot+er t+an 5ersonal sellin4, ad<ertisin4 and 5ublicit! t+at stimulate
consumer 5urc+asin4 and dealer effecti<eness, suc+ as dis5la!, s+o7s, e85ositions,
demonstrations and <arious non-recurrent sellin4 efforts not in t+e ordinar! routine.
Accordin4 to Dotler A"000M :9KC sales 5romotion consists of di<erse,, collection of
incenti<e tools - mostl! s+ort term - desi4ned to stimulate a Guic0er or 4reater 5urc+ase of
5articular 5roducts or ser<ices b! consumers or t+e c+ains of distributors.
)uc0! and 3ie4ler A19=8M9:C defined sales, 5romotion as an acti<it! or material t+at acts
as a direct inducement, offerin4 added <alue or incenti<es for t+e 5roduct to resellers, sales
5ersons or consumerM. Also J. *. Jiles A199:M 1":C sees sales 5romotion as a 5art of t+e
5romotion intended to stimulate Guic0 action, a feature of 5ac0a4ed consumer 4oodsF sellin4
tactics directed at consumer or t+e distribution c+annels.
*amiduro J.A.
&+erefore, sales 5romotion is carefull! desi4ned and met+odicall! im5lemented and
directed to7ards a tar4et mar0et. Beo5le, 7+ose c+aracteristics +a<e been ta0en to consideration
in t+e 5romotion 5ac0a4e, suc+ as in t+e incenti<es offered, s+all be induced to 5urc+ase t+e
5roduct or ser<ice.
ore often t+an not, or4anisation tends to use sales 5romotion acti<ities in concert 7it+
t+e ot+er 5romotional efforts in order to facilitate 5ersonal sellin4 in ad<ertisin4 or bot+. 1or
instance, 5eo5le ma! need to <isit a store before enterin4 a consumer contest as sales 5romotion
acti<it!M t+ereb! facilitatin4 5ersonal sellin4 b! dra7in4 5eo5le into t+e establis+ment.
Dotler A199KM 3KKC identified sales 5romotion tools to include cou5ons, contests,
5remiums and t+e li0es. All t+ese tools, accordin4 to +im +a<e man! uniGue c+aracteristics and
Gualities in t+at t+e! attract consumersF attention and 5ro<ide information t+at ma! lead to a
5urc+ase. Dotler and Armstron4 A199=M 3":C 7rote t+at ad<ertisin4 and sales 5romotion are bot+
related in t+at ad<ertisin4 offers a reason to bu! 7+ile sales 5romotion offers an incenti<e to bu!.
Sales 5romotion +as 4ro7n ra5idl! in recent !ears. Se<eral factors contributed to its
ra5id 4ro7t+ 5articularl! in consumer mar0et. &+ese are>
? Internal 1actor> Bromotion is no7 more acce5ted b! to5 mana4ers t+at are Gualified to
use sales 5romotion tools, and 5roduct mana4ers are under 4reater 5ressure to increase
t+eir sales.
? $8ternal 1actor> &+e number of brands +as increased, com5etitors +a<e become more
5romotion-minded, inflation and recession +a<e made consumers more dealer-oriented,
t+e trade +as demanded more deals from manufacturers, ad<ertisin4 efficienc! +as
declined because of risin4 costs, media clutter and le4al restraints.
Sales 5romotion can be cate4ori/ed into consumer 5romotion, trade 5romotion and
business 5romotion.
Consumer Promotion& &+is includes t+ose efforts aimed at influencin4 t+e trial consumer. Suc+
5romotions are desi4ned to moti<ate consumers to immediate Aor nearl! immediateC action,
ACourtland and Jo+n 199"M :K"C. ConsumerFs 5romotion tec+niGues can be used to dra7 5eo5le
into a 5articular store, to induce ne7 5roduct or to 5romote establis+ed 5roducts. &o accom5lis+
t+is tas0, mar0ets +a<e de<elo5ed Guite a <ariet! of sales 5romotion tec+niGues or tools> some of-
t+ese include cou5ons, 5remiums, sam5les, contests and s7ee5sta0es, 5oint-of-5urc+ase AB'BC,
freGuenc! mar0etin4, etc.
C$N&($B'IN& V')10No. 1, "000#"001
Trade Promotion& Courtland and Jo+n A199"M :K3C <ie7 t+at most of sales 5romotion de<ices
used 7it+ final customers can also be used 7it+ t+e trade, t+at is, Amar0etin4 intermediariesC.
;o7e<er, some additional tec+niGues a55l! onl! to t+e mar0etin4 intermediaries, and t+ese
include allo7ances and discounts, factor!-s5onsored in-store demonstration, trade s+o7s, sales
contests, coo5erati<e ad<ertisin4, etc.
Business Promotion& A firm ma! 5artici5ate in trade fair and set u5 a stand to 5romote its
5roduct Sam5les of t+e com5an!Fs 5roducts are dis5la!ed and some of t+em, as 7ell as
descri5ti<e literature are +anded out to enGuirin4 <isitors. &+e firm ma! s5onsor s5orts contest
an! ot+er com5anies 7+ic+ do not en4a4e in elaborate sales 5romotion at least 4i<e a7a! des0
5ads and calendars to t+eir customers, AN7o0o!e "000M "3"C.
T',es of Sides Promotions A-tivities
1. Sales Bromotion to iddlemen
In addition to t+e basic formula of 4i<in4 t+e 7+olesaler#retailer # s5ecial reason to 5us+
a certain loaded 5roduct, anot+er strate4! is to 4et t+e dealer loaded u5 7it+ stoc0 some7+at
be!ond +is normal le<el because +e is attracted b! t+e deal. ;e no7 +as +is ca5ital tied u5 and
feels t+e 5ressure to con<ert it bac0 to cas+.
&+is 5ressure ma! 7ell lead t+e retailer to de<ice +is o7n measures b! ad<ertisin4
be+ind t+e brand, more 5oints of sale and dis5la!, 4ettin4 +is sales 5ersonnel to 5us+ it, and so
on. Ver! li0el!, t+e retailer +as onl! so muc+ ca5ital a<ailable to 5ut into a 4i<en line of 4oods.
&+e more t+e manufacturer 4ets of t+is limited ca5ital b! causin4 t+e retailer to stoc0-u5, t+e less
is left to 5ut into com5etitorsF brands of t+e 5roduct Sales 5romotion is often used to introduce a
ne7 5roduct in t+e line. &+e e8tra stimulus 7ill 4et distribution more Guic0l!.
1inall!, a 5romotion ma! +a<e a fa<ourable effect on manufacturerFs 5ersonal sellin4
cost A 4ood 5romotion 4i<es t+e salesman somet+in4 ne7 and fres+ about 7+ic+ to tal0 7it+ t+e
". Sates Bromotion to Customer
2it+ t+is form of 5romotion, t+e manufacturer offers some 0ind of incenti<es direct to
t+e consumers, to tr! to secure a +i4+er le<el of consumer demand for t+e 5articular 5roduct or
ran4e of 5roducts. &+e basic strate4! is to 5ro<ide some 0ind of an e8tra 5us+ for t+e 5roduct
bein4 sold. &+e de<ice used s+ould, to t+e 4reatest e8tent 5ossible be>
- .niGueM not obtainable else7+ereM
. 2antedM fulfill a 7ant and be interestin4 to t+e consumerM
- of reco4ni/ed <alue
- tied in 7it+ Sales in some 7a! e.4 reGuire 5roof of 5urc+aseM
- A stimulator of re5eat 5urc+ases if 5ossibleM
- (elated to t+e 5roduct ; sent if feasible, or at least a55ro5riate to t+e 5roductM
- In 4ood su55l! or 5otentiall! soM
- Ine85ensi<e, and if 5ossible sub6ect to decreasin4 unit costs 7it+ <olume 5roducedM
*amiduro J.A.
Advertisin! and mer-0andisa12e3 +a<e readil! dramati/able <alues and features t+at 7ill attract
t+e attention of t+e bu!er and create desire for t+e ob6ect in t+e mind of t+e bu!er. If it is
merc+andisable, it loo0s 4ood to t+e trade and t+e intermediaries is 7illin4 to co-o5erate 7it+ t+e
5lan A*rin0 and Delle!, 19=3C.
#et0ods of Consumer Promotion
a. @*elo7 t+e )ine and Abo<e t+e )ine@
1. @*elo7 t+e )ine@ 5romotion is t+e su55ortin4 met+od used in t+e 5romotion of a
5roduct, suc+ as t+e use of broc+ures, calendars and no<elt! leaflets illustrated 7it+ t+e
com5an!Fs 5roduct.
". @Abo<e t+e )ine@ 5romotion, denotes t+e main met+ods of ad<ertisin4 t+e 5roduct, i.e b!
tele<ision, radio, 5osters, t+e 5ress, and so on.
1. Consumer -ontests& anufacturers s5onsor contests or s7ee5sta0es to stimulate t+e
ultimate consumer. 1ateful decisions are una<oidable A5ur5ose, nature, len4t+, 5ri/es, 6ud4in4C,
but if t+e sales 5romotion staff comes u5 7it+ a 7inner, t+e. re7ards can be 4reat. Bri/es in t+e
consumer contests are offers of t+e c+ance to 7in cas+, tri5s or merc+andise as a result of
5urc+asin4 somet+in4. A contest calls for consumers to submit an entr! to be e8amined b! a
5anel of 6ud4es 7+o 7ill select t+e best entries. A s7ee5sta0e as0s consumers to submit t+eir
names in a dra7in4, and a 4ame 5resents consumers 7it+ somet+in4 e<er! time t+e! bu!, 7+ic+
mi4+t +el5 t+em 7it+ a 5ri/e.
-. Consumer Premiums& &+e t!5ical consumer li0es to 4et a bonus, a bribe, somet+in4
e8tra from a seller and t+at is 7+at a 5remium is. Some 5remiums +a<e been fantasticall!
successful. 't+ers +a<e been flo5s. Bo5ular 5remiums are lu44a4e, 6e7elr!, 0itc+en7are, 5ens,
to!s, etc.
d. Sam,2in!& an! 5roducts and some ser<ices are 5romoted 7it+ sam5lin4. Sam5les ma!
be free, or t+ere ma! be a small c+ar4e. 'ffer of a free amount of a 5roduct or ser<ice deli<ered
door to door, sent in t+e mail, 5ic0ed u5 in a store, attac+ed to anot+er 5roduct or featured in an
ad<ertisin4 offer are e8am5les of sam5lin4 e8ercise. ;o7e<er, sam5lin4 is Guite e85ensi<e, since
t+ere is t+e cost of 5roducin4 t+e sam5le and distributin4 it.
e. Cou,ons& Certificates entitlin4 t+e bearer to a stated sa<in4 on t+e 5urc+ase of a s5ecific
5roduct mailed, enclosed in ot+er 5roducts For attac+ed to t+em, or inserted .in ma4a/ine and
ne7s5a5er ad<ertisement. (edem5tion rate <aries 7it+ mode of distribution. Cou5ons can be
effecti<e in stimulatin4 sales of a mature brand and inducin4 earl! trial of a ne7 brand. &+e! act
as a s+ort-run stimulus to t+e sale of t+e 5roduct, since t+e! are directl! tied in 7it+ t+e 5urc+ase
of t+e item. &+e e85enses in<ol<ed 7it+ cou5ons are often +i4+> t+e! are costl! to distribute and
dealer redem5tion costs are +i4+.
C$N&($B'IN& V')10No. 1, "000#"001
f. Pri-e Offs& &+ese are items for 7+ic+ !ou 5ass t+e discounted 5rice directl! to t+e
consumer b! 5rintin4 ri4+t on t+e 5ac0a4e @100 off of @*u! 'ne, 4et t+e second one at +alf
5rice@. Brice-offs ma! be tem5orar! sales stimuli to offset a s+ort sales slum5, counter a sudden
tactical mo<e b! a com5etitor and encoura4e ne7 customers to sam5le t+e 5roduct. an! e85erts
on sales 5romotion feel t+at 5rice-offs sc+emes are amon4 t+e 7ea0er and less desirable met+ods
of 5romotion. &+e! 5oint to t+e dan4er of trade resentment.
&+e collection of data for t+e researc+ follo7s t+e 5rocedure of researc+ desi4ns, desi4n
of Guestionnaire, instrument construction and 5rocedure of administration. &+e researc+ stud!
focuses on t+e Ni4eria *ottlin4 Blc, Ilorin. &+e sam5le si/e com5rises of t+e 7+olesale and retail
distributors of t+e, com5an!, 5articularl!, t+ose reco4ni/ed b! t+e mar0etin4 de5artment. A total
number of :0 Guestionnaires 7ere distributed out of 7+ic+ 9" 7ere returned and anal!sed.
*ot+ descri5ti<e and Guantitati<e met+ods of anal!sis 7ere em5lo!ed in anal!/in4 t+is
stud!. Sim5le descri5ti<e statistical tool suc+ as freGuenc! counts and c+i-sGuare statistical
contin4enc! tables 7ere used. &+is is to enable us to <alidate t+e effects of sales 5romotion on
t+e sales <olume of t+e be<era4e soft drin0 industr! of Ni4erian *ottlin4 Blc.
ar0etin4 researc+ is about t+e collection, recordin4, collatin4 and anal!sis of t+e data
collected to aid effecti<e mar0etin4 decision ma0in4. Bresented belo7 are t+e data collected,
collated and tabulated to assist in ma0in4 decision on t+e effect Aif an!C of sales 5romotion on
sales <olume.
Ta12e 4& Produ-t A5areness 1' Res,ondents
ost 5otential consumers of soft drin0s are a7are of t+e 5roduct t+rou4+ sales 5romotion
O,tion Num1er of Res,ondents Per-enta!e
,es "9 :K.19
No 18 9".8=
Tota2 I *+ 477
Source: Field Survey, 2003.
&able 1 s+o7s t+at "9 A:K.19NC of t+e res5ondents a4ree t+at consumers of soft drin0 are a7are
of t+e 5roduct t+rou4+ sales 5romotion 7+ile 18A9".8=NC sa! No. &+is im5lies t+at most of t+e
5otential consumers of soft drin0 0no7 t+e 5roduct t+rou4+ sales 5romotion.
*amiduro J.A
Ta12e +& Ratin! of t0e Sa8s Promotion A-tivit' of A- Com,an' in t0e Intermediaries

O,tion Num1er of Res,ondents fre6uen-' Per-enta!e
$8cellent "" :".38
Jood 1= 38.10
1air 9 9.:"
Boor - -
Tota2 *+ 477
Sour-e& "ie2d Surve'9 +77/.
In ratin4 t+e sates 5romotion acti<ities of t+e com5an! ""A:".38NC of t+e res5ondents
rated it as e8cellent, 1=A38.10NC considered it to be 4ood 7+ile 9A9.:"NC of t+e res5ondents
rated it to be fair. &+is is an indication t+at sales 5romotion acti<ities of N*C Blc. is e8tremel!
+i4+, de5endable and more reliable.
Ta12e /& Sa2es Promotion In-reases t0e Consum,tion Rate of Soft Drin8

O,tion Num1er of Res,ondents Per-enta!e
Stron4l! A4ree 19 33.3
A4ree lK 90.98
.ndecided 8 19.0:
%isa4ree 3 K.19
Stron4l! %isa4ree - -
Tota2 *4 477
Source> 1ield Sur<e!, "003.
&able 3 re<ealed t+at 19A33.33NC of t+e res5ondents stron4l! a4ree t+at sales 5romotion
increases t+e consum5tion rate of soft drin0s. 1KA90.98C a4ree to t+e same <ie7. 8A19.0:C of t+e
res5ondents sit on t+e fence, t+at is, t+e! are not decided, 7+ile 3AK.19C of t+e res5ondents
disa4ree. &+is indicates t+at ma6orit! of t+e res5ondents staff belie<e t+at sates 5romotion
increases t+e consum5tion rate of soft drin0s 5roduct.
Ta12e *& Im,a-t of Sa2es Promotion on t0e Profita1i2it' of NBC P2-.

O,tion Num1er of Res,ondents Per-enta!e
,es "8 ==.=K
No 19 33.33
Tota2 *+ 477
Source> 1ield Sur<e!, "003.
C$N&($B'IN& V')10No. 1, "000#"001
2it+ res5ect to 5rofitabilit!, &able 9 s+o7s t+at "8A==.=NC of t+e res5ondents su55orted
t+at sales 5romotion en+ance 5rofitabilit! to N*C Blc., 7+ile 19A33.33NC o55ose t+e <ie7.
;ence, it can be concluded t+at +i4+ sales 5romotion lead to +i4+ sales and +i4+ 5rofit.
Ta12e :& Sa2es Promotion 0as -ontri1uted to t0e Sa2es $o2ume of NBC Produ-t

'5tion Number of (es5ondents freGuenc! Bercenta4e
Stron4l! A4ree 1: 3:.K1
A4ree 18 9".8=
.ndecided = 19."9
%isa4ree 3 K.19
Stron4l! %isa4ree - -
&otal 9" 100
Source> 1ield Sur<e!, "003.
&able : re<ealed t+at 1:A3:.K1NC of t+e res5ondents stron4l! a4ree t+at sales 5romotion
contributed si4nificantl! to t+e sales <olume of N*C 5roduct, 18A9".8=NC also a4ree 7it+ t+e
same <ie7, =A19."9NC 7ere not decided 7+ile 3AK.19NC of t+e res5ondents disa4ree. &+is
indicates t+at about 33AK8.:KNC of t+e res5ondents su55orted t+at sales 5romotion 5la!s a ma6or
role on t+e sales <olume of N*C 5roduct.
Testin! of t0e H',ot0eses
%ata on consum5tion 5attern 7as collected from sam5led 7+olesale and retail
distributors. Com5utation of t+e test statistics 7as based on t+e sam5le tested to determine
7+et+er mill +!5ot+esis s+ould be re6ected or acce5ted.
H',ot0esis One
;o> sales 5romotion +as no relations+i5 7it+ t+e consum5tion rate of soft drin0s.
;i> sales 5romotion +as relations+i5 7it+ t+e consum5tion rate of soft drin0s.
H',ot0esis T5o
;o> sales 5romotion +as no relations+i5 7it+ t+e sales <olume of N*C 5roduct.
;i> sales 5romotion +as relations+i5 7it+ t+e sales <olume of N*C 5roduct.
*amiduro J.A
Note& &estin4 of reliabilit! and <alidit! of t+e +!5ot+eses s+all be based on t+e res5onses from
tables : and =. 1ormula> O
P $ Ao-eC
2+ere O
P c+i-sGuare
@ o P 'bser<ed freGuenc!
@ $ P e85ected freGuenc!
@ $ P summation si4n
@ Q P 4reater t+an
@ R P less t+an
De-ision Ru2es
1. If O
calQ O
&+e null +!5ot+esis A;oC 7ill be re6ected 7+ile t+e alternati<e +!5ot+esis A;iC 7ill be
". If O
cal RO
&+e null +!5ot+esis A;oC 7ill be acce5ted 7+ile alternati<e ;!5ot+esis A;iC 7ill be
Ta12e <.4& Test Res,onses on H',ot0esis 4

(es5onses 0 $ 0-$ A0-$C A'-$##$
Stron4l! a4ree 19 8.9 :.=0 31.3= 3.K3
A4ree 1K 8.9 8.=0 K3.9= 8.81
.ndecided 8 8.9 -0.90 0.1= 0.0"
%isa4ree 3 8.9 -:.90 "9.1= 3.9K
Stron4l! disa4ree - 8.9 -8.90 K0.:= 8.9
&otal 9" "9.93
Source> Aut+orFs calculation.
Note& O
cal P com5uted table <alue and O
tab 0.0: P statistical table.
%iff P ro7 - l P :-l P 9
tab P diff. at :N le<el of si4nificance. ;ence, O
tab P 9.99 and O
cal P "9.93
Since O
cal Q O
tab i.e. "9.93Q 9.99 and based on t+e abo<e decision rule, t+erefore ;o is
re6ected 7+ile ;i t+e alternati<e +!5ot+esis is acce5ted. &+e im5lication of t+is decision is t+at
t+e +!5ot+esis tested s+o7s t+at sales 5romotion +as relations+i5 7it+ t+e consum5tion of t+e
soft drin0s. ;ence, +i4+ sales 5romotion acti<ities lead to +i4+ consum5tion rate of drin0s
C$N&($B'IN& V')10No. 1, "000#"001
Ta12e <.+& Test Res,onses on H',ot0esis T5o
(es5onses 0 $ 0-$ A0-$C

Stron4l! a4ree 1: 8.9 =.= 93.:= :.19
A4ree 18 8.9 9.= 9".1= 10.9K
.ndecided = 8.9 -".90 :.K= 0.=9
%isa4ree 3 8.9 -:.9 "9.1= 3.9K
Stron4l! disa4ree - 8.9 -8.9 K0.:= 8.9
&otal 9" "8.K1
Source> Aut+orFs calculation.
De-ision Ru2e& if O
cal Q O
tab re6ect ;o and acce5t ;i.
If O
cal R O
tab acce5t ;o and re6ect ;i.
2+ere O
cal P com5uted table 7+ile O
tab 0.0: statistical table. Since O
cal is "8.K1 4reater
t+an t+e O
tab 7+ic+ is 9.99.
&+e null +!5ot+esis A;oC is t+erefore re6ected 7+ile t+e alternati<e +!5ot+esis A;iC is acce5ted.
2it+ t+e abo<e tested table, it can be concluded t+at sales 5romotion +as relations+i5
7it+ t+e sales <olume of t+e N*C 5roduct. ;ence, sales 5romotion +as si4nificant effects on t+e
com5an!Fs sales <olume.
Summar' of "indin!s
Sales 5romotion acti<ities 5erform t+e role of informin4, remindin4 and influencin4 t+e
5urc+ase of certain 5roducts for +uman e8istence.
&+e anal!sis of t+e tables re<ealed t+at all res5ondents com5rised of bot+ male and
female distributors. ost of t+e res5ondents 7ere matured and married 7it+ minimal le<el of
education. &+is is an indication t+at information 4at+ered from t+e stud! 7ould be more reliable
and de5endable.
It is also confirmed from t+e researc+ stud! t+at t+e com5an! uses sales 5romotion to
create a7areness of its 5roduct to most 5otential consumers. It is also disco<ered t+at sales
5romotion +el5s t+e com5an! to 4enerate more 5rofit t+rou4+ increase in sales durin4 t+e
&+is is in conformit! 7it+ a senior mana4er at Ilorin de5ot, t+at coca-cola com5an! +as
been reco4ni/ed as one of t+e best com5anies en4a4in4 in sales 5romotion in Ni4eria. And t+is
+as +el5ed t+e com5an! tremendousl! to increase its sales <olume.
Anot+er im5ortant findin4 is t+at sales 5romotion influences t+e consumer to increase
t+e consum5tion rate of soft drin0s. )astl!, anal!sis re<ealed t+at sales 5romotion +as contributed
immensel! to t+e sales <olumeM t+erefore, it +as effect on t+e sales <olume of Ni4erian *ottlin4
Blc. 5roduct.
*amiduro J.A.
Summar' and Con-2usion
&+is stud! +as focused on t+e effects of sales 5romotion on t+e sales <olume of t+e soft
drin0s industr!. In carr!in4 out t+is researc+ stud! Ni4eria *ottlin4 Com5an! AN*CC Blc. Ilorin
5roducer of coca-cola 7as used as a case stud!. &+e researc+er made t+e c+oice because t+e
com5an! is re4arded as second to none in terms of sales 5romotional acti<ities 7+en com5ared to
ot+er soft drin0s industries in t+e countr!. &+e on4oin4 coca-cola me4a million 5romotions is a
li<in4 7itness.
Sales 5romotion referred to as a s5ecial sellin4 effort em5lo!ed b! different
or4ani/ations to boost t+e ima4e of t+eir 5roducts in t+e com5etiti<e mar0et and +ence ac+ie<e
+i4+ sales, ma8imi/in4 5rofit and at t+e same time 4ainin4 com5etiti<e ad<anta4e o<er ot+er
com5anies of t+e same trade.
Sales 5romotion ma! be directed at consumers in t+e form of consumer 5romotion, or
middlemen in t+e form of trade 5romotion. $<en o5erators of t+e de5artment store and
su5ermar0et use sales 5romotion 5eriodicall! to clear t+eir in<entories in t+e form of business
&+e ste5s in<ol<e 5lannin4 and im5lementin4 a sales 5romotion, are Guite similar to
t+ose in ad<ertisin4 cam5ai4n. ,ou need to understand t+e tar4et audience, establis+ ob6ecti<es,
identif! resources constraints, select met+ods and <e+icles, and e<aluate t+e 5ro4ramme after it is
In selectin4 sales 5romotion tools, careful consideration s+ould be 4i<en to t+e 5roduct
c+aracteristics, sales 5romotion ob6ecti<es and t+e cost effecti<eness of eac+ tool. If t+ese could
be 4i<en 5riorit! consideration sales 5romotion 7ould surel! ac+ie<e its ob6ecti<es.
It can be concluded t+at t+e 5rimar! ob6ecti<e of sales 5romotion is>
AaC &o increase t+e sales <olume of a 5roduct, es5eciall! at t+ose times 7+en normal sales
are slu44is+.
AbC &o 5eriodicall! Ae.4. annuall! and semi-annuall!C clear 4oods in a store before in<entor!
ta0in4 and restoc0in4.
AcC &o introduce and brin4 t+e a7areness of a ne7 5roductM and
AdC &o ac+ie<e +i4+ sales 7+ic+ in turn increase t+e contribution to 5rofit ratio.
*ased on t+e researc+ findin4s t+e follo7in4 recommendationsF are made>
1. Sales 5romotion ob6ecti<es s+ould be 7ell defined and staff s+ould be 7ell informed in
order to ac+ie<e t+e stated ob6ecti<es.
". Sales 5romotion 5ro4ramme s+ould be 5ro5erl! 5lanned and 7ell desi4ned. (ecords of
eac+ 5romotion e8ercise s+ould be 7ell 0e5t after t+e 5romotion in order to e<aluate t+e
3. Ni4erian *ottlin4 Com5an! Blc. s+ould 0ee5 on u5datin4 t+eir sales 5romotion acti<ities
and increase t+eir retail outlets for 5ros5ecti<e and e8istin4 customers in order to
en+ance more consum5tion rate.
9. Bromotion e8ercise s+ould be more of re7ards in order to 4uarantee customer lo!alt!
since an!one 7+o 7ins in a 5articular 5romotion e8ercise 7ould feel t+at +e#s+e +as
4ained from continuous 5urc+ase of N*C Bc. 5roducts t+ereb! encoura4e continuous
C$N&($B'IN& V')10No. 1, "000#"001
:. )astl!, soft drin0s industr! in 4eneral s+ould consider sales 5romotion as one of t+e best
5romotional mi8es for ac+ie<in4 +i4+ sales <olume and +i4+ 5rofit.
Courtland, ). *. and Jo+n, V. &. A199"C 1ar2etin. Ne7 ,or0. cJra7 ;ill Inc., 55.:K3-:K:.
Jiles, J. *. A199:C 1ar2etin. Brentice ;all, Ne7 ,or0, cJra7 ;ill.
Dotler, B. A199KC 1ar2etin 1anaement$ #nalysis. !lannin. 3 "mplement and &ontrol. Brentice
;all of India Bri<ate )td.. %el5+i. 9
Dotler, B. A"000C 1ar2etin 1anaement. #nalysis. !lannin. "mplement and &ontrol. t+e
illennium $d. A10t+ $ditionC, 55.::0-:9:.
Dotler, B. and Armstron4 A199=C !rinciples of 1ar2etin. K
$dition. Brentice ;all.55. 3"0-330.
)uc0!, J. D. and 3ie4ler. 2. A19=8C Sales !romotion and 1odern 1erchandisin. Ne7
,or0, cJra7 ;ill.
N7o0o!e, J.N. A"000C 1odern 1ar2etin for 0ieria$ !rinciple and !ractice. Second $dition,
Africana-1eb Bublis+ers )td., 'nits+a. Ni4eria. B. "3".
'lu6ide, J.'., Alao, B.'. A"00"C 4Sales !romotion$ #n "ndispensable 1ar2etin Tool4. in 'lu6ide
S *amiduro A$dsC Elements of 1ar2etin 1anaement "" Ilorin, &im Sal Bublis+ers.
'stland, ).$. .A19=9C The 5ole of !roduct 5eceptions in "nnovation Behaviour. 9t+ $dition, Ne7
Jerse!, Brentice ;all.
Stran4 A19K=C @Sales Bromotion, 1ast and Jro7t+, 1ault! ana4ement@. Harvard Business
5eview. Jul!-Au4ust, 55. 11:-1"9