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R. Ludwig and G.

Bogdanov
RF Circuit Design: Theory and Applications
2
nd
edition
Figures for Chapter 1
Figure 1-1 Block diagram of a generic RF system.
DAC
OSC.
PA
ADC LNA
D
i
g
i
t
a
l

C
i
r
c
u
i
t
r
y
Analog-to-Digital
Converter
Digital-to-Analog
Converter
Local Oscillator
Transmitter
Power Amplifier
Receiver Low
Noise Amplifier
Switch
Low-Pass
Filter
Bandpass
Filter
Antenna
Mixed Signal
Circuits
Analog Circuits
Mixer
Figure 1-2(a) Simplified circuit diagram of the first stage of a 2 GHz power
amplifier for a mobile phone.
+
V
B
+
V
C
RF
in
To the Second
Stage
RFC
RFC
BFG425W
C
B
C
B
R
C
1
C
3
C
2
C
4
100 pF
8.2 pF
100 pF
8.2 pF
DC Blocking
Capacitor
Interstage
Blocking Capacitor
RF Blocking
Networks
Input Matching
Network
Interstage Matching
Network
Stability
Resistor
Figure 1-2(b) Printed circuit board layout of the power amplifier.
BFG425
B
F
G
2
1
RF
in
RF
out
Input Matching
Network
First Stage
Transistor
Interstage Matching
Network
Output
Matching
Network
DC Bias Network
Second Stage
Transistor
Dual Transistor IC
0.5 inch

Figure 1-3 Electromagnetic wave propagation in free space. The electric and mag-
netic fields are shown at a fixed instance in time as a function of space ( are unit
vectors in x- and y-direction).
x
y
z
H = H
y
y
E = E
x
x
x,
^
y
^
.
Table 1-1 Frequency bands and their applications
Frequency Band Frequency Typical Application
VHF (Very High Frequency) 88 108 MHz FM broadcasting
UHF (Ultrahigh Frequency) 824 894 MHz
810 956 MHz
CDMA mobile phone service
GSM mobile phone service
UHF (Ultrahigh Frequency) 2,400 MHz WLAN
SHF (Superhigh Frequency) 5,000 5,850 MHz Unlicensed National
Information Infrastructure
SHF (Superhigh Frequency) 6,425 6,523 MHz Cable Television Relay
SHF (Superhigh Frequency) 3,700 4,200 MHz Geostationary fixed satellite
service
X Band 8 12.5 GHz Marine and airborne radar
Ku Band 12.5 18 GHz Remote sensing radar
K Band 18 26.5 GHz Radar
Ka Band 26.5 40 GHz Remote sensing radar
.
Figure 1-4 Skin depth behavior of copper aluminum
gold and typical solder
10
4
10
5
10
6
10
7
10
8
10
9
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
f, Hz
,

m
m
Solder
Al
Au
Cu

Cu
64.5 10
6
S/m, =

Al
40.0 10
6
S/m, =
Au
48.5 10
6
S/m, =

sol der
6.38 10
6
S/m. =
Figure 1-5(a) Schematic cross-sectional AC current density representation
normalized to DC current density.
2a
Current Flow
|J
z
|

/J
z0
r
a a
Low current
density
High current
density
Figure 1-5(b) Frequency behavior of normalized AC current density for a copper
wire of radius a = 1 mm.
r, mm
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
1 kHz
10 kHz
100 kHz
1 MHz 10 MHz
100 MHz
1 GHz
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 0
|
J
z
|

/
J
z
0
Figure 1-6 The exact theoretical per-unit-length resistance as a function of
frequency for round wires of varying materials and radii. The dashed lines represent
the DC and skin depth based resistance approximations.
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
3
10
4
10
5
10
6
10
7
10
8
10
9
10
2
10
1
10
0
10
1
f, Hz
R
,

/
m
Cu, 0.1 mm
Cu, 1 mm
Al, 1 mm
Solder, 1 mm
Figure 1-7 One- and quarter-watt thin-film chip resistors in comparison with a
conventional quarter-watt resistor.
Figure 1-8 Electric equivalent circuit representation of a high frequency resistor.
R L L
C
a
C
b
Figure 1-9 Electric equivalent circuit representation of a wire-
wound resistor at high frequency.
R
C
1
L
1
C
2
L
2
L
2
Figure 1-10 Absolute impedance value of a 2000- thin-film resistor as
a function of frequency.
10
4
10
5
10
6
10
7
10
8
10
9
10
10
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
3
10
4
f, Hz
|
Z
|
,

Ideal resistance
Capacitive effect
Inductive effect
Figure 1-11 Electric equivalent circuit of a capacitor at high frequency.
L
R
e
C
R
s
Figure 1-12 Absolute value of the capacitor impedance as a func-
tion of frequency.
10
6
10
7
10
8
10
9
10
10
10
2
10
1
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
3
10
4
f, Hz
|
Z
|
,

Real capacitor
Ideal capacitor
Figure 1-13 Actual construction of a surface-mounted ceramic multilayer capacitor.
Electrodes
Ceramic material
Terminations
Figure 1-14 Distributed capacitance and series resistance in the inductor coil.
R
d
R
d
C
d
C
d
Figure 1-15 Equivalent circuit of the high-frequency inductor.
L R
s
C
s
Figure 1-16 Inductor dimensions of an air-core coil.
l
2a
2
r
d
Figure 1-17 Frequency response of the impedance of an RFC.
10
7
10
8
10
9
10
10
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
3
10
4
10
5
f, Hz
|
Z
|
,

Real inductor
Ideal
inductor

Table 1-2 Standard sizes of chip resistors
Geometry Size Code Length L, mils Width W, mils
0402 40 20
0603 60 30
0805 80 50
1206 120 60
1812 120 180
L W
Figure 1-18 Cross-sectional view of a typical chip resistor.
Protective coat
Resistive layer
Marking
Ceramic substrate
Inner electrodes
End contact
End contact
Figure 1-19 Cross section of a typical single-plate capacitor connected to the
board.
Circuit traces
Chip capacitor
Ribbon lead or wire
Figure 1-20 Clusters of single-plate capacitors sharing a common dielectric
material.
Dual capacitor
Quadrupole capacitor
Figure 1-21 Typical size of an RF wire-wound air-core inductor (courtesy of Coil-
craft, Inc.).
Figure 1-22 Flat coil configuration. An air bridge is made by using either a wire or a
conductive ribbon.
Air bridge
Terminal
Terminal
Figure 1-23 Construction of a three-dimensional LTCC/HTCC module made out of
individual layers of ceramic tape that are collated, stacked, and fired (courtesy of
Lamina Ceramics Inc.).
Buried
Resistor
Buried
Capacitor
Vias
Metal
Core
Metalization
on
Ceramic
Surface-mounted
active devices
Figure 1-24 Impedance and quality factor behavior of a real, non-magnetic core in-
ductor as measured by the HP 4192A LCR meter.
10
3
10
2
10
1
10
0
10
1
10
2
Q
10
1
10
2
10
3
10
4
10
5
10
6
10
7
10
1
10
2
10
3
10
4
10
5
10
6
10
7
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
3
10
4
10
5
f, Hz f, Hz
|
Z
|
,

Resistance
dominates
Inductive behavior
Self resonance
Capacitive
behavior
Figure 1-25 LCR meter with a plastic core torroidal inductor con-
nected to the test fixture and a measurement taken at 100 kHz.