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EXPERIMENT : DOL STARTER (PEMULA TERUS KE TALIAN)


1. AIM
To provide knowledge in Direct Online (DOL) Starter

2. OBJECTIVES
To familiarize the student with :
2.1 about control circuit and main circuit for D.O.L Starter.
2.2 Operation of AC Motor starting with D.O.L starter
2.3 About the control equipment for Electrical Motor Control.

3. EQUIPMENT LIST
3.1 Contactaor
3.2 Thermal Overload Relay (TOR)
3.3 ON-Off Push Button
3.4 Miniature Circuit Breaker (MCB)
3.5 Molded Case Circuit Breaker (MCCB)
3.6 Pilot Lamp
3.7 3 Phase Ac Motor (3/4 3hp)
3.8 Cable

4. THEORY
Different starting methods are employed for starting induction motors because
Induction Motor draws more starting current during starting. To prevent damage to
the windings due to the high starting current flow, we employ different types of
starters.The simplest form of motor starter for the induction motor is the Direct On
Line starter. The DOL starter consist a MCCB or Circuit Breaker, Contactor and an
overload relay for protection. Electromagnetic contactor which can be opened by the
thermal overload relay under fault conditions.
Typically, the contactor will be controlled by separate start and stop buttons,
and an auxiliary contact on the contactor is used, across the start button, as a hold in
contact. I.e. the contactor is electrically latched closed while the motor is operating.


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Principle of DOL:
To start, the contactor is closed, applying full line voltage to the motor windings.
The motor will draw a very high inrush current for a very short time, the magnetic
field in the iron, and then the current will be limited to the Locked Rotor Current of
the motor. The motor will develop Locked Rotor Torque and begin to accelerate
towards full speed.
As the motor accelerates, the current will begin to drop, but will not drop
significantly until the motor is at a high speed, typically about 85% of synchronous
speed. The actual starting current curve is a function of the motor design, and the
terminal voltage, and is totally independent of the motor load.
The motor load will affect the time taken for the motor to accelerate to full speed
and therefore the duration of the high starting current, but not the magnitude of the
starting current.
Provided the torque developed by the motor exceeds the load torque at all speeds
during the start cycle, the motor will reach full speed. If the torque delivered by the
motor is less than the torque of the load at any speed during the start cycle, the motor
will stops accelerating. If the starting torque with a DOL starter is insufficient for the
load, the motor must be replaced with a motor which can develop a higher starting
torque.
The acceleration torque is the torque developed by the motor minus the load
torque, and will change as the motor accelerates due to the motor speed torque curve
and the load speed torque curve. The start time is dependent on the acceleration
torque and the load inertia.
DOL starting have a maximum start current and maximum start torque. This may
cause an electrical problem with the supply, or it may cause a mechanical problem
with the driven load. So this will be inconvenient for the users of the supply line,
always experience a voltage drop when starting a motor. But if this motor is not a
high power one it does not affect much.


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5. EXPERIMENT PROCEDURE
5.1 EXERCISE 1 : CONTROL CIRCUIT
5.1.1 The control circuit was connected as shown in Figure 3(b).
5.1.2 The incoming voltage was taken from 1 of 3 line (R or Y or B) for single
phase.
5.1.3 The line was connected to the neutral (N) by using black cable.
5.1.4 The power supply was ON to run the controlling circuit.
5.1.5 The Operation of the control circuit was seen.

5.2 EXERCISE 2 : MAIN CIRCUIT
5.2.1 The circuit was connected as shown in Figure 4.
5.2.2 Incoming supply for the circuit was taken from 3 phase line 415V (R,Y,B
and N)
5.2.3 The Earth (E) was connected to the 3 phase motor ground.
5.2.4 The circuit was joined to AC Motor after Overload Relay (TOR) terminal.
5.2.5 The circuit was tested with 3 phase supply to make full operation of main
circuit and controlling circuit to AC Motor.
5.2.6 The operation of this D.O.L was seen.

6. DISCUSSION
6.1 Explain the result of this experiment.
Refer appendix 1

6.2 Explain the operation of Direct On Line Starter base on the exercise 1
and 2.
When the START button was pressed, the voltage supply flow through the
circuit then the motor will generate (rotating). At the same time, the indicator
lamp (blue) was bright up. When the STOP button was pressed, the circuit in
open condition and rotating motor was stop. Indicator lamp (red) will bright
up when the circuit in trip condition and it mean there are over current in the
circuit.

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6.3 What is the advantage and disadvantage of this DOL Starter.
Advantages :
Most Economical and Cheapest Starter
Simple to establish, operate and maintain
Simple Control Circuitry
Easy to understand and troubleshoot.
It provides 100% torque at the time of starting.
Only one set of cable is required from starter to motor.
Motor is connected in delta at motor terminals.

Disadvantages :
It does not reduce the starting current of the motor.
High Starting Current: Very High Starting Current (Typically 6 to 8
times the FLC of the motor).
Mechanically Harsh: Thermal Stress on the motor, thereby reducing its
life.
Voltage Dip: There is a big voltage dip in the electrical installation
because of high in-rush current affecting other customers connected to
the same lines and therefore not suitable for higher size squirrel cage
motors
High starting Torque: Unnecessary high starting torque, even when not
required by the load, thereby increased mechanical stress on the
mechanical systems such as rotor shaft, bearings, gearbox, coupling,
chain drive, connected equipments, etc. leading to premature failure
and plant downtimes.

6.4 Explain function of equipment list.
i. Contactor
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contactor can stand on its own as a power control device, or as part of a starter.
Contactors are used by electrical equipment that is frequently turned off and
on (opening and closing the circuit), such as lights, heaters and motors.

ii. Thermal overload relay (TOR)
Thermal overload relays are protective devices. They are designed to cut
power if the motor draws too much current for an extended period of time. To
accomplish this, thermal overload relays contain a normally closed (NC) relay.
When excessive current flows through the motor circuit, the relay opens due to
increased motor temperature, relay temperature, or sensed overload current,
depending on the relay type

iii. Push button
Normally Open (NO) Switch
A push to make switch allows electricity to flow between its two contacts
when held in. When the button is released, the circuit is broken.
Normally Closed (NC) Switch
A push to break switch does the opposite. When the button is not pressed,
electricity can flow, but when it is pressed the circuit is broken

iv. Miniature Circuit Breaker (MCB)
The function of the Miniature Circuit Breaker (MCB) is to protect cables and
conductors against overloads and short circuits, and electrical equipment from
overheating. Under certain fault conditions, the MCB can protect against
shock currents caused by excessive touch voltage due to insulation failure.

v. Molded Case Circuit Breaker (MCCB)
MCCBs are intended to provide overcurrent protection for conductors and
equipment by opening automatically before the current reaches a value and
duration that will cause an excessive or dangerous temperature in conductors
or conductor insulation. Additionally, these devices can serveas the main
disconnecting means for a control panel. This protection pertains to low level
overcurrent, short circuit current and Ground faults.
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vi. Pilot Lamp
A pilot lamp is a light that illuminates under specific conditions, most
commonly when an electrical circuit is energized. It may also be known as an
indicator lamp or pilot light, although this should not be confused with a small
flame kept burning in a gas appliance to provide a source for ignition when the
appliance is turned on.

vii. Three Phase AC Motor
The AC induction motor is a rotating electric machine designed to operate
from a three-phase source of alternating voltage. The stator is a classic three-
phase stator with the winding displaced by 120.

viii. Cable
To provide power from a power source to some piece of equipment or tool.
The basic and sole purpose of a power cable is to transport electrical energy
from the source of the electricity to the device.

7. CONCLUSION
For the conclusion, we knowing about the connection of DOL starter
completely. There are few different of connection between DOL starter and single
phase starter. At the same time, we knowing what the function of every equipment
that used. We also knowing what the advantages and disadvantages of DOL starter.
We learned how the control motor operate when the supply was given and what
would be happen when over current through the circuit.

8. REFERENCE
i. http://electricalnotes.wordpress.com/2012/03/13/direct-on-line-starter/
ii. http://www.galco.com/comp/prod/cont.htm
iii. http://bestof.answers.com/Q/What_is_the_main_function_of_a_contactor
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iv. http://www.globalspec.com/learnmore/electrical_electronic_components/relays_timer
s/thermal_overload_relays
v. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Push_switch
vi. http://www.lke-electric.com/corp/miniature-circuit-breaker
vii. http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-pilot-lamp.htm