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Identification of Organizational barriers towards the failure of
implementation of Total Productive maintenance (TPM) in Pakistan

Name of Student : Muhammad Adeel Munir
Registration No. : 2009-MS-EM-13
Date of Registration : 24-10-2009
Part Time /Full Time: Part Time

YEAR 2012


The economic and political realities of the 1990s forced managers to reverse long-standing
organizational cultures in order to reduce costs and energy expenditures in their organizations.
For Instance, these can be achieved, with respect to maintenance, by replacing a reactive repair-
focused attitude by a proactive reliability-focused culture. There by far less
(i) Human effort is expended and
(ii) Energy would be wasted, both of which lead to increased profitability.
Keeping in view the above stated scenario a study is conducted to develop productive system in
which less wastage of energy and resources occur. Remarkable improvements have occurred
recently in the maintenance management of physical assets and productive systems. The
requirement for optimal preventive maintenance, using, for instance, just-in-time (JIT) and total
quality-management (TQM) techniques, has given rise to what has been called the total
productive-maintenance (TPM) approach. TPM as a strategy and culture for improving its
performance and suggests self-auditing and bench-marking as desirable prerequisites before
TPM implementation.
In manufacturing firms, concept of total productive maintenance (TPM) & lean manufacturing is
becoming very popular. To support these ideas equipment/machine performance & cost is very
important due to global competitive environment. Cost reduction by TPM will be more useful for
the Management. However, there is not enough research available towards translating the
concept of TPM in term of tangible economic benefits for availability, usability, performance
efficiency and rate of quality products. We will also discuss political, financial, departmental and
inter-occupational barriers in implementation of TPM in Pakistan.
OBJECTIVES (To be attained)
Following are the objectives to be attained after the successful completion of this research work:
To calculate the Cost saving by total productive maintenance by analyzing its impact on
OEE of a machine.
To analyze the political, financial, departmental and inter-occupational challenges and
barriers in the implementation of (TPM) in Pakistan.
To analyzed that how six big losses(Failure and emergency shutdown, Line set-up &
configuration, Idle time& short-time stop, Speed reduction, Wastes & rework, Start-up
losses) will be reduced through TPM.
To explore the dependent of TPM on managerial factors such as Just-in-time JIT, Total
quality management (TQM) and Employee involvement as well as environmental and
organizational factors such as country, industry and company characteristics.
To analyze that is it viable to implement TPM in manufacturing industries of Pakistan for
Cost Saving?
M.C. Eti, S.O.T. Ogaji and S.D [2] Probert worked on reducing the cost of preventive
maintenance (PM) through adopting a proactive reliability-focused culture and concluded
that most large companies lose between 2% and 16% of annual turnover due to
downtime. In general, human error and laziness are the causes of at least 20% of
downtime costs. This can be improved significantly by only using properly trained
personnel and by devising and using appropriate information-technology controlled
processes, thereby providing better proactive servicing.
Abdul Talib Bon, Lim Ping Ping [3] worked on implementation of total productive
maintenance in automotive industry and explored the difference between before and after
the TPM implementation to OEE result. Comparison between before and after the
implementation of TPM is carried out to see the difference that TPM can bring to an
organization. Elements that constitute the OEE equation will be analyzed in order to
identify which one that affects OEE result. After identifying, improvement will be made
on that element so that OEE result will be improved ultimately. The approach used in
their paper is experimental and the instruments used to collect data are observation and
interview. Microsoft Excel is used to analyze data obtained and calculate OEE. Hence,
TPM is a useful tool in helping firm to achieve optimal manufacturing process.
Ir.K.Batumalay and Dr.A.S.Santhapparaj [4] investigated Overall Equipment
Effectiveness (OEE) through total productive maintenance (TPM) Practices. They
conducted a Study across the Malaysian Industries and concluded that preventive
maintenance, quality maintenance and training and education contribute to the OEE.
Also, the biggest OEE contributing when combining all the three TPM pillars is training
and education.
M. Moradi, M. R. Abdollahzadeh, A. Vakili [5] worked on effects of Implementing 5S on
total productive maintenance and concluded that implementation of TPM reveals the fact
that it causes improvement in OEE, productivity, safety and quality. However, 5S
execution is an essential prerequisite of implementation of TPM.The results of their
research confirm that all 5S principles affect TPM directly or indirectly. These effects
have been studied for each pillar of TPM. 5S in particular, can provide better state to
reduce six big losses and therefore improve OEE. Furthermore, it can promote
collaboration culture in organization that attempts to elevate staff willingness for
autonomous maintenance. Survey of one factory in Iran supports findings of their paper
and shows that 5S execution provides better conditions for implementation of TPM.
K. C. Ng , G. G. G. Goh, U. C. Eze [6] highlighted the importance of critical success
factors in the successful deployment of TPM programmes in manufacturing
organizations. It can also be observed that the soft or human-oriented aspects of TPM
implementation play a crucial role in the success of its implementation and hence should
require the adequate attention of the management. Among these critical success factors
are top management involvement, training and education, benchmarking, effective
communication, cultural change and following established TPM procedures.
M.C. Eti, S.O.T. Ogaji and S.D. Probert [7] worked on a methodology for the
development of preventive maintenance using the modern approaches of FMEA (failure
modes and effect analysis), root-cause analysis, and fault-tree analysis is presented.
Applying preventive maintenance leads to a cost reduction in maintenance and less
overall energy expenditure. Implementation of preventive maintenance is preferable to
the present reactive maintenance procedures (still prevalent in Nigeria).
Anil S. Badiger [8] proposed a method to evaluate OEE by including a factor known as
usability, in the OEE calculation method. Further, an approach is developed to evaluate
the earning capacity of addressing the six big losses, with incremental improvement in
OEE, as an extension to the maturity of OEE. According to him in the recent past
maintenance strategy has gained heightened importance in organizations and requires the
manufacturing and maintenance managers to develop and follow well devised production
and maintenance plans. Remarkable improvement has taken place in the maintenance
management of physical assets and productive systems, to reduce wastage of energy and
resources. Overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) methodology is a proven approach to
increase overall performance of equipment.
Pintelon, Liliane; KULeuven, muchiri [9] investigated that for improving productivity in
the current global competitive environment has led to a need for rigorously defined
performance measurement systems for manufacturing processes. OEE is described as
such kind of performance measurement tool that measures different types of production
losses and indicates areas of process improvement. Analysis is done on how OEE has
evolved leading to other tools like TEEP (Total equipment effectiveness performance),
PEE (Production equipment effectiveness, OFE (Overall factory effectiveness), OPE
(Overall plant effectiveness) and OAE (Overall asset effectiveness). Two industrial
examples of OEE application were discussed and the differences between theory and
Practice analyzed. Finally, a framework for classifying and measuring production losses
for overall production effectiveness is proposed. The framework harmonizes the
differences between theory and practice and makes possible the presentation of overall
production asset effectiveness (OAE) that can be customized with the manufacturers
needs to improve productivity.
Ohwoon Kwon and Hongchul Lee [10] devised a Calculation methodology for
contributive managerial effect by OEE as a result of TPM activities. The purpose of them
is to present the new quantitative calculation methodology model for estimating the
quantitative monetary managerial effects such as contribution profit and reduced cost as a
result of total productive maintenance (TPM) activities to measure what degree of
contribution to the managerial profits.
Laura Swanson [11] investigated that In order to achieve world-class performance, more
and more companies are replacing their reactive strategies for maintenance with proactive
strategies like preventive and predictive maintenance and aggressive strategies like total
productive maintenance (TPM). While these newer maintenance strategies require
increased commitments to training, resources and integration, they also promise to
improve performance. This reports the results of a study of the relationship between
maintenance strategies and performance. Based on the responses from a survey of plant
managers and maintenance managers, the analysis shows strong positive relationships
between proactive and aggressive maintenance strategies and performance
Fang Lee Cooke [12] reports the finding of a study of the production and maintenance
function of four processing/manufacturing companies. It intends to highlight the
difficulties that these companies have been faced with in their attempt to implement TPM
initiatives between the production and maintenance departments in order to improve
organizational efficiency. He concludes that implementing TPM is by no means an easy
task, which is heavily burdened by political, financial, departmental and inter-
occupational barriers.
Kathleen E. McKone , Roger G. Schroeder , Kristy O. Cua [13] investigated the
relationship between Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) and manufacturing
performance(MP) through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM).They found that TPM
has a positive and significant relationship with low cost (as measured by higher inventory
turns), high levels of quality (as measured by higher levels of conformance to
specifications), and strong delivery performance (as measured by higher percentage of
on-time deliveries and by faster speeds of delivery).They also found that the relationship
between TPM and MP can be explained by both direct and indirect relationships. In
particular, there is a significant and positive indirect relationship between TPM and MP
through Just-In-Time (JIT) practices.
Research will be conducted by going through the following phases step by step:
Literature Review (previous research, processes, procedures)
Work will be carried out in converting benefits of TPM in term of Cost by using different
models of overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) Presented by Nakajima (1988),Jeong
and Phillips (2001), Anil S. Badiger (2008).
A calculation methodology for contributing managerial effect by OEE as a result of TPM
activities in term of cost will be developed.
Practical implication of TPM will be studied for Packages Ltd Lahore and effect of TPM
on OEE will be determined in terms of cost.
For flexibility of calculation, cost analysis will be carried out by using the Microsoft
excel or excel based software. This will help to highlight the high weight-age cost/losses
& to reduce them.
A questionnaire survey will be developed for top management, middle management and
lower staff to determine the critical barriers and challenges due to which the TPM is not
implemented successfully.
It will be observed that what are the contributions of pillars of TPM on OEE (specially
autonomous maintenance, focused improvement and health and safety environment).
Results & Conclusion.
Utilization of Research Results
This cost based analysis will be more helpful for management/firms to understand the
different losses/costs associated with equipments.
Further, losses based cost will be reduced after collecting, observing & analyzing. Thus,
it will help the management to reduce the Firms expenditures.
The main findings of this research will be the critical success of TPM implementation
such as commitment from top management, cultural change, education and training,
clear vision and mission, effective communication.
Research Time Table. (Showing the period for the start of work and expected time for each
stage like literature review, time for gathering data, analysis of results and submission of
thesis etc)


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 . 24
Time (Week)

Literature Review
Gathering Data
Results & Analysis
Writing-up & Submission

1. Total productive maintenance: Proven strategies and techniques to keep equipment
running at peak efficiency, Steven Borris; 2006.
2. M.C. Eti, S.O.T. Ogaji , S.D. Probert, April 2006,Science direct, Reducing the cost of
preventive maintenance (PM) through adopting a proactive reliability-focused culture.
3. Abdul Talib Bon, Lim Ping Ping, 2011, IEEE, Symposium on Business, Engineering and
Industrial Applications (ISBEIA), Langkawi, Malaysia,Implementation of Total
Productive Maintenance (TPM) in Automotive Industry.
4. Ir.K.Batumalay, Dr.A.S.Santhapparaj,2010, IEEE ,Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE)
through Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) Practices, A Study across the Malaysian
5. M. Moradi, M. R. Abdollahzadeh, A. Vakili, IEEE,2011, Industrial Engineering
Department, Urmia University of Technology, Urmia, Iran Effects of Implementing 5S
on Total Productive Maintenance: A case in Iran.
6. K. C. Ng , G. G. G. Goh, U. C. Eze , Critical Success Factors of Total Productive
Maintenance Implementation: A Review,2011,IEEE,Faculty of Business & Law,
Multimedia University, Melaka, Malaysia.
7. M.C. Eti ,S.O.T. Ogaji , S.D. Probert,2006,Science direct, Development and implementation
of preventive-maintenance practices in Nigerian industries.
8. Anil S. Badiger, R. Gandhinathan,2008,Science direct,A proposal: evaluation of OEE and
impact of six big losses on equipment earning capacity.
9. Pintelon, Liliane; KULeuven, muchiri, peter; KULeuven, November2006,Sciece
direct,Performance measurement using overall equipment effectiveness (OEE): Literature
review and practical application discussion.
10. Ohwoon Kwon and Hongchul Lee, November 2004,Science direct,Calculation
methodology for contributive managerial effect by OEE as a result of TPM activities.
11. Laura Swanson,2001,Elsevier,Linking maintenance strategies to performance.
12. Fang Lee Cooke UMIST Manchester, UK, July 2000,Implementing TPM in plant
maintenance: Some organizational barriers.
13. Kathleen E. McKone , Roger G. Schroeder b, Kristy O. Cuab, October 1999,Elsevier,The
impact of total productive maintenance practices on manufacturing performance.


Signature of Supervisor Signature of Student
Endst. No. Univ./_________ Dated:__________

The above proposal duly recommended by the Departmental Board of Studies/Committee of
Post-Graduate Studies in its meeting held on _____________is forwarded to the Director of Research
for obtaining the approval of the Vice- chancellor.

Dean, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Chairman/Director
Of the Department