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URP-601

Planning and Development Issues


CRITICAL REVIEW
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND CLIMATE CHANGE :
BEYOND MITIGATION AND ADAPTATION
By :
M. Luthfi Eko Nugroho
21040114410049
MASTER OF URBAN AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT
DIPONEGORO UNIVERSITY
2014
URP-601
Planning and Development Issues
CRITICAL REVIEW
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND CLIMATE CHANGE :
BEYOND MITIGATION AND ADAPTATION
By :
M. Luthfi Eko Nugroho
21040114410049
MASTER OF URBAN AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT
DIPONEGORO UNIVERSITY
2014
URP-601
Planning and Development Issues
CRITICAL REVIEW
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND CLIMATE CHANGE :
BEYOND MITIGATION AND ADAPTATION
By :
M. Luthfi Eko Nugroho
21040114410049
MASTER OF URBAN AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT
DIPONEGORO UNIVERSITY
2014
CRITICAL REVIEW
Sustainable Development and Climate Change : Beyond Mitigation and Adaptation
What is Climate Change?
Climate change has become a trending issue in many discussion forum in many countries in
the world. According to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
(UNFCCC), states that climate change caused by human activities, directly and indirectly that
change global atmosphere composition and climate variability for the last centuries.
UNFCCC also states that the effect of climate change are :
1. Global Warming
For last 15 years is become warmest year since 1850. Global warming for last 50 year reach
almost twice from the average of last a hundred year. Global temperature increasing by 0,74
o
C between 20
th
century.
2. Increase CO2 concentration in atmosphere
Nowdays, carbondioxide is dominant cause to the climate change and concentration in
atmosphere has increasing from 278 ppm (parts-permillion) in pre-industry period to 379
ppm in 2005.
3. More water in some area, less water in many area
In some countries, availability of water are increase. Rainfall intencity is also increasing,
even become a disaster (flood, landslide, strom surge, etc). But in another countries are have
a problem with dryness. Gap between water demand and supply is unbalance.
4. Sea level rise
During 19
th
until 20
th
century, sea level rise has increasing to 0,17 meter. Geological
observation indicate that increase sea level rise is much more than 2.000 years before. Global
sea temperature also increasing until 3.000 meter depth.
5. Snow cover reduction
Since 1900, maximum area that covered by snow have decreasing, especially in northern
hemisphere.
6. Melting glaciers
Glaciers mountain have been decreasing and giving contribution to 0,77 milimeter per year to
sea level rise since 1993 to 2003. Retreating snow sheets in Greenland and Antarctica
contributed by 0.4 mm per year to sea level rise (between 1993 2003).
All kinds of methods are used to deal with the climate change. Many research conducted by
experts around the world, the establishment of research center and donors to climate change,
doing the subsidies and carbon trading between developed countries with developing
countries and the third world countries. Researchers began to study how the phenomenon of
climate change can occur, what is the contributing factors, as well as how to handle it. The
entire resource is done to address and reduce the impact of climate change.
Addressing the climate change impact can be done in two ways, mitigation and adaptation.
IPCC Third Assessment Report mentions adaptation as an adjustment in natural or human
systems to a new environment or a change of environment. While mitigation is the reduction
of greenhouse gas emissions by tackling the sources of the cause.
Is the climate change really happened?
Some experts are mention that there is no climate change, there is only climate variability.
Disaster management expert from Gajah Mada University, Prof. Sudibyakto said that people
have to understand correctly about the issue of climate change. Climate change is happening
right now in fact only climate variability. Climate change occurs when the climate variability
occurs in a very long period of time, over 30 years or even 100 years.
Climate variability refers to the climatic parameter of a region varying from its long-term
mean. Every year in a specific time period, the climate of a location is different. Some years
have below average rainfall, some have average or above average rainfall. Keely, 2011
mention that scientists think of climate variability as the way climate fluctuates yearly above
or below a long-term average value. You can think of it as a story with two parts: average and
range. These parts complement each other; understanding the range gives context to the
average and vice versa.
So, the definition about climate variability was nearly defined. Keely, 2011 also mention that
there would be climate variability in climate change. If it just happened in short term period it
called climate variability, but if it happened in long period, for instance in last centuries, we
can define it as a climate change. The important things to define and distinguish between
climate variability and climate change is from the data used in current period.
Which more important : mitigation or adaptation?
Whether mitigation and adaptation, both have same rule in tackling the impacts of climate
change. IPPC Fourth Assessment Report mention that there is close relationship between
mitigation and adaptation that is mitigation affecting adaptation and adaption affecting
mitigation. But some experts mention that adaptation is more important in how to dealing
with climate change. Implementing mitigation program to reduce carbon in atmosphere, it
will need a big effort to do that kind of method. For example, if we want to reduce energy
from the electricity, first, we have to find way to save electrical consumption and also try to
find alternative energy for producing electricity. Using solar panel is one of example
mitigation activity. But the problem is getting solar panel needs alot of money. There is no
economic price yet for solar panel because they still have a problem with producing solar
panel in mass production.
Different with mitigation, adaptation is only need to adjust with current condition, whether in
normal situation or in climate change situation. It doesnt need alot of effort to do adaptation.
Case in Semarang, Indonesia shows that adaptation is more easier and cheaper. In Semarang
coastal area, there is a coastal erotion that cause lose of land until more than 1 kilometers.
Construction sea dike need alot of money, so the local community found strategy to deal with
coastal erotion. They use many used tyre to build the dike along the shoreline. They can
prevent coastal erotion, but on the other hand they dont have to spend much their money.
Climate change and sustainable development
Nowdays, climate change issues become important aspect in order to make sure development
can work well. Especially in developing countries, studies show that some of the most
adverse effects of climate change will be in developing countries, where populations are most
vulnerable and least likely to easily adapt to climate change. Changes in temperature, water
supply and quality will impact on agricultural production, human settlement and health,
biodiversity and animal migratory patterns (IPCC, 2001). In each development planning
document should consider about this climate change aspect. In Indonesia, there are two kind
of major planning document, spatial planning and national development planning system.
Climate change should be integrated into those documents.
Transportation, water management, housing, agriculture, and other sector which related to the
urban development also affected climate change. Developing countries which has so much
poor people, become more vurnerable to the climate change. Integrating climate change into
development planning become very important in developing countries.
Economic impacts caused by climate change is very large. Because in developing countries,
economic resources are very limited, infrastructure condition is also not so ideal, human
resources also still under index of human development.
New problems caused by climate change mitigation and adaptation
Sustainable development that considers aspects of climate change does not mean then do not
create new problems. The new problems then arises as a result of the activity of mitigation
and adaptation to climate change. The concept of carbon trading is done in climate change
mitigation activities ultimately turned conducted for financial profit only. Poor countries and
developing countries financed by the developed countries in implementing climate change
mitigation become new comodities. Economic become the main motive, rather than in order
to delivering sustainable development. As well as climate change adaptation, many
developed countries also providing alot of financial scheme for developing and poor
countries as cleaning of sin from the developed countries.
Conclusion
Sustainable development become a very important thing in order to establish a balance
between the progress of human civilization with environmental sustainability. In an order to
realize the principles of sustainable development hard effort required, particularly dealing
with impact caused by climate change. Human activity in the development is hard enough to
put pressure on the environment, coupled with the pressure from climate change. Pressure on
the environment become very heavy if it happens in poor countries and developing countries.
Climate change mitigation and adaptation be an attempt to help reduce the pressure on the
environment. But special case in poor countries and developing countries, adaptation to
climate change relatively more easier way and cheaper than having to implement programs to
climate change mitigation.
References
Dinse, Keely.2011.Michigan Sea Grant. www.miseagrant.umich.edu/climate
IPCC.2001.Synthesis Report Summary for Policymakers, Assessment from Working Group
I, II, dan III to IPCC Third Assessment Report.Geneva: IPCC
IPCC.2007.Working Group II Report Impacts, Adaptation, and Vurnerability. Geneva:
IPCC
Prasad, N., Ranghieri, F., Shah, F., Trohanis, Z., Kessler, E., Sinha, R.2010.Kota
Berketahanan Iklim.Jakarta: Penerbit Salemba Empat