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3 ChemicalsTutorial

3.1 Introduction......................................................................................3
3.2 SteadyStateSimulation..................................................................4
3.2.1 ProcessDescription.................................................................4
3.2.2 SettingYourSession Preferences...........................................5
3.2.3 DefiningtheFluid Package......................................................8
3.2.4 DefiningtheReaction............................................................17
3.2.5 Enteringthe Simulation Environment....................................26
3.2.6 UsingtheWorkbook..............................................................28
3.2.7 InstallingEquipmentonthePFD...........................................46
3.2.8 Viewing Results.....................................................................66
3.3 DynamicSimulation......................................................................76
3.3.1 SimplifyingtheSteadyStateFlowsheet................................ 77
3.3.2 UsingtheDynamicsAssistant...............................................78
3.3.3 ModelingaCSTROpentotheAtmosphere.......................... 82
3.3.4 Adding ControllerOperations................................................86
3.3.5 Monitoringin Dynamics.........................................................92
3-1
3-2
The complete case for this
tutorial has been pre-built and
is located in the file
TUTOR3.HSC in your
HVSVS\Samples directory.
3.1 Introduction
In this tutorial, a flowsheet for the production of propylene glycol is
presented. Propylene oxide is combined with water to produce
propylene glycol in a continuously-stiffed-tank reactor (CSTR). The
reactor outlet stream is then fed to a distillation tower, where essentially
all the glycol is recovered in the tower bottoms. A flowsheet for this
process appears below.
Figure 3.1

Reacto( RebDuty
'---'=-"=t--Oi;tOI
Tower
The following pages will guide you through building a HYSYS case for
modeling this process. This example will illustrate the complete
construction of the simulation, including selecting a property package
and components, defining the reaction, installing streams and unit
operations, and examining the final results. The tools available in HYSYS
interface will be utilized to illustrate the flexibility available to you.
Before proceeding, you should have read Chapter A - HYSYS Tutorials
which precedes the tutorials in this manual.
3-3
Thesimulationwillbebuilt
usingthesebasicsteps:
1. Createaunitset.
2. Chooseaproperty
package.
3. Selectthecomponents.
4, Definethereaction.
5. Createandspecifythe
feedstreams.
6. InstallanddefinetheMixer
andReactor.
7. Installanddefinethe
Distillation Column.
TheWorkbookdisplays
informationaboutstreamsand
unitoperationsinatabular
format, whilethePFDisa
graphicalrepresentationofthe
flowsheet.
3.2 State Simulation
3.2.1 Process Description
The process being modeled in this example is the conversion of
propylene oxide and water to propylene glycol in a CSTR Reactor. The
reaction products are then separated in a distillation tower. A flowsheet
for this process appears below.
Figure3.2
i Re"";;tor -
.....
Oxide L,. . Mir
Out
--- MIX100 Reactor r Coolant

__
.._---
RebDu!V
TOwsr
The propylene oxide and water feed streams are combined in a Mixer.
The combined stream is fed to a Reactor, operating at atmospheric
pressure, in which propylene glycol is produced. The Reactor product
stream is fed to a distillation tower, where essentially all the glycol is
recovered in the bottoms product.
The two primary building tools, Workbook and PPD, are used to install
the streams and operations, and to examine the results while
progressing through the simulation. Both ofthese tools provide you with
a large amount of flexibility in building your simulation and in quickly
accessing the information you need.
The Workbook is used to build the first part ofthe flowsheet, including
the feed streams and the mixer. The PPD is then used to install the
reactor, and a special sequence of views called the Input Expert will be
used to install the distillation column.
3-4
3.2.2 Setting Your Session Preferences
Start HYSYS and create a new case. Your first task is to set your Session
Preferences.
1. From the Tools menu, select Preferences. The Session Preferences
view appears.
Figure3.3
.... ... ..JQJU.
10'=-----1
jDodttop ! ir U ModoIP!cporIyV_ P CarHmModoSwileho. ,
i
Namilg
IIP R."",dTinoWhenN_AleModrlOd r E""bleSingleClickAcboN!
: TooHips i i P EnableCmH... OnPFD P EnableCoiEcUlIton I
i I ....::;
jPetr;Jll11oOl'lCe i ir ;
!I.iconoing I'i r
I
I::Wrldow .. 1 I . - -.. -
I.T'__ ... __ ._.__
2. The Simulation tab, Options page should be visible. Ensure that the
Use Modal Property Views checkbox is unchecked.
3. Click the Variables tab, then select the Units page.
3-5
Creating aNew Unit Set
Thefirsttaskyouperformwhenbuildingthesimulationcaseis
choosingaunitset.HYSYSdoesnotallowyoutochangeanyofthethree
defaultunitsetslisted,however,youcancreateanewunitsetbycloning
anexistingone.Forthistutorial,youwillcreateanewunitsetbasedon
theHYSYSFieldset,thencustomizeit
1. IntheAvailableUnitsSetslist,selectField.
ThedefaultunitforLiq.Vol. Flowisbarrellday;nextyouwillchangethe
Liq.Vol. FlowunitstoUSGPM.
Figure3.4
ThedefaultPreferencefileis
namedHYSYS.prf.Whenyou
modifyanyofthepreferences,
youcansavethechangesina
newPreferencefilebyclicking
theSavePreferenceSet
button.HYSYSpromptsyouto
provideanameforthenew
Preferencefile, whichyoucan
laterrecallintoanysimulation
casebyclickingtheLoad
PreferenceSetbutton.
2. ClicktheClonebutton.AnewunitsetnamedNewUserappearsin
theAvailableUnitSetslist.
3. IntheUnitSetNamefield,changethenametoField-USGPM.You
cannowchangetheunitsforanyvariableassociatedwiththisnew
unitset.
4. FindtheLiq.Vol.Flowcell.Clickinthebarrel/daycellbesideit.
5. Toopenthelistofavailableunits,clickthedownarrow ..::J, orpress
theF2keythentheDownarrowkey.
36
6. From the list, select USGPM.
Figure 3.5
_ e ~ ~ l o n Pteference'li (hys-yS-.PRf) ';9
7. Your new unit set is now defined. Close the Session Preferences view.
3-7
New Case Icon
All commands accessed via
the tool bar are also available
as menu items.
HYSYS displays the current
Environment and Modein the
upper right corner of the view.
Whenever you begin a new
case, you are automatically
placed in the Basis
Environment, where you can
define your property package
and components.
The Simulation Basis
Manager allows you to create,
modify, and otherwise
manipulate Fluid Packages in
your simulation case. Most of
the time, as with this example,
you will require only one Fluid
Package for your entire
simulation.
HYSYS has created a Fluid
Package with the default name
Basls-1. You can change the
name of this fluid package by
typing a new name in the
Name cell at the bottom of the
view.
3.2.3 Defining the Fluid Package
1. Click the New Case icon.
2. The Simulation Basis Manager appears.
Figure 3.6
The next task is to create a Fluid Package. A Fluid Package, at minimum,
contains the components and property method that HYSYS will use in
its calculations for a particular flowsheet. Depending on what a specific
flowsheet requires, a Fluid Package may also contain other information
such as reactions and interaction parameters.
Creating aFluid Package
1. Click the Fluid Pkgs tab of the Simulation Basis Manager.
2. Click the Addbutton. The Fluid Package property view appears.
Figure 3.7
3-8
TheFluidPackagepropertyviewallowsyoutosupplyallthe
informationrequiredtocompletelydefinetheFluidPackage.Inthis
tutorialyouwillusethefollowingtabs:SetUp,BinaryCoeffs(Binary
Coefficients),andRxns(Reactions).
YouchoosethePropertyPackageontheSetUptab.Thecurrently
selectedpropertypackageis<none>.Thereareanumberof waysto
selectthedesiredbasepropertypackage,inthiscaseUNIQUAC.
3. Dooneofthefollowing:
Begintyping UNIQUAC,andHYSYSfindsthematchtoyour
input.
UsetheverticalscrollbartomovedownthelistuntilUNIQUAC
becomesvisible,thenclickonit.
Figure3.8
ThePropertyPkgindicatorbaratthebottomoftheviewnowindicates
UNIQUACisthecurrentpropertypackageforthisFluidPackage.
Alternatively,youcanselecttheActivityModelsradiobuttoninthe
PropertyPkgFiltergroup,producingalistofonlythoseproperty
packageswhichareActivityModels.UNIQUACappearsinthefiltered
list,asshownhere.
Figure3.10
39
IntheComponentListSelectiondrop-downlist,HYSYSfilterstothe
librarycomponentstoincludeonlythoseappropriatefortheselected
PropertyPackage.Inthiscase,nocomponentshaveyetbeendefined.
Selecting Components
Nowthatyouhavechosenthepropertypackagetobeusedinthe
simulation,yournexttaskistoselectthecomponents.
1. IntheComponentListSelectiongroup,clicktheViewbutton.The
ComponentListViewappears.
Figure 3.11
Eachcomponentcanappearinthreeforms,correspondingtothethree
radiobuttonsthatappearabovethecomponentlist.
Feature I Description
SlmName The name appearing within the simulation.
FuliNamelSynonym IUPAC name (or similar). and synonyms for many components.
Formula The chemical formula of the component. This is useful when you
are unsure of the library name of a component, but know its
formula.
310
Basedontheselectedradiobutton,HYSYSlocatesthecomponent(s)
thatbestmatchestheinformationyoutypeintheMatchfield.
Inthistutorialyouwillusepropyleneoxide,propyleneglycolandH20.
First,youwilladdpropyleneoxidetothecomponentlist.
2. EnsuretheSimNameradiobuttonisselectedandtheShow
Synonymscheckboxischecked.
3. IntheMatchfield, starttypingpropyleneoxide,asoneword.HYSYS
filtersthelistasyoutype,displayingonlythosecomponentsthat
matchyourinput.
Figure3.12
4. Whenpropyleneoxideisselectedinthelist,addittotheSelected
ComponentsListbydoingoneof thefollowing:
PresstheENTER key.
ClicktheAdd Pure button.
Double-clickon PropyleneOxlde.
3-11
filters
rPropeltyPackageFllterl
Ir Re.;on,lnehdedOnl;/ I
II<none> 31
1____._.___.__----1
rFamily Type
IP' UseFilter i
Ir Hydloearbor\s !
Ir Solid$
I
r Ml:celaneous
r Amines
1r AIcoI1oI;
Ir Ketones
ir Aldehydes
Ir Etbilrs
!r CaboHylicAcids
Ir Halogens
IrN..
'I r Phenok
r Ethers
! r User.l)efined
I
j
AI
---,nv-ert--.....
II
Ii
L -.1
ThecomponentnowappearsintheSelectedComponentsList.
Figure3.13
Addea.pan,.


:
I
Electrol\<.
. Hypolheiiool
I:Othel
i
I
I
AnothermethodforfindingcomponentsistousetheViewFiltersto
displayonlythosecomponentsbelongingtocertainfamilies.
Next,youwilladdPropyleneGlycoltothecomponentlistusingthe
filter.
5. EnsuretheMatchfieldisemptybypressingALTMandthenthe
DELETEkey.
6. ClicktheViewFiltersbutton.TheFiltersviewappears.
7. ClicktheUseFiltercheckboxtoactivatethefiltercheckboxes.
8. SincePropyleneGlycolisanalcohol,clicktheAlcoholscheckbox.
3-12
9. IntheMatchfield,begintypingpropyleneglycol,asoneword.
HYSYSfiltersasyoutype,displayingonlythealcoholsthatmatch
yourinput.
Figure 3.14

I
T,-""
.

0",," ,-_Pur. I
(s_,I
R...-..> I
s...WoII
I!lelch IpI1l!lIOie
(,' SinN.... r F..",-IS_
T,iCa-G1/COI "'->01.81
10. WhenPropyleneGlycolisselectedinthelist,presstheENTERkeyto
addittotheSelectedComponentslist.
Finally.youwilladdthecomponentH20.
11. IntheFilterview. cleartheAlcoholscheckboxbyclickingonit.
12. EnsuretheMatchfieldisemptybypressingALTMandthenthe
DELETEkey
13. H20doesnotfitintoanyofthestandardfamilies,soclickonthe
Miscellaneouscheckbox.
14. ScrolldownthefilteredlistuntilH20isvisible.thendouble-clickon
H20toaddittotheSelectedComponentslist.
313
Acomponent can be
removed from the Selected
Components list by
selecting it and clicking the
Remove button or the
DELETE key.
15. Thefinalcomponentlistappearsbelow.
Figure 3.15
YieUJing Component Properl'ies
Toviewthepropertiesofoneormorecomponents,selectthe
component(s)andclicktheViewComponentbutton,HYSYSopensthe
propertyview(s)forthecomponent(s)youselect.
1. Clickon12C3diolintheSelectedComponentsList.
2. ClicktheViewComponentbutton.Thepropertyviewforthe
componentappears.
FIgure 3.16
...:r. 17 C3dm' :J
I
...-_.. -.---___
3-14
TheComponentpropertyviewprovidesyouwithcompleteaccesstothe
purecomponentinformationforviewingonly.Youcannotmodifyany
parametersforalibrarycomponent,however,HYSYSallowsyouto
clonealibrarycomponentintoaHypotheticalcomponent,whichcan
thenbemodifiedasdesired.RefertoChapter3- Hypotheticalsinthe
SimulationBasismanualformoreinformationoncloninglibrary
components.
3. Closetheindividualcomponentview,thenclosetheComponent
ListViewtoreturntotheFluidPackage.
Providing 8inarq
ThenexttaskindefiningtheFluidPackageisprovidingthebinary
interactionparameters.
1. ClicktheBinaryCoeffstabof theFluidPackageview ..
Figure 3.17
IntheActivityModelInteractionParametersgroup,theAij interaction
tableappearsbydefault.HYSYSautomaticallyinsertsthecoefficients
foranycomponentpairsforwhichlibrarydataisavailable.Youcan
changeanyofthevaluesprovidedbyHYSYS ifyouhavedataofyour
own.
3-15
Inthiscase,theonlyunknowncoefficientsinthetableareforthe
12C30xidel12-C3diolpair.Youcanenterthesevaluesifyouhave
availabledata,however,forthisexample,youwilluseoneofHYSYS'
built-inestimationmethodsinstead.
Next,youwillusetheUNIFACVLEestimationmethodtoestimatethe
unknownpair.
2. IntheCoeffEstimationgroup,ensuretheUNIFACVLEradiobutton
isselected.
3. ClicktheUnknownsOnlybutton.HYSYSprovidesvaluesforthe
unknownpair.ThefinalActivityModelInteractionParameterstable
fortheAij coefficientsappearsbelow.
Figure 3.18
4. ToviewtheBijcoefficienttable,selecttheBi;radiobutton.Forthis
example,all theBijcoefficientswillbeleftatthedefaultvalueof
zero.
316
BasisIcon
Thesestepswillbefollowed in
definingourreaction:
1. CreateanddefineaKinetic
Reaction.
2. Createa Reaction Set
containingthereaction.
3. ActivatetheReactionset
tomakeitavailableforuse
intheflowsheet.
3.2.4 Defining the Reaction
1. ReturntotheSimulationBasisManagerviewbyclickingonitstitle
bar,orbyclickingtheBasisicon.
2. ClicktheReactionstab.Thistaballowsyoutodefineanthe
reactionsfortheflowsheet.
Figure3.19
Thereactionbetweenwaterandpropyleneoxidetoproducepropylene
glycolisasfollows:
(3.1)
Selecting the Reaction Components
Thefirsttaskindefiningthereactionischoosingthecomponentsthat
willbeparticipatinginthereaction.Inthistutorial,allthecomponents
thatwereselectedintheFluidPackageareparticipatinginthereaction,
soyoudonothavetomodifythislist.Foramorecomplicatedsystem,
however,youwouldaddorremovecomponentsfromthelist.
Toaddorremoveacomponent,clicktheAddCompsbutton.The
ComponentListViewappears.RefertotheSelectingComponents
sectioninSection3.2.3DermingtheFluidPackageformore
information.
3-17
Creating the Reaction
Oncethereactioncomponentshavebeenchosen,thenexttaskisto
createthereaction.
L IntheReactionsgroup,clicktheAddRxnbutton.TheReactions
viewappears.
Figure3.20
2. Inthelist,selecttheKineticreactiontype,thenclicktheAdd
Reactionbutton.TheKineticReactionpropertyviewappears,
openedtotheStoichiometrytab.
Figure3.21
can specifywhichofthe Rxn
Componentsareinvolvedin
OntheStoichiometry'tab, you
~ : Kmehc Beilr.hot'l film1 I ' ~ l ] EI
theparticularreactionaswell
asthestoichiometryandthe
reaction order.
Oftenyouwillhavemorethan
onereactionoccurringin your
simulationcase.Onthe
Stoichiometrytabofeach
reaction,selectonlytheRxn
Componentsparticipatingin
thatreaction.
3. IntheComponentcolumn,clickinthecelllabeled**AddComp**.
4. SelectWaterasareactioncomponentbydoingoneofthefollowing:
Openthedrop-downlistandselectH20fromthelistofavailable
reaction components.
TypeH20.HYSYSfiltersasyoutype,searchingforthe
componentwhichmatchesyourinput. When H20isselected,
presstheENTER keytoaddittotheComponentlist.
5. Repeatthisproceduretoadd12C30xideand12-C3dioltothe
reactiontable.
3-18
Thenexttaskistoenterthestoichiometricinformation.Anegative
stoichiometriccoefficientindicatesthatthecomponentisconsumedin
thereaction,whileapositivecoefficientindicatesthecomponentis
produced.
6. IntheStoichCoeffcolumn,clickintheempty cell
correspondingtoH20.
7. Type-1 andpresstheENTER key.
8. Enterthecoefficientsfortheremainingcomponentsasshownin
theviewbelow:
Figure 3.22
Oncethestoichiometriccoefficientsaresupplied,theBalanceErrorcell
willshow0 (zero),indicatingthatthereactionismassbalanced.HYSYS
willalsocalculateanddisplaytheheatofreactionintheReactionHeat
cell.Inthiscase,theReactionHeatisnegative,indicatingthatthe
reactionproducesheat(exothermic).
HYSYS providesdefaultvaluesfortheForwardOrderandReverseOrder
basedonthereactionstoichiometry.ThekineticdataforthisTutorialis
basedonanexcessof water,sothekineticsarefirstorderinPropylene
Oxideonly.
3-19
9. IntheFwdOrdercellforH20,changethevalueto0toreflectthe
excessof water.TheStoichiometrytabisnowcompletelydefined
andappearsasshownbelow.
Figure3.23
Noticethatthedefaultvalues
fortheForwardOrderand
ReverseOrderappearin red,
indicatingthattheyare
suggestedbyHYSYS.When
you enterthenewvaluefor
H20,itwillbeblue, indicating
thatyouhavespecifiedit.
Thenexttaskistodefinethereactionbasis.
10. IntheKineticReactionview,clicktheBasistab.
11. IntheBasiscell,acceptthedefaultvalueofMolarConcn.
12. ClickintheBaseComponentcell.Bydefault,HYSYShaschosenthe
firstcomponentlistedontheStoichiometrytab,inthiscaseH20,as
thebasecomponent.
13. ChangethebasecomponenttoPropyleneOxidebydoingoneofthe
following:
Openthedrop-downlistofcomponentsandselect12C30xide.

Begintyping12C30xide,andHYSYSfiltersasyoutype.When
12C30xideisselected,pressthe ENTER key.
3-20
You can have the same
reaction occurring in different
phases with different kinetics
and have both calculated in
the same REACTOR.
14. IntheRxn Phasecell,selectCombinedLiquidfromthedrop-down
list.ThecompletedBasistabappearsbelow.
Figure 3.24
TheMin.Temperature,Max.Temperature,BasisUnitsandRateUnitsare
acceptableattheirdefaultvalues.
15. ClicktheParameterstab.OnthistabyouprovidetheArrhenius
parametersforthekineticreaction.Inthiscase,thereisnoReverse
Reactionoccurring,soyouonlyneedtosupplytheForward
Reactionparameters:
16. IntheForwardReactionAcell,enter1.7eI3.
17. IntheForwardReactionEcell(activationenergy),enter3.24e4(Btu!
lbmole).
Thestatusindicatoratthebottomof theKineticReactionpropertyview
changesfromNotReadytoReady,indicatingthatthereactionis
completelydefined.ThefinalParameterstabappearsbelow.
Figure 3.25
. I "E.,.,H........
I
i 8 I-j I -- - - .-
. ..........................J I r: .. A.-pl-E' I AT
! TinKoMn "
_._.' ..............__._._..J
3-21
Basis Icon
The same reaction(s) can be
in multiple Reaction Sets.
18. CloseboththeKineticReactionpropertyviewandtheReactions
view.
19. ClicktheBasis icontoensuretheSimulationBasisManagerviewis
active.OntheReactionstab,thenewreaction,Rxn-1,nowappears
intheReactionsgroup.
Figure 3.26
Thenexttaskistocreateareactionsetthatwillcontainthenew
reaction.In theReactionSetslist,HYSYSprovidestheGlobalRxnSet
(GlobalReactionSet)whichcontainsallofthereactionsyouhave
defined.Inthistutorial,sincethereisonlyoneREACTOR,thedefault
GlobalRxnSetcouldbeattachedtoit,however,forillustration
purposes,anewreactionsetwillbecreated.
Creating aReaction Set
ReactionSetsprovideaconvenientwayof groupingrelatedreactions.
Forexample,consideraflowsheetinwhichatotalof five reactionsare
takingplace.InoneREACTORoperation,onlythreeofthereactionsare
occurring(onemainreactionandtwosidereactions).Youcangroupthe
threereactionsintoaReactionSet,thenattachthesettotheappropriate
REACTORunitoperation.
3-22
Thedrop-downlistcontainsall
reactionsintheGlobal
ReactionSet.Currently, Rxn1
istheonlyreactiondefined,so
itistheonlyavailableselection.
1. IntheReactionSetsgroup,clicktheAddSetbutton.TheReaction
SetpropertyviewappearswiththedefaultnameSet-I.
Figure3.27
Red!"onSet Set 1 Illllill2
J5et.1

....
..
,S- M_AliIive
2. IntheActiveList,clickinthecelllabeled<empty>.
3. Openthedrop-downlistandselectRxn-I.
AcheckboxlabeledOKautomaticallyappearsnexttothereactioninthe
ActiveList.ThereactionsetstatusbarchangesfromNotReadytoReady,
indicatingthatthenewreactionsetiscomplete.
4. ClosetheReactionSetviewtoreturntotheSimulationBasis
Manager.ThenewreactionsetnamedSet-1 nowappearsinthe
ReactionSetsgroup.
Figure3.26
3-23
Making the Reaction Set Rvailable to the Fluid Package
ThefinaltaskistomakethesetavailabletotheFluidPackage,which
alsomakesitavailableintheflowsheet.
1. ClickonSet-lintheReactionSetsgroupontheReactionstab.
2. ClicktheAddtoFPbutton.TheAdd 'Set-I'viewappears.
ThisviewpromptsyoutoselecttheFluidPackagetowhichyou
wouldliketoaddthereactionset.Inthisexample,thereisonlyone
FluidPackage,Basis-I.
Figure 3.29
3. SelectBasis-I,thenclicktheAddSettoFluidPackagebutton.
324
L!_..._.. --......--....-.... ...-......- .........:."":C-7] '1..:.'._:.
4. Click the Fluid Pkgs tab to view a summary ofthe completed Fluid
Package.
Figure 3.31

III
\J:Mi!'.e dI'
Ij
'1'
I .. :,li:;
I Ilk .QtI_ru:tPkll 1.-::8.-".-:.,---'-----,
The list of Current Fluid Packages displays the new Fluid Package, Basis-
I, showing the number of components (NC) and property package (PP).
The new Fluid Package is assigned by default to the Main Simulation, as
shown in the Flowsheet-Fluid PkgAssociations group. Now that the
Basis is defined, you can install streams and operations in the
Simulation environment (also referred to as the Parent Simulation
environment or Main Simulation environment).
3-25
EnterSimulation
EnvironmentIcon
3.2.S Entering the Simulation Environment
To leave the Basis environment and enter the Simulation environment,
do one of the following:
Clickthe Enter Simulation Environment buttononthe
SimulationBasisManager.
Clickthe Enter Simulation Environment icononthetoolbar.
When you enter the Simulation environment, the initial view that
appears is dependent on your current preference setting for the Initial
Build Home View. Three initial views are available, namely the PFD,
Workbook and Summary. Any or all of these can be displayed at any
time, however, when you first enter the Simulation environment, only
one is displayed. For this example, the initial Home View is the
Workbook (HYSYS default setting).
Figure3.32
III"J 4-611 t HI HI(At !Hih ..c H'lSV!;:) t 6eta <
3-26
You cantogglethepalette
openorclosedbypressingF4,
orbychoosingOpen/Close
ObjectPalettefromthe
Flowsheetmenu.
SaveIcon
Open CaseIcon
Whenyou chooseto openan
existingcaseby Clickingthe
OpenCasebutton,orby
selectingOpenCasefromthe
Filemenu,HYSYSallowsyou
to retrievebackup(* .bk*)and
HYSIM(*.slm)filesinaddition
to standardHYSYS(*.hsc)
files.
Ifyou enteranamethat
alreadyexistsinthecurrent
directory,HYSYSwillaskyou
forconfirmation beforeover-
writingtheexistingfile.
ThereareseveralthingstonoteabouttheMainSimulation
environment.Intheupperrightcorner,theEnvironmenthaschanged
fromBasistoCase(Main).Anumberofnewitemsarenowavailableon
theMenuandToolbar,andtheWorkbookandObjectPaletteareopen
ontheDesktop.Thesetwolatterobjectsaredescribedbelow.
Features IDeSCription
Amultiple-tabviewcontaininginformationabouttheobjects
(streamsandunitoperations)inthe simulationcase. Bydefault,the
Workbookhasfourtabs,namelyMaterial Streams,Compositions,
EnergyStreamsandUnitOps. You can edittheWorkbookby
addingordeletingtabsand changingtheinformationdisplayedon
anytab.
Workbook
ObjectPalette Afloating paletteofbuttonsthatcanbeusedtoadd streamsand
unitoperations.
Beforeproceedinganyfurthertoinstallstreamsorunitoperations,save
yourcase.
1. Dooneofthefollowing:
ClicktheSaveiconon thetoolbar.
From the Filemenu, selectSave.
PressCTRLS.
If thisisthefirsttimeyouhavesavedyourcase,theSaveSimulation
CaseAsviewappears.Bydefault,theFilePathistheCasessub-directory
inyourHYSYSdirectory.
2. IntheFileNamecelltypeanameforthecase,forexampleGLYCOL.
Youdonothavetoenterthe.hscextension;HYSYSautomatically
addsitforyou.
3. Onceyouhaveenteredafilename,presstheENTER keyortheOK
button.HYSYSwillnowsavethecaseunderthenameyouhave
givenitwhenyouSaveinthefuture.TheSaveAsviewwillnot
appearagainunlessyouchoosetogiveitanewnameusingtheSave
Ascommand.
327
WorkbookIcon
HYSYSacceptsblank
spaceswithinastreamor
operationname.
3.2.6 Using the Workbook
Installing the Feed Streams
Ingeneral,thefirsttaskyouperformwhenyouentertheSimulation
environmentistoinstalloneormorefeedstreams.Inthissection,you
willinstallfeedstreamsusingtheWorkbook.
1. ClicktheWorkbookicononthetoolbartomaketheWorkbook
active.
2. OntheMaterialStreamstab,clickinthe**NewcellintheName
row.
3. TypethenewstreamnamePropOxide,thenpressENTER. HYSYS
automaticallycreatesthenewstream.
Figure3.33
WhenyoupressedENTERaftertypinginthestreamname,HYSYS
automaticallyadvancedtheactivecelldownonecell,toVapour
Fraction.
Nextyouwilldefinethefeedconditionsfortemperatureandpressure,in
thiscase75Fand1.1 atm.
4. ClickintheTemperaturecellforPropOxide.
3-28
5. Type75 intheTemperaturecell.IntheUnitdrop-downlist,HYSYS
displaysthedefaultunitsfortemperature,inthiscaseR
Figure 3.34
",..kim"" CllSO IMam) _ I
6. Sincethisisthecorrectunit,pressENTER.HYSYSacceptsthe
temperature.
7. ClickinthePressurecellforPropOxide.
If youknowthestreampressureinanotherunitbesidesthedefaultof
psia,HYSYSwillacceptyourinputinanyoneofanumberofdifferent
unitsandautomaticallyconverttothedefaultforyou.Forexample,you
knowthepressureof PropOxideis1.1atm.
8. Type 1.1.
9. PresstheSPACEBARorclickon ...:J. Begintyping'atm'.HYSYSwill
matchyourinputtolocatetheunitof yourchoice.
Figure 3.35
329
TheInputCompositionfor
StreamviewisModal,
indicatedbythethickborder
andtheabsenceofthe
MinimizelMaximlzebuttonsin
theupperrightcorner.Whena
Modalviewisvisible,youwill
notbeabletomoveoutside
the viewuntilyoufinishwithit,
byclickingeithertheCancel
orOKbutton.
10. Onceatmisselectedinthelist,presstheENTERkey, andHYSYS
acceptsthepressureandautomaticallyconvertstothedefaultunit,
psia.
Alternatively,youcanspecifytheunitsimplybyselectingitfromthe
unitdrop-downlist.
11. ClickintheMolarFlowcellforPropOxide,enter150lbmole/hr,
thenpressENTER.
Providing Composinonallnput
Nowthatthestreamconditionshavebeenspecified,yournexttaskisto
inputthecomposition.
12. IntheWorkbook,double-clicktheMolarFlowcellof thePropOxide
stream.
TheInputCompositionforStreamviewappears.Thisviewallows
youtocompletethecompositionalinput.
Figure3.36
Input Composition fOl Stream PropOl'ude EJ
3-30
Thefollowingtablelistsandexplainsthefeaturesavailabletoyouonthe
InputCompositionforStreamview.
Features I Description
Compositional Basis
Radio Buttons
You can input the stream composition in some fractional basis
other than Mole Fraction, or by component flows, by selecting
the appropriate radio button before providing your input.
i
i
Normalizing The Normalizing feature is useful when you know the relative
ratios of components; for example, 2 parts N2, 2 parts CO2,
120 parts C1, etc. Rather than manually converting these
ratios to fractions summing to one, simply enter the individual
numbers of parts and click the Normalize button. HYSYS
computes the individual fractions to total 1.0.
Normalizing is also useful when you have a stream consisting
of only a few components. Instead of specifying zero fractions
(or flows) for the other components, simply enter the fractions
(or the actual flows) for the non-zero components, leaving the
others <empty>. Click the Normalize button, and HYSYS
forces the other component fractions to zero.
Calculation statusi
colour
As you input the composition, the component fractions (or
flows) initially appear in red, indicating the final composition is
unknown. These values become blue when the stream
composition is calculated. Three scenarios result in the stream
composition being calculated:
Input the fractions of all components, including any zero
components, such that their total is exactly 1.0000. Click
the OK button.
Input the fractions (totalling 1.000), flows or relative
number of parts of all non-zero components. Click the
Normalize button, then click the OK button.
.
Input the flows or relative number of parts of all
components, including any zero components, then click
the OK button.
These are the default colours;
yours may appear differently
depending on your settings on
the Colours page of the
Session Preferences.
13. IntheCompositionBasisgroup,ensurethattheMoleFractions
radiobuttonisselected.
14. Clickontheinputcellforthefirstcomponent,12C30xide.This
streamis 100% propyleneoxide.
15. Type1forthemolefraction, thenpressENTER.
Inthiscase, 12C30xideistheonlycomponentinthestream.
3-31
If you want to delete a stream,
click on the Name cell for the
stream, then press DELETE.
HYSYS asks for confirmation
of your action.
16. ClicktheNormalizebuttontoforcetheothervaluestozero.The
compositionis nowdefinedforthisstream.
Figure 3.37
17. ClicktheOK button.HYSYSacceptsthecomposition.Thestream
specificationisnowcomplete,soHYSYS willflashitatthe
conditionsgiventodeterminetheremainingproperties.
Thevaluesyouspecifiedareadifferentcolour(blue)thanthecalculated
values(black).
Figure 3.38
3-32
MaterialStream Icon
Theseparametersarein
defaultunits.sothereisno
needtochangetheunits.
Rdding RnotherStream
Next,youwilluseanalternativemethodforaddingastream.
18. Toaddthesecondfeedstream,doanyoneofthefollowing:
PressF11.
FromtheFlowsheetmenu,selectAddStream.
Double-clicktheMaterialStreamiconontheObjectPalette.
ClicktheMaterialStreamiconontheObjectPalette,thenclick
thePalette'sAddObjectbutton.
AnewstreamappearsintheWorkbookandisnamedaccordingtothe
AutoNamingsettinginyourSessionPreferencessettings.Thedefault
settingnamesnewmaterialstreamswithnumbers,startingat1(and
energystreamsstartingatQ-I00).
Whenyoucreatethenewstream,thestream'spropertyviewalso
appears,displayingtheConditionspageoftheWorksheettab.
19. IntheStreamNamecell,changethenametoWaterFeed.
20. IntheTemperaturecell,enter75F.
21. InthePressurecell,enter16.17psia.
Figure3.39
Waterfeed =

I
IP,"I>OI\ioo

I
IKVolue
U""VariobIo.
,NOlet
!CoMP.._
j
I I
D

.. .
3-33
For the current Composition
Basis setting, you want to
enter the stream composition
on a mass flow basis.
22. SelecttheCompositionpagetoenterthecompositionalinputfor
thenewfeedstream.
Figure 3.40
Wdter ':
,:;:,........ I'
1,,--

!"v....
ju...v_.
1Nolet
ICooIP.,_
!
Tot.!

. ..
23. ClicktheEditbuttonnearthebottomof theCompositionpage.The
InputCompositionforStreamviewappears.
24. IntheCompositionBasisgroup,changethebasistoMassFlowsby
selectingtheappropriateradiobutton,orbypressingALTA.
25. IntheCompMassFlowcellforH20,type11,000(lb/hr), thenpress
ENTER.
Figure 3.41
3-34
26. Sincethisstreamhasnoothercomponents,clicktheNormalize
button.Theothercomponentmassflows areforcedtozero.
Figure 3.42
27. ClicktheOK buttontoclosetheviewandreturntothestream
propertyview.
HYSYSperformsaflashcalculationtodeterminetheunknown
propertiesofWaterFeed,andthestatusbardisplaysagreenOK
message.Usethehorizontalscrollbarinthetabletoviewthe
compositionsofeachphase.
Figure 3.43
Water feed ~ '"
... ..
335
Sizing Arrow Icon
ThecompositionscurrentlyappearinMassFlow,butyoucanchange
thisbyclickingtheBasisbuttonandchoosinganotherComposition
Basisradiobutton.
2B. ClicktheConditionspagetoviewthecalculatedstreamproperties.
Youcandisplaythepropertiesofallphasesbyresizingtheproperty
view
29. Placethecursorovertherightborderoftheview.Thecursor
changestoadouble-endedsizingarrow.
30. Withthesizingarrowvisible,clickanddragtotherightuntilthe
horizontalscrollbardisappears,makingtheentiretablevisible.
Figure 3.44
" " ~ !
re=-;-I
I
~
I: v .... , I
lu....v..-. !
IN.,... I'
ICost P-.anetelS ,
.. If>
New or updated information Inthiscase,theaqueousphaseisidenticaltotheoverallphase.
is automatically and instantly
transferred among all
31. ClosetheWaterFeedpropertyviewtoreturntotheWorkbook.
locations in HYSYS.
336
WorkbookIcon
You can alsofilterthelistby
selectingthePiping
Equipmentradio buttonin
theCategoriesgroup, then
useoneoftheabove
methodstoinstallthe
operation.
Double-clickingonalisted
operationcan alsobeused
insteadoftheAddbuttonor
theENTER key.
Installing Unit Operations
Nowthatthefeedstreamsareknown,yournexttaskistoinstallthe
necessaryunitoperationsforproducingtheglycol.
Installing the Hixer
ThefirstoperationisaMixer,usedtocombinethetwofeedstreams.As
withmostcommandsinHYSYS, installinganoperationcanbe
accomplishedinanumberofways.OnemethodisthroughtheUnitOps
taboftheWorkbook.
1. ClicktheWorkbookicontoensuretheWorkbookisactive.
2. ClicktheUnit OpstaboftheWorkbook.
3. ClicktheAddUnitOpbutton.TheUnitOpsviewappears,listingall
availableunitoperations.
WhenyouclicktheAddbuttonorpressENTERinsidethisview,
HYSYS addstheoperationthatiscurrentlyselected.
4. SelectMixerbydoingoneof thefollowing:
Starttyping 'mixer'.
Scrolldownthelistusingtheverticalscrollbar,thenselectMixer.
Figure3.45
UmlOp, C.se(Ma'nl 1llll1ilE3
.l!ddi.!"
I,;
5. WithMixerselected,clicktheAddbutton,orpressENTER.
3-37
Thedefaultnamingscheme
forunitoperationscanbe
changedin yourSession
Preferences.
ThepropertyviewfortheMixerappears.
Figure3.46
> MIX 100 Pi[i]1:3
C ~ J'.'IIIIII.............- r ~ I
Theunitoperationpropertyviewcontainsalltheinformationrequired
todefinetheoperation,organizedintotabsandpages.TheDesign,
Rating,WorksheetandDynamicstabsappearinthepropertyviewfor
mostoperations.Propertyviewsformorecomplexoperationscontain
moretabs.HYSYShasprovidedthedefaultnameMIX-lOOfortheMixer.
Manyoperations,liketheMixer,acceptmultiplefeedstreams.
WheneveryouseeatableliketheoneintheInletsgroup,theoperation
willacceptmUltiplestreamconnectionsatthatlocation.Whenthe
Inletstableisactive,youcanaccessadrop-downlistofavailable
streams.
Next,youwillcompletetheConnectionspagefortheMixer.
6. IntheInletstable,clickintheStream cell.Thestatusindicator
atthebottomoftheviewindicatesthattheoperationneedsafeed
stream.
338
7. Openthedrop-downlistofinletsbyclickingon
theF2keythenSPACEBAR.
...::::J orbypressing
Figure3.47
MIX 100 l1li00
Alternatively, you can
8. SelectPropOxidefromthedrop-downlist.ThePropOxidestream
connectthestream by
appearsintheInletstable,andStream automaticallymoves
typingtheexactstream
namein the Stream
downtoanewemptycell.
cell,then pressingENTER.
9. IntheInletstable,clickthenewemptyStream cellandselect
WaterFeedfromthelist.Thestatusindicatornowdisplays'Requires
aproductstream'.
10. MovetotheOutlet fieldbypressingTAB, orbyclickinginthecell.
11.TypeMixerOutinthecell,thenpressENTER. HYSYS recognizesthat
thereisnoexistingstreamwiththisname,soitcreatesthenew
stream.
Figure3.48
r MIX 11111 1!ll1iii.IE3
3-39
ThestatusindicatordisplaysagreenOK, indicatingthattheoperation
andattachedstreamsarecompletelycalculated.TheConnectionspage
is nowcomplete.
12. ClicktheParameterspage.
13. IntheAutomaticPressureAssignmentgroup,keepthedefault
settingofSetOutlettoLowestInlet.
Figure3.49
, MIX 100 PlIilE3
-...=::-c-..,.-" ____________ r Ignored
HYSYShascalculatedthe
oulletstream bycombining
thetwoinletsandflashing
themixtureatthelowest
pressureoftheinlet
streams.In thiscase,both
inletshavethesame
pressure(16.17psia),so
theoutletstreamissetto
16.17psia.
14. ClicktheWorksheettabintheMIX-100propertyviewtoviewthe
calculatedoutletstream.ThistabisacondensedWorkbooktab
displayingonlythosestreamsattachedtotheoperation.
Figure3.50
, MIX 100 1lll1ilE3
15. ClosetheMIX-I00propertyviewtoreturntotheWorkbook.
3-40
16. IntheWorkbook,clicktheUnitOpstab.Thenewoperationappears
inthetable.
Figure3.51
ThetableshowstheoperationName,ObjectType,theattachedstreams
(InletandOutlet),whetheritisIgnored,anditsCalc.Level.Whenyou
clicktheViewUnitOpbutton,thepropertyviewforthecurrently
selectedoperationappears.Alternatively,bydouble-clickingonanycell
(exceptInletorOutlet)associatedwiththeoperation,youwillalsoopen
itspropertyview.
YoucanalsoopenastreampropertyviewdirectlyfromtheWorkbook
UnitOpstab.Whenanyof thecellsName,ObjectType,IgnoredorCalc.
Levelareselected,thegrayboxatthebottomoftheviewdisplaysall
streamsattachedtothecurrentoperation.Currently,theNamecellfor
MIX-lOOhasfocus,sotheboxdisplaysthethreestreamsattachedtothis
operation.
Forexample,toopenthepropertyviewforthePropOxidestream
attachedtotheMixer,dooneofthefollowing:
Double-clickon PropOxidein theboxatthebottomoftheview.
Double-clickontheInletscellforMIX-100.Thepropertyviewfor
thefirstlistedfeedstream, inthiscasePropOxide,appears.
3-41
Any utilities attached to the
stream with focus in the
Workbook are also displayed
in (and are accessible from)
this box.
Workbook Features
Before installing the remaining operations, you will examine a number
of Workbook features that allow you to access information quickly and
change how information is displayed.
Recessing Unit Operations from the Workbook
While you can easily access the property view for a unit operation from
the Unit Ops tab of the Workbook, you can also access operations from
the Material Streams, Compositions, and Energy Streams tabs.
When your current location is a Workbook streams tab, the gray box at
the bottom ofthe Workbook view displays the operations to which the
current stream is attached. For example, click on any cell associated
with the stream Prop Oxide. The gray box displays the name of the mixer
operation, MIX-IOO.
If the stream Prop Oxide was also attached to another unit operation,
both unit operations would be listed in the box. To access the property
view for the Mixer, double-click on its name in the gray box.
Figure 3.52
.. Wurkbuok ~ Case (MdiO) I ' ~
3-42
Hdding aTab to the Workbook
WhentheWorkbookisactive,theWorkbookitemappearsintheHYSYS
menubar.ThisitemallowsyoutocustomizetheWorkbook.
NextyouwillcreateanewWorkbooktabthatdisplaysonlystream
pressure,temperature,andflow.
1. Dooneofthefollowing:
FromtheWorkbookmenuitem, selectSetup.
Objectinspect(right-click)theMaterial Streams tabin the
Workbook, thenselectSetup from themenuthatappears.
TheWorkbookSetupviewappears.
Figure 3.53
rWOIkbookTain
, Mr i ~ Sire.....
~
!E_Streomt
IllnilOJ>O
I
I
I
I
I
, , , ~ , - ....-.
ThefourexistingtabsarelistedintheWorkbookTabsarea.Whenyou
addanewtab,itwillbeinsertedbeforethehighlightedtab(currently
MaterialStreams).YouwillinsertthenewtabbetweentheMaterials
StreamstabandtheCompositionstab.
2. IntheWorkbookTabslist,selectCompositions,thenclicktheAdd
button.TheNewObjectTypeviewappears.
3-43
3. Clickthe+besideStreamtoexpandthetree.
Figure3.54
.... 1 ........lI ... K_....
EnergyStleam
: Una Opel'alions:
:Ves$els
'" Heal Tr.....ler
'+;.. Rotal;,g
't> Equipment
:i Solid;HandlingOperaliom
if} Reactors
,+.. Prob"Colum",
if' ShortCut Caumn.
if- Sub-Flowsheets
,.,.Logical Operatial.
Electroi!(e

R..li........ nn.,,.li......... ..::J


.!.I

4. SelectMaterialStream,thenclicktheOKbutton.You returntothe
Setupview,andthenewtabMaterialStreams1appearsafterthe
existingMaterialStreamstab.
5. IntheObjectgroup,clickintheName fieldandchangethenamefor
thenewtabtop,T,Flowtobetterdescribethetabcontents.
Figure3.55
..... ..
'N_lp,ulow ...' 1l1det.., I]i
I
I
I
Iii
. U
.Tw.:. ... !
:-l!IliabIer:' ..., ..-------.. .....
J.t..s.....
e,dd...
I
D.aieIe
f.. mot...
Oldef...
3-44
Thenexttaskistocustomizethetabbyremovingthevariablesthatare
irrelevant.
6. IntheVariablestable,selectthefirstvariable,VapourFraction.
7. PressandholdtheCTRLkey.
8. Selectthefollowingvariables:MassFlow,HeatFlow, andMolar
Enthalpy.
9. ReleasetheCTRLkey.
10. ClicktheDelete buttonbesidethetabletoremovetheselected
variablesfromthisWorkbooktabonly.ThefinishedSetupappears
Ifyouwanttoremove inthefigurebelow.
variablesfrom anothertab,
you mustediteachtab
Figure3.56
individually.
11. ClosetheSetupview.ThenewtabappearsintheWorkbook.
Figure3.57
12. Savethecase.
3-45
3.2.7 Installing Equipment on the PFD
Besides the Workbook, the PPO is the other main view in HYSYS you will
use to build the simulation.
PFD Icon
To open the PPO, click the PPO icon on the toolbar. The PPO item
appears in the HYSYS menu bar whenever the PPO has focus.
When you open the PPO view. it appears similar to the one shown below.
Figure 3.58
Prop
Oxide
Mi)(er
Water Out
MIX-100
Feed
1 Def.ult Colour Scheme 3 .
Like any other non-modal
view. the PFD view can be
re-sized by clicking and
dragging anywhere on the
outside border.
As a graphical representation of your flowsheet, the PPO shows the
connections among all streams and operations, also known as "objects".
Each object is represented by a symbol, also known as an "icon". A
stream icon is an arrow pointing in the direction of flow. while an
operation icon is a graphic representing the actual physical operation.
The object name, also known as a "label", appears near each icon.
The PPO shown above has been rearranged by moving the Prop Oxide
feed stream icon up slightly so it does not overlap the Water Peed stream
icon. To move an icon, simply click and drag it to a new location. You can
click and drag either the icon (arrow) itself, or the label (stream name),
as these two items are grouped together.
3-46
Fly-byinformation
Size Icon
Zoom Out25%
DisplayEntire
PFD
ZoomIn25%
Thesearethe HYSYSdefault
colours;youmaychangethe
coloursintheSession
Preferences.
Other functions that can be performed while the PFD is active include
the following:
Accesscommandsandfeaturesthroughthe PFDtoolbar.
Openthe propertyviewforanobjectbydouble-clickingits icon.
Movean objectbyclickinganddraggingittothenewlocation.
Access"fly-by"summaryinformationforan objectbyplacingthe
cursoroverit.
SizeanobjectbyclickingtheSizeicon, selectingtheobject,then
clickinganddraggingthesizing"handles"thatappear.
DisplaytheObjectInspectionmenuforan objectby placingthe
cursoroveritandright-clicking.Thismenuprovidesaccesstoa
numberofcommandsassociatedwiththeparticularobject.
Zoominandout,ordisplaytheentireflowsheetinthePFD
windowbyclickingthezoombuttonsatthebottomleftofthePFD
view.
Some of these functions will be illustrated in this tutorial; for more
information, refer to the User Guide.
Calculation Status
HYSYS uses colour-coding to indicate calculation status for objects,
both in the object property views, and in the flowsheet. Ifyou recall, the
status bar indicator at the bottom of a property view for a stream or
operation indicates the current state ofthe object:
IndicatorStatus IDescription
Red Status Amajorpieceofdefininginformationismissingfromtheobject. For
example,afeedorproductstreamisnotattachedtoaSeparator.
Thestatusindicatorisred, andanappropriatewarningmessageis
displayed.
YellowStatus Allmajordefininginformationispresent,butthestreamoroperation
hasnotbeensolvedbecauseoneormoredegreesoffreedom is
present. Forexample,aCoolerwhoseoutletstreamtemperatureis
unknown.Thestatusindicatorisyellow,andanappropriatewarning
messageisdisplayed.
GreenStatus Thestreamoroperationiscompletelydefinedandsolved.The
statusindicatorisgreen,andanOKmessageisdisplayed.
When you are in the PFD, the streams and operations are colour-coded
to indicate their calculation status. If the conditions of an attached
stream for an operation were not entirely known, the operation would
have a yellow outline indicating its current status. For the Mixer, all
streams are defined, so it has no yellow outline.
3-47
Notice that the icons for all
streams installed to this point
are dark blue.
CSTR Icon

XI
Cancel Icon
Anothercolourschemeisusedtoindicatethestatusofstreams.For
materialstreams,adarkblueiconindicatesthestreamhasbeenflashed
andisentirelyknown.Alightblueiconindicatesthestreamcannotbe
flasheduntilsomeadditionalinformationissupplied.Similarly,adark
rediconisforanenergystreamwithaknownduty,whileapurpleicon
indicatesanunknownduty.
Installing the Reactor
Next,youwillinstallacontinuously-stirred-tankreactoroperation
(CSTR).Youcaninstallstreamsoroperationsbydroppingthemfrom
theObjectPaletteontothePFD.
1. EnsurethattheObjectPaletteisdisplayed;ifitisnot,pressF4.
2. YouwilladdtheCSTRtotherightof theMixer,soifyouneedto
makesomeemptyspaceavailableinthePFD,scrolltotheright
usingthehorizontalscrollbar.
3. IntheObjectPalette,clicktheCSTRicon.
4. PositionthecursorinthePFDtotherightof theMixerOutstream.
Thecursorchangestoaspecialcursorwithaplus(+) symbol
attachedtoit.Thesymbolindicatesthelocationof theoperation
icon.
Figure 3.59
Prop
Oxide
Water
Feed
MIX-100
Mixer
Out p
5. Clickto"drop"theReactorontothePFD.HYSYScreatesanew
Reactorwithadefaultname,CSTR-lOO.TheReactorhasredstatus
(colour),indicatingthatitrequiresfeedandproductstreams.
348
Attach Mode Icon
When you are in Attach mode,
you will not be able to move
objects in the PFD. To return
to Move mode, click the Attach
button again. You can
temporarily toggle between
Attach and Move mode by
holding down the CTRL key.
Attaching Streams to the Reactor
1. ClicktheAttachModeicononthePPDtoolbartoenter Attach
mode.TheAttachModebuttonstaysactiveuntilyouclickitagain.
2. PositionthecursorovertherightendoftheMixerOutstreamicon.
Asmallwhiteboxappearsatthecursortipwithapop-up
description'Out',indicatingthatthestreamoutletisavailablefor
connection.
Figure 3.60
r ~ ___-+-+----i.
~ Mixer Out
Water Feed MIX-100
CSTR-100
3. Withthepop-up'Out'visible,clickandholdthemousebutton.The
transparentboxbecomessolidblack,indicatingthatyouare
beginningaconnection.
Multiple connection points 4. Movethecursortowardtheleft(inlet)sideof theCSTR-lOOicon.A
appear because the Reactor
lineappearsbetweentheMixerOutstreamiconandthecursor,and
accepts multiple feed streams.
multipleconnectionpoints(blue)appearattheReactorinlet.
5. PlacethecursornearaconnectionpOintuntilasolidwhitebox
appearsatthecursortip,indicatinganacceptableendpointforthe
connection.
Figure 3.61
6. Releasethemousebutton,andtheconnectionismadebetweenthe
streamandtheCSTR-lOOinlet.
7. Positionthecursorovertopright-handcornerof theCSTR-IOOicon.
Thewhiteboxandthepop-up'VapourProduct'appear.
8. Withthepop-upvisible,left-clickandhold.Thewhiteboxagain
becomessolidblack.
349
t ~ I
BreakConnectionIcon
Ifyoumakeanincorrect
connection, breakthe
connectionandtryagain.
1. ClicktheBreak
Connection icononthe
PFDtoolbar.
2. Placethecursorover
thestreamlineyouwant
tobreak.Thecursor
showsacheckmark,
indicatinganavailable
connectiontobreak.
3. Clickoncetobreakthe
connection.
9. Movethecursortotherightof theCSTR-IOO.Astreamiconappears
withatrailinglineattachedtotheCSTR-IOOoutlet.Thestreamicon
indicatesthatanewstreamwillbecreatedwhenyoucompletethe
nextstep.
Figure3.62
MixerOut
CSTR100
10. Withthestreamiconvisible,releasetheleftmousebutton.HYSYS
createsanewstreamwiththedefaultnamel.
II. PlacethecursoroverthebottomrightconnectionpOintonthe
reactorlabeled'LiquidProduct',thenclickanddragtotherightto
createthereactor'sliquidproductstream.Thenewstreamisgiven
thedefaultname2.
12. Placethecursoroverthebottomleftconnectionpointonthe
reactorlabeled'EnergyStream',thenclickanddragdownandtothe
lefttocreatethereactorsenergystream.Thenewstreamis
automaticallynamedQ-100.
Thereactordisplaysayellowwarningstatus,indicatingthatall
necessaryconnectionshavebeenmade,butthattheattachedstreams
arenotentirelyknown.
Figure3.63
13. ClicktheAttachMode iconagaintoreturntoMovemode.
14. Double-clickthesteamiconItoopenitspropertyview.
15. IntheStreamNamecell,enterthenewnameReactorVent, then
closethepropertyview.
16. Double-clickthestream2icon.RenamethisstreamReactorProds,
thenclosethepropertyview.
17. Double-clicktheQ-I00icon,renameitCoolant,thenclosetheview.
Thereactoroutletandenergystreamsareunknownatthispoint,sothey
arelightblueandpurple,respectively.
3-50
Completing the Reactor
1. Double-clicktheCSTR-IOOicontoopenitspropertyview.
2. ClicktheDesigntab,thenselecttheConnectionspage(ifrequired).
ThenamesoftheInlet,OutletandEnergystreamsthatwere
attachedbeforeappearintheappropriatecells.
3. IntheName cell,changetheoperationnametoReactor.
Figure3.64
........... r lIJ>o<od
4. SelecttheParameters page.Fornow,theDelta P andtheVolume
parameters areacceptableatthedefaultvalues.
3-51
5. SelecttheCooling radiobutton.Thisreactionisexothermic
(producesheat),socoolingisrequired.
Figure 3.65
6. ClicktheReactions tab.NextyouwillattachtheReactionSetthat
youcreatedin theBasisEnvironment.
7. FromtheReactionSetdrop-downlist,selectSet-I.Thecompleted
Reactions tabappearsbelow.
Figure 3.66
Thenexttaskis tospecifytheVesselParameters.InthisTutorial,the
reactorhasavolumeof280fi3 andis85%full.
352
8. ClicktheDynamicstab,thenselecttheSpecspage.
9. IntheModelDetailsgroup,clickintheVesselVolumecell.Type280
(ft3),thenpressENTER.
10. IntheLiqVolumePercentcell,type85,thenpressENTER.
HYSYSautomaticallycalculatestheLiquidVolumeinthevessel(280
ft3x85%full= 238ft3), displayedontheParameterspageofthe
Designtab.
Figure 3.67
DJoi'''' 1"



ftJ,v
r
i .. ... ,

1;1.....
.... -.'r-
\ "(
r j
.:...._"'..,..._.. .... ..J p.y'\
I


. OoloQ r
11. ClickontheWorksheettab.
Figure 3.68
, R.acto< Set1 1III!I[!iJ E3
3-53
Atthispoint,theReactorproductstreamsandtheenergystream
CoolantareunknownbecausetheReactorhasonedegreeof freedom.At
thispoint.eithertheoutletstreamtemperatureorthecoolingdutycan
bespecified.Forthisexample,youwillspecifytheoutlettemperature.
InitiallytheReactorisassumedtobeoperatingatisothermal
conditions,thereforetheoutlettemperatureisequivalenttothefeed
temperature,75F.
12. IntheReactorProdscolumn,clickintheTemperaturecell.Type75,
thenpressENTER. HYSYSsolvestheReactor.
Figure3.69
..-+----...-----.!-...
-f---
..... \II......... r::D:"""l"'Il'fOICt--.-:" ,...-=-=-=-==...........=-................._-=""..ll
Delet.
r=-I .... .....-..----......,.. ..
I:;:: I
, I
I i
, I
I -----. -. -- ---+- .. -----
1
L_________j ..------+----
ThereisnophasechangeintheReactorunderisothermalconditions
sincetheflowofthevapourproductstreamReactorVentiszero.In
addition,therequiredcoolingdutyhasbeencalculatedandis
representedbytheHeatFlowofstreamCoolant.Thenextstepisto
examinetheReactorconversionasafunctionoftemperature.
354
13. ClicktheReactionstab,thenselecttheResultspage.Theconversion
appearsintheReactorResultsSummarytable.
Figure 3.70
....... ........ :.::::c .............."'...
r.;A:::::::rr-;::-;:;:TCT.::=:;::'"1..,......,...."""!l'l""""OI'!!""'OI'!!""'..,...."""!!-_...
.0_ '1:......................... rjghonod.
Underthecurrentconditions,theActualPercentConversion(Act. %
Cnv.) intheReactoris40.3%.YouwilladjusttheReactortemperature
untiltheconversionisinthe85-95%range.
14. ClicktheWorksheettab.
15. IntheReactorProdscolumn,changetheTemperatureto100
16. ReturntotheReactionstabtochecktheconversion,whichhas
increasedto72.28%asshownbelow.
Figure 3.71
17. ReturntotheWorksheettab,andchangetheTemperatureof
ReactorProdsto140
3-55
~
- ~ - -
Distillation Column Icon
18. ClicktheReactionstabagainandchecktheconversion.The
conversionat140
0
Pisapproximately95%,whichisacceptable.
Figure 3.72
19. ClosetheReactorpropertyview.
Installing the Column
HYSYShasanumberofpre-builtcolumntemplatesthatyoucaninstall
andcustomizebychangingattachedstreamnames,numberofstages
anddefaultspecifications.Porthisexample,aDistillationColumnwill
beinstalled.
1. Beforeinstallingthecolumn,clicktheToolsmenuandselect
Preferences.OntheSimulationtab,clickontheOptionspageand
ensurethattheUseInputExpertscheckboxisselected(checked)I
thenclosetheview.
2. Double-clicktheDistillationColumniconontheObjectPalette.
ThefirstpageoftheInputExpertappears.
Figure 3.73
The Input Expert is a logical
sequence of input views that
gUide you through the initial
installation of a Column.
Complete the steps to ensure
that you have provided the
minimum amount of
information required to define
the column.
The Input Expert is a Modal
view, indicated by the absence
of the Maximize/Minimize
icons. You cannot exit or move
outside the Expert until you
supply the necessary
information, or click the
Cancel button.
3-56
Whenyou installacolumn
usingapre-builttemplate,
HYSYSsuppliescertaindefault
information,suchasthenumber
ofstages.TheNumbofStages
fieldcontains10(default
numberofstages).Notethe
following:
Thesearetheoretical
stages,astheHYSYS
defaultstageefficiencyis
one.
TheCondenserand
Reboilerareconsidered
separatefrom theother
stages,andarenot
includedintheNumof
Stagesfield.
3. Forthisexample,10theoreticalstagesareused,soleavetheNumb
of Stagesatitsdefaultvalue.
4. IntheInletStreamstable,clickintheStream cell.
5. Fromthedrop-downlistof availableinletstreams,selectReactor
Prodsasthefeedstreamtothecolumn.HYSYSsuppliesadefault
feedlocationinthemiddleoftheTraySection(TS),inthiscasestage
5(indicatedby5_MainTS).
6. IntheCondensergroup,ensurethePartialradiobuttonisselected,
asthecolumnwillhavebothVapourandLiquidOverheadOutlets.
7. IntheColumnNamefield, changethenametoTower.
S. IntheCondenserEnergyStreamfield, typeCondDuty,thenpress
ENTER.
9. InthetopOvhdOutletsfield,typeOvhdVap,thenpressENTER.
InthebottomOvhdOutletsfield,typeRecyProds,thenpressENTER.
10. IntheReboilerEnergyStreamfield, typeRebDuty,thenpressENTER.
11. IntheBottomsLiquidOutletfield, typeGlycol,thenpressENTER.
Whenyouarefinished,theNextbuttonbecomesactive,indicating
sufficientinformationhasbeensuppliedtoadvancetothenextpageof
theInputExpertThefirstpageoftheInputExpertshouldappearas
showninthefollOwingfigure.
FIgure3.74
12. ClicktheNextbuttontoadvancetothePressureProftlepage.
3-57
Although HYSYS does not
require estimates to produce
a converged column, you
should provide estimates for
columns that are difficult to
converge.
13. IntheCondenserPressurefield, enter15psia.
IntheReboilerPressurefield,enter17psia.
LeavetheCondenserPressureDropatitsdefaultvalueofzero.
Figure 3.75
OlshliuhonColumnInput KPCII EJ
14. ClicktheNextbuttontoadvancetotheOptionalEstimatespage.
Forthisexample,noestimatesarerequired.
15. ClicktheNextbuttontoadvancetothefourthandfinalpageofthe
InputExpert.Thispageallowsyoutosupplyvaluesforthedefault
columnspecificationsthatHYSYShascreated.
Ingeneral,aDistillationColumnhasthreedefaultspecifications.The
overheadVapourRateandRefluxRatiowillbeusedasactive
specifications,andlateryouwillcreateaglycolpurityspecificationto
exhaustthethirddegreeoffreedom.Thethirddefaultspecification,
overheadLiquidRate,willnotbeused.
358
16. IntheVapourRatefield, enter0Ibmole/hr.
TheFlowBasisappliesto
theVapour Rate,soleaveit
IntheRefluxRatiofield,enter1.0.
atthedefaultofMolar.
Figure3.76
x
17. ClicktheDonebutton.TheColumnpropertyviewappears.
18. OntheDesigntab,selecttheMonitorpage.
You can alsochange
specificationvalues,and
activateorde-activate
specificationsusedbythe
Columnsolverdirectlyfrom
theMonitorpage.
I Column:lo\tret (OLl FluidPkg:8asts-J {' "
ISpee$
IS",",,9_

I
TheMonitorpagedisplaysthestatusof yourcolumnasitisbeing
calculated,updatinginformationwitheachiteration.
3-59
~ Add Specs Tower ICO EJ
Rdding aColumn Specincation
ThecurrentDegreesofFreedomiszero,indicatingthecolumnisready
toberun,however,theDistillateRate(OverheadLiquidRateforwhich
novaluewasprovidedintheInputExpert) iscurrentlyanActive
specificationwithaSpecifiedValueof<empty>.Forthisexample,you
willspecifyawatermolefractionof0.005intheGlycolproductstream.
L Sinceitisnotdesirabletousethisspecification,cleartheActive
checkboxfortheDistillateRate.TheDegreesofFreedomincreases
to1,indicatingthatanotheractivespecificationisrequired.
2. OntheDesigntab,selecttheSpecspage.
3. IntheColumnSpecificationsgroup,clicktheAddbutton.TheAdd
Specsviewappears.
4. SelectColumnComponentFractionastheSpecificationType.
5. ClicktheAdd Spec(s)button.TheCampFracSpecviewappears.
Figure 3.78
~ romp ffdt.: Spec CUtnlJ holt 1100 "REI
6. IntheNamecell,changethenametoH20 Fraction.
7. IntheStagecell,selectReboilerfromthedrop-downlist.
Figure 3.79
3-60
If you want to view the
entire Specifications
table, re-size the view
by clicking and
dragging its bottom
border.
8. IntheSpecValuecell,enter0.005astheliquidmolefraction
specificationvalue.
9. IntheComponentslist,dickinthefirstcelllabeled
Component,thenselectH20 fromthedrop-downlistof
availablecomponents.
Figure 3.80
~ i Comp FloC Spec H20 Fldchon "iii EI
10. ClosethisviewtoreturntotheColumnpropertyview.Thenew
specificationappearsintheColumnSpecificationslistontheSpecs
page.
11. ReturntotheMonitorpage,wherethenewspecificationappearsat
thebottomoftheSpecificationslist.
12. ClicktheGroupActivebuttontobringthenewspecificationtothe
topofthelist,directlyundertheotherActivespecifications.
p Updolo OUloU r ~ e d
3-61
TheDegreesofFreedomhasreturnedtozero,sothecolumnisreadyto
HYSYSautomaticallymade
thenewspecificationActive
becalculated.
whenyoucreatedit.
Running the Column
1. ClicktheRunbuttontobegincalculations,andtheinformation
displayedonthepageisupdatedwitheachiteration.Thecolumn
convergesquickly,infive iterations.
Figure3.82
rolumn Towel (0l1 flUid Pkg: t / UNIQUAC ;s
Theconvergedtemperatureprofileappearsintheupperrightcornerof
theview.
2. SelectthePressorFlowradiobuttontoviewthepressureorflow
profiles.
3-62
3. Toaccessamoredetailedstagesummary,clickthePerformance
tab,thenselecttheColumnProfilespage.
Figure3.83
I CoIIJUlfl'TowerI COll FIt,udPIo:g: BdS!!; J (1""1JQUAC - Ideal
Porf",__ IR..... R...,
r;-- ReboilR...,
lS_
iC,*- PtaIiIM ...----...,-"="".."....--=-...",--".,,..
i

I
!
I
-::Ji!i!iliJP......... ISideOre IR!!I!!Q! WOIka-t Porf"""'.r:;;::::::!7.::'"T"o;;:::::;:;::-r;::::::;:7'l"----"'I
Delete Co/umoE_... Il.\Il 1 a.... I
PFDIcon
WorkbookIcon
:1
Column RunnerIcon
Recessing the Column
Whenconsideringthecolumn,youmightwanttofocusonlyonthe
columnsub-flowsheet.Youcandothisbyenteringthecolumn
environment.
1. ClicktheColumnEnvironmentbuttonatthebottomofthe
propertyview.Whileinsidethecolumnenvironment,youcando
thefollowing:
Viewthecolumnsub-flowsheetPFDbyclickingthePFD icon.
ViewaWorkbookofthecolumnsub-flowsheetobjectsbyclicking
theWorkbook icon.
Accessthe"inside"columnpropertyviewbyclickingtheColumn
Runner icon.Thispropertyviewisessentiallythesameasthe
"outside",orMainFlowsheet, propertyviewofthecolumn.
3-63
Thecolumnsub-flowsheetPFDandWorkbookappearinthefollowing
figures.
Figure3.84
...
Rctor
Prods
L____.... _---......- .... RebOlI.r
To L_
Reboilor Glycol
. ~ ~ ~
To
Condenser
~ ____~ ~ ___~ R ~ . ~ i l l Y
Boilup
-
RecyProds
Figure3.85
Wookbook lowe'ICIJL11 IlllIilEJ
OSi)owli_fl....
1'1......,..0/HdloriQbIoelt: Q
2. Whenyouarefinishedinthecolumnenvironment,returntothe
MainFlowsheetbyclickingtheEnter Parent Simulation
Environment icon.
3. OpenthePFDfortheMainFlowsheetandselectAuto Position All
fromthePFD menu.HYSYSarrangesyourPFDinalogicalmanner.
EnterParentSimulation
EnvironmentIcon
364
Hoying Objects and Labels in aPFD
ThePFDbelowhasbeencustomizedbymovingsomeofthestream
icons.Tomoveanicon,simplyclickanddragittothenewlocation.
Youcanalsomoveastreamoroperationlabel(name).
1. Right-clickonthelabelyouwanttomove.
2. Fromthemenuthatappears,selectMove/SizeLabel.Aboxappears
aroundthelabel.
3. Clickanddragthelabeltoanewlocation,orusethearrowkeysto
moveit.
Figure3.86
Prop
Oxide
Reactor
Vent
Water Reactor
MIX. 100
Feed Prods
Coolant
Tower Glycol
365
3.2.8 Viewing Results
1. ClicktheWorkbookicontoaccessthecalculatedresultsforthe
MainF1owsheet.
TheMaterialStreamstabandCompositionstaboftheWorkbook
appearsbelow.
Figure 3.87
.. \o.kbnok 'asp-INjlln) I!lfiJ]
roeaers.. .1Od\._Prop0.. ><i:k ...... 1!I1X100 ....
WOIkbook CdSC (M.m) IllllfoiJEJ
3-66
Navigator Icon
You can control which
objects appear by selecting a
different Filter radio button.
For example, to list all
streams and unit operations,
selectthe All button.
You can start or end the
search string with an asterisk
(0), which acts as a wildcard
character. This lets you find
multiple objects with one
search. For example,
searching for VLV will open
the property view for all objects
with VLV at the beginning of
their name.
Using the Obiect Navigator
Uyou want to view the calculated properties of a particular stream or
operation, you can use the Object Navigator to quickly access the
property view for any stream or unit operation at any time during the
simulation.
To open the Navigator, do one of the following:
Press F3.
From the Flowsheet menu, select Find Object.
Double-click on any blank space on the HYSYS Desktop.
Click the Navigator icon.
The Object Navigator view appears.
Figure 3.88
The UnitOps radio button in the Filter group is currently selected, so
only the Unit Operations appear in the list of objects.
To open a property view, select the operation in the list, then click the
View button or double-click on the operation name.
You can also search for an object by clicking the Find button.
When the Find Object view appears, enter the object name, then dick
the OK button.HYSYS opens the property view for the object you
specified
3-67
ToeditanyoftheObjectsin
theOatabook:
1. SelecttheObjectyou
wanttoedit.
2. ClicktheEditbutton.
Using the Databook
TheHYSYSDatabookprovidesyouwithaconvenientwaytoexamine
yourflowsheetinmoredetail.YoucanusetheDatabooktomonitorkey
variablesunderavarietyofprocessscenarios,andviewtheresultsina
tabularorgraphicalformat.
1. BeforeopeningtheDatabook,closetheObjectNavigatorandany
propertyviewsyoumighthaveopenedusingtheNavigator.
2. ToopentheDatabook,dooneofthefollowing:
PressCTRL D.
FromtheTools menu, selectDatabook.
TheDatabookviewappears.
Figure3.89
" ()a'rlUook 1!llll1iIE.!
ThefirsttaskistoaddkeyvariablestotheDatabook.Forthisexample,
theeffectsoftheReactortemperatureontheReactorcoolingdutyand
Glycolproductionratewillbeexamined.
3. OntheVariablestab,clicktheInsertbutton.TheVariableNavigator
appears.
4. IntheObjectFiltergroup,selecttheUnitOpsradiobutton.The
Objectlistisfilteredtoshowunitoperationsonly.
5. IntheObjectlist,selectReactor.Thevariablesavailableforthe
ReactorobjectappearintheVariablelist.
368
TheVariableNavigatorisused
extensivelyin HYSYSfor
locatingandselecting
variables. TheNavigator
operatesinaleftto-right
manner-theselected
Flowsheetdeterminesthe
Objectlist,thechosenObject
dictatestheVariablelist,and
theselectedVariable
determineswhetherany
VariableSpecificsare
available.
6. IntheVariablelist,selectVesselTemperature.VesselTemperature
appearsintheVariableDescriptionfield.Youcaneditthedefault
variabledescription.
Figure3.90


I(" eo.. .
1("8.... j"
.il
__ __


I
r
"OIiiect...fJhr 1
(.AI 1
1("5_ ;
I..mi i



/1
1.
__ __
7. IntheVariableDescriptionfield,renamethevariableReactorTemp,
thenclicktheOKbutton.Thevariablenowappearsinthe
Databook.
Figure3.91
, latdBook I!IGJEi
I


8. Toaddthenextvariable,clicktheInsertbutton.TheVariable
Navigatorappears.
9. IntheObjectFiltergroup,selecttheStreamsradiobutton.The
Objectlistisfilteredtoshowstreamsonly.
10. IntheObjectlist,selectCoolantintheObjectlist.Thevariables
availableforthisstreamappearintheVariablelist.
369
11. IntheVariablelist,selectHeatFlow.
Figure 3.92

{'""AI, . j
i
r UniIlJP!' ,
i



.. ti
.:..".....".";......;:,,J
12. IntheVariableDescriptionfield,changethedescriptiontoCooling
Duty,thenclicktheOK button.Thevariablenowappearsinthe
Databook.
13. ClicktheInsertbuttonagain.IntheObjectlist,selectGlycoLInthe
Variablelist,selectLiqVolFlow@StdCondo ChangetheVariable
DescriptionforthisvariabletoGlycolProduction,thenclicktheOK
button.ThecompletedVariablestaboftheDatabookappears
below.
Figure 3.93
'" D.taBook EJ
NowthatthekeyvariableshavebeenaddedtotheDatabook,thenext
taskistocreateadatatableinwhichtodisplaythesevariables.
14. ClicktheProcessDataTablestab.
3,,70
Thethreevariablesthatyou
addedtotheDatabook
appearinthetableonthis
tab.
15. IntheAvailableProcessDataTablesgroup,clicktheAddbutton.
HYSYScreatesanewtablewiththedefaultnameProcDatal.
Figure3.94
k DateBook fIII[;;lE:!

i ProcOlllol
16. IntheProcessDataTablefield,changethenametoKeyVariables.
17. IntheShowcolumn,activateeachvariablebyclickingonthe
correspondingcheckbox.
Figure3.95
,IndividuillProceoo.Q.a14
IfiqcmDlIIaT_. . . .. 1
I
A_tori
'--cOoIant,
18. ClicktheViewbuttontoviewthenewdatatable.
Figure3.96
Thistablewillbeaccessedagainlatertodemonstratehowitsresultsare
updatedwheneveraflowsheetchangeismade.
19. Fornow,clicktheMinimizeiconintheupperrightcornerof theKey
VariablesDataview.HYSYSreducestheviewtoaniconandplacesit
atthebottomof theDesktop.
371
Beforeyoumakechangestotheflowsheet,youwillrecordthecurrent
valuesofthekeyvariables.Insteadofmanuallyrecordingthevariables,
youcanusetheDataRecordertoautomaticallyrecordthemforyou.
20. ClicktheDataRecordertabintheDatabook.
Figure 3.97
WhenusingtheDataRecorder,youfirstcreateaScenariocontaining
oneormoreof thekeyvariables,thenrecordthevariablesintheir
currentstate.
21. IntheAvailableScenariosgroup,clicktheAddbutton.HYSYS
createsanewscenariowiththedefaultnameScenario1.
22. IntheDataRecorderDataSectiongroup,activateeachvariableby
clickingonthecorrespondingInclude checkbox.
Figure 3.98
372
New SolvedSl J
t1_JOI N<!w StMe
151...,11
23. ClicktheRecordbuttontorecordthevariablesintheircurrentstate.
TheNewSolvedStateviewappears,promptingyouforthenameof
thenewstate.
24. IntheNameforNewStatefield, changethenametoBaseCase,then
clickOK. You returntotheDatabook.
25. IntheAvailableDisplaygroup,selecttheTableradiobutton,then
clicktheViewbutton.TheDataRecorderviewappears,showingthe
valuesofthekeyvariablesintheircurrentstate.
Figure 3.99
Delete
AI
_I
Navigator Icon
Nowyoucanmakethenecessaryflowsheetchangesandthesecurrent
valuesremainasapermanentrecordintheDataRecorderunlessyou
choosetoerasethem.
26. ClicktheMinimizeiconontheDataRecorderview.
27. ClicktheRestoreUpiconmontheKeyVariablesDatatitlebarto
restoretheviewtoitsregularsize.
Next,youwillchangethetemperatureofstreamReactorProds(which
determinestheReactortemperature),thenviewthechangesinthe
processdatatable
28. ClicktheNavigatoriconinthetoolbar.
29. IntheFiltergroup,selecttheStreamsradiobutton.
30. IntheStreamslist,selectReactorProds,thenclicktheViewbutton.
TheReactorProdspropertyviewappears.
31. EnsureyouareontheWorksheettab,Conditionspageofthe
propertyview.
373
32. Arrange the Reactor Prods and Key Variables Data views so you can
see them both.
Figure 3.100
Currently, the Reactor temperature is l400R The key variables will be
checked at 180
0
R
33. In the Reactor Prods property view, change the value in the
Temperature cell to 180. HYSYS automatically recalculates the
flowsheet. The new results appears below.
Figure 3.101
3-74
Asaresultofthechange,therequiredcoolingdutydecreasedandthe
glycolproductionrateincreased.
34. ClicktheClosebuttonontheReactorProdsstreampropertyviewto
returntotheDatabook.Youcannowrecordthekeyvariablesin
theirnewstate.
35. ClickontheDataRecordertabintheDatabook.
36. ClicktheRecordbutton.TheNewSolvedStateviewappears.
37. IntheNameforNewStatefield, changethenameto180FReactor,
thenclicktheOKbutton.
38. IntheAvailableDisplaygroup,clicktheViewbutton.TheData
Recorderappears,displayingthenewvaluesofthevariables.
Figure 3.102
39. ClosetheDataRecorderview,thentheDatabookview,andfinally
theKeyVariablesDataview.
ThiscompletestheHYSYSChemicalsSteadyStateSimulationtutorial.If
thereareanyaspectsofthiscasethatyouwouldliketoexplorefurther,
feelfreetocontinueworkingonthissimulationonyourown.
Further Studq
Forotherchemicalcaseexamples,seetheApplicationssection.
Applicationsbeginningwith"C"exploresomeofthetypesof chemical
simulationsthatcanbebuiltusingHYSYS.
3-75
imulationBasisManager
SeeChapter 5Reactions in
theSimulationBasismanual
formoreinformation.
5.2.5 Reactions Tab
The Reactions Tab in the Simulation Basis Manager allows you to define
reactions within HYSYS. You can define an unlimited number of
reactions and group these reactions in reaction sets. The reaction sets
are then attached to unit operations in the flowsheet.
Any ReactionSet and Reaction in the Reaction Manager bank cannot be
attached to any unit operation in an electrolyte flowsheet (reactor unit
operations are disabled).
The electrolytes thermo calculation conducts a reactive and phase flash
at the same time. Therefore, adding any external reactions to a unit
operation is not yet allowed in HYSYS for electrolyte simulation.
For more information, refer to the HYSYS Electrolytes OLi manual.
The Reaction tab appears as shown in the following figure.
Figure5.8
lliowSot Ii
e,ddSOl.. I i
DeleteSot I i
tOPl!SeL Ii
ImpUlSo!.. II
E><pUISe!.. I!
~ ~ P I J
Use the Reaction Manager to do the following:
Createanewlistofcomponentsforthereactionsorusethe
componentsassociatedwithafluidpackage.
Add, Edit, CopyorDeletereactions andreaction sets.
Attachreactionstovarious reactionsets,orattachreaction sets
tomultiplefluidpackages.
ImportandExportreaction sets.
5-18
Rdding aReaction
1. ClicktheAdd Rxnbutton.TheReactionsviewappears.
2. Selectthetypeofreactionthatyouwanttouse.
3. ClicktheAdd Reactionbutton.TheReactionPropertyviewappears;
inthisview,youcandefinethefollowing:
Stoichiometry
Conversionbasis
Equilibriumconstant
Otherproperties
4. ClicktheStoichiometrytab.
5. Clickthefieldthatdisplays**AddComp**.Selectthecomponent
youwanttouseforthereactionfromthedrop-downlist.
6. Repeatthepreviousstepuntilalloftherequiredcomponentsare
addedtothetable.
7. IntheStoichCoeffcolumn,enterastoichiometriccoefficientfor
eachcomponent.Thisvaluemustbenegativeforareactantand
positiveforaproduct.
8. Specifythecoefficientforaninertcomponentas0(whichforthe
Conversionreactionisthesameasnotincludingthecomponentin
thetable).Fractionalcoefficientsareacceptable.
Editing aReaction
1. Fromthelistofavailablereactions,selectthereactionyouwantto
edit.
2. ClicktheViewRxnbutton.TheReactionPropertyviewappears.In
thisview,youcanmodifythefollowing:
Stoichiometry
Conversion basis
Equilibriumconstant
Otherproperties
Deleting aReaction
1. Fromthelistofavailablereactions,selectthereactionyouwantto
delete.
2. ClicktheDeleteRxnbutton.HYSYSpromptsyoutoconfirmthe
deletion.
5-19
imulation Basis Manager
Copqing aReaction
1. Fromthelistofavailablereactions,selectthereactionyouwantto
copy.
2. ClicktheCopyRxn button.TheCopyReactionsviewappears.
Figure 5.9
Copy Reactions EI
3. Selectthereactionyouwanttocopyfromthelistofreactions.
4. UsetheradiobuttonsintheNewReactionTypegrouptoselectthe
reactiontypeforthereactioncopy.
5. ClicktheCopyReactionbutton.
Adding aReaction Set
1. ClicktheAdd Setbutton.TheReactionSetviewappears.
2. IntheActiveUstcolumn,clickthe<empty>cellandusethedrop-
downlisttoselectthereactionyouwanttoaddtotheset.
3. IntheInactiveUstcolumn.clickthe<empty>cellandusethedrop-
downlisttoselectthereactionyouwanttoaddtotheset.This
reactionremainsinactive,butitisincludedintheset.
4. FromtheSolverMethoddrop-downlist.selectthereactionsolver
methodyouwanttouse.
5. Addanyoftheavailablereactionstotheset(aslongastheyarethe
sametype).Asinglereactioncanbeaddedtoasmanysetsas
necessary.
Available reaction solver
methods:
Newton's Method
Rate Iterated
Rate Integrated
Auto Select
5-20
Editing aReaction Set
1. Fromthelistof availablereactionsets,selectthereactionsetyou
wanttoedit.
2. ClicktheViewSetbutton.TheReactionSetviewappears.Inthis
view,youcandothefollowing:
Addandremovereactionsin thereactionset.
Modifythesolvermethod.
Activateandinactivatereactionsalreadyintheset.
Deleting aReaction Set
1. Fromthelistof availablereactionsets,selectthereactionsetyou
wanttodelete.
2. ClicktheDeletebutton.HYSYSpromptsyoutoconfirmthedeletion
ofthereactionset.
Copqing aReaction Set
1. Fromthelistofavailablereactionsets,selectthereactionsetyou
wanttocopy.
2. ClicktheCopybutton.
Copyingareactionsetcreatesanewreactionsetwiththeexactsame
propertiesastheoriginal.
Importing aReacNon Set
1. ClicktheImportSetbutton.TheOpenFileviewappears.
2. Browsetothelocationof yourreactionsetsfile (*.rst).
3. Selectthefileyouwanttoimport,thenclickOpen.
Exporting aReaction Set
1. ClicktheExportSetbutton.TheSaveFileviewappears.
2. Specifythenameandlocationof yourreactionsetfile.
3. ClickSave.
5-21
See Chapter 6 - Component
Maps in the Simulation Basis
manual for additional
information.
Hdding aReaction Set to aFluid Package
Aftercreatingreactionsandreactionsets,youcanassociatetheset(s)
withafluidpackage.
1. ClicktheAddtoFPbutton.TheAddReactionSetviewappears.
2. Fromthelistof availablefluidpackages,selectthefluidpackageto
whichyouwanttoaddareactionset.
3. ClicktheAddSettoFluidPackagebutton.
5.2.6 Component Maps Tab
TheComponentMapstaballowsyoutomapfluidcomponent
compositionacrossfluidpackageboundaries.Compositionvaluesfor
individualcomponentsfromonefluidpackagecanbemappedtoa
differentcomponentinanalternatefluidpackage.Thisisusefulwhen
dealingwithhypotheticaloilcomponents.
Figure 5.10
Twopreviouslydefinedfluidpackagesarerequiredtoperforma
componentmapping.Onefluidpackagebecomesthetargetcomponent
setandtheotherbecomesthesourcecomponentset.Mappingis
performedusingamatrixofsourceandtargetcomponents.Thetransfer
basiscanbeperformedonamole,massorliquidvolumebasis.
5-22
Refer to Section 5.4
Reaction Sets for information
on Reaction Sets.
5.3 Reactions
In HYSYS, a default reaction set, the Global Rxn Set, is present in every
simulation. All compatible reactions that are added to the case are
automatically included in this set. A Reaction can be attached to a
different set, but it also remains in the Global Rxn Set unless you remove
it. To create a Reaction, click the Add Rxn button from the Reaction
Manager.
The following table describes the five types of Reactions that can be
modeled in HYSYS:
Reaction Type I Requirements
Convers on ReqUires th e s OIChlome ry 0 filth a e reac Ions an d th e conversion 0
a base component in the reaction.
I
Equilibrium Requires the stoichiometry of all the reactions. The term Ln(K) may
be calculated using one of several different methods, as explained
later. The reaction order for each component is determined from the
stoichiometric coefficients.
Heterogeneous Requires the kinetics terms of the Kinetic reaction as well as the
Catalytic Activation Energy, Frequency Factor and Component Exponent
terms of the Adsorption kinetics.
Kinetic Requires the stoichiometry of all the reactions, as well as the
Activation Energy and Frequency Factor in the Arrhenius equation
for forward and reverse (optional) reactions. The forward and
reverse orders of reaction for each component can be specified.
Requires the stoichiometry of all the reactions, as well as the
Activation Energy and Frequency Factor in the Arrhenius equation
for the forward reaction. The Equilibrium Expression constants are
required for the reverse reaction.
I Simple Rate
I
Each of the reaction types require that you supply the stoichiometry. To
assist with this task, the Balance Error tracks the molecular weight and
supplied stoichiometry. Ifthe reaction equation is balanced, this error is
equal to zero. Ifyou have provided all of the stoichiometric coefficients
except one, you may select the Balance button to have HYSYS determine
the missing stoichiometric coefficient.
Reactions can be on a phase specific basis. The Reaction is applied only
to the components present in that phase. This allows different rate
equations for the vapour and liquid phase in same reactor operation.
5-7
S.3.l Manipulating Reactions
When youobjectinspecta
From the Reaction Manager, you can use the four buttons in the
reactionin theReactions
Reactions group to manipulate reactions. The buttons are described
group,you can selectViewor
below:
Deletefromthemenu.
Button ICommand
ViewRxn Accessesthe propertyviewofthehighlightedreaction.
AddRxn Accessesthe Reactionsview,fromwhichyou selectaReaction
type.
DeleteRxn Removesthehighlightedreaction(s) from theReactionManager.
CopyRxn Whenselected,theCopyReactionsviewappearswhereyoucan
selectanalternateReactionTypeforthe reactionorduplicatethe
highlightedreaction.
Bydefault, conversion
reactionsarecalculated
simultaneously. Howeveryou
can specifysequential
reactionsusingtheRanking
feature. SeeSection5.4
ReactionSets.
S.3.2 Conversion Reaction
The Conversion Reaction requires the Stoichiometric Coefficients for
each component and the specified Conversion of a base reactant. The
compositions of unknown streams can be calculated when the
Conversion is known.
Consider the following Conversion reaction:
bed
A+-B..-,-C+-D (5.1)
a a a
where: a, b, canddaretherespectivestoichiometriccoefficientso/the
reactants(A andB)andproducts(CandD).
Ais thebasereactantandBis notinalimitingquantity.
58
When you have supplied aU of
the required information for
the Conversion Reaction, the
status message will change
from Not Ready to Ready.
In general, the reaction components obey the following reaction
stoichiometry:
NA =N
Ao
(1-X
A
)
b
NB=NB--N X
o a Ao A
(5.2)
where: N. =Theflnal moles ofcomponent '" ("'=A, B, C and D)
N.
o
The initial moles ofcomponent '"
X
A
=The conversion ofthe base component A
The moles of a reactant available for conversion in a given reaction
include any amount produced by other reactions, as well as the amount
ofthat component in the inlet stream(s). An exception to this occurs
when the reactions are specified as sequential.
Stoichiometrq Tab
The Stoichiometry tab of a conversion reaction is shown in the figure
below:
Figure 5.3
59
The Reaction Heat value is
calculated and displayed
below the Balance Error. A
positive value indicates that
the reaction is endothermic.
For each Conversion reaction, you must supply the following
information:
Input Field !Information Required
Reaction Name A default name is provided which may be changed. The previous
view shows the name as Rxn-1.
Components The components to be reacted. A minimum of two components are
required. You must specify a minimum of one reactant and one
product for each reaction you include. Use the drop-down list to
access the available components. The Molecular Weight of each
component is automatically displayed.
Stoichiometric
Coefficient
Necessary for every component in the reaction. The Stoichiometric
Coefficient is negative for a reactant and positive for a product. You
may specify the coefficient for an inert component as 0, which, for
the Conversion reaction, is the same as not including the
component in the table. The Stoichiometric Coefficient does not
have to be an integer; fractional coefficients are acceptable.
Oasis Tab
The Basis tab of a conversion reaction is shown in the figure below:
Figure 5.4
5-10
On the Basis tab, you must supply the following information:
Required Input I Description
Base Only a component that is consumed in the reaction (a reactant) may
Component be specified as the Base Component (i.e., a reaction product or an
inert component is not a valid choice). You can use the same
component as the Base Component for a number of reactions, and it
is quite acceptable for the Base Component of one reaction to be a
product of another reaction. Note that you have to add the
Components to the reaction before the Base Component can be
specified.
Rxn Phase The phase for which the specified conversions apply. Different
kinetics for different phases can be modeled in the same reactor.
Possible choices for the Reaction Phase are:

Overall. Reaction occurs in all Phases.
Vapour Phase. Reaction occurs only in the Vapour Phase.
Liquid Phase. Reaction occurs only in the Light Liquid Phase.
Aqueous Phase. Reaction occurs only in the Heavy Liquid
Phase.
Combined Liquid. Reaction occurs in all Liquid Phases.
Conversion
Function
Parameters
Conversion percentage can be defined as a function of reaction
temperature according to the following equation:
Conv =Co + Cl . T + C2 . r
This is the percentage of the Base Component consumed in this
reaction. The value of Conv.(%) calculated from the equation is
always limited within the range of 0.0 and 100%.
The actual conversion of any reaction is limited to the lesser of the
specified conversion of the base component or complete
consumption of a limiting reactant.
Sequential Reactions may be
modeled in one reactor by
specifying the sequential order
of solution. See Reaction
Rank, in Section 5.4 -
Reaction Sets.
Note that reactions of equal
ranking cannot exceed an
overall conversion of 100%.
To define a constant value for conversion percentage, enter a
conversion (%) value for Co only_ Negative values for C1 and C2 means
that the conversion drops with increased temperature and vice versa.
5-11
Conversion Reactor icon
Refer to Section 5.3.2 -
Conversion Reaction in the
Simulation Basis manual
for details on creating
Conversion Reaction Sets
and Conversion Reactions.
9.2.2 Conversion Reactor Reactions Jab
The Conversion Reactor is a vessel in which conversion reactions are
performed. You can only attach reaction sets that contain conversion
reactions. Each reaction in the set proceeds until the specified
conversion is attained or until a limiting reactant is depleted.
The Reactions tab, consists of two pages:
Details
Results.
Details Page
You can attach the reaction set to the operation and specify the
conversion for each reaction in the set on the Details page. The reaction
set can contain only conversion reactions.
Figure 9.5
, Conwnion Roaclion Dot.
R.ac:Iittl Sot I"""Cor'""""'nbu:- .,-'or""""'R-"".,,-S .. .,..-:.3' Iioaclion IA",,1 :.3
r 0.. r Corw....... ". YO_Ruction.. 1
MoieW
16.043
18.015 .
28.011
Z01S'
loc.!
1.(0)
3,(0)

Delet. r l.i;rlofed
The Details page consists of four objects as described in the table below.
ObJect I Description
Reaction Set Allows you to select the appropriate conversion reaction set. i
Reaction You must select the appropriate conversion reaction from the I
selected Reaction Set.
9-10
The Balance Error (for the
reaction stoichiometry) and
the Reaction Heat (Heat of
Reaction at 25C) are also
shown for the current
reaction.
Object I Description
I
View Reaction button Opens the Reaction property view for the reaction currently
selected in the Reaction drop-down list. The Reaction
property view allows you to edit the reaction.
The three radio buttons on the Details page are: [Radio buttons]
Stoichiometry
Basis
Conversion
The three radio buttons allow you to toggle between the
Stoichiometry group, the Basis group or the Conversion
group (each group is described in the following sections).
Stoictliometrq Radio Button
When you select the Stoichiometry radio button, the Stoichiometry Info
group appears. The Stoichiometry Info group allows you to examine the
components involved in the selected reaction, their molecular weights
as well as their stoichiometric coefficients.
Figure 9.6
1.001
1.001
tOOl
3.000
0.!lXD)
2.1
MoieW
16.0<13
18.015
29.011
2.016
911
CSTR/General Reactors Property View
In the Fractional Conversion
Equation group, parameters
shown in red or blue colour
indicate that the variable
can be cloned.
Oasis Radio Outton
When you select the Basis radio button, the Basis group appears. In the
Basis group, you can view the base component, the conversion, and the
reaction phase for each reaction in the reaction set.
Figure 9.7
(' (.' u.... r c..-.... ,.
up
o.... c_
R ... Ph.ue



Co
Cl
C2
c..-....(%I. Co. Cl'T CT"2
(T in KaIWII
Conversion Radio Button
When you select the Conversion radio button, the Fractional Conversion
Equation group appears. The Fractional Conversion Equation group
allows you to implement a conversion model based on the
Conversion(%) equation listed.
Figure 9.8
(' r B.... (.' Carwet.... %
, Fractionol c..-.... Equation
4001'1 P
p
p-
c..-.... Co Cl-T C2"T"2
IT in KeIWI)
The parameters for the attached conversion reaction(s) can be cloned as
local variables belonging to the Conversion Reactor. Therefore, you can
either use the parameters specified in the reaction(s) from the attached
reaction set by clicking the Use Default checkbox or specifying locally
the values within the Fractional Conversion Equation group.
9-12
You can change the specified
conversion for a reaction
directly on this page.
BfIonca I

0_ tI_IAx",l
Any changes made to the Conversion Reaction property view are made
globally to the selected Reaction and any Reaction Sets which contain
the Reaction. For example, if any change is made to the reaction shown
in the figure above, the change is carried over to every other instance in
which this Reaction is used. It is therefore recommended that changes
which are Reactor specific (Le., changes which are only meant to affect
one Reactor) are made within the Reactions tab.
Results Page
The Results page displays the results of a converged reactor. The page
consists of the Reactor Results Summary group which contains two
radio buttons:
Reaction Extents
Reaction Balance.
The type of results displayed on the Results page depend on the radio
button selected.
View Reaction Hutton
When you click the View Reaction button, the Conversion Reaction
property view of the reaction currently selected in the Reaction drop-
down list appears.
Figure 9.9
SIoic:hiome!tY lrio
Sloich Coefl
16,043 1000
18.015 1.000
co 29.01 ( 1.000
Hydrcige" i01G 3000
""Add Comp""
9-13
CSTR/General ReactorsPropertyView
Whentherearemultiple
reactionsina ReactionSet,
HYSYSautomaticallyranks
thereactions. Areaction
withalowerrankingvalue
occursfirst. Eachgroupof
reactionsofequal rank can
haveanoverallspecified
conversionbetween0%and
100%.
Anychangesmadetothe
globalreactionaffectall
ReactionSetstowhichthe
reactionisattached,
providedlocalchangeshave
notbeenmade.
Reaction ExtentsRadio Hutton
WhentheReactionExtentsradiobuttonisselected,theResultspage
appearsasshowninthefigurebelow.
Figure9.10
ReoclaFlaubS_
(I" BeacIionENI!JfI!' ("' Fl84diona..,.,
11.....1
R..,.2
Flori<.
II

Ad.:tCnv
lIUJ!l
33.60.,
4Il.31 .
B_Como
MeIIIone
MeIIIone
..........
R""E_
4.923
9.144
13.15
-
R..,.3
TheReactorResultsSummarygroupdisplaysthefollowingresultsfora
convergedreactor:
ResultField IDescription
Rank Displaysthecurrentrankofthereaction. Formultiple
reactions,lowerrankedreactionsoccurfirst.
Actual%Conversion Displaysthepercentageofthebasecomponentin thefeed
stream(s)whichhasbeenconsumedinthereaction.
BaseComponent Thereactanttowhichthecalculationconversion isbased
on.
RxnExtent Liststhemolarrateconsumptionofthebasecomponent.
Noticethattheactualconversionvaluesdonotmatchthespecified
conversionvalues.Rxn-3proceedsfirstandishaltedwhenalimiting
reactantisexhausted.ThesumofthespecifiedconversionsforRxn-l
andRxn-2is100%,soalloftheremainingbasecomponentcanbe
consumed,providedalimitingreactantisnotfullyconsumed
beforehand.Allofthebasecomponentisconsumed,andthisis
reflectedintheactualconversiontotalling100%.
9-14
Formoreinformationon
Kinetic. Heterogeneous
CatalyticandSimpleRate
reactions.refertoChapter5
- Reactionsinthe
SimulationBasismanual.
CSTRicon
Reaction Balance Radio Button
When the Reaction Balance radio button is selected, the Reaction
Balance option provides an overall component summary for the
Conversion Reactor. All components which appear in the fluid package
are shown here.
Figure9.11
R_R_S_
r Beooetion E_ Ii" RuctionB_
lot
T lnllow ToIolR""
Zl.22
..
1009
TotllOI.llftow
a,COD
- 277.9
36.25
27,22
4,923
22.29 '
41.21
4i1.51
Zl7.7 51,34 269,1
98.93 12490-014 98.93
. ,
26,30 . '26.30
Q,COD
Values appear after the solution of the reactor has converged. The Total
Inflow rate, the Total Reacted rate and the Total Outflow rate for each
component are provided on a molar basis. Negative values indicate the
consumption of a reactant, while positive values indicate the
appearance of a product.
9.2.3 CSTR Reactions Tab
The CSTR is a vessel in which Kinetic, Heterogeneous Catalytic, and
Simple Rate reactions can be performed. The conversion in the reactor
depends on the rate expression of the reactions associated with the
reaction type. The inlet stream is assumed to be perfectly (and
instantaneously) mixed with the material already in the reactor, so that
the outlet stream composition is identical to that ofthe reactor contents.
Given the reactor volume, a consistent rate expression for each reaction
and the reaction stoichiometry, the CSTR computes the conversion of
each component entering the reactor.
9-15

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