Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 195

ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate

10/24/2014


Analysis Report
MCG 4322 Computer-Aided Design

POMEGRANATE
M2A
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries

3930615: Chartrand, Marc-Andr
6277094: Dumas, Xavier
5933476: Mnard, Gabriel
6276781: Nazair, Samuel

Mechanical Engineering Department
Engineering Faculty
University of Ottawa

ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
MCG 4322 Computer-Aided Design i | P a g e

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 1
1.1 Group Problem Statement ............................................................................................... 3
2 Analysis .................................................................................................................................... 4
2.1 System Layout .................................................................................................................. 4
2.2 Top Level Design Parameters ........................................................................................... 5
2.2.1 Component Layout ................................................................................................... 5
2.2.2 Analystical Design ..................................................................................................... 5
2.2.3 Critical Review ......................................................................................................... 12
2.3 Piston .............................................................................................................................. 12
2.3.1 Component Layout ................................................................................................. 13
2.3.2 Input, Constants and Fixed Parameters .................................................................. 14
2.3.3 Assumptions, Simplification and Material Selection .............................................. 14
2.3.4 Stress Analysis ......................................................................................................... 15
2.3.5 Critical Review ......................................................................................................... 18
2.4 Cylinder .......................................................................................................................... 18
2.4.1 Stress Analysis ......................................................................................................... 19
2.4.2 Heat Transfer .......................................................................................................... 22
2.4.3 Critical Review ......................................................................................................... 28
2.5 Connecting Rod .............................................................................................................. 29
2.5.1 Component Layout ................................................................................................. 30
2.5.2 Assumptions, Simplification and Material Selection .............................................. 31
2.5.3 Force Analysis ......................................................................................................... 32
2.5.4 Stress Analysis ......................................................................................................... 38
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
MCG 4322 Computer-Aided Design ii | P a g e

2.5.5 Shaking Forces Analysis .......................................................................................... 43
2.5.6 Critical Review ......................................................................................................... 46
2.6 Crankshaft ...................................................................................................................... 49
2.6.1 Component Layout ................................................................................................. 49
2.6.2 Input, Constants and Fixed Parameters .................................................................. 49
2.6.3 Assumptions, Simplification and Material Selection .............................................. 51
2.6.4 Stress Analysis ......................................................................................................... 52
2.6.5 Critical Review ......................................................................................................... 72
2.7 Clutch .............................................................................................................................. 72
2.7.1 Component Layout ................................................................................................. 73
2.7.2 Input, Constants and Fixed Parameters .................................................................. 73
2.7.3 Assumptions, Simplification and Material Selection .............................................. 74
2.7.4 Stress Analysis ......................................................................................................... 74
2.7.5 Critical Review ......................................................................................................... 78
2.8 Valve, Air Intake and Manifold ....................................................................................... 78
2.8.1 Component Layout ................................................................................................. 79
2.8.2 Input, Constants and Fixed Parameters .................................................................. 79
2.8.3 Assumptions, Simplification and Material Selection .............................................. 80
2.8.4 Stress Analysis ......................................................................................................... 81
2.8.5 Critical Review ......................................................................................................... 89
2.9 Valve Spring .................................................................................................................... 90
2.9.1 Component Layout ................................................................................................. 90
2.9.2 Input, Constants and Fixed Parameters .................................................................. 90
2.9.3 Assumptions, Simplification and Material Selection .............................................. 91
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
MCG 4322 Computer-Aided Design iii | P a g e

2.9.4 Stress Analysis ......................................................................................................... 92
2.9.5 Critical Review ......................................................................................................... 96
2.10 Valve Spring Retainer ..................................................................................................... 97
2.10.1 Component Layout ................................................................................................. 97
2.10.2 Input, Constants and Fixed Parameters .................................................................. 97
2.10.3 Stress Analysis ......................................................................................................... 97
2.10.4 Critical Review ......................................................................................................... 99
2.11 Valve Guide .................................................................................................................... 99
2.11.1 Component Layout ................................................................................................. 99
2.11.2 Input, Constants and Fixed Parameters .................................................................. 99
2.11.3 Assumptions, Simplification and Material Selection ............................................ 100
2.11.4 Stress Analysis ....................................................................................................... 100
2.11.5 Critical Review ....................................................................................................... 101
2.12 Rocker Arm ................................................................................................................... 101
2.12.1 Component Layout ............................................................................................... 101
2.12.2 Input, Constants and Fixed Parameters ................................................................ 101
2.12.3 Assumptions, Simplification and Material Selection ............................................ 102
2.12.4 Stress Analysis ....................................................................................................... 103
2.12.5 Critical Review ....................................................................................................... 107
2.13 Fulcrum Bolt ................................................................................................................. 107
2.13.1 Component Layout ............................................................................................... 108
2.13.2 Input, Constants and Fixed Parameters ................................................................ 108
2.13.3 Assumptions, Simplification and Material Selection ............................................ 109
2.13.4 Stress Analysis ....................................................................................................... 109
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
MCG 4322 Computer-Aided Design iv | P a g e

2.13.5 Critical Review ....................................................................................................... 118
2.14 Pushrod ........................................................................................................................ 119
2.14.1 Component Layout ............................................................................................... 119
2.14.2 Input, Constants and Fixed Parameters ................................................................ 119
2.14.3 Assumptions, Simplification and Material Selection ............................................ 120
2.14.4 Stress Analysis ....................................................................................................... 121
2.14.5 Critical Review ....................................................................................................... 123
2.15 Cam ............................................................................................................................... 123
2.15.1 Input, Constants and Fixed Parameters ................................................................ 123
2.15.2 Assumptions, Simplification and Material Selection ............................................ 123
2.15.3 Stress Analysis ....................................................................................................... 128
2.15.4 Critical Review ....................................................................................................... 132
2.16 Camshaft ...................................................................................................................... 133
2.16.1 Input, Constants and Fixed Parameters ................................................................ 133
2.16.2 Assumptions, Simplification and Material Selection ............................................ 133
2.16.3 Stress Analysis ....................................................................................................... 134
2.16.4 Critical Review ....................................................................................................... 141
2.17 Serpentine Belt ............................................................................................................. 142
2.17.1 Component Layout ............................................................................................... 142
2.17.2 Input, Constants and Fixed Parameters ................................................................ 143
2.17.3 Assumptions, Simplification and Material Selection ............................................ 143
2.17.4 Stress Analysis ....................................................................................................... 144
2.17.5 Critical Review ....................................................................................................... 152
2.18 Oil Pump ....................................................................................................................... 152
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
MCG 4322 Computer-Aided Design v | P a g e

2.18.1 Input, Constants and Fixed Parameters ................................................................ 152
2.18.2 Assumptions, Simplification and Material Selection ............................................ 152
2.18.3 Stress Analysis ....................................................................................................... 153
2.18.4 Critical Review ....................................................................................................... 155
3 Future Work ......................................................................................................................... 156
4 References ........................................................................................................................... 156
6 Appendices ........................................................................................................................... 158
6.1 Appendix A - Technical Tables and Charts ................................................................... 158
6.2 Appendix B - Derivation of equations .......................................................................... 173
6.2.1 Development of the Equation of Motions of the Cams and Followers ................ 173
6.3 Appendix C - Minutes and Agendas ............................................................................. 180
6.3.1 Week 6 .................................................................................................................. 180
6.3.2 week 7 ................................................................................................................... 181
6.4 Appendix D - Gantt Chart ............................................................................................. 183


ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
MCG 4322 Computer-Aided Design vi | P a g e

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1 Flow Chart of the Analysis Algorithm ............................................................................ 1
Figure 2 Analysis Priority List ....................................................................................................... 2
Figure 3 Overall System Layout .................................................................................................... 4
Figure 4 Piston and Cylinder Geometry of Reciprocating Engine ................................................ 5
Figure 5 Instantaneous Piston Speed Relative to Average Piston Speed as a Function of for
Various R ......................................................................................................................................... 6
Figure 6 General engine cycle ...................................................................................................... 8
Figure 7 Brake specific fuel consumption as a function of engine speed.................................. 11
Figure 8 Brake specific fuel consumption as a function of fuel equivalence ............................ 11
Figure 9 Brake specific fuel consumption as a function of engine displacement ..................... 12
Figure 10 Forces Acting On Piston ............................................................................................. 13
Figure 11 Cylinder View Whit or Without Flange for Dry and Wet Cylinder Liner .................... 19
Figure 12 Forces Acting on Cylinder Liner.................................................................................. 21
Figure 13 Typical Temperature Values distribution Found in Engine operating at normal
Steady-State Condition ................................................................................................................. 22
Figure 14 Distribution of Energy in Typical SI engine as a function of speed ............................ 23
Figure 15 Heat Transfer Through Cylinder Wall for Liquid and Air Cooled Engine ................... 24
Figure 16 Preliminary Heat Transfer Model for Air-Cooled Cylinder ........................................ 27
Figure 17 Efficiency of annular fins of rectangular profile. ....................................................... 28
Figure 18 Connecting Rod Layout .............................................................................................. 30
Figure 19 Connecting Rod Mass and Inertia Simplification ....................................................... 31
Figure 20 Approximate dynamic model for the slider crank mechanism ................................. 32
Figure 21 Forces on Connecting Rod ......................................................................................... 33
Figure 22 Inertia and Bending Forces ........................................................................................ 34
Figure 23 I-Section of Connecting Rod ....................................................................................... 35
Figure 24 Crippling of Connecting Rod ...................................................................................... 36
Figure 25 Small End of the Connecting Rod ............................................................................... 37
Figure 26 Big End of the Connecting Rod .................................................................................. 38
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
MCG 4322 Computer-Aided Design vii | P a g e

Figure 27 Slider Crank Mechanism in ICE .................................................................................. 38
Figure 28 External Forces and Moment Acting Slider Crank Mechanism ................................. 40
Figure 29 V-Twin configuration force diagram .......................................................................... 41
Figure 30 Typical Plot of Three Moments for a Single Cylinder of The ICE (Mp, dotted), (Mi,
dashed), (Mt, solid) ....................................................................................................................... 43
Figure 31 FBD for left bank crank mechanism ........................................................................... 43
Figure 32 3D plot of the bearing force with regard to and ................................................. 47
Figure 33 3D Plot of Shaking Force with Regard to and V-Angle ............................................ 48
Figure 34 3D Plot of Shaking Force with Regard to and Piston Offset ................................... 48
Figure 35 Crankshaft Component Layout .................................................................................. 49
Figure 36 Illustration of Applied Forces on Crankpin ................................................................ 51
Figure 37 Fatigue Diagram Showing Various Failure Criteria .................................................... 53
Figure 38 Modified Goodman Diagram Showing Limiting Values ............................................. 53
Figure 39 Fillet Shear Stress Concentration Factor for Torsion ................................................. 54
Figure 40 Fillet Stress Concentration Factor for Bending .......................................................... 54
Figure 41 Transverse Hole Shear Stress Concentration Factor for Torsion ............................... 55
Figure 42 Transverse Hole Stress Concentration Factor for Bending ........................................ 55
Figure 43 Crankshaft Oil Bore .................................................................................................... 60
Figure 44 Illustration of the Definitions for Limits and Fits ....................................................... 61
Figure 45 Illustration of a Gib-head sled-runner Key ................................................................. 65
Figure 46 Detail of Forces Applied to Key .................................................................................. 67
Figure 47 Radial Center-to-Center Distance .............................................................................. 69
Figure 48 Example of the Relation between Torque and Crank Angle for a One-Cylinder ICE . 70
Figure 49 Clutch Assembly Layout ............................................................................................. 73
Figure 50 Load-Deflection Curves for Belleville Springs ............................................................ 76
Figure 51 Belleville Spring Cross Section View .......................................................................... 77
Figure 52 Intake Manifold .......................................................................................................... 79
Figure 53 One end free and one end fixed pushrod .................................................................. 81
Figure 54 Euler Curve ................................................................................................................. 82
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
MCG 4322 Computer-Aided Design viii | P a g e

Figure 55 Air Intake Port [10] ..................................................................................................... 84
Figure 56 Intake Port Geometry ................................................................................................ 85
Figure 57 Intake Manifold Flow Rates ....................................................................................... 87
Figure 58 Inlet Pressure and Back Pressure ............................................................................... 88
Figure 59 Valve Spring ................................................................................................................ 90
Figure 60 Plain and ground spring ends ..................................................................................... 91
Figure 61 Valve spring - force and torsion ................................................................................. 92
Figure 62 Important Spring Dimensions [11] ............................................................................. 95
Figure 63 Valve Spring Retainer ................................................................................................. 97
Figure 64 Valve Retainer (Top Half) and Cotter Groove ............................................................ 98
Figure 65 Valve Guide and Retainer .......................................................................................... 99
Figure 66 Valve Retainer (Bottom Half) and Guide ................................................................. 100
Figure 67 Rocker arm ............................................................................................................... 101
Figure 68 Force analysis of rocker ........................................................................................... 103
Figure 69 Rocker Arm Ratio [12] .............................................................................................. 107
Figure 70 Fulcrum Bolt ............................................................................................................. 108
Figure 71 Dimensions of Bolt ................................................................................................... 109
Figure 72 Dimension of Screw ................................................................................................. 114
Figure 73 Pushrod Assembly .................................................................................................... 119
Figure 74 One end free and one end fixed pushrod ................................................................ 121
Figure 75 Force exerted on pushrod ........................................................................................ 121
Figure 76 Euler Curve ............................................................................................................... 122
Figure 77 Type of position curve of follower ........................................................................... 124
Figure 78 Position of each follower with respect of their cam angular position .................... 125
Figure 79 Free body diagram of a cam and follower ............................................................... 128
Figure 80 Contact area of the cam and follower ..................................................................... 132
Figure 81 Estimated center of gravity of a cam ....................................................................... 134
Figure 82 Free body diagram of the camshaft and position of center of mass of each cams. 135
Figure 83 Shear, moment and torque diagram of the camshaft ............................................. 138
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
MCG 4322 Computer-Aided Design ix | P a g e

Figure 84 Journal bearing nomenclature ................................................................................. 139
Figure 85 Serpentine Belt with Spring Loaded Tensioner ....................................................... 142
Figure 86 Standard "v" belt ...................................................................................................... 143
Figure 87 Dimensions of V Belt ................................................................................................ 145
Figure 88 V-Belt Tension .......................................................................................................... 149
Figure 89 Flow chart of the oil system ..................................................................................... 152
Figure 90 Free body diagram of the pump and shaft .............................................................. 153
Figure 91 4 tooth gerotor pump .............................................................................................. 154
Figure 92 Plot of the dimensionless flow variable in function of the Sommerfeld number for
different ratio .............................................................................................................................. 171
Figure 93 Plot of the dimensionless film thickness with respect of the Sommerfeld number for
different ratio .............................................................................................................................. 172


LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Fixed Parameters for Engine ........................................................................................... 14
Table 2: Selected Aluminum Alloys Properties ............................................................................. 15
Table 3: Crankshaft Fixed Variables .............................................................................................. 50
Table 4: Crankshaft Driven Variables ............................................................................................ 50
Table 5: Parameters for Marin Surface Modification Factor ........................................................ 57
Table 6: Effect of Operating Temperature on Tensile Strength ................................................... 58
Table 7: Reliability Modification Factor ........................................................................................ 58
Table 8: Bearing Load-Application Factors ................................................................................... 63
Table 9: Typical Slope Ranges for Bearings ................................................................................... 64
Table 10: Clutch Design Fixed Parameters ................................................................................... 74
Table 11: Clutch Design Driven Variables ..................................................................................... 74
Table 12: Properties of material ................................................................................................... 91
Table 13: Viscosity and temperature constant for different grade of SAE oil ............................ 140
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
MCG 4322 Computer-Aided Design x | P a g e

Table 14: Temperature rise with respect to the applied pressure for different l/d ratio .......... 141
Table 15: Standard Belt Section .................................................................................................. 158
Table 16: Inside Circumference of Standard V Belts .................................................................. 158
Table 17: Mechanical-Property Classes for Steel Bolts .............................................................. 159
Table 18: Dimensions of Hexagonal Nuts ................................................................................... 159
Table 19: Dimensions of Metric Plain Washers .......................................................................... 160
Table 20: Preferred sized and Renard number ........................................................................... 160
Table 21: Diameters and Areas of pitch metric thread .............................................................. 161
Table 22: Length Conversion Dimensions ................................................................................... 161
Table 23: Horsepower Ratings for Standard V-Belts .................................................................. 162
Table 24: Angle of Contact Correction Factor (VV) ..................................................................... 162
Table 25: Belt-Length Correction Factor ..................................................................................... 163
Table 26: Suggested Service Factors for V-Belt Drives ......................................................... 163
Table 27: V-Belt Parameter ......................................................................................................... 164
Table 28: Durability Parameter for Some V-Belt Sections .......................................................... 164
Table 29: Typical Steel Mechanical Properties ........................................................................... 165
Table 30: International Tolerance Grades (Metric Series).......................................................... 166
Table 31: Dimensions and Load Ratings for Single-Row 02-Series Deep-Groove Ball Bearings . 166
Table 32: Fundamental Deviation for Shafts .............................................................................. 167
Table 33: List of Common Metal Densities, ................................................................................ 168
Table 34: Typical Clutch Materials and Friction Coefficient Values............................................ 169
Table 35: Material selection for cam with a tool steel 60-62 RC................................................ 170



ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
MCG 4322 Computer-Aided Design xi | P a g e

LIST OF ACRONYMS & ABBREVIATIONS
BHP - Brake Horse Power
DOHC - Double Overhead Camshaft
ECU - Electronic Control Unit
EPA - Environmental Protection Agency
EPS - Electrical Power Source
FPR - Fuel Pressure Regulator
HP - Horse Power
HV - Hybrid Vehicle
ICE - Internal Combustion Engine
NHTSA - National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
OHV - Overhead Valve
SAE - Society of Automotive Engineers
SOHC - Single Overhead Camshaft

ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
MCG 4322 Computer-Aided Design 1 | P a g e

1 INTRODUCTION
The mandate of the team M2A is to design an ICE power plant for a hybrid vehicle. From the
Design Report, the team did a decision analysis for each sub-system of the engine. The resulting
decision was a design with a 4-stroke custom OHV, 2-cylinder V-twin configuration engine. The
next step is to parameterize the dimensions of each critical component and perform a stress
analysis. This analysis will specify the design and get a real idea of what the engine will look like
with its performance specification. The analysis will be performed using a recursive algorithm
by initialising the dimension and selecting material of the model and performing calculation to
get the safety factor. If this safety factor isnt within allowable parameters, the dimensions
need to be increased or the material must be changed before doing the analysis again. The
Figure 1 illustrates this process.

Dimension and Material
Selection
Free Body Diagram
Computation of stresses
and safety factor
Is the safety
factor is
acceptable
No
Design Specifications
Yes

Figure 1 Flow Chart of the Analysis Algorithm

ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
MCG 4322 Computer-Aided Design 2 | P a g e

The table and list below demonstrates all components to be analyzed in order of importance
along with the order of importance of the type of analysis to be done. This order was
established by looking at a multitude of factors including: the criticalness of the component, its
complexity within the engine, the main role it has in the overall design, whether it is a driving
component or driven and if it is used to transmit forces in the system or if it is a supporting
item.

Figure 2 Analysis Priority List
1. Piston
2. Piston Rings
3. Sleeve Bearing
4. Circlips
5. Connecting Rod
6. Con Rod Flat Bearings
7. Con Rod End Cap
8. Bolts (2X)
9. Crankshaft
10. Crank Flat Bearings
11. Sprocket
12. Chain Tension
13. Serpentines Pulley
14. Starting Jaw & Collar
15. Flywheel
16. Flywheels Fasteners
17. Camshafts Sprocket
18. Sprockets Key
Force
Analysis
FBD
Moments, Shear Forces etc...
Stress &
Strains
Safety Factor
Fatigue & Failure
Vibration
Analysis
Natural Frequency
Thermal
Analysis
Thermal Expansion
Heat Transfer
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
MCG 4322 Computer-Aided Design 3 | P a g e

19. Camshaft
20. Camshafts Bearings
21. Pushrods
22. Rockers
23. Valves Sizing
24. Valves Spring
25. Intake & Exhaust Channels
26. Casing Wall Thickness
27. Casing Fasteners
28. Oil Pump
29. Driving Shaft
30. Amount of Oil Required
31. Oil Pressure
32. Wall Thickness of Combustion
Chamber
1.1 Group Problem Statement
The M2A group has evolved since its formation; the wall of uncertainty faced by the members
collapsed leaving room for learning and progress of each individual member and of the
collective as a whole. The M2A group needs to understand, identify and move forward with
each goal constituting the project in order to be able to thrive and complete them and do so in
a respectable time. The analysis report will be an opportunity for group to model each system
using engineering principles. This step will allow members to create links between what they
learn during their study and finally understand the importance of each course as a whole for a
competent mechanical engineer. After this milestone, the team will be able to write programs
who follow these analysis. Success during that exercise will secure a solid base design for the
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries.

ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
4 | P a g e

2 ANALYSIS
2.1 System Layout


Figure 3 Overall System Layout

BI LL OF MATERI ALS
Item 1: Oil filter
Item 2: Oil pan
Item 3: Oil purge screw
Item 4: Oil pump
Item 5: Camshaft
Item 6: Piston
Item 7: Push rod
Item 8: Rocker Arm
Item 9: Spark plug
Item 10: Valve
Item 11: Connecting rod
Item 12: Crankshaft

ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
5 | P a g e

2.2 Top Level Design Parameters
Unless otherwise specified, all information, figures and table shown in this section are from
these references:
PULKRABEK, Willard W. (2003), Engineering Fundamentals of the Internal Combustion
Engine, 2
nd
edition, Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, University of Wisconsin; Section 2-
3 Operating Characteristics & Engine Cycles
2.2.1 COMPONENT LAYOUT

Figure 4 Piston and Cylinder Geometry of Reciprocating Engine
2.2.2 ANALYSTICAL DESIGN
2.2.2.1 Dimensioning
= 2

= 2
= /

ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
6 | P a g e

where
[]
[]
[

]
[ 3 4 ]
The effect of R on piston speed is shown in Figure 5.

Figure 5 Instantaneous Piston Speed Relative to Average Piston Speed as a Function of for Various R
The displacement volume

is the volume displaced by the piston at it travels from bottom


dead center to top dead center:

4
)
2

where


[]
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
7 | P a g e

The clearance volume [cm
3
]:


The compression ratio of the engine is defined as:


The combustion chamber surface area A is:
=

+(

2
) [ +1 cos

2
sin
2
]
where

[
2
]

[
2
]
[]
2.2.2.2 Engine Power and Torque
Force due to gas pressure on the moving piston generates the work in an ICE:
= =


where
[kPa]
[cm]
The upper loop of the engine cycle illustrated in Figure 6 consists of the compression and power
strokes where output work is generated and is called the gross indicated work. The lower loop,
which includes intake and exhaust strokes, is called pump work.

= ( ) ( )
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
8 | P a g e


Figure 6 General engine cycle
It is convenient to evaluate multi-piston engine cycles per unit mass of gas within the
cylinder, the indicated work is therefore detonated as (note that this is not the load felt at the
crankshaft because of mechanical friction and parasitic loads):

=
Actual work available at the crankshaft is called the brake work:

[ ]

[ ]
Since the pressure in the combustion chamber is continuously changing, there is a need to
define the mean effective pressure (mep):
= () [ ]
=


[]
=

[
3
]
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
9 | P a g e

The brake mean effective pressure:
=

[]
Indicated mean effective pressure:
=

[]
We also have the following relations defining the effective pressures if introducing torque for a
four stroke engine:
= 4

[]
= 2

[]
The different power can thus be redefined as:

=
()

4
[]

= 2 []

[]
And even the friction power:

= (
1
4
)

[]
where
[ ]
[ ]

[
2
]

[]
= []

ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
10 | P a g e

Power is measured in kW, but horsepower (hp) is still common:
1 = 0.7457
Air-fuel ratio (AF) is detonated by:
=


Equivalence ratio is defined as the actual ratio of fuel-air to ideal or stoichiometric fuel-air:
= ()

/()


where

]
2.2.2.3 Specific Fuel Consumption
The specific fuel consumption is used to describe the fuel consumption of the engine with
regard to the engine speed N, the equivalence ratio or the volume displacement

and is
define as:
=

[ ]
It also follows that:

=
(

)
(

)
=
()
()

Figure 7, Figure 8 and Figure 9 illustrate examples of what is to be expected of the general
behavior of our engine with regard to the break specific fuel consumption and different
parameters.
The fuel consumption of an engine decrease as the as engine speed increase due to the shorter
time for heat loss during each cycle, at higher engine speed fuel consumption increases
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
11 | P a g e

because of high friction losses. A greater compression is expressed as a greater thermal
efficiency.

Figure 7 Brake specific fuel consumption as a function of engine speed


Figure 8 Brake specific fuel consumption as a function of fuel equivalence
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
12 | P a g e


Figure 9 Brake specific fuel consumption as a function of engine displacement
2.2.3 CRITICAL REVIEW
The top level design parameters are used to describe the general behavior of an engine and
also to compare it in performance with regard to precise parameters. In this portion of the
analysis we were able to find estimate of the top level design parameters of the engine while
fixing the engine speed.
Further analysis will be required in order to produce the engine cycle characteristic graph as
well as other representation of the engines behavior such as exposed in the section.
2.3 Piston
Unless otherwise specified, all information, figures and table shown in this section are from
these references:
PULKRABEK, Willard W. (2003), Engineering Fundamentals of the Internal Combustion
Engine, 2
nd
edition, Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, University of Wisconsin; Section 2-
3 Operating Characteristics & Engine Cycles
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
13 | P a g e

SHARMA, Dr. Pushpendra Kumar, Design, Analysis and Optimization of Three Aluminum
Piston Alloys Using FEA, NRI Institute of Science and Tech, Bhopal, Accessed on
10/23/2014, http://www.ijera.com/papers/Vol4_issue1/Version%203/P410394102.pdf
2.3.1 COMPONENT LAYOUT

Figure 10 Forces Acting On Piston
The piston is the linearly moving component of reciprocating IC-engines. It is contained by the
cylinder and made gas-tight by piston rings. The purpose of such component is to transfer force
harvested from the combustion to the crankshaft via the connecting rod.
Piston in an IC engine must possess the following characteristics:
Strength to resist gas pressure.
Must have minimum weight.
Must be able to reciprocate with minimum noise.
Must have sufficient bearing area to prevent wear.
Must seal the gas from top and oil from the bottom.
Must disperse the heat generated during combustion.
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
14 | P a g e

Must have good resistance to distortion under heavy forces and heavy temperature.

2.3.2 INPUT, CONSTANTS AND FIXED PARAMETERS
A rough estimate of the different parameters of our engine is listed in Table 1
Table 1: Fixed Parameters for Engine
Parameters Values
Engine Type Four stroke, Petrol engine
Induction Air cooled
Bore [cm] 4.25
Stroke [cm] 10.6
Crank offset [cm] 5.3
Con rod/Crank ratio 4
Length of Connecting Rod [cm] 21.2
Displacement volume [cm
3
] 300

Compression ratio 10:1
Maximum power
12hp (10 12.5) @ ~4250
[rpm]
Maximum Torque 15.0 [ft-lbs]
Number of revolutions/cycle (n) 2

2.3.3 ASSUMPTIONS, SIMPLIFICATION AND MATERIAL SELECTION
2.3.3.1 Assumptions
Steady-state operation of the ICE
Rated RPM
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
15 | P a g e

2.3.3.2 Material Selection
For the purpose of our first analysis, three different typical aluminum alloys used for piston
casting have been chosen and will be evaluated, during further optimization phases chosen
materials could change.
Table 2: Selected Aluminum Alloys Properties
Aluminium Alloys
Properties A2618 A4032 AL-GHS1300
Elastic Modulus [GPa] 73.7 79 98
Ultimate Tensile Strength [MPa] 480 380 1300
0.2% Yield Strength [MPa] 420 315 1220
Poissons Ratio 0.33 0.33 0.3
Thermal Conductivity [W/mC] 147 154 120
Coef of Thermal Expansion (1/K) [10
-6
] 25.9 79.2 18
Density [Kg/m
3
] 2767.99 2684.95 2780

2.3.4 STRESS ANALYSIS
2.3.4.1 Variable Definition
IP = indicated power produced
inside the cylinder (W)
= mechanical efficiency
n = number of working stroke per
minute = N/2 (for four stroke
engine)
N = engine speed (rpm)
L = length of stroke (mm)
A = cross-section area of cylinder
(mm2)
r = crank radius (mm)
lc = length of connecting rod (mm)
a = acceleration of the reciprocating
part (m/s2)
mp = mass of the piston (Kg)
V = volume of the piston (mm3)
th = thickness of piston head (mm)
D = cylinder bore (mm)
pmax = maximum gas pressure or
explosion pressure (MPa)
t = allowable tensile strength (MPa)
ut = ultimate tensile strength (MPa)
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
16 | P a g e

F.O.S = Factor of Safety
K = thermal conductivity (W/m K)
Tc = temperature at the centre of
the piston head (K)
Te = temperature at the edge of the
piston head (K)
HCV = Higher Calorific Value of fuel
(KJ/Kg) = 47000 KJ/Kg
BP = brake power of the engine per
cylinder (KW)
m = mass of fuel used per brake
power per second (Kg/KW s)
C = ratio of heat absorbed by the
piston to the total heat developed in
the cylinder = 5% or 0.05
b = radial width of ring (mm)
Pw = allowable radial pressure on
cylinder wall (N/mm2) = 0.025 MPa
p = permissible tensile strength for
ring material (N/mm2) = 1110
N/mm2
h = axial thickness of piston ring
(mm)
h1 = width of top lands (mm)
h2 = width of ring lands (mm)
t1 = thickness of piston barrel at the
top end (mm)
t2 = thickness of piston barrel at the
open end (mm)
ls = length of skirt (mm)
= coefficient of friction (0.01)
l1 = length of piston pin in the bush
of the small end of the connecting
rod (mm)
do = outer diameter of piston pin
(mm)
2.3.4.2 Analytical Design
=
(. )
(. )

. =

2
4

2

2.3.4.2.1 Thickness of the Piston Head
Grashoffs formula:

= (3

/16



ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
17 | P a g e

where

/2.25
Now with the Empirical Formula:

= 0.032 +1.5
On the basis of heat dissipation for an air-cooled cylinder:

=
[ ] 10
6
12.56 (

)

The maximum piston head thickness will be determined by the higher value from three
previous equations.
2.3.4.2.2 Piston Rings
The radial width of the ring:
= (
3

)
Axial thickness of the piston ring is given by:
= 9(0.7 )
2.3.4.2.3 Width of Top Land and Ring Lands
Top land:

1
= (

1.2

)
Ring land:

2
= (0.75 )
2.3.4.2.4 Piston Barrel
Thickness of piston barrel at the top end:

1
= 0.03 + +4.9
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
18 | P a g e

Thickness of piston barrel at open end:

2
= 0.25
1
0.35
1

2.3.4.2.5 Length of the Skirt

= (0.6 0.8)
2.3.4.2.6 Length of Piston Pin in the Connecting Rod Bushing

1
= 45% ()
2.3.4.2.7 Piston Pin Diameter

0
= (0.28 0.38)
2.3.4.2.8 Centre of Piston Pin
The centre of piston pin should be 0.02D to 0.04D above the centre of the skirt.
2.3.5 CRITICAL REVIEW
The general dimensions of the pistons will be easily calculated given the equations described in
this section. A lot of standards already exists concerning piston sizing and consequently the
analysis is pretty straight-forward. Further analysis could be done concerning the stresses felt in
the metal itself around the critical geometrical points as well as a throughout thermal analysis.
2.4 Cylinder
Unless otherwise specified, all information, figures and table shown in this section are from
these references:
KAMLESH PUROHIT, C. S. SHARMA (2005), Design of Machine Elements, Eastern Edition,
Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi; Section 17 Design of I.C. Engine
Components p. 631-679
BERGMAN, Theodore L. and LAVINE, Adrienne S, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass
Transfer, 7
th
edition, John Wiley & Sons; Section 3.6 Heat Transfer from Extended
Surfaces
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
19 | P a g e

Component Layout


Figure 11 Cylinder View Whit or Without Flange for Dry and Wet Cylinder Liner
The Cylinder of an ICE acts as a structural member while retaining the working fluid in a closed
restrained space with movable piston wall. In practice it is tester to high explosive pressure that
are approximately 308 times the maximum compressive pressure. Temperature can go as high
as 2400K in the combustion chamber; making it another critical factor to consider for such
component.
2.4.1 STRESS ANALYSIS
The cylinder liner can be treated as either a thick cylinder or a thin cylinder, for the thick
cylinder we get
= 0.5[
( +(1 )

)
( (1 )

)
1]
0.5

ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
20 | P a g e

where
is the permissible strength (50-60 N/mm
2
for CI and 70-100 N/mm
2
for steel
D is the cylinder bore [mm]
For the thin cylinder:
=

+
where

[Mpa]
C is the reboring allowance (1.5-15.0 mm)
A comparison of the two results will yield in a final decision regarding which of the 2 is best
suited for our needs, usually the thin cylinder assumption is a good first approximation.
The cylinder liner will obviously be subjected to very high temperatures being at the frontier of
the combustion process therefore it should be checked for thermal stress caused by high
temperature difference between the outer and inner surfaces.

2(1 )

E is the elastic modulus (N/mm
2
)
(10 12) 10
6
/


(100-150 , )
The total stress in the cylinder (

) should be less than 100-130 N/mm


2
for cast iron and
less than 160-200 N/mm
2
for alloy steel liner.
Longitudinal stress is also produced in addition to hoop stress in a cylinder a liner; this will
cause an extension of the cylinder.

4

ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
21 | P a g e

The side thrust caused by obliquity of the connecting rod on the cylinder line induces bending
stresses. Considering a two points supported liner such as illustrated in we get the bending
moment:
=

+


Figure 12 Forces Acting on Cylinder Liner
Cylinders are attached to the crank case by means of the flange, studs, and nuts. The diameter
of the studs may be obtained by the relation.

= (

)
0.5

where
N is the number of studs [= (0.25 0.5)

10
]

()

[]
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
22 | P a g e

2.4.2 HEAT TRANSFER
2.4.2.1 Analysis of System
Figure 13 shows a typical temperature distribution found in an ICE operating at steady state.
Three of the hottest points are found around the spark plug, the exhaust valve and port, and on
the face of the piston.

Figure 13 Typical Temperature Values distribution Found in Engine operating at normal Steady -State
Condition
The amount of energy (power) available for use in an engine:


where

[ ]

[ ]
Brake thermal efficiency gives the percentage of this total energy which is converted to useful
output at the crankshaft:
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
23 | P a g e

(


where

[]
The rest of the energy can be divided into different heat losses; such a distribution is shown in
Figure 14.

Figure 14 Distribution of Energy in Typical SI engine as a function of speed
=


where

( 25 40%) []

(20 45%) [kW]



(10
35%)[kW]

[kW]
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
24 | P a g e

Figure 15 shows heat transfer through a cylinder wall per unit of surface area:
=

=
(

)
[(
1

) +(

) +(
1

)]
[
2
]
where

[]

[]

[
2
]

[
2
]
[]
[ ]

Figure 15 Heat Transfer Through Cylinder Wall for Liquid and Air Cooled Engine
Note that T
g
and h
g
will vary greatly over an engine cycle. The former will range from maximum
values during combustion to minimum during intake, the later varies greatly during an engine
cycle due to changes in gas motion such as turbulence, swirl, velocity etc
Convection heat transfer on the inside surface of the cylinder is:
=

) [ ]
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
25 | P a g e

Note that the wall temperature

should not exceed 180C-200C to assure thermal stability of


the lubricating oil and structural strength of the wall.
The Reynolds number is use for comparing flow characteristics and heat transfer in engines of
different sizes, speeds, and geometries.
= [(

)]/(

)
where

[ ]

[ ]
[]

[
2
]

[Pa*s]
A Nusselt number for the inside of the combustion chamber can be defined using this Reynolds
number:
=

=
1
()

2

where

1
=
2

[ ]

[
2
]
The Nusselt number and convection heat transfer coefficient on the coolant side of the cylinder
wall is approximated by conventional methods of forced convection heat transfer.
Radiation heat transfer between cylinder gas and combustion chamber is
=

=
[(

4
)]
{[(1

)/

] +[1/
12
] +[(1

)/

]}
[
2
]

ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
26 | P a g e

where

[]

[]
[
2

4
]



12

Note that even though gas temperature are very high, radiation to the walls only amount to
about 10% of the total heat transfer in ICE. This is due to the poor emitting properties of gases.
2.4.2.2 Fin Analysis on Cylinder
Figure 16 illustrates the preliminary thermal model used for the analysis. Following
assumptions are made when analysis heat transfer in a cylinder during the first analysis:
Steady-state conditions
One-dimensional radial conduction in fins
Constant properties
Negligible radiation exchange with surroundings
Uniform convection coefficient over outer surface (with or without fins)
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
27 | P a g e


Figure 16 Preliminary Heat Transfer Model for Air-Cooled Cylinder
With the fins in place, heat transfer rate is given by:

[1

(1

)]

[]

= 2(
2
2

1
2
)

2
=
2
+ (

2
)

+2
1
( )

= + (

2
)

3
2
(

)
1/2
=
1

where

[
2
]
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
28 | P a g e

[
2
]

[ ]

2
[
2
]

[
2
]

[]
[
2
]
[ ]
The fin efficiency can be found as a function of
1
found above, the graph relating both terms is
shown in Figure 17.

Figure 17 Efficiency of annular fins of rectangular profile.
2.4.3 CRITICAL REVIEW
The structural nature of the cylinder has been taken into account when analyzing the stresses
as well as the general dimension of crank case. A first heat transfer analysis was also performed
on the cylinder giving the general thickness of metal and the sizing of the fins to be used.
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
29 | P a g e

A further analysis of the appropriate materials to be used for the cylinder lining and the crank
case will be required to close the loop on the analysis.
2.5 Connecting Rod
Unless otherwise specified, all information, figures and table shown in this section are from
these references:
KAMLESH PUROHIT, C. S. SHARMA (2005), Design of Machine Elements, Eastern Edition,
Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi; Section 17 Design of I.C. Engine
Components p. 631-679
SARIS, Phillip (2006), Dynamic Analysis of the Internal Combustion Engine, Seas
University, Penn Engineering, and Accessed 10/23/2014,
http://www.seas.upenn.edu/~cse400/CSE400_2005_2006/PhillipsSaris/ProjectIII.pdf
KAUL, Sudhir and KANAKASABAI, Pugazhendhi (2013), KINEMATIC AND DYNAMIC
ANALYSIS OF V-TWIN POWERTRAINS: DESIGN TRADE-OFFS, University of Mount Union,
and Accessed 10/23/2014,
http://proceedings.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=1831008
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
30 | P a g e

2.5.1 COMPONENT LAYOUT

Figure 18 Connecting Rod Layout
The various forces acting on the connecting rod are as follows: Forces on the piston due to gas
pressure and inertia of the reciprocating parts.
1. Forces on the piston due to gas pressure and inertia of the reciprocating parts.
2. Force due to inertia of the connecting or inertia bending forces
3. Force due to friction of the piston rings and of the piston
4. Forces due to friction of the piston pin bearing and crank pin bearing.
Therefore while designing a connecting rod, the following dimensions are required to be
determined.
1. Dimensions of cross-section of the connecting rod
2. Dimensions of the crankpin at the big end and the piston pin at the small end
3. Size of bolts for securing the big end cap, and
4. Thickness of the big end cap
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
31 | P a g e

2.5.2 ASSUMPTIONS, SIMPLIFICATION AND MATERIAL SELECTION
Analysing a single slider crank mechanism we can characterize the dynamics of each rigid body
by considering an equivalent system of finite number of particles.

=
2
3

=
1
3


This is a good approximation because the simplified system as he same mass and the same
location of center of mass then the real component. However if you were to calculate the
moment of inertia about the center of mass on the simplified system calculations would yield in
a different result.

Figure 19 Connecting Rod Mass and Inertia Simplification
Taking the lumped mass approach we can apply it to the crank mechanism, Figure 20 illustrates
the model.
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
32 | P a g e


Figure 20 Approximate dynamic model for the slider crank mechanism
We define the masses of each critical point of both the left and right bank of the powertrain as
follow:

=
1
2

=
1
2

+
2
3

+
2
3

=
1
3

=
1
3


2.5.3 FORCE ANALYSIS
2.5.3.1 Gas force
The direct force due to gas pressure acting on the piston is transferred to the connecting rod.
The Maximum explosion pressure is about 8 to 10 times the indicated mean effective pressure.

[]


ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
33 | P a g e

Inertia forces due to reciprocating parts:

=
2
(cos +
cos 2

) []
where
m is the mass of the piston + 0.33 * mass of the connecting rod to account for the small
portion of the road which is assumed to be reciprocating
is the angular speed of the crank [rad/sec]
is the angle of the crank [degrees]
is the ratio of the length of the connecting rod to crank radius (r)

[]

Figure 21 Forces on Connecting Rod
The net force acting on the piston will be an algebraic sum of the gas forces generated by the
combustion and the inertia forces.
=

[]
We can than easily find the force Q transferred to the piston:
=

cos
[]
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
34 | P a g e

Where is the obliquity or angularity angle determined by:
sin =
sin


2.5.3.2 Inertia of the connecting rod
The small end of the connecting rod has a motion of pure translation the big end a rotary
motion. This lateral oscillation of the rod results on inertia bending forces acting all along the
length of the rod, this can be attributed to linearly varying centrifugal forces generated by the
rotating masses. Inertia forces act opposite to the direction of the centrifugal force. The parallel
(or longitudinal) components add up algebraically to the force acting on the connecting rod (FC)
and produces thrust on the pins. The perpendicular (or transverse) components produces
bending action (also called whipping action) and the stresses induced in the connecting rod is
called whipping stress. Figure 22 Inertia and Bending Forces, shows the acceleration of
various points on the connecting rod; Point O, C and P represent the centre of rotation of the
crankshaft, the crank itself and the piston respectively.

Figure 22 Inertia and Bending Forces
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
35 | P a g e

Let be the density, the inertia force:

2
[]
The maximum bending moment, which acts at distance 3 from the piston pin end:

=
2

93
[ ]
The cconnecting rod is subject to alternating direct compressive and tensile forces. The
component is designed primarily for compressive forces because they are much larger than
their tensile counterparts. The section needs to be as light as possible without sacrificing
strength so that the inertia forces remain small. The usual proportion chosen for such section
are illustrated in Figure 23 I-Section of Connecting Rod.

Figure 23 I-Section of Connecting Rod
When the gas force acts on the connecting rod, it behaves like a strut with both ends hinged in
the plane of rotation and both ends fixed in the plane perpendicular to the plane of rotation. A
connecting rod can therefore be equally strong.
Using Rankines formula:


1 + (

)
2
=


1 + (

)
2

ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
36 | P a g e

= 4



Figure 24 Crippling of Connecting Rod
The crippling stress induced in the rod can be computed by the Rankine formula:

[1 + (

)
2
] []
A is denoted as the Rankine constant (a = 1/6250 for both ends hinged and 1.95/25000 for both
ends fixed).
2.5.3.3 Small End of Connecting Rod
The following relations define the empirical dimensions of the small end of the connecting rod:
Inner diameter of the small end: dsi = (1.1-1.25)dps
Outer diameter of the small end: dso = (1.25-1.65)dps
Length of the small end: ls = (0.3-0.45)D
where
dps is the outer diameter of the piston pin [cm]
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
37 | P a g e

D is the cylinder bore [cm]

Figure 25 Small End of the Connecting Rod
The limiting bearing failure of pin pressure:

[]
The bending of the piston pin due to gas force:

[]
where M and Z are bending moment and section modulus respectively.
The upper part of the small end is subjected to tensile stress due to inertia of the reciprocating
masses. The inertia force is maximum when the crank rotation angle is 0.

[]
2.5.3.4 The Big End
Similarly the dimension of the big end can be found empirically by the following relations:
Crank pin diameter, dpc = (0.55-0.75)D
Length of the big end, lc = (0.45-1.0)dpc
Bush thickness, tbush = (0.03-0.1)dpc
Distance between the centre of the bolts, c = (1.3-1.75)dpc
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
38 | P a g e


Figure 26 Big End of the Connecting Rod
Bearing failure of pin pressure:


2.5.4 STRESS ANALYSIS
2.5.4.1 Slider Crank Mechanism Kinematics

Figure 27 Slider Crank Mechanism in ICE
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
39 | P a g e

Position closure equations for the piston and crank are:
= cos + cos
sin sin = 0
From these we can isolate an expression for :
= sin
1
(

sin )
Differentiating gives the piston linear velocity expression:
= sin

sin


cos

cos

= 0
The expression for the angular velocity

=
cos
cos



Substituting into the piston linear velocity expression found above:
=
sin( +)
cos


Differentiating for a constant crank velocity we get the angular acceleration of the crank:

=
sin

2
+ sin

2
cos

Witch then yield into an expression of the linear acceleration of the piston:
= cos

2
cos

2
sin


2.5.4.2 Dynamics of V-Twin Slider Crank Mechanisms

ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
40 | P a g e


Figure 28 External Forces and Moment Acting Slider Crank Mechanism

From the free body diagram we can find that:
(

) + cos =

2
4
[
2
]
Expanding the crank mechanism principle to a V-twin powertrain yields the force distribution
and geometric relations illustrated in Figure 29 V-Twin configuration force diagram.

ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
41 | P a g e


Figure 29 V-Twin configuration force diagram
where

= sin
1
(

sin)

= sin
1
(

sin( + ))
Recalling the assumption that the engine is running at constant speed we can sum moments on
the crankshaft about O (note that this is at best an approximation since the engine is actually
never running at constant speed but instead fluctuates in a narrow band.):

ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
42 | P a g e

sin( +

) +

sin( + +

) +

0

There are two terms in the moment balance of the system. First the turning moment Mt causes
the crankshaft to turn. Secondly, Ml is the load moment which the turning moment Mt must
overcome in order to keep the crankshaft rotating at uniform speed
Substituting expressions for

we get:

= [
(

) +

cos

] rsin( +

) + [
(

) +

cos

] sin( + +

)
The expression for the turning moment is also broken down in two terms:

[ ]
Mp is the term associated with the pressure in the combustion chamber:

= (

) [
sin( +

)
cos

+
sin( + +

)
cos

] [ ]

Mi is the inertial moment that drives the crankshaft even when there is no combustion in the
chamber:

[
sin( +

)
cos

+
sin( + +

)
cos

] [ ]
Figure 30 illustrates a typical plot of the three moments for a single cylinder with respect to the
crank angle, the highest moment will be felt right after the combustion during the power
stroke. This moment will be used as a worst case for the design of the crankshaft
Mt
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
43 | P a g e


Figure 30 Typical Plot of Three Moments for a Single Cylinder of The ICE (Mp, dotted), (Mi , dashed), (Mt,
solid)
2.5.5 SHAKING FORCES ANALYSIS

Figure 31 FBD for left bank crank mechanism
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
44 | P a g e

Using the lumped mass model we can define interaction for the left bank of the piston between
link 1 (donated as ground) and link 2 (the crank):

where

12,
[]

12,
[]

,
[]

,
( )[]
[]
[

is the length of the connecting rod [m]


[degrees]
[degrees]
( ) [degrees]

Similarly for the right bank of the engine we get (note that notations now refer to right bank):



ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
45 | P a g e


The shaking torque resulting from the inertial forces:

where


The angles can be computed as follow:


The wrist pin (or piston pin) forces are expressed as follow:


where


ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
46 | P a g e


4,

4,

(without reciprocating mass of connecting rod)
The crank pin resulting forces are therefore detonated by:


where

3,
=
3,

The force transmitted to the main bearing on crankshaft is therefore as follow:


where

2,
=
2,

2.5.6 CRITICAL REVIEW
The analysis made on the connecting rod is a good first pass analysis for sizing of the
dimensions. Further analysis of the stress concentrations found close to the big and small ends,
abrupt change in geometry etc. will be required in order to fully characterize the connecting
rod.
Using the relation found in the previous section, we can expect to find typical results found in
the literature for Twin-W powertrain such as the relation between the crank angle , the engine
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
47 | P a g e

constant rotating speed and the main bearing force such as illustrated in Figure 32 3D plot
of the bearing force with regard to and .

Figure 32 3D plot of the bearing force with regard to and
The main bearing force is a result of inertial forces as well as gas forces in the combustion
chamber. The forces are relatively low at lower rpm because the major contributor to the total
force is primarily the inertial forces.
Also the influence of changing the spray angle of the engine (or V-angle) is demonstrated in
Figure 33 3D Plot of Shaking Force with Regard to and V-Angle and is done at a set value of
. We can see that there is a clear trend of decreasing in the shaking forces when increasing
the angle from 40 to 90 degrees. The Shaking force showed on the diagram is the norm of both
components in x and y axes.
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
48 | P a g e


Figure 33 3D Plot of Shaking Force with Regard to and V-Angle
The influence of another parameter is exposed in where we can see relations between the
shaking forces, the crank angle and the piston offset in a V-twin powertrain.

Figure 34 3D Plot of Shaking Force with Regard to and Piston Offset

ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
49 | P a g e

2.6 Crankshaft
Unless otherwise specified, all information, figures and table shown in this section are from
these references:
BUDYNAS, Richard G. and NISBETT, J. Keith (2011), Shigleys Mechanical Engineering
Design, 9
th
edition, New York, McGraw-Hill Companies, Sections: 6-7 Endurance Limit; 6-
9 Endurance Limit Modifying Factors; 7-4 Shaft Design for Stress; 7-5 Deflection
Considerations; 7-6 Critical Speeds for Shafts; 7-7 Miscellaneous Shaft Components; 7-8
Limits and Fits; 11-3 Bearing Load Life at Rated Reliability; 11-7 Variable Loading; 11-12
Mounting and Enclosure; 16-12 Flywheels.
2.6.1 COMPONENT LAYOUT

Figure 35 Crankshaft Component Layout
2.6.2 INPUT, CONSTANTS AND FIXED PARAMETERS
The crankshaft receives the full amount of mechanical work generated by the combustion of
the gases in the combustion chamber as well as several inertia forces. Specifically, the crank is
subject to the combustion forces (as pressure over the piston surface area) transmitted through
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
50 | P a g e

the connecting rods as well as the inertia forces from the mass of the piston and rings (which
are subject to linear acceleration) and the mass of the connecting rod subject to linear and
angular velocity. These forces vary in magnitude and direction throughout the cycle, completed
in 720. Also, the width of section
4
(the conrod pin) is driven by the conrod analysis.
The fixed and driven variables are as follows:
Table 3: Crankshaft Fixed Variables
Web width,

15
Flywheel thickness,

10
Crankshaft Section,
2
20
Crankshaft Section,
3
5
Crankshaft Section,
5
5
Crankshaft Section,
7
20
*- values are subject to change. All values are in [mm]
Table 4: Crankshaft Driven Variables
Section diameter
1

Section diameter
6

Section diameter
2

Section diameter
7

Section diameter
3

Section diameter
8

Section diameter
4

Web height
Section diameter
5

Stroke

ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
51 | P a g e


Figure 36 Illustration of Applied Forces on Crankpin
2.6.3 ASSUMPTIONS, SIMPLIFICATION AND MATERIAL SELECTION
The reaction forces, torque, shear and moment diagrams are produced and the analysis of the
crankshaft computed for the moment in which the crank endures maximum loading. In other
words, twice during the 720 of revolution needed for the completion of the 4 stroke cycle the
crankshaft will be loaded to the maximum possible magnitude. It is that occurrence which is of
interest for the stress analysis and design of the crank since that is the moment where the
stresses and forces will be at their highest. The torque value is taken to be at maximum
strength throughout the full 4 stroke cycle even though, in actuality, this is not the case. The
reason for all of this is simply to obtain the worst case scenario that the crank will endure in
order that it may be designed with a sufficient ruggedness.
Due to the highly fluctuating and dynamic loading conditions endured in a crankshaft, a
generous factor of safety is utilized to help ensure an overdesigned and reliable crankshaft.
Various sources suggest safety factors ranging from 10 all the way up to 40 even. For this
analysis, a value of n = 25 is selected for the length of the crankshaft.
For a list of materials and their respective mechanical properties for the crankshaft, see Table
29: Typical Steel Mechanical Properties in Appendix A.
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
52 | P a g e

2.6.4 STRESS ANALYSIS
The stress analysis is broken down into several sections, in no particular order: section
diameters, keyways, oil bore size, counterweight mass and dimensions and, lastly, the crank
bearing fit tolerances and bearing sizing.
2.6.4.1 Crankshaft Section Diameters
The section diameters are computed using the following equation. The reason why this
equation is used is that it permits to obtain a section diameter by taking into account all
bending moments, torques, fatigue effects, stress concentrations, selected material strength
and desired safety factor (according to the modified Goodman criteria) all the while factoring in
fatigue effects:

= (
16

{
1

[4(

)
2
+3(

)
2
]
1
2

+
1

[4(

)
2
+3(

)
2
]
1
2

})
1
3


where

is the respective section diameter [mm]


is the safety factor ( = 25)

is the stress concentration factor


is the shear stress concentration factor


is the alternating bending moment [Nmm]


is the mid-range bending moment [Nmm]


is the alternating torque [Nmm]


is the mid-range torque [Nmm]


is the materials ultimate tensile strength [MPa]


The moments

and

as well as

and

are obtained by generating the torque, shear


and moment diagrams on the planes x-y and x-z, which also take into consideration the
reaction forces at the bearings.
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
53 | P a g e


Figure 37 Fatigue Diagram Showing Various Failure Criteria

Figure 38 Modified Goodman Diagram Showing Limiting Values
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
54 | P a g e

Values for the stress concentration factors

and

in bending and in torsion are obtained


from the following:

Figure 39 Fillet Shear Stress Concentration Factor for Torsion

Figure 40 Fillet Stress Concentration Factor for Bending

ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
55 | P a g e


Figure 41 Transverse Hole Shear Stress Concentration Factor for Torsion


Figure 42 Transverse Hole Stress Concentration Factor for Bending

ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
56 | P a g e

The modified endurance limit

is computed in the following way (

through to

are the
Marin modification factors):


where

is the surface condition modification factor


is the size modification factor


is the load modification factor


is the temperature modification factor


is the reliability factor


is the miscellaneous modification factor


is the specimen endurance limit [MPa]



Each factor is defined in the following way:

= {
0.5

100
700

200 kpsi (1400 MPa)

> 200 kpsi


> 1400 MPa




The surface modification factor

is computed according to:


where

is the ultimate tensile strength of the selected material [MPa]


factors a and b are taken from the following table:

ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
57 | P a g e

Table 5: Parameters for Marin Surface Modification Factor

Values for

are obtained from the following:

= {
0.879
0.107
0.91
0.157
1.24
0.107
1.51
0.157

0.11 2
2 < 10
2.79 51
51 < 254

In the case of combined bending and torsion:

= 1
The influence from the operating temperature is taken into account via the following:


The values for

are taken fromTable 6: Effect of Operating Temperature on Tensile


Strength.
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
58 | P a g e

Table 6: Effect of Operating Temperature on Tensile Strength

The reliability effect is taken into consideration via

= 1 0.08


Values for

and

are available in Table 7: Reliability Modification Factor.


Table 7: Reliability Modification Factor

ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
59 | P a g e

The modification factor kf is intended to account for the effect of any other variable that may
cause a reduction in the endurance limit Se. It serves, however, only as a reminder that these
other variables must be accounted for, for actual values of kf are not always available. For the
purpose of this analysis, kf shall be given a value of 1.
2.6.4.2 Maximum Oil Bore Diameter
The maximum oil bore diameter is computed (in order to avoid plasticity in the hole of the
journal pin) in the following way:

1
4000

10
3


where

is the diameter of the journal pin, with fillet radiuses [mm]


is the safety factor against slipping (a value of no less than 2 is to be taken)


is the maximum torque [Nmm]


is the coefficient for static friction (a value no greater than 0.2 is to be taken)

is the thickness of the web [mm]


is the minimum yield strength of the material consisting the journal pin [MPa]
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
60 | P a g e


Figure 43 Crankshaft Oil Bore
2.6.4.3 Bearing Press Fit Tolerances
In order to ensure that the bearings are securely mounted on the crankshaft and in order to
minimize the number of stress concentration areas, the bearings are to be mounted by force fit,
specifically H7/u6. The basic sizes of the shaft (max and min diameters) for proper press fit
mounting are determined in the following way:

= +

+
and


= +


where

is the maximum allowable shaft diameter [mm]




is the minimum allowable shaft diameter [mm]
is the basic size of the shaft [mm]
is the tolerance grade for the shaft [mm]

is the fundamental deviation


ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
61 | P a g e


Figure 44 Illustration of the Definitions for Limits and Fits
The tolerance grade is obtained as per IT6 (u6) fromTable 30: International Tolerance
Grades (Metric Series) in Appendix A.
For the case of u6, the value of the fundamental deviation

is taken Table 32: Fundamental


Deviation for Shafts in Appendix A.
For the bearing hole, the lower deviation H is zero. The upper deviation is equal to the
tolerance grade. Specifically, the maximum and minimum hole diameters are computed
according to the following:

= +
and
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
62 | P a g e


=
where

is the largest permissible hole diameter [mm]


is the smallest permissible hole diameter [mm]


is the hole basic size[mm]
is the tolerance grade for the hole [mm]
The hole tolerance grade is obtained Table 30: International Tolerance Grades (Metric
Series), as per IT7 (H7) in Appendix A.
2.6.4.4 Sizing of Crankshaft Bearings
In order to appropriately size a bearing as a function of the endure loads and desired lifetime,
the following equation is used:

10
=

0
+(
0
)(1

)
1
]
1
, 0.90
where
b, and
0
are the Weibull parameters (provided by manufacturer)

is an application factor (serves as a factor of safety)


is the desired reliability (e.g.: expressed as 0.99 for 99% reliability)


is the load on the bearing [N]


is the dimensionless ratio of the desired to rated number of cycles


is equal to 3 for ball bearings and 10/3 for roller bearings
Values for load application factor

are given in the following table:



ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
63 | P a g e

Table 8: Bearing Load-Application Factors

The dimensionless ratio

is computed in the following way:

10
6

where

is the desired number of lifetime cycles


In order to account for the variable (i.e.: repeated cyclical pattern) nature of the loading on the
crankshaft, the load on the bearings

can be expressed in the following way:

= [


1
+
2


2
+
3


3
+

1
+
2
+
3
++

]
1

where

is the load for a given number of cycles [N/total number of cycles at section i]

is the number of revolutions under the load

[total number of cycles at section i]


is equal to 3 for ball bearings and 10/3 for roller bearings
The typical maximum allowable slope ranges for bearings is as follows:

ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
64 | P a g e

Table 9: Typical Slope Ranges for Bearings

The deflection analysis is conducted (using the Engilab software) once a preliminary crankshaft
geometry has been obtained and the respective section diameters and stroke values computed.
The section of interest is only confined to the portion of the crankshaft encompassing the
bearings and crankpin (i.e.: from bearing centre to bearing centre). It is important to note that
local details such as grooves and keyways are neglected during the slope analysis as their
impact is of negligible magnitude. If a given section diameter is insufficiently large or the slope
to important, a new value can be obtained with the following equation:

( )

()

|
1 4

where

is the new section diameter at the point of interest [mm]


is the old section diameter at the point of interest [mm]


()

is the allowable slope


( )

is the slope at a given point of interest


is the design factor


Once this step has been performed (if need be), the next step is to determine the largest

ratio and then multiply all diameters by this ratio.


2.6.4.5 Keyway Sizing
When selecting a key, it is generally best practice to limit the length of the key to 1.5 times the
section diameter. Whats more, a low safety factor (n = 2-3) is recommended in order to ensure
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
65 | P a g e

failure of the key rather than the costlier shaft, should an overload situation arise. The max
length of the key is computed by (should the shaft section length allow it):

= 1.5


where

is the maximum allowable length of the key [mm]


is the respective section diameter where the key is to be installed [mm]


A Gib-head key is the preferred type of key since, being tapered, once firmly driven in, it will act
so as to prevent relative axial motion.

Figure 45 Illustration of a Gib-head sled-runner Key
Due to the end-milled cut that is to be performed on the shafts respective section, longitudinal
and end stress concentration factors are introduced in the keys cut-away. Using a sled-runner
key will eliminate the end stress concentration factor, but it is necessary that the section length
be long enough to allow that type of manufacturing (i.e.: it is not suitable near a shoulder). The
end of the key should be kept at a certain distance from the start of the shoulder fillet in order
to prevent combination of stresses. This value is computed in the following way:

10

where

is the minimum distance from the start of the shoulder fillet [mm]

is the respective section diameter [mm]


ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
66 | P a g e

For design simplicity, every shaft section which contains a key (sections
1
,
6
and
8
) will
automatically be given a length of:


where

is the respective keyed shaft section length [mm]


The torque that the key is to deliver to either the gear, pulley or flywheel it is driving is obtained
from the horsepower equation as follows:
=
63 025

112.985
where
is the torque to be transmitted [Nmm]
is the horsepower amount produced by the ICE [hp]
is the angular velocity of the shaft [rev/min]
Sizing of the key is computed as per the shear forces applied to the key. The shear forces are
computed as follows:
=

2

where
is the forces applied on the key by the shaft [N]
is the torque [Nmm]
is the shaft section diameter [mm]
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
67 | P a g e


Figure 46 Detail of Forces Applied to Key

The yield point of the key under shearing is determined by the Distortion Energy theory which
states that yielding will occur at:

= 0.577


where

is the shear strength [MPa]


is the yield strength of the key as per the material selected [MPa]
Combining the previous equations and computing for the length of the key, we get the
following which is used to size the key according to shear forces:

=
3.466


where

is the necessary length of the key to endure under shear [mm]


is the design safety factor
is the force applied to the key [N]
is the thickness or width of the key [mm]
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
68 | P a g e

is the shaft diameter [mm]

is the shear strength [MPa]


In order to ensure that the key resists crushing, the following equation is used:

=
2


where

is the necessary length of the key to resist crushing [mm]


is the design safety factor
is the force applied to the key [N]
is the thickness or width of the key [mm]

is the shear strength [MPa]


The final length of the key is therefore determined by which ever length of the two preceding
values is the greatest. I.e.:
if

>

then


if

>

then


2.6.4.6 Crankshaft Balancing
In order to counteract the effects of the offset mass center of gravity from the crankpin
centroid by the conrod pin, a counterweight is added in order to produce a balanced
crankshaft. This is critical to proper crankshaft design. The chosen method to do this is by the
bolting on of actual counterweights into the bottom of the crank web. The counterweight can
thus be simplified to a simple rectangular block matching the width and depth of the crank
web. Only the height of the counterweight and its density change in order to adjust the
counterweight effect. A list of common steel and other metal densities is contained in Table 33:
List of Common Metal Densities, in Appendix A.
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
69 | P a g e

Taking the total volume of the conrod pin (along with only the portions of both webs which
align with the conrod pin) in order to produce a rough estimate of the mass to be balanced, the
density of the counterweight needed as a function of the height of the counterweight is thus:

=
[(

2
4
)

2
]

2
)

where

is the density of the selected material for the counterweight [kg/mm


3
]

is the density of the selected crankshaft material [kg/mm


3
]

is defined as

/2 [mm]

is the mass of the counterweight [kg]


is the diameter of the crankpin (as per figure 8) [mm]


is the diameter of the conrod pin [mm]

is the width of the crank web [mm]


is the height of the counterweight [mm]


is the width of the conrod at the conrod pin [mm]


is the stroke [mm]

Figure 47 Radial Center-to-Center Distance


S
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
70 | P a g e

2.6.4.7 Flywheel
The flywheel is a necessary component in the crankshaft assembly as it is a device which stores
rotational energy (as such, it has a resistance to changes of rotational speeds) and thus helps
the engine in performing its 4-stroke cycle by helping to carry the momentum of the
mechanism through the stages where resistance to motion is present. Areas of concern for the
flywheel are the determination of its moment of inertia and how to match the power source to
the load. Because of the difficulty in accurately mapping the torque displacement function in an
ICE, numerical integration of the torque T vs. angular position of the crank is necessary. The
amount of energy
2

1
delivered to the load is determined by numerical integration of the
T vs. graph. This value is needed to compute the following equations.

Figure 48 Example of the Relation between Torque and Crank Angle for a One-Cylinder ICE

=

2

1

2

where
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
71 | P a g e

is the inertia of the flywheel [kgmms
2
]

is the coefficient of speed fluctuation


is the nominal angular velocity [rad/s]

2

1
is the energy delivered to the load evaluated for 2 full crank cycles (720 or 4)
and obtained through numerical integration [Nmm]
The coefficients

and are computed in the following way:

2

1


and
=

2
+
1
2

where

is the angular velocity at a given point of interest [rad/s]


Once the value for the inertia has been determined, the mass and diameter of the
flywheel can be obtained from the following equations, for a given user-defined desired
thickness

:
=

4
32

=
32

4

and

4

where


is the user defined thickness of the flywheel [mm]
density of the selected material for the flywheel [kg/mm
3
]

is the flywheel diameter [mm]


is the mass of the flywheel [kg]


ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
72 | P a g e

is the gravitational acceleration, equal to 9810 [mm/s
2
]
2.6.5 CRITICAL REVIEW
As it currently stands, the analysis on the crankshaft will compute the stresses at all of the
major and critical locations where bends, key slots or bores are located. Though the analysis is
not complete, the major area of concern (as in all cyclically loaded components), which is
fatigue failure, is accounted for in the areas most prone to fail under fatigue effects. The
equation used factors in the fatigue effects, through the use of the endurance limits and Marin
modification factors and the alternating and midrange equivalent loads, as well as the
combined stress effects through the Distortion Energy theory which allows for the most
accurate detailing of the stresses in a given component. Furthermore, the desired design safety
factor is also factored in and thus allows for an immediate first iteration value of each section
diameter as a function of all of the aforementioned parameters. By taking a large factor of
safety to design the different sections of the crankshaft, the design is both conservative and
overdesigned. But in the case of a crankshaft, where the loads are very dynamic and complex,
this is a desired characteristic.
Further analysis could be performed in the two following areas: the first being a stress analysis
in the webs (as it is subject to varying moment along x and z as well as alternating compressive
stresses along y) yet, this is typically not an area of concern with respect to fatigue failure. The
second is to determine the critical speeds of the shaft as this can be of major concern since, at
the critical speed(s), the crankshaft may become unstable with deflections increasing without
any upper limit. Ideally, use of both Rayleighs and Dunkerleys equations would be used since
the one overestimates whereas the other underestimates the critical speeds of the shaft. Hence
for greater accuracy, both methods are to be used. The counterweights are have been roughly
estimated to produce a balanced crankshaft, but further refining could be done.
2.7 Clutch
Unless otherwise specified, all information, figures and table shown in this section are from
these references:
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
73 | P a g e

SPOTTS, M. F., Design of Machine Elements, 3
rd
edition, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey,
Prentice-Hall Inc., Section 6-9 Disk Clutch
GOPINATH, Prof. K. and MAYURAM, Prof. M. M., Machine Design II, IIT Madras
BUDYNAS, Richard G. and NISBETT, J. Keith (2011), Shigleys Mechanical Engineering
Design, 9
th
edition, New York, McGraw-Hill Companies, Section 10-14 Belleville Springs
OBERG et al. (2012), Machinerys Handbook, 29
th
edition, Industrial Press, Section
Springs Washer Belleville Equation
2.7.1 COMPONENT LAYOUT

Figure 49 Clutch Assembly Layout
2.7.2 INPUT, CONSTANTS AND FIXED PARAMETERS
The variable input for the clutch design calculations is with respect to the torque T to be
transmitted by the clutch. For simplicity and to ensure a sturdy design, this is assumed to be the
full amount of torque produced by the engine without any subtractions due to parasitic power
losses. The constants for the clutch design are in the following table:

ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
74 | P a g e

Table 10: Clutch Design Fixed Parameters
Belleville spring inner diameter, 30 [mm]
Total release bearing displacement,

15 [mm]
Belleville spring unloaded height, [mm]
Belleville spring material thickness, [mm]

Table 11: Clutch Design Driven Variables
Friction disc outer diameter,


Friction disc inner diameter,


Belleville spring outer diameter,
Section diameter
4


2.7.3 ASSUMPTIONS, SIMPLIFICATION AND MATERIAL SELECTION
Basic assumptions for the design and analysis of the clutch are that the pressure is uniform over
the whole surface area and that the wear is proportional to the product velocity and applied
pressure. The surface area of the clutch material is that of a disk. The outer casing of the clutch
assembly is assumed to be fully rigid.
A list of typical clutch materials
1
is contained in Table 34: Typical Clutch Materials and Friction
Coefficient Values in Appendix A.
2.7.4 STRESS ANALYSIS
The lowest necessary normal force needed by the actuating spring to sustain the applied torque
is computed as follows:

=
1

3 (
0
2

2
)
2 (
0
3

3
)



1
Source: Frenos Sauleda s.a., http://www.frenossauleda.com/
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
75 | P a g e

where

is the minimum necessary normal applied force [N]


is the torque value [Nmm]
is the coefficient of friction as per the selected clutch material

0
is the outer radius of the friction material surface [mm]

is the inner radius of the friction material surface [mm]


is the design factor and is set at 10

is the factor incorporating the presence of friction material on both sides of the disc
and is thus set at

= 2.
The max pressure generated on the friction material by

is obtained in the following way:

)

where

is the maximum pressure [MPa]


Disc clutches employ a diaphragm spring (also known as Belleville springs) to apply pressure on
the disc. The following graph shows several possible spring height-to-thickness ratios and the
corresponding load as a function of the deflection:
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
76 | P a g e


Figure 50 Load-Deflection Curves for Belleville Springs
The force needed to actuate the release bearing and disengage the clutch is computed as the
maximum spring deflection force since a Belleville spring is (at the default position which is
when the clutch is engaged) is already under load (i.e.: deflection) and producing a certain
amount of force. Thus, the max deflection force is the force needed to move the release
bearing, and the release bearings total movement amount is the difference between the
deflection amount needed to produce the max deflection force and the initial deflection
amount needed to produce the required force

(previously calculated).

ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
77 | P a g e

Figure 51 Belleville Spring Cross Section View
The max deflection force applied by the release bearing is computed as follows:

=
4
3

(1
2
)
2

where the coefficient is computed in the following way:
=
1


(
1

)
2
+1
1

2
ln

The necessary deflection needed to produce the pressure force

to handle the torque (as


previously calculated) is obtained through iteration with the following:

=
4
4
(1
2
)
2

[(

) (

2
) +1]
where

is the previously computed required force [N]


is the maximum applied force at max deflection [N]


is the modulus of Elasticity (as per the springs material) [MPa]
is the spring thickness [mm]
is Poissons Ratio (as per the springs material)
is a coefficient
is the outer Belleville spring diameter [mm]
is the inner Belleville spring diameter [mm]
is the diameter ratio and is defined as: =

is the limit spring deflection and is defined as:

= [mm]
is the unloaded spring height [mm]
is the spring material thickness [mm]
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
78 | P a g e

2.7.5 CRITICAL REVIEW
The current state of the clutch analysis will permit to compute the minimum necessary force
required to handle the full torque load produced by the ICE, the force needed to move the
release bearing and the maximum pressure applied on the friction material. The stresses and
dimensions of the fork which is responsible for moving the release bearing are still to be
evaluated and sizing of the release bearing is dependent on the shaft diameter of the gearbox
on which it is to be mated.
2.8 Valve, Air Intake and Manifold
Unless otherwise specified, all information, figures and tables shown in this section are from
these references:
BUDYNAS, Richard G. and NISBETT, J. Keith (2011). Shigleys Mechanical Engineering
Design, 9
th
edition, New York, McGraw-Hill Companies, Section 4-12 Long Column with
Central Loading.
PULKRABEK, Willard W. Engineering Fundamentals of the Internal Combustion Engine,
Wisconsin, Prentice Hall, Section 7 Combustion.
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
79 | P a g e

2.8.1 COMPONENT LAYOUT

Figure 52 Intake Manifold

2.8.2 INPUT, CONSTANTS AND FIXED PARAMETERS
2.8.2.1 Inputs of valve

: diameter of valve head


Compression ratio
Bore
Rod length
Crank angle
Stroke
RPM
Input of manifold:


Density
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
80 | P a g e

2.8.2.2 Fixed parameters of valve
C: end condition of valve column
: Safety factor

= 435

: diameter of valve stem


: length of valve
2.8.2.3 Fixed parameters of manifold
h: heat transfer coefficient
A: inside area of manifold

: temperature of gas inside manifold


2.8.3 ASSUMPTIONS, SIMPLIFICATION AND MATERIAL SELECTION
Since the pistons need to intake air at different phases we assume that the mass air flow
intake is constant i.e steady-state
Assume incompressible flow
Considering temperature of combustion at spark plug of 600, the temperature of the
gas in the manifold is of 60
Valve analysed as a column
4130 chromoly steel:
Bulk Modulus: 140 000 Mpa
Modulus of Elasticity (E): 205 000 Mpa
Poisson Ratio: 0.29
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
81 | P a g e

2.8.4 STRESS ANALYSIS
2.8.4.1 Valve stress analysis

Figure 53 One end free and one end fixed pushrod
For a long column with central bending, simple compression occurs for low value of force.
However when the P reaches a specific value, the column becomes unstable and bending
develops. The critical force is governed by the Euler Column formula. We can find the critical
load:

2

where

is the critical load [N]


is the end condition constant
the Modulus of elasticit [Mpa]
is the inertia [
4
]
is the length of the column [mm]
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
82 | P a g e

Finding the slenderness ratio:

Figure 54 Euler Curve
(

) = (
2
2

)
1
2


As in most designs, with a wanted safety factor of 1, the T is taken where:

2
[]
Using the relation =
2
and =
1
4
, we can rearrange the equation to:

2
=

4(

)
2

where

is the yield strength [Mpa]


is the modulus of elasticity [Mpa]

consists of the slenderness ratio


ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
83 | P a g e


As in most designs, with a wanted safety factor of 1, the T is taken where:

2
[]
We can then return to our initial equation and compare our critical load to the actual maximum
load to see if it is beyond the critical threshold:


where

is the maximum load on column [N]


is the critical load on column [N]


is the area of the cross section of column [mm]
If the maximum load is lower than the critical, the diameter of the pushrod is adequate. If not, a
bigger diameter needs to be chosen, giving a higher safety factor.
2.8.4.2 Valve dimensions
In a typical combustion engine the valve to bore ratios are (for wedge heads):
= 52%52.5% []
= 70%71% []
This allows for both valves to be on the same side of the cylinder. On average, a minimum Valve
lift/Valve diameter ratio is of a minimum of 25% for street engine,
= 0.25 []

ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
84 | P a g e

2.8.4.3 Air intake dimensions


Figure 55 Air Intake Port [10]
The following equation converts the measured crank angle () to in-cylinder volume:
= (

1
+ +
( (
1
(
sin()

)) + cos ()))

2
4

where
is half the stroke length [mm]
is the crank angle []
If we calculate the volume when the crank angle is 180, we get the maximum volume of air
introduced in the piston (

).
We know the diameter of the intake valve. If we choose an angle for the seat of 45 for 2 [mm],
we can calculate the diameter of the throat:
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
85 | P a g e

2 2 45 []
If there is a throat, it implies that before it the diameter of the intake port is larger. Lets make

4mm wider than the valve diameter.



Figure 56 Intake Port Geometry
The displacement, defined as the volume swept by the piston inside the cylinder and is
calculated by:
=

4

2
[
3
]
For the displacement of the engine you multiply the above value by the number of pistons (2).

The mass flow through the engine is determined by:

=
2
60

2
4

where

is the mass flow rate of the engine [

]
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
86 | P a g e

is the revolution per minute of the engine


is the density of the air [

3
]
2.8.4.4 Manifold Heat Transfer
As the air enters an engine through the intake system, its temperature increases from ambient
conditions to a temperature on the order of 60. The walls of the intake manifold are hotter
than the flowing gases, heating them by convection:

= (

)
where

is the heat transfer rate []


is the convection heat transfer coefficient [

]
is the inside surface area of intake manifold [
2
]

is the temperature of the intake manifold wall [K]


is the temperature of the gas inside the manifold [K]


ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
87 | P a g e

2.8.4.5 Manifold Flow rates

Figure 57 Intake Manifold Flow Rates
Known:

1
=
0
= 1


Simplifications:

2
=
3


1
=
2
=
3

With the above variables set, we can now determine the inlet velocity:


1
[

]
Since:

1
=
2

2
+
3

3

ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
88 | P a g e

1
=
2
+
3

= 2

]
With that relation established, the Bernoullis equation states:

1
+
1
2

1
2
=
2
+
1
2

2
2
+
3
+
1
2

3
2

0
+
1
2

2
=
2
+
1
4

2
+
3
+
1
4

0
+
1
2

2
=
2
+
3
+
1
2

0
=
2
+
3
[]

2
=
3
= 0.5 []
2.8.4.6 Valve Port Pressure and Flow Rates

Figure 58 Inlet Pressure and Back Pressure

1
=


=
1
[

]

ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
89 | P a g e

Finding the Mach number at the inlet of the constriction and with the assumption that the flow
is not choked and in the incompressible domain, we can use the isentropic tables to find our
area at the throat:
@
1

= 1

1
1

= 2
Find C2 in isentropic tables to determine
2

@
1

0
= 3
0

0
= 4
0

@
2

0
= 5
2

0
= 5
2

Since the flow is not chocked
2
=

. To find
2
:

2
=


=
2
[

]
2.8.5 CRITICAL REVIEW
The analysis performed on the intake manifold, intake port and the buckling analysis on the
valve is sufficient to determine all of the dimensions needed for that system. Some of these
results will be able to further be used as a starting point for the combustion process and the
cylinder construction.

ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
90 | P a g e

2.9 Valve Spring
Unless otherwise specified, all information, figures and table shown in this section are from
these references:
BUDYNAS, Richard G. and NISBETT, J. Keith (2011). Shigleys Mechanical Engineering
Design, 9
th
edition, New York, McGraw-Hill Companies, Section 10 Mechanical Spring.
2.9.1 COMPONENT LAYOUT

Figure 59 Valve Spring
2.9.2 INPUT, CONSTANTS AND FIXED PARAMETERS
The inputs of the system are:
Maximum load for valve (

)
Maximum displacement of spring (

)
The various fixed parameters for the system are:
D: diameter of spring
d: diameter of wire

: number of total coils



0
: free length
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
91 | P a g e

: Safety factor
End Condition Constant (): 0.5
2.9.3 ASSUMPTIONS, SIMPLIFICATION AND MATERIAL SELECTION
Steady-state operation of the ICE
Rated RPM
302 Stainless steel wire
Table 12: Properties of material
Properties of material
ASTM No. Exponent m Diameter (mm) A (MPa*

Relative Cost of
Wire

A313
0.146 0.3-2.5 1867
7.6-11 0.263 2.5-5 2065
0.478 5-10 2911

Modulus of Rigidity (G): 69 000 Mpa
Youngs Modulus (E): 193 000 Mpa
Maximum Service Temperature : 260
Density (): 7.920 /
3


Spring ends plain and ground supported by flat parallel fixed surfaces

Figure 60 Plain and ground spring ends

ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
92 | P a g e

2.9.4 STRESS ANALYSIS
2.9.4.1 Maximum Shear Stress

Figure 61 Valve spring - force and torsion
With an input of the force and the displacement, we can determine the spring rate by isolating
k in this equation:
=
The spring rate being:
=

4
8
3


where
is the spring rate [
N
mm
]
is the modulus of rigidity [Mpa]
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
93 | P a g e

is the diameter of the coil
is the diameter of the spring from center-to-center coil

corresponds to the number of active coils


and are fixed parameters that we set and a result of the material selected. is restricted
to the amount of space available in the cylinder, therefore it is better for it to be fixed and to
achieve the wanted spring rate by varying the diameter of the coil (d) and the number of active
coils

. To find it we use this formula that takes into account the plain and ground ended
nature of the spring.

1
This has to be done in conjunction with the spring index to make sure we are in our allowable
limits (between 4 and 12):
=


The coils of the spring are submitted to torsion during compression. This torsion can be
calculated with:
=

2
[]
The maximum stress in the wire may be computed by doing a superposition of the direct shear
stress and the torsional shear stress. This results in this equation:


since,
=

2
=

2
=

4
32
=

2
4

=
=
8

3
+
4

2

ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
94 | P a g e

The above equation does not take into effect the curvature effect of the spring. To take it into
consideration we use the spring index (preferred between 4 and 12):
=


Combined with the Bergstrasser factor:

=
4 +2
4 3

The new equation calculates the largest shear stress:
=

3

where
is the shear stress in the spring [MPa]

is the Bergstrasser factor


is the compression force on the spring [N]
is the diameter of the spring from center-to-center coil [mm]
is the diameter of the coils [mm]
If we impose that the minimum allowable safety factor for our spring is to be 2.

2
[]
Isolating the n factor, gives our safety factor. If it is above 2, the chosen dimensions are
effective, if not a different diameter of coils should be selected. The process should be repeated
until the factor is above 2.
With:

= 0.5


The next step is to verify that the chosen material has an adequate tensile strength. To find this,
here is the equation:
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
95 | P a g e


The torsional yield strength is needed to design the spring and is in the range of:
0.45

0.55



Figure 62 Important Spring Dimensions [11]
With the free length established as a parameter, the pith is easily found by:
=

+1
[]
2.9.4.2 Stability
The stability of the spring is another aspect to consider since we know that a spring may buckle
when the deflection becomes too large. The critical deflection is given by the equation:

=
0

[1 (1

2
)
1
2

]
The effective slenderness ratio is given by the equation:


ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
96 | P a g e

and
2

are given by these equations:

2( )

=
2
2
( )
2 +

Absolute stability occurs when :

0
<

[
2( )
2 +
]
1
2


For steels, this turns out to be:

0
< 2.63


where

0
is the free length [mm]
is the diameter of the spring from center-to-center coil [mm]
is the end condition constant
2.9.5 CRITICAL REVIEW
Having found the strain and torsion forces on the spring, the analysis of this particular part of
the assembly is complete. Future analysis could contain a heat analysis to determine the heat in
the motor head and weather the springs constants vary because of that heat.
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
97 | P a g e

2.10 Valve Spring Retainer
2.10.1 COMPONENT LAYOUT

Figure 63 Valve Spring Retainer
2.10.2 INPUT, CONSTANTS AND FIXED PARAMETERS
The inputs of the system are:
D: diameter of spring
d: diameter of wire

: number of total coils



0
: free length

The fixed parameters are:

: diameter of lip

: thickness of retainer
2.10.3 STRESS ANALYSIS
2.10.3.1 Dimensions of Retainer

ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
98 | P a g e


Figure 64 Valve Retainer (Top Half) and Cotter Groove
The length of the retainer will be determined as being:

=
1
4
0
[]
Where
0
is the free length of the spring. Next we need to determine the diameter of the
retainer. If we insure a 4 [mm]

and a 3 [mm]

on each side to hold the spring as


shown below
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
99 | P a g e

2.10.4 CRITICAL REVIEW
The retainer is highly dependent on the results of the analysis on the spring to determine its
dimensions. Since we analysed the forces from the valve to spring and valve to rocker arm, the
analysis of the retainer itself is not a high priority since its role is not to transmit a force, simply
to maintain the spring alignment.
2.11 Valve Guide
2.11.1 COMPONENT LAYOUT

Figure 65 Valve Guide and Retainer
2.11.2 INPUT, CONSTANTS AND FIXED PARAMETERS
The fixed parameters of this system are:

1
: Diameter 1 of guide

2
: Diameter 2 of guide
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
100 | P a g e

: height of the lip



1
: thickness of retainer wall at
1


2
: thickness of retainer wall at
2

2.11.3 ASSUMPTIONS, SIMPLIFICATION AND MATERIAL SELECTION
Since we made the earlier assumption that the only forces acting on the valve are axial
and that any radial forces are negligible, we can make the simplification that the valve
guide does not contain any radial forces.
No radial forces mean that no stress analysis is required.
Compression forces due to spring are negligible since metals are highly resistant to
compression
2.11.4 STRESS ANALYSIS
2.11.4.1 Dimensions of guide

Figure 66 Valve Retainer (Bottom Half) and Guide

ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
101 | P a g e

To determine the height of the guide we use the relation:

= 0.15


2.11.5 CRITICAL REVIEW
Since we made the earlier assumption that the only forces acting on the valve are axial and that
any radial forces are negligible, we can make the simplification that the valve guide does not
contain any radial forces, making an analysis of forces and strain on this piece not a priority.
Simply steel with good parameters would be enough.
2.12 Rocker Arm
Unless otherwise specified, all information, figures and table shown in this section are from
these references:
HUSAIN, Syed Mujahid. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Robotics
Research: Design and Analysis of Rocker Arm, India, Editor Ijmerr.
2.12.1 COMPONENT LAYOUT

Figure 67 Rocker arm
2.12.2 INPUT, CONSTANTS AND FIXED PARAMETERS
The inputs of the system are:

=
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
102 | P a g e

=
Speed of engine/camshaft
Angle of action of cam
=
=
The fixed parameters of the system are:

1
=

1
=

1
=

2
=
=
2.12.3 ASSUMPTIONS, SIMPLIFICATION AND MATERIAL SELECTION
The rocker arm may be treated as a simple supported beam and loaded at the fulcrum
point. Therefore, due to the load on the valve the rocker arm is subjected to bending
moment.
Length of the two arms of the rocker are equal, therefore the load at the two ends of
the arms are equal.
The material chosen for the rocker arm is G101080 steel:

= 372 []
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
103 | P a g e

2.12.4 STRESS ANALYSIS

Figure 68 Force analysis of rocker

2.12.4.1 Total load on the valve
We know that gas load on the valve:

1
=


where

1
is the gas load on the valve [N]

is the diameter of the valve head [mm]


is the cylinder back pressure [

2
]
Weight of associated parts with the valve:
= []
Total load on the valve:
=
1
+ []

ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
104 | P a g e

2.12.4.2 Initial spring force

Initial Spring force considering weight of the valve:


where

is the initial spring force [N]


is the diameter of the valve head [mm]


is the maximum suction pressure [

2
]
is the weight of the valve [N]
2.12.4.3 Force due to valve acceleration

Angle turned by the camshaft per second:
()
60
360 = speed of camshaft [
deg
s
]
Time taken for the valve to open and close:

angle turned per second



where

is the time taken for the valve to open and close [s]
angle of action of cam [degrees]
Maximum acceleration of the valve when =

2
[]:
=


= (
2

)
2
[

2
]
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
105 | P a g e

Force due to valve acceleration, considering the weight of the valve:

= + []
2.12.4.4 Maximum load on rocker arm

The exhaust rocker arm had the biggest loads, therefore to find the maximum stress and strain
it is the one being analyzed. We can then calculate the maximum load on the rocker arm for
exhaust valve:

= +


where

is the maximum load on the rocker arm [N]


is the total load on the valve [N]

is the initial spring considering the weight of the valve [N]


is the force due to the valve acceleration considering the weight of the valve [N]
With the length of the two arms,


1
=


2


We know that the reaction at the fulcrum pin is:

2
+

2
2

[]
2.12.4.5 Shear stress and bending moment

We have, with the load on the fulcrum pin

= 2

1
2

where

is the load on the fulcrum pin [N]


ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
106 | P a g e


1
is diameter of fulcrum pin [mm]
is the shear critical shear stress
Isolate the shear stress. This stress is critical.
Maximum bending moment of cross section:
=

1
2
) []
The rocker arm is of l-section. This means that the module Z is:
=
1
12
[2.5(6)
3
1.5(4)
3
]
6
2


where
is the module [
3
]
is the thickness of the rocker arm wall
Bending stress:

[]
We can now verify our safety factor:
=

2
[]
2.12.4.6 Lobe lift

Then we can calculate the maximum lobe lift (h):
=


mm
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
107 | P a g e


Figure 69 Rocker Arm Ratio [12]
rocker arm ratio =


2.12.5 CRITICAL REVIEW
This analysis is sufficient for the rocker arm since the torsion, bending and safety factor were
determined. In the future an analysis on the rocker arm heat expansion should be performed as
an additional confirmation of the dimensions of the rocker.
2.13 Fulcrum Bolt
Unless otherwise specified, all information, figures and table shown in this section are from
these references:
BUDYNAS, Richard G. and NISBETT, J. Keith (2011), Shigleys Mechanical Engineering
Design, 9
th
edition, New York, McGraw-Hill Companies, Section 8-3 Threaded Fasteners.
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
108 | P a g e

2.13.1 COMPONENT LAYOUT

Figure 70 Fulcrum Bolt
2.13.2 INPUT, CONSTANTS AND FIXED PARAMETERS
The inputs of the system are:

=
The fixed parameters of the system are:
=
= 30
=

= Endurance strength

=
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
109 | P a g e

2.13.3 ASSUMPTIONS, SIMPLIFICATION AND MATERIAL SELECTION
The rocker arm may be treated as a simple supported beam and loaded at the fulcrum
point. Therefore, due to the load on the valve the rocker arm is subjected to bending
moment.
Length of the two arms of the rocker are equal, therefore the load at the two ends of
the arms are equal.
The material chosen for the rocker arm is A36 steel:

= 225 []

= 190 [] (endurance strength)


= 240 []

= 400 []
= 200 000 []
Refer to Table 17: Mechanical-Property Classes for Steel Bolts for additional dimensions of bolt.
2.13.4 STRESS ANALYSIS
2.13.4.1 Bolt Side of Support

Figure 71 Dimensions of Bolt

= 2 +6 [mm]
where

is the thread length of bolt [mm]


ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
110 | P a g e

is the fastener diameter [mm]
The fastener diameter is dependent on the diameter of the fulcrum pin
=

4 []
With the fastener diameter we can find the width (

) of the nut and the height (

) with the
help of Table 18: Dimensions of Hexagonal Nuts in Appendix A.
The variable t is the thickness of the washer and is determined by the Table 19: Dimensions of
Metric Plain Washers in the Appendix A, according to the washer size, it being the same as the
bolt.
= thickness of all material squeezed
=

2
+ []
Fastener Length:
> +

[]
To find the fastener length, you round up the value using Table 20: Preferred sized and Renard
number in Appendix A.
Length of unthreaded portion in grip:

[]
Length of threaded portion in grip:

[]
Area of unthreaded portion:

2
4
[
2
]

= , this is determined with Table 21: Diameters and Areas of


pitch metric thread.
Finally we can determine the fastener stiffness:
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
111 | P a g e

]
To determine the member stiffness:

=
0.5774
2 (5
0.5774 +0.5
0.5774 +2.5
)
[

]
The load P is in tension and is equal to the rocker arms


The preload to be done to the bolt is calculated by (for non-permanent connections):

= 0.75


where

is the preload [N]


is the area of threaded portion [mm


2
]

is the minimum proof strength [Mpa]


is the preload [N]


in appendix A
Since:
=


where

is the Portion of P taken by members [N]


is the Portion of P taken by bolt [N]


is the member stiffness [


N
mm
]
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
112 | P a g e

is the fastener stiffness [


N
mm
]
With the load P:
=


The stiffness constant of the joint is:
=


The resulting bolt load is:

= +

[]
And the resultant load on the connected members is:

= (1 )

[]

If we were to determine the fatigue loading of tension joints in a general case with a constant
preload, and an external load fluctuating between 0 and P.

= 0 []

[]
The alternating stress experienced by the bolt is:

=
(

)
2

2
]
The midrange stress experienced by the bolt is:

=
(

)
2

2
]
The traditional factor of safety, which compares the maximum bolt stress to the proof strength,
is:
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
113 | P a g e


The Goodman criteria is:

=
2

)
(

)

where

is the goodman criteria


is the endurance strength [Mpa]


is the ultimate tensile strength [Mpa]


is the area of threaded portion [


2
]

is the is the preload [N]


is the stiffness constant
is the load [N]

is the endurance strength [Mpa]


The next factor is an indication of the overload on P that can be applied without exceeding the
proof strength:


Since:

[]
The load line is defined as:

2
[]
The factor of safety stemming from the proof strength is:


ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
114 | P a g e

<

, the danger of failure is by fatigue.

>

, the danger of failure is by overproof


loading.
If all safety factors are above 2, then the parameters are acceptable. If not, a higher strength
material should be used.

=
(

)
2

[]
2.13.4.2 Screw Side of Support

Figure 72 Dimension of Screw

Take

>

= 2 +6 []
where

is the thread length of bolt [mm]


is the fastener diameter [mm]
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
115 | P a g e

The variable t is the thickness of the washer, this is determined Table 19: Dimensions of Metric
Plain Washers in Appendix A, according to the washer size, it being the same as the bolt. For
this situation h=t
=
= +

2

2
[]
Fastener Length:
> +1.5 []
To find it, you round up using Table 20: Preferred sized and Renard number in Appendix A.
Length of unthreaded portion in grip:

[]
Length of threaded portion in grip:

[]
Area of unthreaded portion:

2
4
[
2
]

= , this is determined by Table 21: Diameters and Areas of pitch


metric thread located in Appendix A. Finally we can determine the fastener stiffness:

]
To determine the member stiffness:

=
0.5774
2 (5
0.5774 +0.5
0.5774 +2.5
)
[

]
The load P is in tension and is equal to the rocker arms


ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
116 | P a g e

The preload to be done to the bolt is calculated by (for non-permanent connections):

= 0.75


where

is the preload [N]


is the area of threaded portion [


2
]

is the minimum proof strength [Mpa]


is the preload [N]

is found in Table 17: Mechanical-Property Classes for Steel Bolts in Appendix A.


Since:


where

is the Portion of P taken by members [N]


is the Portion of P taken by bolt [N]


is the member stiffness [

is the fastener stiffness [

]
With the load P:
=


The stiffness constant of the joint is :
=


The resulting bolt load is:

= +

[]
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
117 | P a g e

And the resultant load on the connected members is:

= (1 )

[]
If we were to determine the fatigue loading of tension joints in a general case with a constant
preload, and an external load fluctuating between 0 and P.

= 0 []

[]
The alternating stress experienced by the bolt is:

=
(

)
2

2
]
The midrange stress experienced by the bolt is:

=
(

)
2

2
]
The traditional factor of safety, which compares the maximum bolt stress to the proof strength
is:


The Goodman criteria is:

=
2

)
(

)

where

is the goodman criteria


is the endurance strength [Mpa]


is the ultimate tensile strength [Mpa]


is the area of threaded portion [


2
]

is the is the preload [N]


is the stiffness constant
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
118 | P a g e

is the load [N]

is the endurance strength [Mpa]


The next factor is an indication of the overload on P that can be applied without exceeding the
proof strength:


Since:

[]

2
[]
The factor of safety stemming from the proof strength is:

<

, the danger of failure is by fatigue.

>

, the danger of failure is by overproof


loading.
If all safety factors are above 2, then the parameters are acceptable. If not, a higher strength
material should be used.

=
(

)
2

[]
2.13.5 CRITICAL REVIEW
This analysis is all that is needed to design the fulcrum pin and bolt since the main force that is
transmitted is the reaction from the rocker arm. For future analysis, to further confirm the sizes
chosen, an analysis of heat expansion on the material should be performed.
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
119 | P a g e

2.14 Pushrod
Unless otherwise specified, all information, figures and table shown in this section are from
these references:
BUDYNAS, Richard G. and NISBETT, J. Keith (2011). Shigleys Mechanical Engineering
Design, 9
th
edition, New York, McGraw-Hill Companies, Section 4-12 Long Column with
Central Loading.
2.14.1 COMPONENT LAYOUT

Figure 73 Pushrod Assembly
2.14.2 INPUT, CONSTANTS AND FIXED PARAMETERS
The input of the system is the force or pressure applied at one end of the pushrod by the
camshaft:

: Maximum load applied


The various fixed parameters for the push rods are:
C: end condition of column
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
120 | P a g e

: Safety factor

= 435 []
D: diameter of pushrod
L: length of rod
2.14.3 ASSUMPTIONS, SIMPLIFICATION AND MATERIAL SELECTION
Steady-state operation of the ICE
Rated rpm
Pushrod analysed as a column
4130 chromoly steel:
o Bulk Modulus: 140 000 [Mpa]
o Modulus of Elasticity (E): 205 000 [Mpa]
o Poisson Ratio: 0.29
One end free and one end fixed

ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
121 | P a g e

Figure 74 One end free and one end fixed pushrod
2.14.4 STRESS ANALYSIS

Figure 75 Force exerted on pushrod
For a long column with central bending, simple compression occurs for low value of force.
However when the P reaches a specific value, the column becomes unstable and bending
develops. The critical force is governed by the Euler Column formula. We can find the critical
load:

2

Finding the slenderness ratio:
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
122 | P a g e


Figure 76 Euler Curve
(

) = (
2
2

)
1
2


As in most designs, with a wanted safety factor of 1, the T is taken where:

2

Using the relation =
2
and =
1
4
, we can rearrange the equation to:

2
=

4(

)
2

As in most designs, with a wanted safety factor of 1, the T is taken where:

2

We can then return to our initial equation and compare our critical load to the actual maximum
load to see if it is beyond the critical threshold:
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
123 | P a g e


If the maximum load is lower than the critical, the diameter of the pushrod is adequate. If not, a
bigger diameter needs to be chosen, giving a higher safety factor.
2.14.5 CRITICAL REVIEW
The analysis of buckling is sufficient for this element of the assembly. Since it is in a sleeve we
neglected the radial forces acting on it. Further analysis could be done in the future if time
allows on the expansion of the rod due to thermal heating.

2.15 Cam
Unless otherwise specified, all information, figures and table shown in this section are from
these references:
ROTHBART, Harold A. (2004). Cam Design Handbook, New Jersey USA, McGRAW-HILL,
Section 1.7 Cam Definitions; Section 2.6 Constant Acceleration Curve; Section 6.3.2
Pressure Angle Forces Translating Roller Follower; Section 8.10 Cam Surface Loads;
Section 9.3 Contact Stresses; Section 9.4.4.2 Surface Fatigue Design; Section 9.4.5
Materials Selection
2.15.1 INPUT, CONSTANTS AND FIXED PARAMETERS
The input for this part is the force that came from the push rod. This section as no fixed
parameters because we will construct equations of motion of the follower with respect of the
cam angular position. These equation will then be used to find the required maximum torque
need to rotate each cam. Theres a total of four cam, two for each cylinder. The position of each
cam is critical for the timing of the 4 strokes.

2.15.2 ASSUMPTIONS, SIMPLIFICATION AND MATERIAL SELECTION
The analysis of this section follow these general assumptions:
All cams have the same shape and same weight
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
124 | P a g e

The profile of the cam follow a second degree polynomial equation
The contact area of cam and follower is rectangular
The roller of the follower doesnt slip
The roller follower is comparable to a tool steel 60-62 RC
2.15.2.1 Mathematical Approach for Equations of Motion of Followers
The first step to design a cam is to determine is profile. To do so, we need a relation between
the follower position and cam angular position. In our case, the displacement curve of the
follower is a Dwell-rise-return-dwell (DRRD) motion as the Figure 77 shows.

Figure 77 Type of position curve of follower
Different mathematical approach can be implied to model this function but for simplicity we
will assume that the position of the follower is regulated by a second degree polynomial
equation which implies constant acceleration of the follower and is given by the following
equation:
() =
2

2
+
1
+
0

where
is the position of the follower [m]
is the angular position of the cam [rad]

0
,
1
,
2
are parabolic parameters (constants)
Figure 78 shows the position of each follower according to the position of the camshaft. With
this diagram, it is possible to develop the equation of motion for each follower.
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
125 | P a g e


Figure 78 Position of each follower with respect of their cam angular position
where
1, 2 are the curves of the follower for the intake of piston 1 and piston 2
1, 2 are the curves of the follower for the exhaust of piston 1 and piston 2
In Appendix B the development of the four parabolic function and the derivative of those is
demonstrated to get the following equations of motions:
Piston 1:
Intake follower

1
() = {
0

256
49
2

2
+
96
7
8
0

[0,
7
8
]
[
7
8
,
7
4
]
[
7
4
, 2]

ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
126 | P a g e

1
() = {
0
(
512
49
2
+
96
7
)
0

[0,
7
8
]
[
7
8
,
7
4
]
[
7
4
, 2]

1
() = {
0

512
49
2
0

2

[0,
7
8
]
[
7
8
,
7
4
]
[
7
4
, 2]

Exhaust follower

1
() = {
0

256
49
2

2
+
352
49

72
49
0

[0,

4
]
[

4
,
9
8
]
[
9
8
, 2]

1
() = {
0
(
512
49
2
+
352
49
)
0

[0,

4
]
[

4
,
9
8
]
[
9
8
, 2]

1
() = {
0

512
49
2

2
0

[0,

4
]
[

4
,
9
8
]
[
9
8
, 2]

Piston 2:
Intake follower

2
() = {

256
49
2

2
+
160
49
+
24
49
0

256
49
2

2
+
1184
49

1320
49

[0,
3
4
]
[
3
4
,
15
8
]
[
15
8
, 2]

ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
127 | P a g e

2
() = {
(
512
49
2
+
160
49
)
0
(
512
49
2
+
1184
49
)

[0,
3
4
]
[
3
4
,
15
8
]
[
15
8
, 2]

2
() = {

512
49
2

2
0

512
49
2

2

[0,
3
4
]
[
3
4
,
15
8
]
[
15
8
, 2]

Exhaust follower

2
() = {

256
49
2

160
49
+
24
49
0

256
49
2

2
+
864
49

680
49

[0,

8
]
[

8
,
5
4
]
[
5
4
, 2]

2
() = {
(
512
49
2

160
49
)
0
(
512
49
2
+
864
49
)

[0,

8
]
[

8
,
5
4
]
[
5
4
, 2]

2
() = {

512
49
2

2
0

512
49
2

2

[0,

8
]
[

8
,
5
4
]
[
5
4
, 2]


The cams and the camshaft are built in one piece thus the material selection of the cams need
to meet the material selection of the camshaft. Usually, the camshaft is made from a type of
steel how can resist contact stresses, wear and surface fatigue. The Table 35: Material selection
for cam with a tool steel 60-62 RC in Appendix A lists type of steel that can be selected for this
application with their value of load-stress factor () and the constants required to compute the
number of cycle before wear out. This list is a shorter version of the one found in the Cam
Design Handbook.
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
128 | P a g e

2.15.3 STRESS ANALYSIS
To design a cam, we need to find is maximum pressure angle which is defined by the angle
between the normal to the pitch curve and the direction of the follower motion. The pitch
curve is the path made by the center of the follower. The Figure 79 shows the forces between a
cam and is follower.

Figure 79 Free body diagram of a cam and follower
2.15.3.1 Moment Analysis
With the moment about p, we can find the normal force
1
:

= 0 = sin
1
+
1

2

ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
129 | P a g e

By assuming negligible friction between push rod and casing:

1
=
2
= 0

1
=
sin


With the moment about p, we can find the normal force
2
:

= 0 = ( +) sin
2
+
1

2

By assuming negligible friction between push rod and casing:

1
=
2
= 0

2
=
( +) sin


2.15.3.2 Force Analysis
The summation of forces in the vertical direction is given by:

= 0 =
0
+ cos
1

2

In our case:

0
=
pr
= Push rod load on cam
Which gives us
0 =
pr
+ cos (
2 sin + sin

)
We can know find the load on the cam:
=

pr
cos (
2 +

) sin



ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
130 | P a g e

The maximum force occur when the denominator of the above equation is equal to zero:
cos (
2 +

) sin = 0
The pressure angle in this case is given by:

= arctan (

(2 +)
)
2.15.3.3 Torque Analysis
The torque required to rotate the cam for a translating roller-follower is defined by:
=
( + )


where
is the external load on cam =
From the previous section, we found and which can be substituted in the above equation to
find the torque function of each cams.

1
= {
0
(
512
49
2
+(
512
49
2
)
2

2
) +
96
7

49152
2
343
3

2
0

[0,
7
8
]
[
7
8
,
7
4
]
[
7
4
, 2]

1
= {
0
(
512
49
2
+(
512
49
2
)
2

2
) +
352
49

180224
2
2401
3

2
0

[0,

4
]
[

4
,
9
8
]
[
9
8
, 2]

2
=
{

(
512
49
2
+(
512
49
2
)
2

2
) +
160
49

81920
2
2401
3

2
0
(
512
49
2
+(
512
49
2
)
2

2
) +
1184
49

606208
2
2401
3

2

[0,
3
4
]
[
3
4
,
15
8
]
[
15
8
, 2]


ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
131 | P a g e

2
=
{

(
512
49
2
+(
512
49
2
)
2

2
)
160
49
+
81920
2
2401
3

2
0
(
512
49
2
+(
512
49
2
)
2

2
) +
864
49

442368
2
2401
3

2

[0,

4
]
[

4
,
9
8
]
[
9
8
, 2]

2.15.3.4 Contact Stresses Analysis
The contact stresses analysis can be found using the following equation:

max
= 0.564
[

(
1

+
1

(
1

+
1

)
]

1 2

where

max
is the maximum compressive stress [lb/in
2
]
is the normal force of contacting bodies (between cam and follower) [lb]

is the radius of curvature of cam [in]


is the radius of curvature of follower [in]


is the thickness of contacting cam and follower [in]


is the Poisson's ratio for cam


is the Poisson's ratio for follower


is the modules of elasticity of cam [psi]


is the modules of elasticity of follower [psi]


The thickness is shows in Figure 80. Its the width of the rectangular contact area between the
cam and the roller of the follower.
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
132 | P a g e


Figure 80 Contact area of the cam and follower

2.15.3.5 Surface Fatigue
The life of the cam and follower system can be determined using the following equation:
log =
log


where
is the load-stress factor (see Table 35)
, are constants (see Table 35)
is the number of stress cycle
And solving for the number of cycle give us the life of the system:
=
10


2.15.4 CRITICAL REVIEW
The mathematical approach used here was simplified by using parabolic equation. Other
method are more precise but are more complex to analyse. In this analysis we didnt find an
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
133 | P a g e

equation of the pressure angle with respect to the angular position of the cam. This equation is
rather important to find the load on the cam and thus the torque at any angular position. With
this equation we could find the maximum torque needed to move all cams by taking the first
derivative of the torque equation and equate it to 0. Solving this will gives us the extremum of
the function. Another point to consider is the simplification of the model used to compute the
number of cycle before wear out since the follower is not made of tool steel 60-62 RC and can
sometime slip during one cycle. This mean that the value from the table are not exact. A safety
factor can be applied to the final sizing and material selection to ensure a correct resistance to
wear and stresses.
2.16 Camshaft
Unless otherwise specified, all information, figures and table shown in this section are from
these references:
BUDYNAS, Richard G. and NISBETT, J. Keith (2011). Shigleys Mechanical Engineering
Design, 9
th
edition, New York, McGraw-Hill Companies, Section 6-9 Endurance Limit
Modifying factors; Section 7-4 Shaft Design for Stress; Section 12-3 Petroffs Equation;
Section 12-7 Design Configurations.
2.16.1 INPUT, CONSTANTS AND FIXED PARAMETERS
The input forces and torques of this analysis came from the cam analysis. This section will size
the camshaft according to each cam forces and required torque. A weight analysis will be
performed to check if the camshaft is balanced and what are the stresses on both bearings.
2.16.2 ASSUMPTIONS, SIMPLIFICATION AND MATERIAL SELECTION
In this analysis, the following assumption will be used:
Constant force between cam and tappet
Negligible friction between cam and tappet
The mass of the cam can be replace by a lump mass located at 1/3 of the major radius R
(see Figure 81)
All four cams have the same mass and same shape
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
134 | P a g e

Negligible weight of the shaft
Negligible axial force
Constant diameter of the shaft and same fillet before and after each cams
The camshaft is concentric with the bearings
Negligible side leakage of bearings

Figure 81 Estimated center of gravity of a cam
2.16.3 STRESS ANALYSIS
Figure XXX illustrate at left the position of each lump mass which was found in the cam analysis.
At right, the other forces are shown. All distance are taken from the middle of the bearing 1 (at
left) and are called

where is the acronym for the other component.


ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
135 | P a g e


Figure 82 Free body diagram of the camshaft and position of center of mass of each cams

Where the following forces are in Newton:

is the belt tension force


i
is the reaction force of bearing i

is the normal force transmited by the follower (I is for Intake and E is for Exhaust)

i
is the mass force of cam i

1
=
1
=
1
3

1
=
1
=
1
3

2
(sin67.5 +cos 67.5

2
=
2
=
1
3

2
(

)
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
136 | P a g e

2
=
2
=
1
3

2
(cos 22.5 sin22.5

)
2.16.3.1 Moment Analysis

1
=

1
I1

I1
+

1
I1

I1
+

1
E1

1
+

1
E1

E1
+

1
I2

I2
+

1
I2

I2
+

1
E2

E2
+

1
E2

E2
+

2
= 0
If we substitute the force cause by the center of gravity of each cam in the above equation and
expand the reaction of the second bearing we get for the component:
1
3

2
(

1
1

1
1
cos 67.5

1
2
+

1
2
sin22.5)

2
(

2
)

= 0
And for the

component:

1
1

1
1

1
2

1
2

2
+
1
3

2
(

1
2
cos 22.5

1
1
sin67.5) +

2
(

2
)

= 0
With these equations we could find an expression for the reaction force on the second bearing:
(

2
)

1
1

1
+

1
1

1
+

1
2

2
+

1
2

1
3

2
(

1
2
cos 22.5

1
1
sin67.5)

2

(

2
)

=
1
3

2
(

1
1

1
1
cos 67.5

1
2
+

1
2
sin 22.5)

2

2.16.3.2 Forces Analysis
From the free body diagram of Figure 82 we can apply the second law of Newton to find the
reaction forces on bearing 1. For the component:

+(

1
)

I1

E1
+(

1
)

I2

E2
+(

2
)

+ (

2
)

= 0
where
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
137 | P a g e

(

1
)

=
1
3

2
sin67.5
(

2
)

=
1
3

2
cos 22.5
Which cancel each others out and by solving for (

1
)

we get:
(

1
)

+
I1
+
E1
+
I2
+
E2
(

2
)


For the

component:

= (

1
)

+(

1
)

+(

1
)

+ (

2
)

+(

2
)

+(

2
)

= 0
where
(

1
)

=
1
3

2

(

1
)

=
1
3

2
cos 67.5
(

2
)

=
1
3

2

(

2
)

=
1
3

2
sin22.5
Which cancel each others out and by solving for (

1
)

we get:
(

1
)

= (

2
)


2.16.3.3 Camshaft Section Diameters
The diameter of the camshaft can be determined by the following equation which take in
account the bending moments, torques, fatigue effects, stress concentration with respect to
the selected material. The following analysis is similar to the crankshaft analysis and use the
same equations. For this reason we will not redefined each variables.
= (
16

{
1

[4(

)
2
+3(

)
2
]
1 2
+
1

[4(

)
2
+3(

)
2
]
1 2
})
1 3

ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
138 | P a g e

2.16.3.4 Shear, Moment and Torque Diagram
These diagram can only be construct with the values of all forces, moments and torques but the
gives an example of what we expect to obtain.

Figure 83 Shear, moment and torque diagram of the camshaft

2.16.3.5 Endurance limit
The endurance of the camshaft can be obtained from the same way as the crankshaft analysis.
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
139 | P a g e



All factors as been defined in the crankshaft analysis and will not be redefined. This equation
will be used to make sure that the material selected in the cam analysis can support all stresses
since the cams and the camshaft is made from one piece.
2.16.3.6 Bearing Selection
For a camshaft application, journal bearing are to be selected because of the absence of axial
stress and durability of this type of bearing. To select bearings we first need to find the
following values:
Viscosity (see Table 13)
The load per unit of projected bearing area (founded in the forces and moment
analysis)
The angular speed (maximum speed is 2 500 rpm)
The bearing dimensions , , and (see Figure 84)

Figure 84 Journal bearing nomenclature
Whish will gives us the following bearing performance characteristics how depends on the
values selected in the first step:
Coefficient of friction
Temperature rise
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
140 | P a g e

Volume flow rate of oil
Minimum film thickness
0

If these value are not acceptable we need to modify the variables in the first step. To get
appropriate results, we can change the type of oil which as different viscosity and temperature
proprieties. The Table 13 shows different grade of SAE oil and their respective proprieties.
Table 13: Viscosity and temperature constant for different grade of SAE oil

If these change are not enough, we could change the bearing dimensions.
To find the coefficient of friction we can use the following equation since we assumed that the
camshaft is concentric with the journal bearing and theres negligible side leakage.
= 2
2


where
is the coefficient of friction
is the viscosity [reyn]
is the angular velocity [rps]
is the radius of the camshaft [mm]
is the clearance [mm]
is the pressure applied to the projected area [MPa]
The pressure applied to the projected area is defined by:
=

2

where
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
141 | P a g e

is the force applied to the bearing (

1
and

2
in our case) []

The coefficient of friction is useful to determine the torque loss in the bearing. With the
following equation we can find this torque loss () caused by the shear stress between the
lubricant and the bearing.
=
4
2


To find the temperature rise, we can use the table which list the temperature rise according to
the Sommerfeld number for different ratio /.
Table 14: Temperature rise with respect to the applied pressure for different l/d ratio

The Sommerfeld number is defined by:
= (

)
2


The temperature rise in Table 14 is dimensionless. To find the real temperature difference, we
need to solve for . The volume flow rate is found from Figure 92 Plot of the dimensionless
flow variable in function of the Sommerfeld number for different ratio in Appendix A. Finally,
the minimum film thickness can be found using Figure 93 Plot of the dimensionless film
thickness with respect of the Sommerfeld number for different ratio in Appendix A.
2.16.4 CRITICAL REVIEW
The approximation of the center of gravity of the cams was roughly estimated but to get a real
approximation a complex analysis is to be done. Because of the time constrain, we will simply
use a bigger safety factors to make sure the camshaft and bearings are able to support the
stresses and are able to resist for long period of cycle.

ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
142 | P a g e

2.17 Serpentine Belt
Unless otherwise specified, all information, figures and table shown in this section are from
these references:
BUDYNAS, Richard G. and NISBETT, J. Keith (2011). Shigleys Mechanical Engineering
Design, 9
th
edition, New York, McGraw-Hill Companies, Section 17 Flexible Mechanical
Elements.
2.17.1 COMPONENT LAYOUT

Figure 85 Serpentine Belt with Spring Loaded Tensioner
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
143 | P a g e

2.17.2 INPUT, CONSTANTS AND FIXED PARAMETERS
The inputs of the system are:
Rotational speed of camshaft
The various fixed parameters for the system are:
=
=

=
=
The constants for this system are:
2.17.3 ASSUMPTIONS, SIMPLIFICATION AND MATERIAL SELECTION
This system is much simplified over the serpentine belt of a full sized car since our model has no
air conditioning, no water pump, no hydraulic steering. This means that the serpentine belt
goes from the crankshaft and only has to drive the alternator with a tensioner actuated by the
oil pump pressure.
We assume the belt to behave in certain points as an axially moving curved beam.

Figure 86 Standard "v" belt

ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
144 | P a g e

For our purpose, we need a small belt since we only have a 2 cylinder engine. Lets choose two
B38 belt. The B type belts are good from 1 to 25 hp. The coefficient of friction for grooves is
0.5123. For the respective table values used, see Table 15: Standard Belt Section and Table 16:
Inside Circumference of Standard V Belts in Appendix A.
2.17.4 STRESS ANALYSIS
Calculations involving the pitch length are based on the pitch length. That is obtained by adding
the appropriate amount from Table 22: Length Conversion Dimensions from Appendix A to the
inside circumference length. In this case, it gives:

= 1.3 +31 = 32.3


=

12

where
V is the speed of belt [

]
D is the large shear pitch diameter [in]
n is the revolutions per minutes [

]
For best results v belts should run in between:
1000/ 4000/
The pitch length and the center to center distance C are:

= 2 +
( +)
2
+
( )
2
4
[]
Isolating the C:
= 0.25 {[

2
( +)] +

2
( +)]
2
2( )
2
}
where
is the Center to center distance of sheave [in]

is the pitch length [in]


ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
145 | P a g e

is the pitch diameter of the small sheave [in]
is the pitch diameter of the big sheave [in]

Figure 87 Dimensions of V Belt
The rating for a belt is for a belt running on equal diameter sheaves (180 ), of moderate
length, transmitting a steady load. Deviations from these laboratory conditions are adjusted.
Lets take the uppermost scenario of 5000ft/min and the diameter as the pitch diameter of
large sheave. We get an

by looking into
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
146 | P a g e

Table 23: Horsepower Ratings for Standard V-Belts from Appendix A.
When the belt is under other conditions:

=
1


where

is the allowable power per belt [hp]



1
corresponds to the angle-of-wrap correction factor

2
is the belt length correction factor

is the horsepower rating for standard v-belts [hp]


These values can be determined from Table 24: Angle of Contact Correction Factor (VV) and
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
147 | P a g e

Table 25: Belt-Length Correction Factor respectively.
The effective coefficient of friction for grooves is 0.5123. Thus:

= ()
where

1
is the first force on the belt [lbf]

2
is the second force on the belt [lbf]

is the centrifugal tension [lbf]


is the effective coefficient of friction for grooves
is the sheave groove angle [rad]
The design power is given by:


where

is the design factor [hp]


is the nominal power [hp]


is the service factor


is the design factor


The service factor can be taken from Table 26: Suggested Service Factors

for V-Belt Drives in


Appendix A.

The number of belts is usually the next higher integer of:


The centrifugal tension

is given by:

1000
)
2

where
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
148 | P a g e

is the centrifugal tension [lbf]


is a belt parameter
is the velocity of belt [

is found by looking inside


ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
149 | P a g e

Table 27: V-Belt Parameter in Appendix A.

Figure 88 V-Belt Tension

The power that is transmitted per belt is based on =
1

2
, where:
=
63 025

2
)

where
is the power transmitted per belt [lbf]

is the design factor [hp]


is the number of belts


is the pitch diameter of the small sheave [in]
is the revolution per minute


The largest tension is given by:

1
=

+
()
exp() 1
[]

The least tensions is:

2
=
1
[]
The factor of safety:
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
150 | P a g e


The tensions can be calculated with:

1
=
1
+

2
=
1
+


where

1

2
are the tensions on the belt [lbf]

is a belt parameter

1
is the first force on the belt [lbf]
is the pitch diameter of small sheave [in]
is the pitch diameter of large sheave [in]
The number of passes is calculated by :

= [(

1
)

+ (

2
)

]
1

where

is the number passes


K is a durability parameter
is a durability parameter

1

2
are the tensions on the belt [lbf]
are determined by Table 28: Durability Parameter for Some V-Belt Sections in
Appendix A.
The lifetime t in hours is given by:
=

720

ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
151 | P a g e

The initial tension is given by:

1
+
2
2

[]
The dip in the belt that is caused by the initial tension in the belt before the tensioner is:
=
12(

12
)
2

96


is the slack in the belt [in]
is the center-to-center distance between sheave [in]
is the weight per foot of the belt [

is the initial tension [lbf]


To remove, or at the very least reduce the dip in the belt. The tensionner must compensate for
it.

96

= 0 []

96
[]

1
+
2
+

[]
By isolating F tensioner, we know how much force we need to apply on the serpentine to
tension it. If we use a spring tensioned sheave. They are usually round torsional springs:
4.44822 = []
=

4
10.8

[]
We decide the dimensions of the spring to get that wanted K.
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
152 | P a g e

2.17.5 CRITICAL REVIEW
This analysis is all that is required for the basic dimensions of a serpentine belt since the
material is selected around a number of parameters and forces calculated in a set sequence.
2.18 Oil Pump
Unless otherwise specified, all information, figures and table shown in this section are from
these references:
Gerotor Selection and Pump Design, version 1.1, Maine USA, Nichols Portland a division
of Parker Hannifin Corporation
2.18.1 INPUT, CONSTANTS AND FIXED PARAMETERS
To find the pump requirement, we need to calculate the pressure loss in each component of
the system. The Figure 89 shows all components which are modeled as resistors. Like in a
circuit, the sum of the pressure loss (or flow requirement) of all component equal the pump
capacity. Once the capacity of the pump is found, we can size the pump and find the required
torque to supply the system. The required flow rate for the journal bearing (JB) of the camshaft
was found in the camshaft analysis.
Filter
Pump
JB Cam Cam JB
Camshaft
JB Piston
crank
Piston
crank
JB
Crankshaft
Loss in
conduct
Piston
wall
Piston
wall

Figure 89 Flow chart of the oil system
2.18.2 ASSUMPTIONS, SIMPLIFICATION AND MATERIAL SELECTION
For this analysis, we will use these assumptions:
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
153 | P a g e

Constant pressure loss in the system
Negligible weight of the shaft
Pump efficiency of 85%
2.18.3 STRESS ANALYSIS
Our selected pump design is a gerotor pump, which is a displacement pump. The Figure 90
shows a free body diagram of the pump assembly.

Figure 90 Free body diagram of the pump and shaft
The displacement of this type of pump can be found with the following equation.
=
1000


where
is the theorical displacement [cm
3
/rev]
is the flow [L/min]
is the pump speed [rpm]
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
154 | P a g e


Figure 91 4 tooth gerotor pump
Assuming an efficiency of 85%, the required mechanical torque is:

OVR
=

= 0.85

=
1
0.85

=
1
0.85
(

60
)
The power of a shaft is given by:

=
2

60

where

is the hydraulic power [W]


is the mechanical power [W]


is the pressure rise [kPa]
is the pump flow [L/min]

is the torque required to power the pump [Nm]


is the input shaft speed [rpm]
Solving the above equations for

and by adding a safety factor of = 5 gives us:

=
1
0.85
(

2
) =
5
0.85
(

2
)
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
155 | P a g e

The pressure rise is equal to the sum of all pressure loss in each component of the lubrication
system. Once we find this total pressure loss, we will be able to find the required torque to
supply lubricant to the motors components.
2.18.3.1 Moment Analysis
By summing the moment at the bearing 1, we can find the reaction forces on the bearing 2.

1
=

2
= 0
where
is the distance from the bearing 1 [m]

is the force applied by the belt on the pulley [N]


is the weight of the pump on the shaft [N]


2
is the reaction force on the bearing 2 [N]
By solving for the reaction force on the bearing 2:

2
=

2

2.18.3.2 Force Analysis
The reaction on the bearing 1 can be found by summing all vertical forces.

2
= 0
By solving for the reaction on the bearing 1:

1
=

2

2.18.4 CRITICAL REVIEW
The efficiency of the pump need to be consider. We assumed a value of 85% but its not
necessarily a right value. To overcome this assumption, we applied a bigger safety factor to
make sure the torque is large enough to supply lubrication to the system.

ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
156 | P a g e

3 FUTURE WORK
In this report we emphasize on the main components of the engine. Other components are to
be added for the final report for a more complete design. These components are the housing
and the throttle cable. If the time constraint allows it, we will performed other analysis to
improve our current design.

4 REFERENCES
(1) PULKRABEK, Willard W. (2003), Engineering Fundamentals of the Internal Combustion
Engine, 2
nd
edition, Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, University of Wisconsin
(2) KAMLESH PUROHIT, C. S. SHARMA (2005), Design of Machine Elements, Eastern Edition,
Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi
(3) BERGMAN, Theodore L. and LAVINE, Adrienne S, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass
Transfer, 7
th
edition, John Wiley & Sons
(4) SARIS, Phillip (2006), Dynamic Analysis of the Internal Combustion Engine, Seas
University, Penn Engineering, and Accessed 10/23/2014,
http://www.seas.upenn.edu/~cse400/CSE400_2005_2006/PhillipsSaris/ProjectIII.pdf
(5) KAUL, Sudhir and KANAKASABAI, Pugazhendhi (2013), KINEMATIC AND DYNAMIC
ANALYSIS OF V-TWIN POWERTRAINS: DESIGN TRADE-OFFS, University of Mount Union,
and Accessed 10/23/2014,
http://proceedings.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=1831008
(6) SHARMA, Dr. Pushpendra Kumar, Design, Analysis and Optimization of Three Aluminum
Piston Alloys Using FEA, NRI Institute of Science and Tech, Bhopal, Accessed on
10/23/2014, http://www.ijera.com/papers/Vol4_issue1/Version%203/P410394102.pdf
(7) BUDYNAS, Richard G. and NISBETT, J. Keith (2011). Shigleys Mechanical Engineering
Design, 9
th
edition, New York, McGraw-Hill Companies
(8) PULKRABEK, Willard W. Engineering Fundamentals of the Internal Combustion Engine,
Wisconsin, Prentice Hall, Section 7 Combustion.
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
157 | P a g e

(9) HUSAIN, Syed Mujahid. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Robotics
Research: Design and Analysis of Rocker Arm, India, Editor Ijmerr.
(10) BAMSEY, Ian. October 2014. Cylinder Head Porting, Wikipedia, 23/10/2014,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cylinder_head_porting
(11) GERTH, Joseph. July 2013. The difference between a spring rate and spring load rate,
Eaton, 23/10/2014, http://www.eatondetroitspring.com/spring-rate-vs-load-rate/
(12) RENGATH, Christoper. January 204. Valvetrain Geometry, Rack&Raff Engineering,
23/10/2014, http://www.pontiacpower.com/faqs4.htm
(13) ROTHBART, Harold A. (2004). Cam Design Handbook, New Jersey USA, McGRAW-HILL
(14) Gerotor Selection and Pump Design, version 1.1, Maine USA, Nichols Portland a division
of Parker Hannifin Corporation




ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
158 | P a g e

6 APPENDICES
6.1 Appendix A - Technical Tables and Charts
Table 15: Standard Belt Section

Table 16: Inside Circumference of Standard V Belts


ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
159 | P a g e

Table 17: Mechanical-Property Classes for Steel Bolts

Table 18: Dimensions of Hexagonal Nuts


ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
160 | P a g e

Table 19: Dimensions of Metric Plain Washers

Table 20: Preferred sized and Renard number


ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
161 | P a g e

Table 21: Diameters and Areas of pitch metric thread


Table 22: Length Conversion Dimensions


ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
162 | P a g e

Table 23: Horsepower Ratings for Standard V-Belts


Table 24: Angle of Contact Correction Factor (VV)


ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
163 | P a g e

Table 25: Belt-Length Correction Factor


Table 26: Suggested Service Factors

for V-Belt Drives




ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
164 | P a g e

Table 27: V-Belt Parameter


Table 28: Durability Parameter for Some V-Belt Sections



ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
165 | P a g e

Table 29: Typical Steel Mechanical Properties


ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
166 | P a g e

Table 30: International Tolerance Grades (Metric Series)

* - all values in mm.
Table 31: Dimensions and Load Ratings for Single-Row 02-Series Deep-Groove Ball Bearings

ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
167 | P a g e

Table 32: Fundamental Deviation for Shafts

*- all values in [mm]


ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
168 | P a g e

Table 33: List of Common Metal Densities
2
,
3

Material Density [kg/m
3
]
Steel, tool 7715
Wrought Iron 7750
Carbon Tool Steel 7820
Cold-Drawn 7830
Carbon Steel 7840
C1020 HR 7850
304 Stainless 8030
Brass, casting 8400
Nickel 8800



2
http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2004/KarenSutherland.shtml
3
http://www.simetric.co.uk/si_metals.htm
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
169 | P a g e

Table 34: Typical Clutch Materials and Friction Coefficient Values
Product Name Coefficient of Friction Max Pressure [MPa] Material Type
G95 0.25 - 0.45 120
Woven Yarn Friction
Material
G98 0.25 - 0.45 120
Woven Yarn Friction
Material
HDS57 0.25 - 0.42 120
Woven Yarn Friction
Material
VH-03 0.25 - 0.40 120
Woven Yarn Friction
Material
SF-001 0.50 68
Kevlar Friction Paper



ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
170 | P a g e

Table 35: Material selection for cam with a tool steel 60-62 RC
Material K
max
A B
1020 steel,
carburized, 0.045 in
min. depth, 5060
Rc
12 700 256 000 7.39 38.33
4150 steel, heat-
treated, 270300
BHN,
phosphate-coated
12 000 249 000 11.40 54.52
4150 steel, heat-
treated, 270300
BHN,
ash chromium-
plated
6 060 177 000 11.18 50.29
4150 steel, heat-
treated, 270300
BHN,
phosphate-coated
9 000 216 000 8.80 42.81
4340 steel,
induction-hardened
0.045 in. min. depth,
5058 Rc
13 000 259 000 14.15 66.22

ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
171 | P a g e


Figure 92 Plot of the dimensionless flow variable in function of the Sommerfeld number for different ratio

ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
172 | P a g e


Figure 93 Plot of the dimensionless film thickness with respect of the Sommerfeld number for different ratio

ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
173 | P a g e

6.2 Appendix B - Derivation of equations
6.2.1 DEVELOPMENT OF THE EQUATION OF MOTIONS OF THE CAMS AND
FOLLOWERS
By recalling the Figure 78, the four parabolic function can be defined with the boundary points.

The zeros of the parabolic function of exhaust for the first piston are at

4
and at
9
8
and the
vertex is at (
11
16
, ). With these boundary condition, we are able to find all parameters
parabolic coefficient for each cams. If we build the factorial form of the parabola, there is only
one constant that need to be found since
1
and
2
are the zeros of the function:

1
() = (
1
)(
2
) = (

4
) (
9
8
)
By substituting one point (the vertex) of the parabola, we can find the last parameter:

1
(
11
16
) = (
11
16

4
) (
11
16

9
8
) =
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
174 | P a g e

=
256
49
2

If we do the same with the other function, we get the equation of motion of all followers:

1
() =
256
49
2
(
7
8
) (
7
4
)

1
() =
256
49
2
(

4
) (
9
8
)

2
1
() =
256
49
2
( +

8
) (
3
4
) for the first part

2
2
() =
256
49
2
(
15
8
) (
11
4
) for the second part

2
1
() =
256
49
2
( +
3
4
) (

8
) for the first part

2
2
() =
256
49
2
(
5
4
) (
17
8
) for the second part
And by developing these equations, we can find the general form:

1
() =
256
49
2

2
+
96
7
8

1
() =
256
49
2

2
+
352
49

72
49

2
1
() =
256
49
2

2
+
160
49
+
24
49

2
2
() =
256
49
2

2
+
1184
49

1320
49

2
1
() =
256
49
2

160
49
+
24
49

2
2
() =
256
49
2

2
+
864
49

680
49

ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
175 | P a g e

With these equations of motion, we are able to determine the velocity and the acceleration of
each follower by taking the first and second derivative:

1
() =
512
49
2
+
96
7

1
() =
512
49
2

1
() =
512
49
2
+
352
49

1
() =
512
49
2

2
1
() =
512
49
2
+
160
49

2
1
() =
512
49
2

2
2
() =
512
49
2
+
1184
49

2
2
() =
512
49
2

2
1
() =
512
49
2

160
49

2
1
() =
512
49
2

2
1
() =
512
49
2
+
864
49

2
1
() =
512
49
2

For continuity of these functions, we can redefined them as follow:
Piston 1:
Intake follower
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
176 | P a g e

1
() = {
0

256
49
2

2
+
96
7
8
0

[0,
7
8
]
[
7
8
,
7
4
]
[
7
4
, 2]

1
() = {
0

512
49
2
+
96
7
0

[0,
7
8
]
[
7
8
,
7
4
]
[
7
4
, 2]

1
() = {
0

512
49
2
0

[0,
7
8
]
[
7
8
,
7
4
]
[
7
4
, 2]

Exhaust follower

1
() = {
0

256
49
2

2
+
352
49

72
49
0

[0,

4
]
[

4
,
9
8
]
[
9
8
, 2]

1
() = {
0

512
49
2
+
352
49
0

[0,

4
]
[

4
,
9
8
]
[
9
8
, 2]

1
() = {
0

512
49
2
0

[0,

4
]
[

4
,
9
8
]
[
9
8
, 2]

Piston 2:
Intake follower
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
177 | P a g e

2
() = {

256
49
2

2
+
160
49
+
24
49
0

256
49
2

2
+
1184
49

1320
49

[0,
3
4
]
[
3
4
,
15
8
]
[
15
8
, 2]

2
() = {

512
49
2
+
160
49
0

512
49
2
+
1184
49

[0,
3
4
]
[
3
4
,
15
8
]
[
15
8
, 2]

2
() = {

512
49
2
0

512
49
2

[0,
3
4
]
[
3
4
,
15
8
]
[
15
8
, 2]

Exhaust follower

2
() = {

256
49
2

160
49
+
24
49
0

256
49
2

2
+
864
49

680
49

[0,

8
]
[

8
,
5
4
]
[
5
4
, 2]

2
() = {

512
49
2

160
49
0

512
49
2
+
864
49

[0,

8
]
[

8
,
5
4
]
[
5
4
, 2]

2
() = {

512
49
2
0

512
49
2

[0,

8
]
[

8
,
5
4
]
[
5
4
, 2]

Since () and () are dimensionless, we could rewrite the above equation with the
angular velocity of the cam which gives us the final equations of motion:
Piston 1:
Intake follower
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
178 | P a g e

1
() = {
0

256
49
2

2
+
96
7
8
0

[0,
7
8
]
[
7
8
,
7
4
]
[
7
4
, 2]

1
() = {
0
(
512
49
2
+
96
7
)
0

[0,
7
8
]
[
7
8
,
7
4
]
[
7
4
, 2]

1
() = {
0

512
49
2
0

2

[0,
7
8
]
[
7
8
,
7
4
]
[
7
4
, 2]

Exhaust follower

1
() = {
0

256
49
2

2
+
352
49

72
49
0

[0,

4
]
[

4
,
9
8
]
[
9
8
, 2]

1
() = {
0
(
512
49
2
+
352
49
)
0

[0,

4
]
[

4
,
9
8
]
[
9
8
, 2]

1
() = {
0

512
49
2

2
0

[0,

4
]
[

4
,
9
8
]
[
9
8
, 2]

Piston 2:
Intake follower
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
179 | P a g e

2
() = {

256
49
2

2
+
160
49
+
24
49
0

256
49
2

2
+
1184
49

1320
49

[0,
3
4
]
[
3
4
,
15
8
]
[
15
8
, 2]

2
() = {
(
512
49
2
+
160
49
)
0
(
512
49
2
+
1184
49
)

[0,
3
4
]
[
3
4
,
15
8
]
[
15
8
, 2]

2
() = {

512
49
2

2
0

512
49
2

2

[0,
3
4
]
[
3
4
,
15
8
]
[
15
8
, 2]

Exhaust follower

2
() = {

256
49
2

160
49
+
24
49
0

256
49
2

2
+
864
49

680
49

[0,

8
]
[

8
,
5
4
]
[
5
4
, 2]

2
() = {
(
512
49
2

160
49
)
0
(
512
49
2
+
864
49
)

[0,

8
]
[

8
,
5
4
]
[
5
4
, 2]

2
() = {

512
49
2

2
0

512
49
2

2

[0,

8
]
[

8
,
5
4
]
[
5
4
, 2]



ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
180 | P a g e

6.3 Appendix C - Minutes and Agendas
6.3.1 WEEK 6
6.3.1.1 MCG4322A Group MA- Agenda for the Group Meeting

Date: Wednesday October 8, 2014 at 13:00
Location: CBY Computer Lab
Meeting Chair: Gabriel Mnard
Secretary: Samuel Nazair
Item Agenda Item Reference Responsibility Status
1 Approval of the Agenda - All Done
2 Where to start for the analysis. - All Done
3 Other business. - All Done

6.3.1.2 MCG4322A Group MA Minutes of the Group Meeting

File: GroupM2A_Week06_minutes.docx
Date: Wednesday October 8, 2014 at 13:00
Location: CBY B02
Meeting Chair: Gabriel Mnard
Secretary: Samuel Nazair

ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
181 | P a g e

Names Contact Present / Absent / Excused
Marc-Andr Chartrand marc_andre_777@hotmail.com Present
Xavier Dumas xduma099@gmail.com Present
Gabriel Mnard gmena081@uottawa.ca Present
Samuel Nazair samuelnaz2@gmail.com Present

1. Approval of the Agenda
1.1. The agenda was approved by everyone.

2. Where to start for the analysis.
2.1. The first thing we need to do is to find the formulas for deflections, inertia and
vibration. Since we dont know any dimension, we will plug our value later. We will do a
force analysis on the main components by hand the first time and rewrite them in a
MatLab program. This way we could change the values without redoing the analysis.
3. Other business.
3.1. The meeting was adjourned at 16:00
Mr. Samuel Nazair
Secretary
6.3.2 WEEK 7
6.3.2.1 MCG4322A Group MA Agenda for the Group Meeting

Date: Wednesday October 23, 2014 at 10:00
Location: CBY Computer Lab
Meeting Chair: Xavier Dumas
Secretary: Marc-Andr Chartrand
Item Agenda Item Reference Responsibility Status
Approval of the Agenda - All Done
Finishing up the Analysis report. - All Done
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
182 | P a g e

Other business. - All Done

6.3.2.2 MCG4322A Group MA Minutes of the Group Meeting

File: GroupM2A_Week07_minutes.docx
Date: Wednesday October 23, 2014 at 10:00
Location: CBY Computer Lab
Meeting Chair: Xavier Dumas
Secretary: Marc-Andr Chartrand
Names Contact Present / Absent / Excused
Marc-Andr Chartrand marc_andre_777@hotmail.com Present
Xavier Dumas xduma099@gmail.com Present
Gabriel Mnard gmena081@uottawa.ca Present
Samuel Nazair samuelnaz2@gmail.com Present

4. Approval of the Agenda
4.1. The agenda was approved by everyone.

5. Finishing up the Analysis report.
5.1. Make sure everyone finished their sections and put the report together.
5.2. A review of this report is needed for clarity and consistent format.
6. Other business.
6.1. The meeting was adjourned at 12:00
Mr. Marc-Andr Chartrand
Secretar
ICE Power Plant & Ancillaries Pomegranate
183 | P a g e

6.4 Appendix D - Gantt Chart