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PE 4210 WEIGHTED MUDS

Author: Kaique Dantas Silva


73558 3F
Abstract
Drilling fluids, also referred to as
drilling mud, are added to the wellbore
to facilitate the drilling process by
suspending cuttings, controlling
pressure, stabilizing exposed rock,
providing buoyancy, and cooling and
lubricating.
Introduction
During drilling, cuttings are created, but
they do not usually pose a problem until
drilling stops because a drill bit. When
it happens, and drilling fluids are not
used, the cuttings fill the hole again.
Drilling fluids are used as a tool to keep
this from happening.
Drilling fluids also help to control
pressure in a well by offsetting the
pressure of the hydrocarbons and the
rock formations. Weighing agents are
added to the drilling fluids to increase
its density and, therefore, its pressure
on the walls of the well. Another
important function of drilling fluids is
rock stabilization. Special additives are
used to ensure that the drilling fluid is
not absorbed by the rock formation in
the well and that the pores of the rock
formation are not clogged.

Procedure
1. Mix 500 cc of a 5% bentonite
mud. It means that it is mixed
25 g of bentonite into 475 ml of
water;
2. Measure the mud weight (mixed
in 1) using the mud balance;
3. Measure the shear stress at 300
and 600 RPM using a rotational
viscometer.
4. Calculate apparent viscosity
(

plastic viscosity

and
Bingham Yield point

;
5.



6. Report the 30 minute water loss
using the 7.5 min water loss;



7. Calculate the number of sacks
(100 lbs/sack) of APl barite (p =
4.2 gm/cc) needed to raise the
mud weight from the value
measured in step 2 above to that
required to control a bottom
hole pressure of 3000 psi at a
depth of 5000 feet. Use a 10%
safety factor. In addition,
calculate the volume of mud in
the system after the barite is
added if the initial mud volume
is 500 bbls;



8. Convert the number of sacks of
barite calculated in step 6 to the
number of grams of barite
needed for the 500 ml sample;
9. Add the amount of barite
calculated in step 7 to the 500
ml sample from step 1;
10. Repeat steps 2 and 3;
11. Measure 7.5 min water loss;
12. Repeat steps 4 and 5.
13. The mud in this well has been
used to control a high pressure
formation. The formation has
now been cased off and the
heavy mud is no longer needed.
Calculate how many barrels of
fresh water (p = 1.0 gm/cc) are
needed to reduce the mud
weight to 9.5 Ib/gal if there are
100 bbls currently in the system.
Also calculate the total volume
of the system after adding the
water;
14. Convert the volume of water
calculated in step 3 to the
volume needed for 200 ml of
mud and mix;
15. Measure the mud weight using
the mud balance.

Results

Table 1:



Table 1:Before adding barite
Reading Unit
Amount of
Bentonite
25 grams (g)
Mud density 8.6 ppg
300 RPM 11 degree()
600 RPM 16 degree()
Apparent
viscosity
11 cp
Plastic viscosity 5 cp
Yield point 6


7.5 min filtrate
loss
12 millimeter
(ml)
30 min filtrate
loss
24 millimeter
(ml)



Table 2: Barite Calculation
Calculated Unit
Mud density
required
12.7 ppg
Amount of
Barite
needed
0.0085 sacks
Mud
volume after
adding
barite (

)
0.0037 bbls
Amount of
barite to be
added to lab
sample
381 grams (g)




Table 3: After adding barite
Reading Unit
Mud density 13.5 ppg
300 RPM 33 degree()
600 RPM 48 degree()
Apparent
viscosity
15 cp
Plastic
viscosity
5 cp
Yield point 18


7.5 min
filtrate loss
11 millimeter
(ml)
30 min
filtrate loss
22 millimeter
(ml)


Table 4: Reducing density
Reading Unit
Initial
Mud
Density
12.7 ppg
Desired
Mud
Density
9.5 ppg
Amount of
water
required
273.5 bbls
Final mud
volume
373.5 bbls
Amount of
water to be
added to
lab sample
547 millimeters(ml)
Mud
Weight
9.5 ppg
Due to the addition of barite, the
apparent viscosity and yield point of the
sample increase and the water loss
decrease since that it helps to provide a
thicker mud cake.
Conclusions
The longer the well, the more drill pipe
is needed to drill the well. This amount
of drill pipe gets heavy, and the drilling
fluid adds buoyancy, reducing stress.
Additionally, drilling fluid helps to
reduce friction with the rock formation,
reducing heat.
References
1. Nygaard, R. 2014. Lab #4
Weighted Muds

2. Nygaard, R. 2014. Lab Report
Manual.