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# Physics Form 4

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Pusat Tuisyen Minda Inspirasi

Chapter 2 Forces and Motion

2.1 Analysing Linear Motion

Scalar Vector
has magnitude has magnitude and direction

Example:

Distance

ground or area covered from one place to
another place

the distance an object is from its original
position

Example:

Displacement

how far an object is from its original
position

has a positive or negative value

Example 1

Example 2
Fauziah travelled from KL to Kangar (507km). Then she went to Butterworth (138km). From
there she went back to KL (369km).

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Example 3
Adreen walked 3m due east and then 4m due north.

Example 5
Adreen walked 6m due west and then 8m due south.

Exercises

1. Gerald ran 20m west and then 50m west.

a. How far did Gerald run?

b. What was Geralds final displacement?

2. On his way to school, Kim cycled 5km due east and then 3km due south.

a. What is the total distance covered by Kim?

b. What is Kims final displacement?

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3. Satish jogs 100m north then turns and jogs 50m south before stopping.

a. What is the distance jogged by Satish?

b. What is his final displacement?

4. A car travels 200m due south from point A to B. Then it turns due west from B to C
(500m). From point C it travels 600m due south to point D. From point D to point E it
travels 300m due west.

a. What is the distance travelled by the car?

b. What is the displacement of the car at point C?

5. The diagram shows the path travelled by a car from P to S.

a. What is the distance of the car?

b. What is the magnitude of the displacement?

P Q
R S
5km
4km
2km
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Scalar Vector
has magnitude has magnitude and direction

Example:

Speed

distance travelled per unit time

rate of change of distance

average distance = total distance
total time

Example:

Velocity

rate of change of displacement

Example 1

Example 2
Fauziah travelled from KL to Kangar (507km) in 5.5 hours. Then she went to Butterworth
(138km) which took 2.5 hours. From there she went back to KL (369km) in 4.5 hours.

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Example 3
Adreen walked 3m due east and then 4m due north. It took her 25 seconds.

Example 5
Adreen walked 6m due west and then 8m due south all in 30 seconds.

Exercises

1. Gerald ran 20m west and then 50m west. He took 25 seconds.

a. What was Geralds average speed?

b. What was Geralds average velocity?

2. On his way to school, Kim cycled 5km due east and then 3km due south in half an hour.

a. What was Kims average speed?

b. What was Kims average velocity?

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3. Satish jogs 100m north then turns and jogs 50m south before stopping.

a. What is Satishs average speed?

b. What is Satishs average velocity?

4. A car travels 200m due south from point A to B. Then it turns due west from B to C
(500m). From point C it travels 600m due south to point D. From point D to point E it
travels 300m due west.

a. What is the cars average speed?

b. What is the cars average velocity?

5. The diagram shows the path travelled by a car from P to S.

a. What is the average speed of the car?

b. What is the average velocity of the car?

P Q
R S
5km
4km
2km
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6. A cow walked along a curved path from P to Q which is 70m away from P. Q lies to the
south-west of P. The distance travelled by the cow is 240m and the time taken is 160s.
Calculate the:

a. average speed
b. average velocity

of the cow moving from P to Q.

7. Jamil drives a car along the road from town P to town Q, which is 300 km away. The
journey takes 5 hours. Raven flies a helicopter due east from town P to Q for a distance
of 100 km in half an hour. What are their respective speeds and velocities?

8. A student was instructed by his teacher to run due north for a distance of 12 m before
moving east for another 16m. The time taken was 20 seconds. What was the students
average speed and average velocity?

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Acceleration
Acceleration is defined as the rate of change of velocity.

Acceleration, a = change in velocity = final velocity, v initial velocity, u
time taken time taken, t

Example 1
A rocket moving with a constant velocity of 2000 ms
-1
, increases the rate of combustion in the
combustion chamber to increase its velocity to 3000 ms
-1
in 5 seconds. What is the acceleration
of the rocket?

Example 2
The acceleration of the rocket in Example 1 is 200 ms
-1
. This means that its velocity increases
by 200 ms
-1
for every second.

Example 3
A trolley is released from rest and moves down an inclined plane. The trolley reaches a velocity
of 10 ms
-1
after 5 seconds. What is its acceleration?

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Example 4
Azmi cycles at a uniform speed of 20 ms
-1
. He then stops pedaling and finally he and his bicycle
come to a stop after 8 seconds. What is his average acceleration?

Example 5
A van accelerates uniformly from a velocity of 10 ms
-1
to 20 ms
-1
in 2.5 seconds. What is the
acceleration of the van?

Example 6
A car travelling at 24 ms
-1
slowed down when the traffic light turned red. After undergoing
uniform deceleration for 4 seconds, it stopped in front of the traffic light. Calculate the
acceleration of the car.

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2.2 Analysing Motion Graphs

Displacement-time Graphs

Example 1
The graph below shows Nurul traveling 50m along the pool, then resting and swimming back
towards the starting position. She finishes halfway along the pool.

For the first ______ seconds, Nurul swims 10 m for every 5 seconds in a positive direction.
Therefore, her velocity can be calculated by finding the _________ in the first ______ seconds.

Then from _____ seconds to _____ seconds, he position ____________ change. The graph is
_______________ here. She is _______________.

Finally from _____ seconds to _____ seconds, we see from the line that her displacement is
______________. She is _______________ back to the starting position.

Her velocity on the return lap is given by the ________ of the line.

The negative sign shows that she is going in a ____________ direction.

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Example 2
A car travels along a straight road heading north. The position of the car is shown below.

(a) Describe the general motion of the car.

(b) What is the displacement of the car after the first 10 seconds?

(c) What distance has the car travelled during the first 10 seconds?

(d) Calculate the velocity of the car between t=6 and t=14.

(e) Calculate the average velocity of the car during its 20 second trip.

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Example 3
Azlan cycled along a straight road. The graph that illustrates his motion is shown below.

(a) Calculate the velocity of Azlan from t=0 to t=5.

(b) Describe what happened to Azlan from t=10 to t=20.

(c) Calculate the displacement, s of Azlan when t=25.

(d) Where was Azlan at t=35?

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Example 4

The figure above shows the motion of Li Ching, running back and forth along a supermarket
aisle. Her velocity at each instant in time is shown by the straight line graph in the above figure.

For the first 4 seconds (0 seconds 4 seconds) the graph is a _______________ line. This
means her velocity is _______________. Her velocity is ________ ms
-1
. This means that her
acceleration is ________ because she does not change her velocity.

From 4 seconds to 6 seconds the line slopes ____________. She is still moving in a
__________ direction but at a slower rate.

Her velocity is _____________. We can calculate the rate of change of velocity by calculating
the _______________ between 4 seconds and 6 seconds.

From 6 seconds to 7 seconds, the line shows that Li Ching has come to a stop, as her velocity
is __________.

During the final 3 seconds, when the line is below the time axis, this means that her velocity has
become ___________. She is moving in a _____________ direction.

This means that from 0 seconds to 7 seconds, she was moving in a ______________ direction,
and from 7 seconds to 10 seconds in a ______________ direction.

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We can also determine Li Chings displacement from the velocity-time graph. We know that:

From the figure above, the area under the graph for the first 4 seconds gives the displacement
of Li Ching during this time, i.e.

Her displacement from 4 seconds to 6 seconds is:

Her displacement from 7 seconds to 10 seconds is:

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Example 5

The motion of a marble rolling on the floor is represented by the graph below.

(a) What is the marbles initial velocity at t=0?

(b) What is the marbles velocity t=2?

(c) What is happening to the marble between t=0 and t=4?

(d) Calculate the acceleration between t=0 and t=4.

(e) Find the acceleration from 4 seconds to 6 seconds.

(f) Calculate the displacement in the first 4 seconds

(g) Calculate the displacement between t=4 and t=9

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Example 6

The graph shows a cat running along a footpath.

(a) Describe the motion of the cat during the sections A F of the graph

(b) What is the cats velocity in the first 2 seconds?

(c) Calculate the cats acceleration between 2 seconds and 4 seconds

(d) Calculate the cats deceleration between 4 seconds and 7 seconds

(e) What is the cats velocity between 7 and 8 seconds?

(f) Calculate the cats acceleration between 8 seconds and 9 seconds

(g) What is the cats final velocity at t=10?

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(h) Calculate the displacement of the cat after
i. 2 seconds

ii. 7 seconds

iii. 10 seconds

(i) Plot a displacement time graph for the cats motion

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Example 6

The figure above shows the graph of velocity against time for the motion of an object.
(a) What is the initial velocity of the object?

(b) What is the acceleration of the object between
a. t=2s and t=4s

b. t4s and t=8s

c. t=8s and t=10s

(c) What is the total distance travelled by the object at time
a. t=0s to t=2s

b. t=2s to t=4s

c. t=4s to t=8s

d. t=8s to t=10s

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Analaysing motion using ticker tapes and ticker timer

The ticker timer vibrates at a frequency of 50 Hz
This means it makes ________ dots in ________ second

So, it makes _______ dot in _________ second

Case A

Case B

Case C

In cases A, B and C, we can see that the trolley in B travelled _______ than that trolley
in A and C because it covered a ___________ distance in 0.02 seconds
The trolley in case C travels a ___________ distance in 0.02 seconds. So it is the
____________

Case D

In case D, the distance between dots (1 tick) is becoming _______________
This means that the speed is _______________
Hence, the trolley is ______________
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Case E

In case E, the distance between dots (1 tick) is becoming _______________
This means that the speed is ________________
Hence the trolley is _________________

We can see that the ticker timer can be used to determine:

1. ________________ of a moving object
2. ________________ to move
3. ________________ of the object
4. ________________ of the object
5. The type of motion of the object

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2.3 Understanding Inertia

Newtons First Law of Motion

Newtons first law of motion states that:
1. An object which is __________ will always remain stationary
2. An object which is moving with a constant _____________ will continue moving
3. If an external ____________ acts on it, only then will it ___________ its motion
4. Unless acted upon by an external ___________, it will always ___________ its state.

This means that all objects possess a special property which makes them _____________
changes to their motion.

This is known as _____________.

The definition of inertia is:

Relationship between mass and inertia

Mass is the quantity of ____________ contained in an object

A bigger mass will result in a ____________ inertia

Hence,
The larger the mass of an object, the ___________ it is to move from rest
The larger the mass of an object, the ___________ it is for it to stop when it is moving
The larger the mass of an object, the ___________ it is for it to slow down or change
direction when it is moving
An object with a __________ mass possesses ___________ inertia

An object will remain _____________ or continue with a constant ____________

in a straight line unless acted upon by a ____________.
Inertia is a property of matter that
causes it to ___________ any change
to its ____________
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2.4 Analysing Momentum

1. Any moving object exerts a force which is called ________________.

2. Momentum is defined as ______________________.

3. An object has momentum because it has ____________ and is ______________.

4. If an object isnt moving its momentum is _______.

5. If mass _____________________, momentum ____________________.

6. If velocity ______________________, momentum ____________________.

Example 1
The total mass of a lorry is 20000kg and the total mass of a car is 2000kg. If both the lorry
and the car are traveling at a velocity of 25ms
-1
, calculate the momentum of the lorry and the
car respectively.

Example 2
While trying to score a goal, a footballer collided with the goal post and stopped. The
footballer has a mass of 80kg and was travelling at 8.2ms
-1
at the time of collision. What is
the momentum of the footballer before and after he collided with the goal post?

Example 3
Pavithra and Michelle are having a race. Pavithra, whose mass is 45kg, is running at
3.5ms
-1
. Michelle has a mass of 60kg and runs at a speed of 2.5ms
-1
. Which girl has a
greater amount of momentum?

Example 4
A ball of mass 0.8kg strikes a wall at a velocity of 10ms
-1
and rebounds at 6ms
-1
. What is its
momentum
(a) before it strikes the wall, and
(b) after the rebound?

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Principle of conservation of momentum

Momentum is _____________ and hence can be transferred from one object to another.

This happens only when two objects come into ___________ with each other. This event is
called a __________________.

Collision
Elastic collision Inelastic collision Explosion
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Example 5
A 3kg object moves at a velocity of 10ms
-1
and hits a 6kg object which moves in the opposite
direction at 2ms
-1
. If the second object rebounds at 6ms
-1
, what is the velocity of the first object?

Example 6
A 100g bullet is shot from a 1kg gun. If the bullet is travelling at 150ms
-1
after being shot, what is
the jerk of the gun?

Example 7
A trolley of mass 4kg moves at 3ms
-1
and collides with a trolley of mass 2kg which is moving in
the opposite direction at 1ms
-1
. After the collision, both trolleys move together with a the same
velocity. What is the velocity?

Example 8
A taxi of mass 2000kg, travelling at 20ms
-1
collides head-on with another car of mass 1500kg,
travelling at 15ms
-1
in the opposite direction. The car moves together after collision. Find
(a) their common velocity just after the collision
(b) the change in momentum of each car.
(c) should the changes in momentum of the cars have the same magnitude?

Example 9
A railway truck travelling at 10ms
-1
collides with a stationary truck of 3 times and is automatically
locked to it. At what velocity do the two trucks begin to move off after the impact?

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Example 10
In the rear-end collision on a highway, a car of mass 1.0x10
3
kg travelling east at 20ms
-1

crashes into the back of a bus of mass 5.0x10
3
-1
. If the car and the
bus lock together on impact, and if friction is ignored, calculate:
(a) the final common velocity of the vehicles
(b) the change in momentum experienced by the car
(c) the change in momentum experienced by the bus

Example 11
A white billiard ball of mass 100g travelling at 2ms
-1
across a low-friction billiard table has a
head-on collision with a black ball of the same mass initially at rest. The while ball stops while
the black ball moves off. What is the velocity of the black ball?

Example 12
A man of mass 70kg steps forward out of a boat and onto the nearby river bank with a velocity
of 2.5ms
-1
relative to the ground. The boat has mass of 400kg and was initially at rest. With what
velocity relative to the ground does the boat begin to move?

Example 13
A space shuttle of mass 10000kg, initially at rest, burns 5kg of fuel and oxygen in its rockets to
produce exhaust gases ejected at a velocity of 6000ms
-1
. Calculate the velocity that this
exchange will give to the space shuttle.

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2.5 Understanding the effects of a force

1. Force is an action that will _____________ the state of motion of a body.

2. The symbol for force is ____ and its SI unit is ______.

3. A force is a __________ quantity because it has ___________ and ____________.

4. A force will change the body or object in terms of:

a. _________________

b. _________________

c. ___________ of motion

d. ___________ of motion

e. ___________

According to Newtons First Law of Motion, an object will either remain __________________ or
will continue ______________ in the same direction unless a ___________ acts upon it.

If an object is at rest, this doesnt mean that no force is acting on it.

1. _________________ force acts on an object, pulling it _________________.

2. _________________ force acts on a moving object, causing it to ________________.

3. When you sit down on a chair, the downward motion is _____________________ by the
upwards force given by the chair. Hence, you remain ________________.

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Balanced forces
1. When all the forces acting on a object are ______________, they __________ each
other out.

2. Hence the net force, or the ______________ force is ________.

3. The object behaves as if theres _______ force acting on it.

4. Balanced forces do not change the ___________ of the object. If the object is
_________ it will remain __________. If the object is in a state of __________ it will
continue ____________.

5. For example:

Unbalanced forces
1. When the forces acting on an object are not balanced, there will be a ___________
acting on it.
2. This is called a ________________ force.
Forces acting on an object Resultant force

A stationary car A moving car
A balanced gymnast An aeroplane flying
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Newtons Second Law of Motion

Force is directly proportional to mass and acceleration

F = ma

Example 1
A moving object has mass 5kg and an acceleration of 5ms
-2
. What is the force exerted by the
moving object?

Example 2
What force is needed so that an object with a mass of 3kg has an acceleration of 2ms
-1
?

Example 3
A worker pulls a block of ice on a smooth surface with a force, F. the ice has mass 80kg.
(a) If the force, F= 160N, calculate the acceleration of the ice.
(b) If the velocity of the ice changes from 0 to 8ms
-1
in 5s, calculate the force, F.

Example 4
A hawker pushes a tank of water with a horizontal force of 45N. The total weight of the trolley
and water tank is equal to 900N. Calculate:
(a) The total frictional force if the hawker moves with a uniform velocity of 5ms
-1

(b) The acceleration of the hawker if the total frictional force is equal to 30N.

Example 5
Zamhari pushes a heavy cupboard with a force of 200N, but the cupboard does not move. Find
the frictional force acting on the cupboard.

Example 6
Linda pushes a book on a table with a force of 5N. The book moves with a uniform velocity of
2ms
-1
. Find the frictional force acting on the book.

Example 7
A small rocket of mass 300kg takes off with an acceleration of 16.667ms
-1
.
(a) Find the upwards force exerted by the rocket.
(b) If the downwards force acting on the rocket is 3000N, what is the resultant force exerted by
the rocket?
(c) Hence, what is the acceleration of the rocket with the resultant force in (b)?

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Example 8
John pushes a 12kg carton with a force of 50N. If the carton moves with an acceleration of
2ms
-1
, what is the frictional force acting on the carton?

Example 9
During a tennis serve, a 57g tennis ball accelerated from rest to 30ms
-1
in 7.0ms
-1
. Determine
the size of the average net force acting on the ball.

Example 10
What is the average force required of the brakes in a 1200kg car in order for it to come to rest
from 60km/h in a distance of 150m?

Example 11
When travelling at 100km/h a car has to overcome a drag force due to air resistance of 800N. if
the car has a mass of 900kg, determine the average force that the motor needs to apply if it is to
accelerate at 2.0ms
-1
.

Example 12
A shopper pushes a trolley with a force of 20N. The trolley with a mass of 5kg, moves at a
uniform velocity of 1ms
-1
. He then increases his force to accelerate the trolley. What force
should he apply in order to give the trolley an acceleration of 2ms
-2
.

Example 13
Mr Brown whose mass is 70kg, performs as a human cannonball at a circus. He is propelled
from a 6m long cannon. He is in the barrel of the cannon for 0.9s. Find the average net force
exerted on him.

Example 14
Two forces F
1
and F
2
act on a wooden block which is placed on a table. The friction between the
table and the block is 3N. Which pair of forces F
1
and F
2
will accelerate the block?
F
1
(N) F
2
(N)
A 4 7
B 8 5
C 6 4
D 9 5

Example 15
A car of mass 1200kg is moving at an acceleration of 2ms
-2
. If the frictional force acting on the
car is 750N, find its engine thrust.

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2.6 Analysing impulse and impulsive force

Example 1

The figure above shows the conditions before and after the collision of two objects. Determine:
(a) The velocity, v

(b) The impulse of the collision for the object with mass, m
1

(c) The impulse of the collision for the object with mass, m
2

(d) The impulsive force if the time of collision is 2 seconds

Example 2

A ball of sticky material of mass 500g is thrown horizontally at a wall. It is travelling at 15ms
-1
as
it hits the wall and rebounds at 3ms
-1
. The contact with the wall lasts for 20ms. Calculate:
(a) The change in momentum of the sticky material

(b) The net impulse that acts on the sticky material as it rebounds

(c) The average force that the wall exerts on the sticky material

(d) The average force that the sticky material exerts on the wall

Impulse, = Change in momentum
Ft = mv mu

Impulse , F = mv mu
Force t

Impulse is defined as _______________ Impulsive force is defined as ______________
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Example 3
A rubber ball of mass 80g bounces vertically on a concrete floor. The ball strikes the floor at
10ms
-1
and rebounds at 8.0ms
-1
.

(a) What is the change in speed of the ball as it bounces?

(b) What is the change in velocity of the ball as it bounces?

(c) What is the change in momentum of this ball during its bounce?

(d) Calculate the impulse acting on the ball during its balance.

(e) The time of contact between the ball and the floor during the bounce was 0.05s.
Calculate:
a. The average net force acting on the ball during its contact with the floor

b. The average force that the ball exerts on the floor

Example 4

A boy hits a 0.50kg ball and sends it moving in the opposite direction. The time of contact
between the hand and the ball is 0.05s. Calculate:
(a) The impulse applied to the ball

(b) The impulsive force exerted on the ball by the hands

Example 5

A boy kicks a football and a rock.
(a) When the boy kicks the 1.2kg football, it moves from rest to 15ms
-1
in 0.1s. Calculate the
impulsive force exerted on the ball.

(b) The boy then kicks a rock of the same mass and it moves from rest to 15ms
-1
. However,
due to the rigidity of the rock, the time which the foot acts on the stone is only 0.01s.
What is the impulsive force exerted on the ball?

(c) From the answers in (a) and in (b) what is the relationship between the time of impact
and the impulsive force
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2.8 Understanding Gravity

1. ___________ discovered that all objects attract other objects with a _______________.

2. This force is so _______ that we dont feel it between us and other objects.

3. The size of the force is only noticeable when one of the objects is very _________.

4. Also, it is noticeable when the distance between the ________ object and _______
object is _______.

5. An example would be the gravitational force between us and the _______.

6. The gravitational force, g exerted by the Earth on us is _____ Nkg
-1
.

7. This means that all objects move towards the centre of the Earth at an acceleration of
_____ ms
-2
. This is also called ________________.

Example 1

A construction worker accidentally knocks a
brick from a building so that it falls vertically
a distance of 50m to the ground. Using g
=9.8ms
-1
, calculate:
(a) The time the brick takes to fall to the
first 25m

(b) The time the brick takes to reach the
ground

(c) The speed of the brick as it hits the
ground

Example 2

A ball is thrown vertically upwards with an
initial velocity of 20ms
-1
. Calculate:
(a) The maximum height of the ball

(b) The total time the ball is in the air,
(take g = 10ms
-2
)

(c) The time to reach a height of 15m

(d) The velocity when the ball is at a
height of 15m

Example 3

A stone is thrown vertically upwards with a
velocity of 30ms
-2
. Calculate:
(a) The time taken for it to reach the
maximum height

(b) The time taken for the ball to reach a
height of 40m from the ground.

Example 4

A stone is thrown from the top of a well. The
stone takes 5s to reach the surface of the
water. Calculate:
(a) The speed of the stone when it
reaches the surface of the water

(b) The depth of the well, h

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2.9 Analysing Forces in Equilibrium

1. Newtons First Law of Motion states that a body will remain ______ or move with
_________ velocity when a net force of _______ acts on it.

2. When the net force is _____, the forces are said to be _______. In other words,
the forces are in ______________.

Example 1
When a book is ________ on a table, the only force acting on it is ________.

There must be another force ( ______ in magnitude and _______ in direction )
acting to balance the _______. This upwards force is provided by the table and is
called the _________.

Example 2
A painting which is hanging on the wall has its _______ acting downwards and is
balanced by the _________ of its strings.

Example 3
A worker is pushing a trolley with uniform velocity. The _________ force is
balanced by the _________ force which acts in the __________ direction.

Hence, the resultant force is ______.

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Example 4
An aeroplane flies with uniform velocity. There are 4 forces acting on the
aeroplane: ________, ________, ________, and ________.

The ________ is balanced by the _________. The ________ is balanced by the
___________.

Newtons Third Law of Motion

For any action, there is a __________, which has the
same _________ but opposite _________

Example 1

In a lift:
(a) When the lift is stationary:

(b) When the lift is moving up:

(c) When the lift is moving down:

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Example 2
A cat of mass 7.0kg rests on a weighing machine in a lift. What is the weight of the cat
when the life:
(a) moves upwards with an acceleration of 2.0ms
-1
?

(b) moves downwards with an acceleration of 3.0ms
-1
?

(c) moves downwards with constant velocity?
( take g = 10ms
-1
)

Example 3
A weight with a mass of 10kg is pulled with a string passing over a pulley
What is the force, T, required if the object
(a) moves upwards with an acceleration of 2ms
-2
?

(b) moves upwards with an acceleration of 3ms
-2
?

Example 4
A block with mass of 4kg is tied with a string to a 6kg weight. The string passes over a
pulley as shown above. When the 6kg weight is released, calculate:
(a) the tension in the string

(b) the acceleration of the system

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Example 5
A worker of mass 50kg stands on a weighing machine to pull a weight over a smooth
pulley. The weight has a mass of 20kg.

(a) What is the reading of the weighing machine when the weight is stationary?

(b) What is the reading of the weighing machine when the weight moves upwards
with a uniform acceleration of 4ms
-1
?

(c) If the machine records a reading of 450N, what is the
a. acceleration of the weight?

b. the direction of movement of the weight?

(d) The weight is at rest at a height of 2m from the floor. If the worker releases the
string, what is:
a. the velocity of the weight when it reaches the floor?

b. the impulse of the weight when it falls?

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Resultant forces

Resultant force = Sum of all the individual forces acting on a body

Resultant force = F
1
+ F
2
+ + F
n

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Resolution of Forces

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Work & Energy

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2.12 Understanding Elasticity

Attractive forces Repulsive forces

1. Elasticity is defined as the ability of an object to __________ to its original shape when
the _________ force or __________ force is no longer acting on it.

2. Due to the presence of ___________ between particles, when two particles are
__________ apart, they will try to _______ back.

3. When two particles are ____________, the two particles will ______ back due to the
__________ forces between them.

4. Both these forces enable a solid substance to exhibit _________ properties.

Hookes Law

1. Hookes Law states that the ____________ of a spring is proportional to the
__________ applied on it.

2. The equation relating the extension and the force applied is:

3. k is known as the ________ constant. It is the _______ required per unit __________.

4. k can be determined from the ___________ of the graph.

5. It is seen from here that for every spring there is a different ___________.

6. This is because every spring has its own ____________.