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Recovery of Nutrients through Vermicomposting of Fly Ash 5
Naresh Dhillon & Surinder Deswal
Economic Viability of Water Supply Project in a poor Economy 11
Pijush Kanti Som & Subhas Chandra Dutta Gupta
Hexavalent Chromium in Ground Water of Unnao
Industrial Area, UP (India) and its Removal through
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Supriya Singh, Alka Tripathi & Amrita Srivastava
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Noise Environment in Cardiac Hospital A Case Study 37
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3 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
he theme for this year s celebration of World Environment Day is Raise
your Voice, not the sea level.
The UN General Assembly declared 2014 as the International Year of Small Island
Developing States. As such, World Environment Day this year will adopt Small Islands
Developing States in the broader context of climate change as its theme. The worlds
small island nations, dotting across the world from Pacific to South China sea, and
from Caribbean to the Indian ocean, are collectively home to more than 63 million people.
They play an important role in protecting the oceans and many are biodiversity hotspots,
containing some of the richest reservoirs of plants and animals on the planet. But the
challenges these small states face are many. Climate change is foremost among these
challenges, as global warming is causing ocean levels to rise. According to the
Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change (IPCC), global sea levels are rising at an
increased rate which is projected to be even greater this century.
When global temperature warms, seawater expands and occupies more space. Sea levels
rise when ice melts as well. Coastal communities in every country are then threatened
with floods and storm surges. To these, small islands are the most exposed. As a result
many of these islands inhabited areas and cultural sites are potentially in danger of
being lost to sea-level rise.
Sea level rise is attributable to global warming. If we look at the average figures of
warming of seawater during the last century and compare the same with the figures of
last 20 years, we shall observe that there is steady warming of ocean water, increasing
from 0.22
o
C above the long term average in 1992 to nearly 0.5
o
C above in 2010.
Globally, sea level has been rising at an average rate of about 2.5 mm per year between
1992 and 2010.
Small Island Developing States have themselves contributed little to climate change.
Their combined annual output of greenhouse gases is less than one per cent of total
global emissions, but their position on the front lines has projected many to the fore in
negotiations for a Universal New Legal Climate Agreement in 2015. In fact, small island
nations share a common understanding that we need to set out planet on a sustainable
path.
Therefore, in response to the cell voiced by UN, Secretary General, let us think about
the plight of Small Island Developing States and take inspiration from their efforts to
address climate change, work for a sustainable future and raise our voice against sea
level rise. After all, it is our responsibility to care and protect the planet earth, which
in our shared island.
As regards this issue of the journal, it contains seven assorted articles in addition to
regular features like Our Members, IPHE News etc.
The complete list of the members of IPHE Council of 2014-2016 appears in the issue.
May I once again request our learned readers to offer their valuable suggestion for
improving the various features of the journal?
Editor, JIPHE
EDITORIAL
T
Authors are requested to go through the following
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JOURNAL OF THE INSTITUTION OF PUBLIC HEALTH ENGINEERS, INDIA
Guidelines For Authors
Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014 4
5 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
Recovery of Nutrients through
Vermicomposting of Fly Ash
Naresh Dhillon
M. Tech. (Environmental Engineering), Civil Engineering
Department, National Institute of Technology,
Kurukshetra-136119. E-mail : dhillonnaresh@gmail.com
Surinder Deswal
Professor, Civil Engineering Department, National
Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra-136119.
E-mail : deswal.leo@gmail.com
Abstract
The aim of this study was to recover the
nutrients of fly ash through co-composting of cow
dung and fly ash. Four combination of fly ash (FA)
and cow dung (CD) in different proportions namely
C1 - CD alone, C2 - FA+CD (1:1), C3 - FA+CD (1:2),
C4 - FA+CD (2:1) were incubated in laboratory with
Sp. Eudrilus eugeniae earthworm for 60 days. The
combinations were analyzed after every 15 days for
parameters namely, pH, electrical conductivity,
total nitrogen, total organic carbon, total
phosphorus and total potassium. Among all the
above parameters, pH, electrical conductivity and
total organic carbon were observed to be decreased
during the incubation in all combinations; whereas,
total nitrogen, total phosphorus and total potassium
were observed to be increased. The nutrient
availability was found to be significantly higher in
C3 - FA+CD (1:2) amongst all the four combinations
used in the study.
Key words: vermicomposting, fly ash, cow
dung, nutrient.
1. INTRODUCTION
In last few decades, various alternate energy
sources have come into limelight but coal is still
the prime energy source in developing countries
like China and India. Disposal of high amount of
fly-ash from thermal power plants absorbs huge
amount of water, energy and land area by ash
ponds. In order to meet the growing energy demand,
various environmental, economic and social
problems associated with the disposal of fly-ash
would continue to increase. Therefore, fly-ash
management would remain a great concern of the
century in developing countries.
Presently, there are about one hundred
thermal power plants functioning in India and a
large quantity of fly ash is being generated from
these thermal power plants as by-product. A total
of 131.09 million ton of fly ash was generated during
the year 2011-12 in India; out of which, 73.13
million ton (55.79%) of fly ash was utilized for
various purposes and the rest 57.96 million ton
(44. 31%) was disposed-off unutilized
(1)
. The
Ministry of Power, Government of India estimates
1,800 million ton of coal use every year and 600
million ton of fly ash generation by 2031-2032
(2)
.
The fly ash may undergo some changes in its
physico-chemical properties during its disposal
process. The physico-chemical properties of fly ash
may also get affected by the prevailing weather
conditions. A considerable amount of fly ash also
escapes to atmosphere and causes damage to
animal, plants and human life
(3)
.
Utilization of fly ash for various purposes has
been successfully applied in many advanced
European countries. Utilization of fly ash as an
important building material has been widely
accepted all around the world. It is also utilized in
manufacturing of insulating and semi-insulating
bricks, ceramic wears, extraction of rare elements
and metals like gallium, aluminum, titanium, etc.
(4)
.
Beside these, fly ash can also be used in the
development of low lying land areas
(5)
.
The composition of fly ash varies with the
composition of coal and combustion method
involved. Although it is difficult to generalize about
the composition of fly ash and their behavior in the
environment, but certain characteristics can be
used in agriculture. Coal residues, applied directly
on cropland, are not practical sources of essential
plant nutrients N, P and K for long time; however,
fly-ash has great potential in agriculture due to its
efficiency in modification of soil health and crop
performance
(6)
. The high concentration of elements
in fly-ash has been reported to increases the yield
of many agricultural crops
(7)
. Yet compared to other
sectors, the use of fly-ash in agriculture sector is
limited. The end product of vermicomposting in
which organic substance is added and which is
processed after earthworms gut is reported to be a
potential source of N, P and K
(8)
. Earthworms
improve the physical, chemical and biological
properties of the organic substances to enhance its
fertility. The presence of earthworms also reduces
salinity and also neutralizes pH
(9)
.
The cultivation of earthworms in organic
wastes has been termed as vermi cul ture .
Vermicomposting, the managed processing of
organi c wastes by earth-worms to produce
vermicompost, has progressed considerably in
recent years. Vermicomposting has been shown to
be successful for processing sewage sludge and
solids from wastewater
(10-12)
, paper industry
waste
(11,14-15)
, urban residues, food and animal waste
*Corresponding Author
6 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
Naresh Dhillion & Surinder Deswal
(16-18)
, horticultural residues from plants
(12,19)
and
food industry waste
(20-21)
. Co-composting of sewage
sludge and coal fly ash has also been an effective
way to transform the fly ash into nutrient rich
product
(22)
.
The pri mary obj ecti ve of the study i s
vermicomposting being used for co-composting of
cow dung (CD) and fly ash (FA) in different
proportions to obtain optimum nutrient recovery
from fly ash; and, in turn, the secondary purpose
will also be solved for mass reduction through
utilization of fly ash.
2. MATERIALS AND METHOD
2.1. Fly ash, cow dung and earthworms
Fly ash (FA) used in the present study was
obtained from the 1,360 MW thermal power plant
located at Panipat, Haryana, India. Cow dung (CD)
was obtained from local cowshed during the kharif
season. Earthworms (Sp. Eudrilus eugeniae) were
collected from the vermicomposting unit of
Gurukul, Kurukshetra, Haryana, India. Weight of
each earthworm was in the range of 1.0-1.5 g.
2.2. Experiment setup
Plastic circular container of appropriate size
(36 cm upper dia., 18 cm lower dia.,11 cm depth)
were used for vermicomposting experiments, as
shown in Fig. 1. Cow dung used in experiment was
kept for 15 days prior to experimentation for
thermal stabilization and air dried at room
temperature and then passed through 4.75 mm size
sieve to discard the large size particles. The study
was performed in laboratory with four different
combinations of fly ash and cow dung, by varying
the ratio on dry weight basis, as indicted in Table
1.
A total weight of 2 kg material in each
container was taken for an experimental set. Each
of the combination was treated with 16 gm of E.
eugeni ae (8 gm/ kg). Water was spri nkl ed
periodically to maintain moist condition (70-85%
moisture) during experimentation.
2.3. Chemical analysis
The materials for each combination were
incubated at a room temperature in the range of
22-26
o
C for 60 days. Sampl es were drawn
periodically at 15 days interval from each incubated
material and were analyzed for pH, electrical
conductivity (EC), total organic carbon (TOC), total
nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and total
potassi um (TK). Determi nati ons of these
parameters were carried out by using the following
procedure: pH and electrical conductivity by using
Benchop pH/ ion/ conductivity meter (5 star,
ORION), total organic carbon by Walkely and Black
titration method, total phosphorus and total
nitrogen by using UV-visible spectrometer and total
potassium by Digital flame photometer.
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The initial physico-chemical analysis of fly ash
and cow dung used in the experiments is presented
in Table 2.
Fig. 1 Experiment setup
Table 1. The experimental set up ratio of fly
ash (FA) and cow dung (CD).
Experimental Combination Ratio (dry basis)
Set FA : CD
C1 CD only -
C2 FA+CD 1 : 1
C3 FA+CD 1 : 2
C4 FA+CD 2 : 1
Table 2. Physico-chemical analysis of fly ash
(FA) and cow dung (CD).
Parameter FA CD
pH 8.83 7.77
EC (dSm
-1
) 0.7 1.25
TN (g.kg
-1
) 1.5 6.5
TOC(g.kg
-1
) 6.0 10.5
TP (g.kg
-1
) 0.9 3.6
TK (g.kg
-1
) 11.1 8.9
The changes in pH, electrical conductivity,
total organi c carbon, total ni trogen, total
phosphorus and total potassium in different
combination of fly ash and cow dung measured at
7 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
Naresh Dhillion & Surinder Deswal
intervals of 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days are plotted in
figures 2 to 7.
The plot in Fig. 2 indicates that pH in all
combinations has gradually decreased with passage
of time and is lower relative to their initial values,
except C2 at15 days. The shift in pH during process
of vermicomposting could be due to microbial
decomposition. The production of CO
2
and organic
acids by microbial decomposition during the process
of vermicomposting had resulted in the lowering
down of pH
(15)
. After 60 days, combination C1 has
shown maximum decline (5.1%) followed by C3
(1.3%).
combi ned acti on of earthworms and
microorganisms may be responsible for TOC loss
from the organic wastes in the form of CO
2
(25)
.
Maximum TOC reduction has been observed in C1
(32%) followed by C4 (26%), C3 (23%) and C2 (16%).
Fig. 2. Effect of vermicomposting on
substrate pH.
The EC value has decreased in range of 25.5 -
42.4% for different combinations after 60 days.
However, the variation has been insignificant
amongst the three combinations in which fly ash
was used, as can be observed from Fig. 3. Maximum
EC value decreased in C1 (42.4%) followed by C2
(39.2%), C3 (26.8%) and C4 (25.5%) after 60 days.
The volatilization of ammonia and the precipitation
of minerals salt could be the possible reason for the
decrease in EC at later phase of composting
(24)
.
Though the EC values have generally shown a
declining trend over the period in all combinations;
however, it has increased for C3 at 15 days, and
C3 and C4 at 30 days in comparison to its preceding
values (Fig. 3). This increase in EC may be due to
loss of organic matter and release of different
mineral salts in available forms (i.e. phosphate,
ammonium, potassium, etc.) during vermicom-
posting
(23)
.
Total organic carbon (TOC) content decreased
in all combinations. The reduction of TOC had been
sharp initially (during 15 to 30 days) followed by
gradual reduction in the later phase, as shown in
Fig. 4. Earthworms and microorganisms bring
about decomposition of organic matter and in turn
uses large portion of carbon as sources of energy
and nitrogen for building cell structure
(26)
. The
Fig. 3. Effect of vermicomposting on
substrate EC.
Fig. 4. Effect of vermicomposting on
substrate TOC.
Total ni trogen (TN) was found to be
significantly higher in the end product than initial
substrate material for all combinations, as shown
in Fig. 5. The maximum TN increase was observed
in C2 (4.8 fold) followed by C3 (4.8 fold), C4 (4 fold),
and C1 (2 fold). Though a slight decrease in TN has
been observed in C2 and C4 at 60 days, but
otherwise there has been gradual increase in TN
over the period in all combinations. The increase
in TN value is as result of carbon loss and probably
because of mineralization of organic matter
(11)
. In
addition to releasing nitrogen from compost
material, earthworms also enhance nitrogen levels
by adding their excretory products, mucus, body
fluid, enzymes, etc. to the substrate. Further,
decayi ng ti ssues of dead worms al so add a
significant amount of N to vermicomposting sub-
system.
Total phosphate (TP) increased in all combi-
nations, where maximum gain was observed during
8 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
Naresh Dhillion & Surinder Deswal
Fig. 5. Effect of vermicomposting on
substrate TN.
30 to 45 days, as shown in Fig. 6. Maximum gain
in TP was observed in C4 (5.4 fold) followed by C2
(4.7 fold), C3 (3.3 fold) and C1 (3 fold). The increase
in phosphorus during vermicomposting is probably
through mineralization and mobilization of
phosphorus by bacterial and phosphates activity of
earthworms
(27)
.
Fig. 6. Effect of vermicomposting on
substrate TP.
Total potassium (TK) increased gradually in
the initial phase and rapidly in the middle phase,
and then decreased during the last phase (45 to 60
days), as shown in Fig. 7. The maximum increment
was observed in C1 (1.8 fold) followed by C4 (1.5
fold), C3 (1.5 fold) and C2 (1.3 fold) at the end of 60
days. The increase in K of the vermicompost is
probabl y due to producti on of aci ds by
microorganisms and the increased number of micro
flora in the gut of earthworms, i.e. increased
enzymatic activity in earthworms gut
(28-29)
.
4. CONCLUSION
In the present study, the vermicomposting of
fly ash (FA) and cow dung (CD) had resulted in the
conversion of waste into value added product, i.e.,
vermicompost. The maximum nutrients increased
Fig. 7. Effect of vermicomposting on
substrate TK.
during the period 30 to 45 days of incubation; and
after 45 days, nutrients either decreased or
increased in small amount. The combination C3 -
FA+CD (1:2) solved the purpose of study through
utilization and maximum nutrients recovery from
fly ash which observed significantly good; however,
maximum TN, TP and TOC were observed in C1
but this combination contains CD only. The study
provides a platform to utilize the fly ash on large
scale.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Avai l abl e at: http: / / www. fl yash2012.
missionenergy.org [accessed 06.12.13].
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Neuhauser (Eds), SPB, Acad. Pub. B.v. The
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7. Chakravarthi M and Bhat V (2007) Utility
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8. Mitra BN, Karmakar S, Swain DK and Ghosh
9 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
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BC (2003) Flyash a potential source of soil
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Potential use of flyash as a liming material.
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10. Yadav A and Garg VK (2011) Recycling of
organic wastes by employing Eisenia fetida.
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11. Kaushik P and Garg VK (2003) Vermicom-
posting of mixed solid textile mill sludge and
cow dung wi th epi gei c earthworm
Eiseniafetida. Bioresource Technology 90:311
316
12. Pramanik P, Ghosh GK, Ghosal PK and Banik
P (2007) Changes in organic C, N, P and K
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microbial inoculants. Bioresource Technology
98:24852494.
13. Domnguez J, Parmelee RW and Edwards CA
(2003) Interactions between Eisenia andrei
(Oligochaeta) and nematode populations
during vermicomposting. Pedobiologia 47:53
60.
14. Kaushik P and Garg VK (2004) Dynamics of
biological and chemical parameters during
vermicomposting of solid textile sludge mixed
with cow dung and agriculture residues.
Bioresour Technol 94 (2):203209.
15. Elvira C, Sampeelro L, Benitez E and Nagales
R (1998) Vermicomposting of sludges from
paper mill and dairy industries with Eisenia
andrei : a pl ot scal e study. Bioresource
Technology 62: 205-211.
16. Edwards CA (1988) Breakdown of animal,
vegetable and industrial organic wastes by
earth-worms. In: Earthworms in Waste and
Envi ronmental Management, Eds. CA
Edwards and EF Neuhauser, 2131. SPB,
Hague, Netherlands.
10 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
17. Garg P, Gupta A and Satya S (2006)
Vermicomposting of different types of waste
using Eisenia fetida: a comparative study.
Bioresour Technol 97:391395.
18. Dominguez J and Edwards CA (1997) Effects
of stocking rate and moisture content on the
growth and maturation of Eisenia andrei
(Oligochaeta) in pig manure. Soil Biology and
Biochemistry 29:743746.
19. Suthar S (2007) Nutri ent changes and
bi odynami cs of epi gei c earthworm
Perionyxexcavatus (Perrier) during recycling
of some agriculture wastes. Bioresource
Technology 98:16081614.
20. Nogales R, Melgar R, Guerrero A, Lozada G,
Benitez E, Thompson R and Gomez M (1999b)
Growth and reproduction of Eisenia andrei in
dry olive cake mixed with other organic wastes.
Pedobiologia 43:744752.
21. Nogales R, Cifuentes C and Benitez E (2005)
Vermi composti ng of wi nery wastes: a
laboratory study. J Environmental Science
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22. Fang M, Wong JWC, Ma KK and Wong MH
(1999) Co- composting of sewage sludge and
coal fl y ash: nutri ent transformati ons.
Bioresource Technology 67:19-24.
23. Kaviraj and Sharma (2003) Municipal solid
waste management through vermicomposting
empl oyi ng exoti c and l ocal speci es of
earthworms. Bioresource Technology 90: 169-
173.
24. Wong JWC, Li SWY and Wong MH (1995) Coal
fly ash as a composting material for sewage
sl udge: Effects on mi crobi al acti vi ty.
Environmental Technology 16:527-537.
25. Prakash M and Karmegam N (2010)
Vermi stabi l i zati on of pressmud usi ng
Peri onyxceyl anensi s Mi ch. Bioresource
Technology 101:84648468.
26. Venkatesh RM, and Eevera T (2008) Mass
reduction and recovery of nutrients through
vermicomposting of fly ash. Applied Ecology
and Environment Research 6(1):7784.
27. Pujari GK and Dash PM (2006) Flyash
problem and management aspect. Envis Newsl
Centre Environ Stud 3(1):18.
28. Rao S, Rao AS and Takkar PN (1996)Changes
in different forms of K under earthworm
activity. Proceedings of the National Seminar
on Organi c Farmi ng and Sustai nabl e
Agriculture , Ghaziabad, India, Oct. 1996:9
11
29. Kaviraj and Sharma S (2003) Municipal solid
waste management through vermicomposting
empl oyi ng exoti c and l ocal speci es of
earthworms. Bioresource Technology 90: 169-
173.
Naresh Dhillion & Surinder Deswal
11 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
Economic Viability of Water
Supply Project in a poor
Economy
Pijush Kanti Som
Former Dean of the Faculty of Engineering and Head,
Civil Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata and
presently Chief Technical Advisor, ACPL, Kolkata
Subhas Chandra Dutta Gupta
Former Chief Engineer, PHE, West Bengal and presently
Senior Consultant, ACPL Kolkata
1.0 Introduction
There exists some sort of a socio-political
dilemma in regard to the imposition of water tax
or user charges on the community enjoying the
benefit. But in the ADB funded environmental
improvement project, water tax on the beneficiary
in a poor economy, as a condition of giving Aid, has
heightened the dilemma. In the capitalist economy
the viability of a utility project is based on the
Internal Rate of Return (IRR) which equalizes the
total project cost with the Net Present Value (NPV)
of a stream of annual benefits over a certain period.
Lower the IRR, poorer is the viability of the project.
But in a poor economy, the ability to pay water tax
by members of the user community across its
spectrum of economic classes may not be equally
strong enough to offset the annual O & M costs
including debt service charges. In such a situation,
the grant-in aid to reduce the burden of capital costs
and / or viability gap funding (VGF) to supplement
the annual receipts from inadequate water tax
collected from the community are taken recourse
to by the government to give the financial support
to the project.
Authors have made in this paper an attempt
to develop a rational approach to resolve the socio-
political dilemma in a poor economy for water
supply projects by optimizing the quantum of grant-
in-aid, VGF and water tax. Authors have given an
illustration of a water supply project in a small town
located in the North Eastern part of India and
suggest, inter alia, how to quantify financial gain
of health benefits for viability. Underlying principle
of justice is: from each according to his ability and
to each according to his need.
1.1 Illustration : Project description
The project is for providing piped supply of
potable water to the people of the town located in
the North Eastern part of India having a projected
population of 1,72,500 in 2045 and 1,46,800 in 2030.
Surface water from a perennial river having plenty
of flow throughout the year and flowing on the north
of the town has been selected as the source of water
supply. Arrangement for MS floating barge shall
be made for drawing up raw water from the river
for onward transmission to water treatment plant.
Potable water, after proper treatment of raw water
will be transmitted to Main Clear Water reservoirs
(MCWR) at the treatment plant size. From MCWR
water will be pumped to Clear Water Reservoir
(CWRs) of different zones. From Zonal CWRs of
different zones water will be pumped to Zonal
Elevated Service Reservoir (ESRs) by clear water
rising main. From ESRs potable water will be
distributed to consumers through distribution pipe
networks total length of pipe lines being 100 km
(approx) for the entire work. There shall also be
provision of boundary walls, gates, staff quarters
in addition to chemical house, laboratories,
substations etc.
All components of the project have been
designed following CPHEEO Manual.
1.2 Methodology and Inputs:
1.2.1 Project cost:
Financial cost: Total project cost Rs 96 crores
including Civil cost 67 crores and balance, for
mechanical & electrical works.
Economic Cost: land acquisition Cost, which
is not subject to economic pricing is the same
as financial cost. For remaining items of cost,
standard conversion factor of 0.9 is used to
convert financial cost to economic cost.
1.2.2 Maintenance cost break up
Operation maintenance and repair and debt
service are annual expenses for running the project
under the following heads.
OMR for Civil Construction @ 0.35% of the cost.
AMC for equipment and energy charges at the
rate 6% of the Project Cost.
Office expenses @ 0.45% of the project cost.
Debt service charges (Vide table No-1).
Sum of these expenses constitute Total Cost
of O & M etc.
2. Financial Analysis (FA) approach
The viability depends on the working cash flow
available from sources of fund to operate and
maintain the utility structure, equipments and
machineries, debt service charges etc. Working cash
flow is basically dependent on the following
a) Total Project Cost (TPC)
b) Operation and Maintenance expenses (O & M)
c) Period of amortization
12 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
d) Interest on debt
e) Water user charges
f) Financial estimate imputed to health benefit.
The main objective of FA is to examine the
viability of the project. The analysis attempts to
ascertain the extent to which the investment can
be recovered through charges, financial benefit and
viability gap funded through Grant-In-Aid and
subsidy/ support to meet the burden of capital cost
and O & M expenses. The viability is evaluated on
the basis of FIRR. However cost and revenue and /
or benefit have not been indexed to accommodate
inflation and these are given in cash flow at
constant prices of 2013.
2.1 Interest during construction: This has not
been considered.
2.2 Total project cost (TPC): Rs 96 crores
Breakup during the period of construction is
shown in cash flow table -2 for 3 years period of
construction @30%, 40%, 30%.
3. Sources of fund
Objective is to study the Economic and
Financial viability of the project by determining the
Economic Internal rate of return (EIRR) and
Financial Internal rate of return (FIRR) on reduced
capital cost (Project Cost minus Grant in Aid) and
on IRR Equity as well.
Considerations in this regard are,
a) Investment requirement for the project.
b) Funding arrangement viz Grant-in-aid, Loan
and Equity, Viability Gap Funding (VGF) in
the form of Equity support for O & M and debt
Service charges,
c) Year wise Expenditure
d) Year wise Revenue through water charges, and
social benefit owing to improved health of the
community leading to better productivity.
Studies on EIRR and FIRR are made under
the following scenarios.
Scenario: I
1) Sources of fund are
-Grant in Aid at the rate of 90 % of the
Project Cost.
-Loan at the rate of 90 % of the reduced capital
cost i.e Project Cost minus Grant-in-Aid.
-Equity at the rate 10 % of the reduced capital
cost.
2) Operation, Maintenances and Repair and Debt
services are annual expenses for running the
project under the following heads.
OMR for Civil Construction @ 0.35 % of the
cost.
AMC for equipment and energy charges at the
rate 6 % of the Project Cost.
Office expenses @ 0.45 % of the project cost.
Debt service charges (Vide table No- 1).
Sum of these expenses constitute Total Cost
of O & M etc.
3) Total Receipts are from
a) Water charges : With reference to Katwa
Water supply, West Bengal (2005) We estimate
the water charges to be 1200(1 + .05)
8
= Rs 1773
per holding (D.U) per annum with inflationary
adjustment, considering water charges @ 1200/
holding/year in 2005 @ 5% inflation rate p.a.
BPL families are excluded. Hence population
to be served and charged in the town in NE
India vide Project Report = 1,75,000
Less BPL @ 30 % = 52,500
1,22,500
Assuming number of members in a family as
5, no of dwelling units=1,22,500/5=24,500
Therefore, Total annual charges expected to
be received are 24,500 x 1773 = Rs 4.34 Cr.
b) Health Benefit: Increase of productivity due
to better health. Without the project
scenario:
1) Assuming 30 % of the work force (60 % of
population) belonging mainly to poor and BPL
i.e. 0.3 X 0.6 X 175000 = 31500 will be absent
for 3 days/ month (30 days) due to water borne
diseases, estimated loss of man-days per
month = 31,500 X 3 = 94,500.
2) Applied a probability of 80 % to (1) and lost
man days per month is (0.8 X 94,500) = 75,600.
Post Project Cost Scenario.
Pessimistic estimate of saving in lost man-
days per month @ 50 % of 75,600 = 37,800.
Hence, saving p.a. is 37,800 X 12 = 4,53,600
(man-days p.a).
Now, urban median daily income per capita of
the poor and BPL cohort is optimistically Rs 100.
Therefore, benefit due to saving in lost man-days
p.a. 4,53,600 X 100 = Rs 4.53 Cr.
To be on the conservative side 60 % of this
figure is taken to be saving in lost man-days
(financial value) Net Benefit is 0.6 X 4.54 = Rs
2.72 Cr.
Say Rs. 3.0 Cr.
In Scenario I No VGF is considered.
P. K. Som & S. C. Dutta Gupta
13 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
Therefore, total benefit is
Water charges Rs 4.0 Cr
Health Benefit Rs 3.0 Cr
VGF Nil
Cash flow statement (vide Table 2) shows the
Net Benefit (Total Benefit Total Cost) per
annum for each year beginning from the start
up year is negative and hence budgetary
support is essential as shown in the table.
Scenario II
1) Sources of fund are same as in Scenario I
except VGF @ 20 % as equity support for O &
M and debt services.
2) O & M & Debt Services same as in Scenario I.
3) Total Receipts same as in scenario I plus VGF.
FIRR, EIRR and Equity IRR are worked out
as 11 %, 20 % and 159 % respectively (Vide
Table 3, 4 and 5).
Scenario III
Same as in Scenario II except for VGF which
is 10 %. Table 4 shows the cash flow.
FIRR, EIRR and Equity IRR estimated from
Table 3A, 4A and 5A to be 2 %, 10 % and 77 %
respectively.
Summary is given as follows in table 6.
P. K. Som & S. C. Dutta Gupta
Table :- 6 Comparative Scenarios
Scenarios EIRR on Reduced FIRR on Reduced FIRR on Equity Remarks
Project Cost Project Cost Capital
I Not Applicable Not Applicable Not Applicable
Budgetary support
from 5
th
year to
14
th
year approximately
to 6.756 Cr required in
II 20 % 11 % 159 %
scenario I
III 10 % 2 % 77 %
Table-1 : Debt Service charges
Loan Repayment Outstanding Total
Year (Crore) (Crore) (Crore) Interest (Crore) Rs.
Rs. Rs. Rs. 10% (3+5)
1 2 3 4 5 6
1 9.6 Nil 9.6 - -
2 0.96 8.64 0.96 1.92
3 0.96 7.68 0.864 1.824
4 0.96 6.72 0.768 1.728
5 0.96 5.76 0.672 1.632
6 0.96 4.8 0.576 1.536
7 0.96 3.84 0.48 1.44
8 0.96 2.88 0.384 1.344
9 0.96 1.92 0.288 1.248
10 0.96 0.96 0.192 1.152
11 0.96 0 0.096 1.056
14 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
P. K. Som & S. C. Dutta Gupta
15 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
P. K. Som & S. C. Dutta Gupta
16 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
P. K. Som & S. C. Dutta Gupta
17 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
P. K. Som & S. C. Dutta Gupta
18 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
P. K. Som & S. C. Dutta Gupta
19 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
P. K. Som & S. C. Dutta Gupta
20 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
P. K. Som & S. C. Dutta Gupta
21 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
Hexavalent Chromium in
Ground Water of Unnao
Industrial Area, UP (India) and
its Removal through Mangifera
Indica Bark (Biosorption)
Supriya Singh
Research Scholar / Professor, Department of Applied
Sciences, Institute of Engineering & Technology, Sitapur
Road Yojana, Lucknow-226021 (India)
Alka Tripathi
Research Scholar / Professor, Department of Applied
Sciences, Institute of Engineering & Technology, Sitapur
Road Yojana, Lucknow-226021 (India)
Amrita Srivastava
Assistant Professor, Department of Chemistry, University
of Lucknow-226007 (India)
ABSTRACT
Industrialization & urbanization has played
a major role in development of human civilization.
Industrialization has changed the natural
environment of the area and added to it various
harmful unavoidable substances, which has
resulted in health effects to the flora & fauna living
in environment. Keeping in view of the pollution
effects to the ecosystem, it is very essential to monitor
the industrial effluents being discharged. Unnao, a
major industrial town near Kanpur in Uttar
Pradesh, has about 62 industries belonging to
tanneries, chemicals, agrochemicals, pharmaceu-
ticals, paper, steel, textile & paints etc were found
to contain toxic heavy metals in their effluents as
well as surface water in the area. The majority of
the industries belongs to tannery related works and
is shifted from Kanpur area due to ground water
pollution in that area.
The presence of these metals causes health
effects not only in flora & fauna but also in human
being. The health effects of Hexavalent Chromium
to toxicity, dermatitis, ulcer; Copper to liver damage,
CNS irritation; Iron to haemochromatosis; Lead to
paralysis, toxicity, anemia, mental disorders; Zinc
to syndromes, retarded growth, immunity, anemia;
Manganese to manganism are well reported. The
maximum concentration of Copper -210, Cadmium
- 34, Chromium(VI) - 984, Total Chromium - 6975,
Zinc - 1654, Lead - 114, Iron - 4538, Manganese -
774, microgram / liter was observed in the industry
effluent surface water in the area. The ground water
has been found to be contaminated by heavy metals
like Lead - 102, Cadmium - 9, Chromium(VI) - 922,
Total Chromium - 1018, Manganese - 400, Iron -
822, Zinc - 1212, Nickel - 68 & Copper -187
microgram / liter. The study indicates surface-
ground water metallic correlation, percentage of
different metals being leached to ground water
(phreatic aquifer) and the pollution of ground water
through effluent surface water by manganese, iron,
Chromium (VI), Total Chromium & Lead,. whose
concentrations have been found above the
permissible limits of authorities.
The removal of pre-dominant hexavalent
chromium ion present in ground water of the area
was carried out through biosorption on Mangifera
indica bark powder and the adsorbent capacity of
the Cr (VI) ion was found to 19.64 mg/g (removal
maximum up to 80.2 % in acidic medium and 67%
in neutral medium) and it can be used as low cost
biosorbent material for treatment / removal of Cr
(VI) polluted waters by the inhabitants.
Key Words: Hexavalent Chromium, Ground
Water, Removal, Biosorption.
INTRODUCTION
Presence of harmful metals in ground water
used for drinking purposes
(1,2,3)
has been a matter
of concern for scientists due to their harmful effect
on human body
(4,5,6)
. Unnao is one of the recent
developing major industrial town near Kanpur city
in India having most of the tanneries, pharma-
ceutical, dying & steel industries. Unnao industrial
area (UPSIDC) is situated in Uttar Pradesh having
more than 62 industrial units, and most of them
are tanneries catering the need of nation. The study
area lies in lies between 2626' and 264V north
latitudes and 8015' and 8033' east longitudes,
falling in the survey of India toposheet no. 63B. It
is bounded in the north by Safipur block, in the east
by the Bichhia block, in the south Sikandarpur
Karon block; whereas the Ganga river in the west
separates it form the district of Kanpur. The total
area under study is about 220 sq.km.
Geologically
(7)
Unnao district lies in Ganga
plain, one of the most densely populated regions,
one of the largest ground water repositories and
one of the largest fluvial systems on Earth wherein,
monsoon rain causes large scale sediment-water
movement and reworking of sediments. The area
is beset with alluvium of Quaternary age consisting
of older alluvium of middle to upper Pleistocene and
newer alluvium of Holocene. The climate of the
study area is semi - arid type. Geomorphologically,
the Plain shows a south to southeasterly sloping
planar surface in the northern part, formed due to
contraction and expansion of alluvial fans in
response to the climatic changes during the
Quaternary
(8,9)
. Through time, the Gangetic Plain
22 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
has expanded southwards in response to thrust-fold
loading in the Himalaya. The subsurface data in
the alluvium of the southern marginal plain shows
that above the basement, there is a succession of
sediment derived from the peninsular region,
dominated by pink-colored arkoses sands. This zone
is capped by a sequence of sediments from
Himalayan source
(10,11,12)
, which are essentially grey
colored, micaceous sub greywacke type.
The area experiences moderate rainfalls
during which various solid waste effluent dissolve
(13)
in surface water & later percolate to ground water
bodies. The dissolved metals and ions play a very
important role in various physiological processes
in the flora and fauna of the habitat. If present in
higher or low concentration than the required
causes unavoidable effects or diseases. The health
effects of chromium to toxicity, dermatitis, ulcer;
copper to liver damage, CNS irritation; iron to
haemochromatosis; lead to paralysis, toxicity,
anemia, mental disorders; zinc to syndromes,
retarded growth, immunity, anemia; manganese to
manganism are well reported.
Unnao, being a major developing industrial
town near Kanpur city having more than 62
industries mostly tanneries and shifted from
Kanpur lead the author to carry out the pollution
effects on ground water quality due to effluent
generated by these industries
(14,15)
and it was
observed that ground water is being contaminated
by poisonous heavy metals slowly with going down
to depth. The surface/ effluent industrial liquid
waste was found to have maximum concentration
of Copper - 210, Cadmium - 34, Chromium(VI) - 984,
Total Chromium - 6975, Zinc - 1654, Lead -114, Iron
- 4538, Manganese - 774, microgram / liter in the
area. The ground water has been found to be
contaminated by heavy metals like Lead - 102,
Cadmium - 9, Chromium(VI) - 922, Total Chromium
- 1018, Manganese - 400, Iron - 822, Zinc -1212,
Nickel - 68 & Copper - 187 microgram / liter. The
study indicates surface-ground water metallic
correlation, percentage of different metals being
leached to ground water (phreatic aquifer) and the
pollution of ground water through effluent surface
water by manganese, iron, Chromium (VI), Total
Chromium & Lead, whose concentrations have been
found above the permissible limits of authorities.
These waters are unsafe for drinking as per
BIS & WHO guidelines and continuous use may
cause diseases to the people of the area using it.
METHODS FOR ANALYSIS
The water samples were collected from the
study area (Map-1) in polyethylene bottles [1 liter]
during May 2012 for pre monsoon and in November
2012 for post monsoon, acidified to pH 2 by 1:1
Nitric acid and sealed at site. The samples were
processed and analyzed
(16,17)
for various trace
elements using Atomic Absorption Spectro-
Map - 1
INDEX MAP OF UNNAO STUDY AREA
S. Singh, Alka Tripathi & Amrita Srivastava
23 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
photometer (ECIL) in laboratory. Hexavalent
Chromium was analysed using Diphenyl carbazide
method through UV-VIS Spectrophotometer
(Shimadzu).The results of metal concentration
obtained for surface and ground water samples are
reported in the table 1 for Effluent liquid waste
water and table 2 for ground water respectively.
Methods for Chromium (VI) removal through
Mangifera indica bark powder
All the chemicals used were of analytical
reagent grade. The standard stock Cr(VI) solutions
was prepared by. weighing 2.8287 g of Potassium
dichromate in one liter double distilled water and
it was further diluted to desired concentrations
containing 20, 40, 50, 60, 80, 100, and 200 mg/L of
chromi um (VI) i n aqueous phase standard
solutions. The estimation of hexavalent chromium
was carried out by using Diphenyl carbazide
method as per standard methods
17
. Shimadzu UV-
VIS Spectrophotometer at 540 nm was used for
measurement. The Cr (VI) loadings on sorbents
were computed based on mass balance through loss
of metal from aqueous solution. The pH of solution
was maintained using 0.5 N HCI and 0.5 N NaOH
solutions. The temperature of the solutions was
maintained by using temp. regulatory oven. The
FTIR of the sorbent (Mangifera indica bark) and
chromium loaded was carried out using Bruker
FTIR Spectrophotometer for absorption peaks.
Preparation of Biosorbent (Mangifera indica
bark powder)
The sorbents used was Mangifera indica bark
powder. The materials were obtained from local
area. Material was washed, dried and then
pulverized in pulverizer and air-dried in the sun
for five days. After drying, the materials were kept
in air tight plastic bottles. The powdered material
was used as such and no pretreatment was given
to the materials. The particle size was maintained
in the range of 212-300 m (geometric mean size:
252.2 m).
Screening of Biosorbent
The experiments were carried out in 150 mL
borosil conical flasks by agitating a pre-weighed
amount of the Mangifera indica bark powdered
adsorbent with 10-100 mL of the aqueous chromium
(VI) solutions for a predetermined period at 10-40C
in an ice bath / oven. The Biosorbent doses were
maintained 1-5 g/liter for different experiments.
The adsorbent is separated with whatmann filter
paper no 41. Adsorption isotherm study is carried
out wi th di fferent i ni ti al concentrati ons of
chromium (VI) from 20 to 100 mg/L with the
adsorbent dosage of 1-5 g/liter. The effect of pH on
Cr (VI) biosorption was studied at 30C with
chromium (VI) concentration of 50 mg/L and an
adsorbent dosage of 4 g/L. The effect of adsorbent
dosage is studied by varying the adsorbent amount
from 1 g/ L to 5 g/ L wi th chromi um (VI)
concentration of 50 mg/L. The effect of temperature
varying from 10- 40C was studied at Cr (VI)
concentration of 50 mg/L and Biosorbent dose of 4
g/L. The time duration 60-300 min was studied at
Cr (VI) concentration of 5 mg/L and Biosorbent dose
of 4 g/L.
The concentration of free chromium (VI) ions
in the effluent was determined spectrophoto-
metrically by developing a purple-violet color with
1, 5-diphenyl carbazide in acidic solution as
complexing agent. The absorbance of the purple-
violet colored solution was read at 540 nm after 20
min.
RESULTS & DISCUSSION FOR METAL
CONCENTRATION
The results of metallic concentration for
effluent waste water and ground water are given
in table 1 & 2 ; figure - 1,2; 4 for metallic correlation
of surface/ ground water fig - 3 & figure - 4 for
percentage of metal leaching to ground water.
1. Most of the effluent samples have higher
concentration of metals in post monsoon
period, may be probably due to dissolution of
solid waste dump materials on the ground.
2. Effluent liquid wastes have abnormally high
concentrations of Total and Hexavalent
Chromium (table-1) though the percentage of
Cr (VI) is generally less than 25 to total
Chromium.
3. Arsenic and Lead is abnormally high (table-1)
in most of the effluent samples beyond BIS
limits for potability.
4. Ground water has been found to be
contaminated by most of the metals even
beyond the limits of acceptability by BIS (Table
- 2 , Fig- 2).
5. The leaching of metals from surface to ground
water in the study area shows the trend
Chromium (VI) > Lead > Copper > Zinc>
Manganese> Nickel> Cadmium > Iron >Total
Chromium. ( Fig-4)
6. The harmful Hexavalent chromium is most
easily leachable to ground water in this area
needs the proper monitoring and treatment in
view of its ill effects on human body. ( Fig-4)
7. The common solid waste of tanneries dumped
on ground has total chromium mostly as Cr
(III) has low mobility to the ground water in
S. Singh, Alka Tripathi & Amrita Srivastava
24 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
Table 1: DISTRIBUTION OF METALS IN INDUSTRIAL WASTE WATER OF
UNNAO INDUSTRIAL AREA, UP
Parameters Minimum Maximum Average SD
Iron 986 4538 1918 842
Manganese 43 774 348 205
Copper 11 210 69 63
Nickel 18 194 87 65
Lead 29 114 61 21
Cadmium 11 34 20 8
Zinc 34 1654 175 325
Chromium (VI) 17 984 253 325
T Chromium 69 6975 1629 1694
Arsenic 28 754 130 142
Table 2 : DISTRIBUTION OF METALS IN GROUND WATER TO
UNNAO INDUSTRIAL AREA, UP
Parameter Cr Total Cr(VI) Cu Fe Mn Zn Pb Cd Ni
min 4 0 4 8 12 2 5 3 6
max 1018 922 187 822 400 2160 102 9 106
average 48 33 15 142 134 384 45 6 25
SD 172 155 25 156 80 425 21 2 18
Fig.1 : Distribution of Metals in Surface
Effluent of Unnao Industrial Area
Fig.2 : Distribution of Metals in Ground
water of Unnao Industrial Area
this area. ( Fig- 3 & 4)
8. The mobility of different metals to ground
water is governed by various physico chemical
characteristics of soil and varies from place to
place.
Results and Discussion for removal technique
of Chromium (VI) through Biosorption
In the present study, Mangifera indica bark
has been used for chromium (VI) removal from
aqueous solutions. Table-3 shows the adsorbent
capacity of various adsorbents. When compared
with other non-conventional adsorbents, the results
of the present study indicate that adsorbent
prepared from Mangifera indica bark has better
adsorption capacity in many cases (biomass
residual slurry, Fe (lll)/Cr (III) hydroxide, Waste
tea, walnut shell), comparable adsorption capacity
S. Singh, Alka Tripathi & Amrita Srivastava
25 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
Fig.3 : Metal Correlation in Industrial Effluent & Ground Water of
Unnao Industrial Area, UP
Fig.4 : Percentage of Metal Leaching to Ground Water in Unnao Industrial Area, UP
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
T Cr Fe Cd Ni Mn Zn Cu Pb Cr(VI)
with (palm pressed-fibers, maize cob, sugar cane
bagasse) and lower adsorption capacity with
(activated carbon, saw dust) for chromium (VI) ions
[18-24]
. Based on the above results obtained, the effect
of various parameters such as equilibrium time, pH,
amount of adsorbent etc. has been studied.
Effect of Contact Time on Chromium (VI)
Adsorption
The effect of contact time up to 300 min. on
chromium VI adsorption was studied using
Biosorbent dose of 1 g/L and hexavalent Chromium
concentration of 4 & 5 mg/L.(Fig -5). The extraction
process was carried out with standard Cr (VI) 100
mL solution of 4 and 5 mg/L in 150 mL conical flask
with Biosorbent dose of 1g/L and the concentration
of hexavalent chromium in the solution was
recorded by filtration through whatmann filter
S. Singh, Alka Tripathi & Amrita Srivastava
26 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
paper followed by development of colour using
Diphenyl carbazide at 540 nm in time interval of
60, 120, 180, 240 and 300 minutes. Most of the
adsorption takes place in first hour of contact and
longer contact time has no effect on extraction of
chromium (fig-5).
FTIR spectra of Mangifera indica bark and
Biosorbent with Cr (VI)
The FTIR spectra of Biosorbent and Cr (VI)
l oaded was carri ed out usi ng Bruker FTIR
Spectrophoto-meter. The peaks at 1027.23, 1604.27
& 2362.35 cm
-1
wave numbers were observed in
Mangifera indica bark while after biosorption with
Cr (VI) the peaks become more prominent at 646.15,
778.77, 806.19, 1027.36, 1315.50, 1611.02, 3329.93
& 3853.13 cm
-1
wave numbers (Fig-6). The different
functional groups after adsorption of Cr (VI) have
shown prominent absorption in IR spectrum.
Effect of Temperature on Cr (VI) biosorption
The 100 mL samples of 50 mg/L hexavalent
chromium concentration in 150 mL conical flasks
were treated with 0.1 g of Biosorbent (Mangifera
indica bark powder) maintained at 10, 20, 30 &
40C. The solutions were kept for 60 min. with
gentle shaking at periodical intervals and the
concentration of Cr (VI) was measured in the
solution after filtering through Whatmann filter
paper and developing the colour using Diphenyl
carbazide at 540 nm spectrophotometrically. The
percentage biosorption of Cr(VI) was found
maximum at 40C and minimum at 10C showing
an increasing trend with temperature. (Figure-7).
Effect of pH on Cr (VI) biosorption
The experiments using 100 mL of 50 mg/L Cr
(VI) solutions for 60 min time and adsorbent dose
of 0.1 g were carried out at pH 2, 4, 7, 10 and 12
and the biosorption of Cr (VI) is depicted in figure-8.
Table No.3: Summary of adsorbent capacity of various adsorbents
Adsorbent Maximum Adsorbent Capacity, Reference
qm (mg/g)
1. Walnut shell 1.33 [23)
2. Fe(lll)/Cr(lll) hydroxide 1.43 [24]
3. Waste tea 1.55 [23]
4. Biomass residual slurry 5.87 [19]
5. Tamarind seeds 11.08 [22]
6. Sugar cane bagasse 13.4 [20]
7. Maize cob 13.8 [20]
8. Palm pressed-fibers 15.0 [21]
9. Mangifera indica bark 19.64 Present study
10. Sawdust 39.7 [20]
11. Activated Carbon (Filtrasorb-400) 57.7 [19]
Fig. 5 : Effect of Contact Time on
Chromium (VI) Adsorption
Fig. 6 FTIR Spectra of biosorbent/
biosorbent-Cr(VI)
S. Singh, Alka Tripathi & Amrita Srivastava
27 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
higher biosorption capacity of 19.64 mg/g at
30 C.
The equilibrium time for the adsorption of
chromium (VI) on the adsorbate prepared from
Mangifera indica bark in the present study
from aqueous solutions is found to be 60 m.
The adsorption process of chromium (VI) can
be described by Langmuir isotherm and
Freundl i ch i sotherm model s. However,
Langmuir isotherm model shows a good
agreement with the equilibrium data.
Adsorption of chromium (VI) on Mangifera
indica bark yielded maximum adsorption
capacity of 19.64 mg/g at solution pH of 7 and
temperature 30 C.
Removal of chromium (VI) increases with
increase of adsorbent dosage.
The maximum adsorption of chromium (VI)
took place in the pH range 1-3.
The increase in temperature increases the
biosorption up to 40 C, showing the chemi-
sorptions behavior.
The maximum adsorption takes place in 60
minutes and further increase in duration of
contact time has negligible effect.
The higher values of Freundlich constant (>1)
for 1/n indicates the favorable condition of
biosorption by the Mangifera indica bark by
hexa valent chromium in aqueous medium.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Authors express their sincere thanks to Dean,
Institute of Engineering & Technology, Lucknow
and Sh K B Biswas, Regional Director, CGWB,
Lucknow for providing the laboratory facilities and
helpful suggestions from time to time for carrying
out the present work. Authors are also thankful to
Dr S K Srivastava, Scientist, CGWB, Lucknow for
helpful suggestions from time to time.
REFERENCE
1. WHO, Guidelines for drinking water quality,
Vol I &II, Geneva (1984).
2. BIS, Indian standards specifications for
drinking water IS 10500 (1983).
3. Manual of standards of quality for drinking
water supplies Ed II, (1975)Speci report series
no 44, ICMR , New Delhi.
4. Prakash R, Konwar P K, Kumar A ; Chemical
Quality and Water Pollution in 1 Guwahati
City, Assam, Bhujal News, (1992), pp 24-28.
5. Prakash R, Konwar P K , Kumar A, Devi S;
Occurrence and health aspects of inorganic
constituents in drinking water of Northeastern
India, Ind. J.Pow. Riv Vall Dev. (1993). pp 80-
83.
Fig. 7 : Effect of Temperature on Cr (VI)
Adsorption
The acidic medium (pH-2) has been found to show
maximum biosorption up to 80% of initial chromium
(VI) which decreases to 13% at neutral (pH-7) and
further increases to 26% in basic medium (pH-
12).(Figure-8)
Fig. 8 : Effect of pH on Cr (VI) Adsorption
CONCLUSION
The study reveals that
Ground water (shallow aquifer) is being
contaminated slowly by metallic effluents of
industries and most predominantly occurrence
of Hexavalent chromium in surface as well as
ground water indicates the poor treatment of
liquid effluents in tanneries, which is a fast
leaching metal to ground water in comparison
to other metals. It has started polluting the
phreatic aquifer in few localities of the study
area and now requires proper and regular
monitoring for chromium and lead keeping in
view of its alarming health impacts to human
body.
Adsorbent prepared from Mangifera indica
bark can be used for removal of chromium (VI)
from aqueous solutions due to its remarkable
S. Singh, Alka Tripathi & Amrita Srivastava
28 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
6. Prakash R, Sondhi T N, Charan K.
Environment and Pollution, Govt of India, Min
of Water resources, CGWB,

Technical report
(1999).
7. Ansari AA, Singh IB, Tobschall HJ. Impor-
tance of geomorphology and sedimentation
processes for metal dispersion in sediments
and soils of Ganga plain : identification of
geochemical domains. Chemical Geol. (2000),
162: pp 245-266.
8. Ghosh, D.K. and Singh, I.B., Structural and
geomorphic evolution of the northwestern part
of Indo-Gangetic Plain, Proc. Sem. Quat. Geol.,
Baroda, India, (1988). 164-175.
9. Singh, I. B. , Sedimentological history of
Quaternary deposits in Gangetic Plain, Indian
J.Earth Sci.,(1987), 14, 272-282.
10. Singh, I.B. and Rastogi, S.P., Techtonic
framework of Gangetic alluvium with special
reference to Ganga river in Uttar Pradesh,
Curr. Sci., (1973)., 42, pp 305-307.
11. Singh, I.B. and Bajpai, V.N., Significance of
Syndepositional tectonics in facies develop-
ment, Gangetic Alluvium near Kanpur, India,
J. Geol. Soc. Ind., (1989), 34, pp 61-66.
12. Singh, I.B. and Bajpai, V.N., Kumar, A. and
Singh, M., Changes in the channel character-
istics of Ganga River during Late Pliestocene,
J. Geol. Soc. Ind., (1990), 36, pp 67-73.
13. Ansari, A.A., Singh, I.B. and Tobschall, H.J.,
Role of monsoon rain concentrations and
dispersion patterns of metal pollutants in
sediments and soils of the Ganga Plain, India,
Environ. Earth Sci., (1999), 39(3), pp 221-237.
14. Srivastava A. Singh Supriya, Srivastava S K,
Prakash R.; Impact of Tanneries on ground
water quality in Kanchandpur area, Kanpur
Dehat District, UP. JIPHE, (2013) 2, 19-26.
15. Tripathi A. Singh Supriya, Srivastava S K,
Prakash R.; Evaluation of Ecotoxicological
risks related to the discharge of combined
i ndustri al / sewage effl uent i n Unnao
Industrial area, UP. JCGWS, (2013) 1, 47-53.
16. Jain, C. K. and Bhatia, K. K. S., Physico-
chemical Analysis of Water and Wastewater,
Users Manual, UM-26, National Institute of
Hydrology, Roorkee,(1988).
17. Standard methods for examination of water
and waste water, Ed 16
th
, APHA [1985].
18. Namasivayam C, Yamuna R.T., Adsorption of
chromium(VI) by a low-cost adsorbent: biogas
residual slurry. Chemosphere 30 (3), 561-578.
(1995).
19. Huang C. P. and Wu M. H. The removal of
chromium (VI) from dilute aqueous solution by
activated carbon, Water Research, 11, pp. 673-
679. (1977).
20. Sharma D. C. and Forster C. F. A Preliminary
examination into the adsorption of hexavalent
chromium using Low-cost adsorbents, Bio-
resource Technology, 47, pp. 257-264. (1994).
21. Tan W. T, Ooi S. T. and Lee C. K. Removal of
chromium (VI) from solution by coconut husk
and palm pressed fibres, Environmental
Technology, 14, pp. 277-282. (1993).
22. Gupta S & Babu B.V. Adsoption of Chromium
(VI) by low cost adsorbent prepared from
tamarind seed. Journal of Environmental
Engineering and Science, Vol. 7 (No. 5), pp.
553-557, (2008).
23. Orhan Y. and Buyukgungur, H. The removal
of heavy metals by using agricultural, wastes,
Water Science Technology, 28 (2), pp. 247-255.
(1993).
24. Namasivayam C. and Ranganathan K . Waste
Fe(III)/Cr(III) hydroxide as adsorbent for the
removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution and
chromium plating industry wastewater,
Environmental Pollution, 82, pp. 255-261.
(1993).
S. Singh, Alka Tripathi & Amrita Srivastava
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LOGIC
NODES
29 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
Mitigation of water quantity &
water quality challenges in
Ground Water of Rajasthan
D. D. Ozha
Senior Scientist & Vice-Chairman, IWWA, Jodhpur
Centre, E-mail : ddozha@gmail. com, Gurukripa,
Brahmapuri, Hazari Chabutra, Jodhpur-342001,
Ground Water Department, Jodhpur
H. R. Bhatt
Chief Engineer, Ground Water Department, Jodhpur
ABSTRACT
Manifold increase in population, alarmingly
increasing industrialization, urbanization and
consequently increase in demand of water in our
country in general and also in largest State of
country i.e. Rajcjsthan in particular has resulted
in a rapid depletion in ground water level and
deterioration in water quality due to its over
exploitation. In Rajasthan, owing to meager surface
water resources, ground water is only source of
dependence and survival over 70% irrigation and
95% drinking water supply schemes are based on
ground water resources. To meet the demand, the
withdrawl of ground water is more than the
recharge to ground water resources. In fact this has
created the problem of depletion and deterioration
of ground water level & its quality. Other geo-
chemical factors have resulted in increase of
hydrochemical parameters viz. salinity, nitrate and
fluoride in ground waters and have adversely
affected the lives of inhabitants in general and socio-
economic status in particular. The ground water of
western, north-east part of Rajasthan is facing
problem of salinity, nitrate and fluoride, whereas
central and southern part is generally facing the
acute problem of fluoride. Therefore, for mitigating
the challenges of sustainable development much
efforts must be made for maximum utilization of
rain water, revival of traditional water wisdom,
afforestation, augmentation of ground water, Dry
farming, promotion of sprinkler and drip irrigation,
installation of R.O. and defluoridation plants.Above
all there is an immense need to inculcate and
educate the masses for judicious use of water.
Introduction
Life on our planet earth is due to water.
Demands of water for domestic, irrigation as well
as industrial sectors have increased many folds
thereby creating water crisis worldwide. It is said
that next world war, if happens at all, will be on
water. Conflicts will be there from street level to
International levels.
As arid land of Rajasthan is one of the most
water deficit part on the earth. The largest state of
India is also the driest state having only 1.15% of
total water resources of entire country. Catering
safe drinking water to huge population is a big task
before scientists, engineers, administrators and
policy planners. Availability of surface water is
mainly restricted to canal command areas of Indira
Gandhi Nahar Project (IGNP), Chambal and Mahi
rivers Ground water is only dependable source in
the larger area of the state. The depleting precious
ground water resources and their inferior quality
further inhibit the availability of quality fresh
water.
In Rajasthan, drought & famine stays as
unwanted guest almost every alternate year. Thus
water crisis is of acute nature and needs immediate
attention of the water managers.
Rajasthan is known for its arid climatic
conditions (particularly western parts) and is
characteri zed by l ow, errati c and unevenl y
distributed rains causing frequent meteorological,
hydrological and agricultural droughts. The overall
stage of ground water development is presently
nearly 138%. Quality-wise, more than 25% of the
ground water sources have multiple problems, 16%
have excessive fluorides, 15% have excess nitrates
& over 9% have excess salinity, thus leaving merely
35% sources as potable. Overall 74% of countrys
total habitations are affected with two or more
quality parameters. There are more than 16,550
fluorosis affected villages in the state out of 32,211
in the whole country which is more than 50%.
Similarly, there are more than 14,415 salinity
affected villages out of 33,552 in the whole country
which is 42%. Likewise, the situation for nitrate
toxicity is also very grim. Periodic occurrence of
droughts and famines has further aggravated the
situation. Therefore, for sustainable socio-economic
development, judicious use of this natures gift is
mandatory. In the present communication status
of ground water sources in the state, their quantity
& quality problems & mitigative measures will be
discussed.
Grim Ground Water scenario of Rajasthan
The state is occupied by diversified geo-
formations and hydro geological conditions. Ground
water occurs i n unconsol i dated formati ons
(Quaternaries) semi-consolidated formations
(Tertiary sandstone, Lathi sand-stone etc.) and
consolidated rock types. Quaternary alluvium,
Lathi sand-stone, Palana sandstone, Borunda
limestone and Jodhpur sandstone at places are
some of the prominent aquifer systems available
30 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
in the state and are heavily over-exploited.
Water level is deeper in Western Rajasthan
reaching even more than 130 m as in Lathi basin
area. Depth to water level is relatively shallower
in Eastern Rajasthan. However, rising trends in
ground water levels have been observed in parts of
IGNP Canal command areas. Major parts of the
state witness rapidly declining water levels. Severe
water level declining districts are Jaipur, Sikar,
Jhunjhunu, Nagaur, Jodhpur, Jalore, Pali, Dausa
& Barmer.
Factors responsible for Water Scarcity
The causative factors for water crisis in
Rajasthan are as under.
1. Low Rainfall - Arid climate
2. Frequent Drought & famine conditions
3. Less availability of fresh water
4. Deep & declining water levels
5. Hard rock area
6. Dispersed population
7. Undependable energy supply
8. Formidable water quality problems
9. Lack of water education
1. Arid Climatic conditions
The geographical location of the state has
caused arid/semi-arid climatic conditions in
Rajasthan. Rainfall is low and erratic. South
westernly monsoon clouds are mostly moistureless
especially in Thar desert. Surface water is under
high evapotranspiration stress. Ground water
recharge is negligible in the western most parts of
Rajasthan, where not only rains are scarce but also
the ground water level is generally deep. Soil
moisture is usually very low due to aridity. No
major drainage system exists in major parts of the
Thar desert. Owing to aridity and geo-formations,
ground water is saline.
Impact of Rainfall variability on Water
Resources
It is quite evident that rainfall is the most vital
input in the hydrological cycle and fluctuations in
quality and distribution strongly influence surface
and subsurface water resources. Ground water
occurs under diverse climatic, physiographic and
geological conditions and the subsurface medium
through which water filters play important role in
building up ground water reserves. In Table - 1
changes in water level over time in various districts
is depicted. Because of the increased overdrawing
of ground water from all the potential regions of
Western Rajasthan, recharge to the aquifer during
normal rainfall periods is inadequate, especially
because of the sporadic rainfall distribution
patterns and the terrain characteristics, with a
major portion of the precipitation being lost as
runoff or through evaporation.
2. Frequent Drought & Famine conditions
Low and uneven distribution of monsoon rains
in Rajasthan causes frequent meteorological and /
agriculture droughts in time & space as witnessed
especially during 1972-74, 1984-87 and 1998-2002.
Western districts are more prone to severe and most
severe type of droughts and have been categorized
as chronically Drought prone districts.
Impact of Drought
Frequent droughts not only have socio-
economic impact but also have adverse environ-
mental impacts. Drought situation accelerates
sinking of additional groundwater extraction
structures causing diminishing of groundwater
resources and eventually decline in groundwater
levels. Water crisis is on its peak during spells of
drought years affecti ng mi l l i ons of human
population as well as livestock forcing them to
migrate in the adjoining states. During drought &
famine which occur during every alternate or three
years, the rate of withdrawl is greater than the
recharge rate leading not only to a decrease in water
level but also to a deterioration of the water quality.
3. Deep & Declining Water levels
District and blockwise long term Water level
trend in the state has been computed on the basis
of water level fluctuation between the period pre-
monsoon, 1984 to 2010, and short term trend has
been computed on the basi s of water l evel
fluctuation between the period pre-monsoon 2009
to premonsoon 2010.
The districtwise change in water level between
pre-monsoon 1984 and premonsoon 2010 and
premonsoon 2009 to premonsoon 2010 are depicted
in table-2 & table-3 respectively.
Table 2 & 3 reveal that depletion in ground
water level is very significant in the state. 30
districts in the state shows depleting trend of
ground water level. On the basis of average
depletion these districts have been further
classified as most critical (average depletion is >
10 m.) Critical (average depletion is between 5 to
10 m.) and moderate (average depletion is between
0 to 5 m.)
Deeper ground water levels (reaching upto 130
m.) do not allow economic pumping of water for
irrigation and other purposes. Increasing draft in
major areas is causing lowering of ground water
levels significantly resulting in high cost of
pumping. Highest depletion in ground water table
D. D. Ozha & H. R. Bhatt
31 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
Table-1 : Rainfall variability in different regions of Rajasthan
Station Normal Average Greatest Greatest Year of Greatest Date of
rainfall # of annual annual greatest 24 hr greatest
(mm) rainy rainfall rainfall rainfall rainfall 24-hr
days (mm) as a % of (mm) rainfall
normal
Arid
Barmer 288.0 14.1 940.0 326 1944 285.7 13.8.1944
Bikaner 289.8 19.0 758.2 262 1917 165.6 25.9.1945
Churu 356.5 20.7 783.8 220 1917 146.1 5.9.1942
Ganganagar 248.4 19.5 674.0 271 1983 251.7 31.8.1928
Jaisalmer 186.2 12.5 583.1 313 1944 129.5 25.6.1961
Jalore 377.2 18.3 1039.4 276 1990 279.4 11.9.1905
Jhunjhunu 399.2 25.5 777.8 195 1956 121.9 14.07.1908
Jodhpur 365.2 20.0 1180.5 323 1917 215.9 12.9.1924
Nagaur 329.9 19.6 1259.0 382 1975 285.0 17.7.1975
Pali 418.3 19.0 1047.0 250 1990 200.0 6.8.1990
Sikar 455.8 29.7 1093.0 240 1977 184.4 25.8.1964
Semi-Arid
Ajmer 537.5 31.0 1226.8 228 1917 164.6 31.8.1928
Alwar 667.4 36.0 1260.3 189 1917 % 289.3 24.9.1904
Bharatpur 651.5 35.8 1382.8 212 1986 228.6 11.8.1916
Bhilwara 682.5 32.0 1304.0 191 1956 216.4 18.9.1950
Bundi 758.6 35.9 1546.6 204 1942 370.3 6.9.1947
Chittorgarh 862.9 33.5 1533.7 178 1944 274.3 20.7.1943
Dungarpur 738.0 36.8 1800.6 244 1937 486.4 30.6.1937
Jaipur 614.4 35.3 1317.0 214 1917 353.6 19.7.1981
Kota 760.9 37.9 1586.5 209 1917 249.2 13.7 1945
S.Madhopur 872.9 37.7 2445.0 280 1942 301.0 16.7.1942
Tonk 669.1 33.0 1513.6 226 1945 246.4 18.8.1945
Udaipur 640.1 34.4 1223.3 191 1917 183.9 18.9.1950
Sirohi 574.2 26.7 1571.6 273 1973 362.7 14.8 1941
Sub-Humid
Banswara 952.3 41.9 1977.0 210 1977 558.8 23.7.1957
Jhalawar 975.8 47.8 1708.2 175 1942 252.0 29.6.1945
Humid.
Mt. Abu 1593.8 52.9 3990.3 250 1944 484.9 14.8.1941
was observed in Jalore district and lowest was in
Banswara district.
As per Ground Water Resource Estimation the
overall ground water resource position of the state
is as under :-
Net Annual ground water
availability = 10,563.01 m.
Ground water Draft = 14,570.40 m.
Present ground water balance = 4,007.48 m.
Stags of ground water
development = 137.94%
D. D. Ozha & H. R. Bhatt
32 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
TABLE-2 : DISTRICTWISE CHANGE IN WATER LEVEL BETWEEN
PRE-MONSOON 1984-2010
S. No. District Average Water Level (m) Average Change
in water level (m)
Pre84 Pre10
Pre84 - Pre10
1 AJMER 7.91 16.62 -8.71
2 ALWAR 11.11 24.63 -13.52
3 BANSWARA 6.46 7.73 -1.28
4 BARAN 7.63 11.99 -4.36
5 BARMER 33.74 42.66 -8.92
6 BHARATPUR 6.92 11.48 -4.56
7 BHILWARA 9.81 14.85 -5.05
8 BIKANER 71.44 74.82 -3.38
9 BUNDI 9.04 13.28 -4.24
10 CHITTORGARH 11.11 16.09 -4.98
11 CHURU 49.18 54.26 -5.08
12 DAUSA 11.80 26.53 -14.73
13 DHOLPUR 8.71 13.66 -4.95
14 DUNGARPUR 7.45 11.54 -4.09
15 GANGANAGAR 16.51 10.56 5.95
16 HANUMANGARH 20.11 14.94 5.17
17 JAIPUR 11.69 30.66 -18.97
18 JAISALMER 60.13 61.97 -1.83
19 JALORE 13.02 31.02 -18.00
20 JHALAWAR 8.12 10.90 -2.79
21 JHUNJHUNU 30.50 45.86 -15.36
22 JODHPUR 31.44 42.37 -10.93
23 KARAULI 11.22 18.67 -7.45
24 KOTA 8.49 14.53 -6.04
25 NAGAUR. 27.93 45.92 -17.99
26 PALI 12.58 23.83 -11,25
27 RAJSAMAND 10.29 15.90 -5.62
28 SAWAI MADHOPUR . 9.43 18.77 -9.34
29 SIKAR 27.85 41.23 -13.38
30 SIROHI 11.91 18.66 -6.75
31 TONK 7.12 13.65 -6.53
32 UDAIPUR 9.52 12.40 -2.88
Average 18.13 25.37 -7.24
D. D. Ozha & H. R. Bhatt
33 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
TABLE-3 : DISTRICTWISE CHANGE IN WATER LEVEL BETWEEN
PRE-MONSOON 2009-2010
S. No. District Average Water Level (m) Average Change
in water level (m)
Pre84 Pre10
Pre84 - Pre10
1 AJMER 15.68 16.62 -0.94
2 ALWAR 23.82 24.63 -0.81
3 BANSWARA 6.37 7.73 -1.36
4 BARAN 11.43 11.99 -0.56
5 BARMER 41.43 42.66 -1.23
6 BHARATPUR 11.74 11.48 0.25
7 BHILWARA 13.37 14.85 -1.48
8 BIKANER 73.52 74.82 -1.30
9 BUNDI 12.93 13.28 -0.34
10 CHITTORGARH 15.66 16.09 -0.42
11 CHURU 54.02 54.26 -0.24
12 DAUSA 25.70 26.53 -0.83
13 DHOLPUR 16.48 13.66 2.82
14 DUNGARPUR 8.54 11.54 -2.99
15 GANGANAGAR 11.01 10.56 0.44
16 HANUMANGARH 15.19 14.94 0.24
17 JAIPUR 29.90 30.66 -0.76
18 JAISALMER 61.26 61.97 -0.71
19 JALORE 28.24 31.02 -2.77
20 JHALAWAR 10.88 10.90 -0.02
21 JHUNJHUNU 43 95 45.86 -1 91
i22 JODHPUR 41.75 42.37 -0.63
23 KARAULI 17.66 18.67 -1.01
24 KOTA 13.08 14.53 -1.45
25 NAGAUR. 44.90 45.92 -1.02
26 PALI 21.03 23.83 -2.80
27 RAJ SAMAND 12.58 15.90 -3.32
28 SAWAI MADHOPUR 18.08 18.77 -0.70
29 SIKAR 40.24 41.23 -1.00
30 SIROHI 14.16 18.66 -4.51
31 TONK 13.58 13.65 -0.07
32 UDAIPUR 10.68 12.40 -1.72
Average 24.34 25.37 -1.04
D. D. Ozha & H. R. Bhatt
34 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
Categorizations
Safe - 30 Blocks
Semi-critical - 8 Blocks
Critical - 34 Blocks
Over-exploited - 164 Blocks
4. Hard rock area
It is obvious that hard rocks have poor storage
capacity of ground water and therefore, witness
steep decline in ground water levels during
summersespecially during spells of drought
years. These areas are, therefore, under so much
water crisis that even drinking water is catered by
transportation from far off locations by trains &
tankers.
5. Dispersed population
Population in the desert terrain is dispersed
in hamlets spreading over several kilometers.
Therefore, to cater the water supply of standard
quality economically, has become a challenging
task.
6. Undependable Energy Supply
Inadequate quality electricity supply also
hinders ground water pumping/piped water supply
and hence water crisis prevails in the state.
7. Formidable water Quality problems
Quality of water is an important factor in
development and use of ground water resources.
In Raj asthan due to i nheri ted ari di ty and
complexity of sub-surface rocks, the ground water
is characterized by multiple quality problems
1
. Not
only the water is saline but it also contains many
dissolved substances that render it unsuitable for
the very purpose it is meant for. These substances
have either the direct toxic effects on the consumers
or have long term indirect adverse effects. The
major factors that govern the water quality are
salinity, sodicity and alkalinity for waters to be
used for agriculture, and salinity coupled with
nitrate & fluoride for waters to be used as drinking
water source.
Chemical quality of aquifer water in the
Western Rajasthan, in general and Bharatpur,
Ajmer and Jaipur districts in the eastern Rajasthan
are saline, High fluoride hazard is found almost in
all the districts of the state causing disease fluorosis
(both dental & skeletal fluorosis). However,
si tuati on i n Nagaur, Tonk, Si rohi , Jai pur,
Jhunjhunu, Jalore, Barmer. Bikaner, Jodhpur is
worst where the problem is much severe
2
. Increased
use of nitrogenous fertilizers and poor sewerage
system in the urban agglomerate has caused high
nitrates in aquifer water. Industrial and urban
pollution has further caused deterioration in the
quality of ground water. Over utilisation of canal
water (flood irrigation ) and also the water logging
with in canal command area also caused soil
salinity/alkalinity and contributed to salinity in
ground water. Problem of high fluoride content in
ground waters of Rajasthan has become a serious
environmental issue in the field of water quality
management and human health. The state ranks
second amongst the most endemic fluoride problem
areas of the country and shares approximately 10
percent of the world fluorosis problem.
The Hydrochemical parameters of ground
water has adversely affected the socio-economic
status of the inhabitants of the state. Area under
unsuitable water quality zones of Rajasthan is
shown in Table-4.
Mitigation Strategies for Sustainable future
There is solution for every problem and so is
the case with water crisis in the state of Rajasthan.
Water management strategies could be four folds
as stated below.
1. Research & Development
Water related organizations need to promote
R&D activities jointly with the Universities &
other research institutions to access the
availability of safe drinking water.
Genesis of quality hazards and industrial
pollution needs to be studied in order to protect
the ground water resources.
D. D. Ozha & H. R. Bhatt
NEW HORIZONS
Manufacturers of :
R.C.C. PIPES & COLLARS, S.F.R.C. MAN HOLE COVERS & FRAMES
Office : 64, Lake Avenue
1st Floor, Kolkata-700 026
Phone : 32436281 Fax : (033) 24669436
E-mail : nhp@newhorizonsmail.com
Works : Plot No. W-1, Steel Park,
WBIDC Industrial Area, Phase - II
Barjora, Dist. - Bankura, W. Bengal
M : 9330177007, 9339532901
35 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
Table : 4 - Area under unsuitable water quality zones of Rajasthan
S. No. District Area Sq. Area under unsuitable water quality zone
km Salinity Nitrate Fluoride
Area % Area % Area %
1 Ajmer 8481 2663 31.4 1662 19.6 5954 70.2
2 Alwar 8720 462 5.3 1482 17 671 7.7
3 Banswara 5037 S.V. - 31 0.62 373 7.4
4 Baran 6955 S.V. - 79 1.14 S.V. -
5 Barmer 28387 20172 71.1 12405 43.7 14534 51.2
6 Bharatpur 5044 2199 43.6 953 18.9 822 16.3
7 Bhilwara 10455 669 6.4 1035 9.9 4673 44.7
8 Bikaner 27244 14112 51.8 10189 37.4 19997 73.4
9 Bundi 5500 99 1.8 512 9.3 726 13.2
10 Chittorgarh 10856 87 0.8 966 8.9 445 4.1
11 Churu 16830 10435 62 11781 70 2289 13.6
12 Dausa 3420 345 10.1 622 18.2 451 13.2
13 Dholpur 3009 20 0.67 S.V. - 81 2.7
14 Dungarpur 3770 5 0.12 162 4.3 1139 30.2
15 Ganganagar 11604 8134 70.1 3052 26.3 6985 60.2
16 Hanumangarh 9580 7846 81.9 3113 32.5 3257 34
17 Jaipur 11061 243 2.2 763 6.9 2931 26.5
18 Jaisalmer 38401 26573 69.2 7488 19.5 28762 74.9
19 Jalore 10640 3969 37.3 1596 15 2788 26.2
20 Jhalawar 6219 S.V. - 22 0.35 S.V. -
21 Jhunjhunu 5928 593 10 791 13.3 1778 30
22 Jodhpur 22250 7877 35.4 3026 13.6 11882 53.4
23 Karauli 5039 217 4.3 771 15.3 368 7.3
24 Kota 5204 S.V. - S.V. - S.V. -
25 Nagaur 17718 6219 35.1 7442 42 7459 42.1
26 Pali 12357 3596 29.1 259 2.1 3534 28.6
27 Rajsamand 4635 227 4.9 250 5.4 1242 26.8
28 S. Madhopur 5021 281 5.6 854 17 346 6.9
29 Sikar 7881 299 3.8 299 3.8 3223 40.9
30 Sirohi 5136 128 2.5 241 4.7 2070 40.3
31 Tonk 7200 216 3 1613 22.4 2578 35.8
32 Udaipur 12644 63 0.5 556 4.4 1568 12.4
TOTAL 342226 117755 34.41 74018 21.63 132928 38.84
36 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
2. Conservation of water
Policy of reward and punishment needs to be
introduced. Financial incentives in terms of
electricity bills may be introduced for water
savers.
Popularisation of micro irrigation techniques
and making it mandatory in phased manner.
Framing of water charges as per quantum of
water pumped.
Adoption of suitable cropping patterns in the
water scarcity area .
Conjunctive use of ground water.
Community irrigation system.
Reuse of domestic waste water for gardening.
For domestic use, judicious use of filtered
water, be promoted.
Promotion of Rain water harvesting in an
integrated manner.
Recycling of industrial waste water.
3. Augmentation of water Resrurees
Rehabilitation of traditional water harvesting
bodies.
Minimising evaporation losses of surface water
by suitable techniques/chemicals.
Arresting the sedimentation and de-silting the
tanks & reservoirs.
Artificial recharge of ground water by suitable
techniques.
4. Regulatory Measures
Creation of ground water sanctuaries.
Mass awareness programme & promotion of
IEC activities for quality & quantitative
aspects of water.
Enforcement of effective regulation and
management opti ons of ground water
resources.
Promotion of participatory management
programme.
REFERENCES
1. Ozha, D.D and Golani, F.M, Hydrotoxicants &
their effects Journal of Env & Health 22 (3),
76 (2005)
2. Ozha, D. D & Khi chi , K. D, C. M. R. D.
Publication, 138, 2007.
D. D. Ozha & H. R. Bhatt
37 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
Noise Environment in Cardiac
Hospital A Case Study
Idris Ahmed
Research Scholar, Department of Civil Engineering,
Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, South
Ambazari Road, Nagpur-440010, India.
E-mail : ghf_idris@yahoo.com
Dr. Ajay R. Tembhurkar
Head of the Department (corresponding author),
Department of Civil Engineering, Visvesvaraya National
Institute of Technology, South Ambazari Road, Nagpur-
440010, India.
Tel : +91-712-2801081, Fax : +91-712-2801371,
E-mail : artembhurkar@rediffmail.com
Abstract
Assessment of impact of noise on sensitive area
especially in hospital environment has become most
crucial concern in the recent time. Cardiac patients
are one of the most sensitive and worst affected due
to noise pollution. A study is therefore conducted
on 100 beds cardiac hospital with a focus to assess
the noise level in the hospital environ-ment. A 16-
hours sound measurement study is done using
sound level meter (DAWE Model No. 1421C) to
ascertain the noise level. The results indicate that
the noise levels at reception and out patients
department are in the range of 66 to 69 dB (A),
whereas at general ward its about 58 to 60 dB (A)
and which exceeds 50 % of time of measurement
period. Characteristics of location and presence of
intrusive noise sources are found to be the major
responsible factors that cause noise levels to exceed
the prescribed limit. The ANOVA analysis indicates
a significant difference (p < 0.05) spatially and
temporally, in the noise exposure levels at various
locations within the hospital premises.
Keywords: Noise Pollution, Cardiac Hospital,
Noise Indices, A- weighted level, Environment,
ANOVA
1. Introduction
In the recent time, increasing exposure to noise
pollution has become a serious problem for most of
the ci ti es. Noi se affects the human heal th
unfavorably both physically and psychologically
(Serkan et al. 2008). Hospitals are the most
sensitive to the exposure to noise pollution. World
Health Organization (WHO) recommends noise
levels limit of 40 dB (A) during the day and 35 dB
(A) at nights in hospital (Tsion et al. 1998;
Mackenzie et al. 2007). In India, the Noise Pollution
(Regulation and Control) Rules, 2000 and Noise
Pollution (Regulation and Control) (Amendment)
Rules, 2010 have been framed under the ambit of
Environment (Protection) Act, 1986. The ambient
levels of noise for silence zones such as hospitals is
about 50 dB (A) during the day and 40 dB (A) at
nights (CPCB 2000). Noise pollution within hospital
facilities are mainly caused due to equipments and
machinery used during normal work activities and
other human activity. The multiple monitors,
beepers, buzzers, paging systems, telephones, carts,
wheel chairs & gurneys, hospital beds, pillow
speakers and nurses call systems, IV poles that role
on tiled floors, doors that close abruptly, and carts
that squeak, all contribute to increase the noise in
the hospital environment (Tsion et al. 1998;
Neriman et al 2008). Apart from engineering and
architectural design, facilities and equipment and,
of course, people are paramount (Hilton 1985).
Noise environment not only affects the
patients health but also to the staff working in
noisy situation. Staff finds it harder to concentrate
on their job, leading to them being more fatigue,
decreased performance and increased chances of
error (Tsion et al.1998). Previous investigators
studying the effects of the noise on health and
healing have registered high noise levels in
hospitals, showing that the problem is more serious
in intensive care units, both at night and during
the day (Tsion et al.1998; Hilton 1985; Neriman et
al 2008). The epidemic of noise in hospitals, which
is one of the biggest complaints of patients and staff,
is something that can no longer be ignored. Cardiac
patients being the one who are adversely affected
by noise during their hospital stay, they suffer from
sleep disturbance, restlessness and disorientation.
In addition, it also effects to elevated blood
pressure, heart rate, and peripheral resistance by
the release of hormones such as norepinehrine,
epinephrine, and cortisol (Tsion et al.1998). In spite
of the effort taken by the hospital and regulatory
authority, the noise environment in hospital
settings in India is a generally an unnoticed crisis
(Mackenzie et al. 2007).
Very few studies are reported specially for
hospitals in India on assessment of noise levels and
its impacts. A serious effort is therefore needed to
control the noise within the hospitals and reduce
its negative impacts on the patients and staff.
Recent efforts are focused towards monitoring and
calculating actual noise exposure and level of
annoyance to the patients to actually understand
the gravity of the problem due to noise in the
hospital. In the present study an attempt is made
to evaluate the noise environment of a cardiac
hospital to determine the spatially and temporally
variations in the noise exposure levels at various
38 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
locations within the hospital premises.
2. Study Area
A premi er 100 bedded cardi ac hospi tal
(Mahurkar Hospital) with all modern facilities in
cardiology located at Nagpur, India is selected for
the present case study with their permission. It has
cardiac operation theater that matches world
standard of A-bacterial environment with the use
of Module Laminar Air Flow System. Cardiac
interventional procedures which include Coronary
Angiographies, Coronary Angioplasties, Balloon
Mitral Valvuloplasties, Pacemaker Implantations,
Open and Closed Heart Surgeries are normally
performed in this hospital. On an average 9 to 10
nos. of Heart surgeries are performed every day in
this hospital and over 90 % of indoor facility of the
hospital is normally booked throughout the year.
A 14 Bedded ICU and 35 bedded post operative
wards are available in this hospital. The Out
Patient Department (OPD) is in the morning hours
9.30 -11.30 hrs and about 80 to 90 OPD patients
visit the hospital every day. Equal number of
floating population (eg: patients relatives) visit the
hospital in the morning hours (9.30 -11.30 hrs) and
in the evening (17:00 to 19:00 hrs).
3. Noise Descriptors
Noise is commonly used to describe sounds
that are disagreeable or unpleasant produced by
acousti c waves of random i ntensi ti es and
frequencies or without musical quality, disrupts
performance, or sound that causes subjective
annoyance and irritation, and it is an obnoxious
stimulus for people (Narendra et al. 2004).
Equivalent noise level (L
Aeq
) is the commonly used
index which indicates an equivalent noise would
generate the same magnitude or quantum of energy
as those of all readings over the given duration,
covering all fluctuations (Tsion et al.1998; Ayer et
al. 2003 ; Gulab 2006). Noise pollution level (L
NP
)
is another index which used for analysis which
takes into account the variations in the sound signal
and hence it should serve as a better indicator of
pollution in the environment for both physical and
psychological disturbances of people (Ayer et al.
2003).
Following expressions are used for the analysis
in the present study:

N
L
Aeq
= 10 log
10*
[
1
/
N
(antilog (
L
Ai
/10 ) )
*
n
i
] (1)

i=1
L
NP
= L
Aeq
+ (L
10
L
90
) (2)
Where,
L
Ai
is the ith A-weighted sound pressure level
reading decibels,
N is the total number of readings,
L
Aeq
is the A-weighted equivalent sound pressure
level,
L
10
is the noise level exceeded 10% of the time. This
represents peak noise level.
L
50
is the noise level exceeded 50% of the time. This
represent noise level is near to the mean level
for dense population.
L
90
is the noise level exceeded 90% of the time. So,
this value is often surpassed, being normally
considered as the background noise level.
L
NP
is noise pollution level.
4. Methodology
Four sampling station are selected to study the
spatial and temporal effect of noise pollution within
hospital campus. The four selected sampling
locations are reception cum visitors block, out
patient department, general ward, and intensive
care units. The criteria for selection is exposure
characteri sti cs of the study area, physi cal
characteristics of all the sampling locations, which
represent global noise environment and population
characteristics which gives true representative
sampled population of the complete hospital area.
All measurements are made through precision-
grade sound level meter DAWE (Model No. 1421C).
The instrument is held comfortably in hand with
the microphone pointed at the suspected noise
source at a distance not less than 1 m away from
any reflecting object. This takes care to minimize
al l type of error duri ng measurement. The
equivalent noise level (L
Ai
) (A-weighted instant-
aneous sound pressure level) measurements are
recorded at intervals of 30 minutes for a period of
16 hours, at all sampling locations. This procedure
is carried out for morning (6:0011:00 a.m.),
afternoon (11:004:00 p.m.), evening (4:007:00
p.m.), and night (7:0010:00 p.m.) measurements.
Based on these measurements, various community
noise assessment quantities like the exceed
percentiles L
10,
L
50
and L
90
are computed.
5. Assessment of Noise
The variations in Sound Pressure Level (SPL)
measured at various sampling stations are shown
in Figure 1. It represent the large fluctuation in
sound pressure level (SPL) in general ward, ranges
from 45-85 dB (A) throughout the measurement
period. The highest peak of sound pressure level is
noted, when the cleaning operation is carried out
in the general ward, and also during the meal time.
The lowest SPL is observed in the night. The
observed value of SPL are ranges from 50-68 dB
(A) within the intensive care unit. The plot reveals
I. Ahmed & A. R. Tembhurkar
39 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
that the reception had the highest noise levels,
followed by out patient department, due to the
presence of the more people.
To understand the percentage of time the noise
level exceeded a particular value, Figure 2 is
plotted. It reveals that, the noise level limit of 45
dB (A) i s al ways exceeded over the enti re
measurement period. On comparing the selected
location it is observed that noise level of 66 to 69
dB (A) remai ned duri ng most part ti me of
measurement period at reception and OPD,
whereas noise level of 58 to 60 dB (A) exceeds 50 %
of time of measurement period at general ward &
ICU. A noise level of 75 dB (A) exceeded 6.03 % of
times during the entire measurement period except
at the reception. The maximum recorded at any
time is 85 dB (A) at the general ward during the
cleaning process.
Characteristics of location and presence of
intrusive noise sources are the major factors found
responsible for differences in noise level in the
different sampling location surveyed. Influence of
the characteristics of the locations and period of
the day on Equivalent Noise Level (L
Aeq
) and Noise
Pollution Level (L
NP
). There is variation in the noise
exposure levels with the period of the day and the
nature of the location. Figure 3 & 4 shows
variations of equivalent noise levels (L
Aeq
) and noise
pollution level (L
NP
) with location and period of the
day. In general, there is high noise pollution levels
(L
NP
) in the day-time (6:00 am 4:00 pm) compared
with the night-time (4:00 pm10:00 pm). At
reception, outpatient department, general ward,
and intensive care unit, both the L
NP
and L
Aeq
rises
from morning and reach peak values in the
afternoon and evening but descend in the night to
lower levels. The high noise exposure levels in the
morning and evening at these locations can be
justified as a result of morning rushing hours of
patients, staff, visitors and general public and due
to conversation and discussion among the patients,
staff and nurses. The noise pollution levels in the
evening time (4:00 pm7:00 pm) at intensive care
Fig. 1 : Plot shows SPL variation over
measurement period at various sampling
stations of Cardiac Hospital
Fig. 2 : Plot shows % Exceeding Noise Level over
measurement period at various sampling sta-
tions of Cardiac Hospital
Fig. 3 : Variation of the Equivalent Noise Levels
(L
Aeq
) with location and period of the day.
Fig. 4 : Variation of the Noise Pollution Levels
(L
Aeq
) with location and period of the day.
I. Ahmed & A. R. Tembhurkar
40 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
unit and out patient s department areas are
generally low. This is because the majority of the
staff nurses are not available at this time.
At the ti me of measurement the noi se
equivalent levels ranges from 53 to 77 dB (A). In
the general ward and intensive care unit the L
Aeq
value observed as 64 dB (A) and 60 dB (A) due to
doctors round and discussion among the patients
with their relatives. The highest and lowest noise
pollution level (L
NP
) are observed as 95 dB (A) and
66 dB (A) respectively. The higher noise pollution
level (L
NP
) during the morning period is 95 dB (A)
at recepti on and 84 dB (A) at out pati ents
department is obtained when loud conversation and
pulling of chairs is found to be a causative factor at
that moment. The higher noise pollution level (L
NP
)
during the morning period of 83 dB (A) and 71 dB
(A) is obtained in general ward and intensive care
unit respectively, and changing of beds and beeping
noise generated by equipment at intensive care unit
is found to the source at that moment. Reception
and OPD are found to be the noisiest sites with peak
noise levels (L
10
) of 79 dB (A) and 72 dB (A),
respectively, compared to the peak noise value GW
and ICU of 72 dB (A) and 67 dB (A) respectively.
The highest noise level is produced by snoring,
crying in pain of surrounding patients in general
ward and intensive care unit. But at reception and
out patients department, the high noise levels may
be a result of the noise produced by various activity
carried by patients and their relatives / visitors.
The use of electronic appliances such as radio,
mobile and printer at the reception and out patients
department is the main causative factor for creating
substantial amount of noise level. Noise from
nearby surrounding commercial activities and the
traffic noise are another sources contributing to the
environmental noise. The L
90
value shows the noise
level between 52.75 dB (A) to 53.25 dB (A) occurs
due to the normal work activity and normal
conversati on. Thi s commensurate wi th the
observation made for environmental sound levels
with number of specific variables determining the
characteristics and sources of noise present at the
location (Ahmed et al. 2006; Olayinka et al. 2010).
In order to determine whether the significant
difference in noise exposure level at all the
sampling locations, surveyed throughout the
measurement period (i.e. from morning to night)
are significant or not. The data is analyzed through
ANOVA for single factor experiment, using F-
distribution, is carried out on L
Aeq
and L
NP.
The
following hypothesis is postulated for the present
study:
H
0
: Di fference i n noi se l evel exposure i s
insignificant in the locations surveyed throughout
the day.
H
1
: Difference in noise level exposure is significant
in the locations surveyed throughout the day.
The null hypothesis (H
0
) postulated is that the
difference in noise level exposure is insignificant.
The alternative hypothesis (H
1
) is that the
difference in noise level exposure is significant
there is a variation of noise level exposure. The null
hypothesis (H
0
) ascertains the insignificant
difference in the noise level exposure in all the sites
surveyed throughout the day (from morning to
night) its rejection depend on the F value and the
critical (tabulated) value F
,q,n-q-1
(where is the
confidence level, q is the number of parameter that
described the phenomenon in this case q = 3, n is
the number of sample size). The hypothesis is
rejected if F is greater than F
,q,n-q-1,
accepted if F is
less than F
,q,n-q-1
(Ayer et al. 2003). The result of
the analysis of variance is tabulated for L
Aeq
and,
L
NP
at various location in Table 1 and Table 2
respectively. At 90% confidence level, the mean
square ratio (MSR) calculated for L
NP
is 7.60, while
Table 1 : Analysis of variance for equivalent noise level (L
Aeq
)
Source of SS DF MS MSR MSR
tabulated
Variation (MS=SS/DF) (MSR
c
=MS
c
/MS
r
) (F
0.1,3,12
)
Column 316.50 C 1 =3 105.50
Residual 183.50 (N-1) (C-1) =12 15.29 6.90 2.61
Total 500.00 N -1 = 15
Table 2 : Analysis of variance for noise pollution level (L
NP
)
Source of SS DF MS MSR MSR
tabulated
Variation (MS=SS/DF) (MSR
c
=MS
c
/MS
r
) (F
0.1,3,12
)
Column 730.69 C 1 =3 243.56
Residual 384.75 (N-1) (C-1) =12 32.06 7.60 2.61
Total 1115.44 N -1 = 15
I. Ahmed & A. R. Tembhurkar
41 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
the tabulated value is 2.61 (Lipson et al. 1973).
Similarly, at the same confidence level, the MSR
calculated for L
Aeq
is 6.90 and the tabulated value
remains as 2.61. Since, in the two cases, the
calculated MSR is greater than the tabulated value,
there is a significant difference (p< 0.05) in the
noise pollution level (L
NP
) and equivalent noise level
(L
Aeq
) in the locations surveyed based on the data
analyzed at 90% confidence level. This indicates
that there exists a difference in noise level at
different locations and at different period of time.
6. Conclusion
The present field study in a hospital area
shows a significant difference (p< 0.05) in the noise
exposure levels, spatially and temporally at 90%
confidence level. A high noise levels is registered
during the afternoon (L
Aeq
= 67.96 dB) and at
morning (L
Aeq
= 66.79 dB). The noise levels
measured during this study indicates that it
exceeds recommended levels, during both day and
night which are set up by various authorities for
hospitals. Keeping in mind the hospitalized patient,
the staff of hospital needs to be aware of noise
producing activity and adopt remedial measures to
reduce them within permissible limit. Nurses are
in key positions where they can identify physical,
psychological and social stressors that affect
patients during their hospital stay. Staff education,
planned nursing activities and proper design of
intensive care unit and other units may help combat
this overlooked problem.
Acknowledgement
The authors gratefully acknowledge the
permission granted by the authorities of Maharkar
Hospital, Nagpur to conduct survey and are also
thankful to all the respondents (namely patients,
medical staff, and patients relatives) for their kind
responses to the survey.
References
1. Serkan O, Irmak M A, Hasan Y (2008)
Determination of roadside noise reduction
effectiveness of Pinus sylvestris L. Populus
nigra L. in Erzurum, Tukkey. Journal of
Environ Monit Assess 144: 1-7.
2. Tsion C, Eftymiatos D, Theodossopoulou E,
Notis P, Kiriakou K (1998) Noise sources and
levels in the Evgenidion Hospital intensive
care unit. Journal of Intensive Care Med. 24:
845-847.
3. Mackenzie D J, Galburn L (2007) Noise levels
and noise sources in acute care hospital wards.
Building Serv. Eng. Res. Technol. 28(2): 117-
131.
4. C.P.C.B. (2000). Ambient Air Quality in
Respect of Noise. Central Pollution Control
Board Schedule-Part II: Sec 3.
5. Neriman A, enay K (2008) Effects of intensive
care unit noise on patients: a study on coronary
artery bypass graft surgery patients. Journal
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6. Hilton B A (1985) Noise in acute patient care
areas. Res Nurs Health 8: 283-291.
7. Narendra S, Davar S C (2004) Noise Pollution
Source, Effects and Control. J. Hum. Ecol
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8. Ayer U, Cirillo E, Fato I, Martellotta F (2003)
A new approach to assessing the performance
of noise indices in buildings. Journal of Applied
Acoustics 64: 129145.
9. Gulab S T (2006) A Study of Noise around an
Educational Institutional Area. Journal of
Environ. Science & Engg 48 (1): 35-38.
10. Ahmed J, Abbas A, Reem S (2006) Evaluation
of traffi c noi se pol l uti on. Journal of
Environmental Monit. and Assess 120: 499-
525.
11. Olayinka S, Saadu A et al (2010) Evaluation
and anal ysi s of noi se l evel s i n IIori n
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12. Lipson C, Seth N J (1973) Statistical design
and analysis of engineering. New York: Mc
Graw-Hill 68: 59-82.
I. Ahmed & A. R. Tembhurkar
42 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
Removal of Metal Ions using
Low-Cost Adsorbents
State of the Art
Naba Kumar Mandal
Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering,
Dr.Pauls Engineering College, Vanur, Villupuram, Dist.,
Tamil Nadu, INDIA
E-mail:nabachem@gmail.com
Abstract
Adsorption is a fast and inexpensive method
and hence widely used to remove various pollutants
from wastewater. In the present article, the
suitability of activated carbon and other alternative
adsorbents for the removal of ions from water and
the industrial wastewater has been reviewed. Since
the activated carbon is an expensive material,
searching an alternative low cost eco-friendly
material is the need of the present scenario. The safe
and eco-friendly disposal of spent adsorbents has
also been studied. Their experimental work includes
the optimization of various parameters affecting the
adsorption process in both batch and column
studies. Also, the obtained data was used by the
investigators to fit into various standard isotherms
available for verifying their feasibility.
Key words: Adsorption, adsorbent, activated
carbon, column studies, isotherm, low cost material
1. Introduction
The tremendous increase in the use of heavy
metals in industries over the past two decades has
inevitably resulted in increased flux of metallic
substances in the aquatic environment. These
metals are of special concern because of their
persistency. Industrial wastes are the major
sources of various kinds of metal pollution for the
natural water bodies. These heavy metals enter into
the natural water bodies through the wastewater
discharge from electroplating, leather tanning,
foundry, chemical manufacturing, jewelery works,
dye manufacturing, mining, industries of Cd-Ni
batteries, phosphate fertilizer, pigments, etc.
Environmental constraints have forced the metal
plating industry to reduce their emissions to water
bodies, otherwise mass usage of metals could cause
severe environmental problems. The bioaccumu-
lation of toxic heavy metals in the food chain is a
threat to the human health due to their immutable
nature. For example, the Minamita disease was
caused by the consumption of mercury (50 ppm Hg)
contaminated fish by the people from Minamita Bay
in Japan [1]. The presence of heavy metals in the
wastewater with excess concentration will also
affect the performance of biological treatment units
in the wastewater treatment, since these are toxic
to the microorganisms.
Adsorption is a physico-chemical technique,
the most effective and economical treatment
method due to its low cost. Selective adsorbents
offer a good solution for treating waste streams
from the small scale metal plating, tannery and
other industries. Adsorption is a simple, safe and
cost effective method for the removal of heavy metal
ions from the industrial effluents.
In this paper, articles on adsorption of heavy
metal ions published in the recent journals are
reviewed and gist of the contents presented.
2.0 Literature Review
Tangjuank. et.al (2009) used cashew nut shell
in activated carbon form for the removal of Pb(II)
and Cd(II) ions from aqueous solutions using batch
adsorption method. The effect of initial pH, contact
ti me, adsorbent dose and i ni ti al metal i on
concentration were verified. Maximum adsorption
was exhibited at pH 6.0 and 6.5, activation time
150 min. and BET surface area 1120 m
2
. g
-1
.
Maximum adsorption of Pb(II) ions was 99.61% at
pH 6.5 and 98.87% at pH 6.0 for Cd(II). The
experimental data was used to fit into Freundlich
and Langmuir isotherm models. The adsorption
capacity of Pb
2+
and Cd
2+
ions were found to be 28.90
m
2
g
-1
and 14.29 m
2
g
-1
, respectively [7].
Removal of Pb(II) from syntheti c and
i ndustri al effl uents usi ng saw dust was
investigated by Christian et. al (2005). The
investigators used column studies to get the break
through at different flow rates i.e 1.42, 2.83 and
5.66 cm/min. The authors mentioned that the data
was well fitted in the BDST model and stated that
10% of break through point gave satisfactory result
with an error of 4% with respect to theoretical
service time. It was reported that 1 kg of sawdust
was enough to treat 1200 L of effluent containing
1 mg/l of Pb (II) before the effluent discharged. i.e
equivalent to 99% removal [8].
Activated carbon produced from Palm Kernel
shells was used by Mush M (2011) to adsorb Pb(II)
and Cr(III) ions from synthetic solutions. The raw
materials were carbonized at 600
0
C for 5 minutes
and washed with 0.1M HCl and later further
activated at 800
0
C using H
3
PO
4
. Batch studies were
conducted to investigate the effect of time on
adsorption. The author used four different models
to fit the kinetic adsorption data. It was reported
that pseudo second order kinetics was found best
fit for adsorption of Pb
2+
and Cr
3+
ions comparative
to other models [9].
43 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
Suganthi N. (2012) studied the removal of
Cd(II) and Cu(II) using column studies. The author
used pretreated tamari nd seeds (PTC) and
commercial activated carbon (CAC) to assess the
effect of pH, flow rate and bed height. Initially the
tamarind seeds were impregnated in phosphoric
acid under a weight ratio of 1:1 followed by treating
at 16050C for 24 hrs and after cooling, washed
several times to remove excess acid and dried at
10050C. The carbon was soaked in 1% sodium
carbonate solution for 24 hrs and washed with
water to remove the excess sodium carbonate and
dried at 10050C. A known quantity i.e 15, 20, 25
gms of adsorbents was packed in column of desired
height. The stock solution containing metal ions
concentration of 200 mg/l was allowed to flow
through the col umns, ti l l the metal i on
concentrati on i n the effl uent exceeds the
permissible limits (break point). The author
reported that the removal efficiency of PTC was
higher than CAC. Further Cu(II) was adsorbed
more on PTC compared to Cd(II). Hence the author
concluded that the tamarind seeds can be effectively
used in treating the water and waste water [10].
Nwabanne and Igbokwe (2012) had
investigated adsorption performance of packed bed
column for the removal of Lead using oil palm fibre
(OPF) from aqueous solution. The influence of inlet
ion concentration, flow rate and bed height on the
adsorption process was studied. The particle size
of activated carbon ranging from 0.425 mm to 0.600
mm and the bed height of 50 mm, 100 mm and 150
mm were used. Three flow rates (5, 7.5 and 10 ml/
min) were used with initial ion concentrations of
50, 100 and 150 mg/l. From the results, it was
observed that the adsorption efficiency increased
with the increased of inlet ion concentration and
bed height. It also decreased with increase of the
flow rate. The adsorption kinetics were analyzed
by using Thomas and Yoon - Nelson kinetic models.
The maximum adsorption capacity obtained from
both models increased with increase in flow rate
and initial ion concentration but decreased with the
increase of bed height. The experimental break
through curve and the break through profile
obtained from Yoon - Nelson method showed a
satisfactory fit for the activated carbon derived from
oil pump empty fruit bunch. Authors reported that
the experimental break through curves obtained for
each activated carbon at flow rate of 5 ml/min, inlet
ion concentration of 100 mg/l and bed height of 100
mm, the theoretical curves from the proposed model
is in good agreement with the experimental curve
[11].
Yahaya Nasehir Khan et.al (2011) studied
fixed bed column study for Cu(II) removal from
aqueous solutions using rice husk activated carbon
by fixed bed adsorption column. Rice Husk based
activated carbon (RHAC) was prepared with ZnCl
2
to remove Cu(II) from aqueous solution using fixed
bed adsorption column. The column studies showed
better effi ci ency wi th l ower Cu(II) i nl et
concentration, lower feed flow rate and higher
RHAC bed height. The highest bed capacity of 34.56
mg/ gm was obtai ned by usi ng i nl et Cu(II)
concentration 10mg/l, bed height 80mm and flow
rate 10ml/min. Adsorption data was used to fit into
Adam-Bohart, Thomas and Yoon-Nelson adsorption
models. The results were fitted well to the Yoon-
Nelson and Thomas model with correlation co-
efficient (R
2
) 0.96 [12].
Negrea et.al (2011) had conducted experi-
mental and modeling studies on As(III) removal
from aqueous medium using fixed bed column. A
continuous flow adsorption studies with sand
mixture as an adsorbent was used to remove As(III)
from aqueous solution. The important parameters
in the column study are flow rate, bed depth on
break through curve and adsorption capacity. The
bed depth service time (BDST) model was used to
apply the experimental data and determined the
column design parameters. The best performance
of the iron containing waste sludge: sand mixtures
in the removal process of As(III) with column
studies occurred with the 10 cm bed depth, flow
rate of 2ml/min and a service time of 11.3 hr (90%
exhaustion). The calculated adsorption capacity
(N
o
) and rate constant(k) were 55.2mg/cm
3
and 12.2
cm
3
/mg/hr. Authors concluded that the iron
containing waste sludge: sand mixture can be used
as adsorbent material for As(III) removal process
in continuous flow condition [13].
Nordiana and Rahman (2013) studied the
adsorption of Pb(II) from aqueous solution by a
mixture of activated charcoal and peanut shell. The
experiments were conducted using batch adsorption
method. The effect of contact time, initial metal
concentration, dose of adsorbent and pH on the
adsorption of lead were studied. The authors
reported that the maximum removal of Pb (98.57%)
was achieved at pH 4.0 and contact time 30 min
[14].
Thamilarasu and Karunakaran (2011) used
Ricinuscommunis seed shell activated carbon for
the removal of Ni(II) from aqueous solution. The
authors conducted batch adsorption studies to
optimize adsorbent dose, pH, contact time and
initial Ni(II) ion concentration. It was reported that
the maximum removal of Ni(II) achieved at pH 5.0,
adsorbent dose 50mg/50ml or 1mg/ml, contact time
30 minutes. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin
adsorption isotherms were used to verify the data.
N. K. Mandal
44 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
The investigators concluded that the mechanism
involved was intra-particle diffusion and surface
adsorption for the adsorption of Ni(II) onto the
adsorbent [15].
Ni(II) removal using of powdered activated
carbons prepared from coconut oilcake, Neem oil
cake and commercial carbon was investigated by
Hema and Shrinivasan (2011). The investigators
used batch adsorption studies to understand the
efficiency of adsorbents variables such as pH,
contact time, adsorbent dose and Ni(II) ion
concentration. The Artificial Neural Network
(ANN) and multiple regression model were used to
verify the obtained dada. The authors concluded
that ANN model will be useful in predicting the
most suitable operating conditions to treat Ni(II)
containing industrial waste water [16].
Geetha Devi and Chandrasekhar (2012)
conducted batch studies for the removal of Zn(II)
using crab shell chitosan and date seed carbon. It
was reported that maximum removal of Zn(II) was
obtained at optimum conditions pH 4.0, contact
time of 75 minutes, doses of adsorbents 30 mg,
agitation speed 100 rpm, optimum temperature
40
0
C and metal ion concentration 30 mg/l in case of
chitosan. Whereas in case of date seed carbon, the
optimal conditions were pH 2.0, adsorbent dose 60
mg, agitation speed 125 rpm and metal ion
concentration 50 mg/l. The investigators concluded
that both adsorbents followed the Langmuir
adsorption isotherm [17].
Alagumuthu et.al (2010) investigated the
application of adsorption isotherms on fluoride
removal. The ability of cynodondactylon based
thermally activated carbon to remove fluoride from
aqueous solution using batch process had been
investigated. The experiments were carried out at
neutral pH i.e. 7.0, with the variation of contact
time, adsorbent dose, fluoride ion concentration,
temperature and presence of co-anions. The
adsorption equilibrium attained after 105 minutes.
From the data, it was concluded that the prepared
adsorbent surface sites were heterogeneous in
nature and that fitted into a heterogeneous site
binding model. In their studies Redlich-peterson
and Langmui r i sotherms were sel ected to
understand the adsorption mechanism. The authors
stated that the adsorption was endothermic in
nature. The maximum fluoride removal (83.77%)
was occurred at the optimum time 105 minutes with
3.0 mg/l fluoride concentration and 1.25 gm dosage
of adsorbent at neutral pH. It was also reported
that, the bicarbonate ions interfered in the removal
of fluoride by cynodondactylon bio-adsorbents and
the used adsorbents could be regenerated upto
67.4% with 2% sodium hydroxide solution [18].
Basava Rao et.al (2007) investigated the
removal of Cadmium and Zinc from metal finishing
industrial effluents with low cost adsorbents. The
performance of adsorbents like Powdered Activated
Carbon (PAC), Granular Activated Carbon (GAC
size- 1.3mm) and Fly Ash (FA) was evaluated by
conducting the experiments to understand the
optimum conditions such as the effect of initial
metal ion concentration, contact time, adsorbent
dose and pH for the removal of Zn
2+
and Cd
2+
metal
ions from the electroplating industrial effluents.
The optimum values were pH-5.0 for PAC and 2.0
for FA, fly ash adsorbent dose - 20gm/l, contact time
for all the three adsorbents - 2.5 to 3.0 hours. The
investigators had used batch method and concluded
that the fly ash can be used as an adsorbent to treat
metal plating wastewater [19].
Geetha et.al (2009) studied the adsorption of
Cr(VI) and Pb(II) from aqueous solutions using
areca nut shell (agricultural solid waste by
product). The maximum removal of Cr(VI) and
Pb(II) was found at pH 4.0 and 5.0 respectively
adsorption method. The nature of adsorption was
confirmed as exothermic. Maximum desorption of
88% for Cr(VI) and 91% for Pb(II) were achieved.
The authors suggested using the Areca nut shell to
remove the heavy metal ions from the industrial
waste water [20].
3.0 CONCLUSIONS
The use of activated carbon as an adsorbent
i n adsorpti on process i s a costl y affai r.
Investigations have been conducted to substitute
the costlier activated carbon with locally available
N. K. Mandal

Manufacturer of : Marked PVC PIPE FITTINGS
Specialised in : PVC, FRP, HDPE & PP FABRICATIONS
We Also Undertake Any Laying Job
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54B, J ay Kissan Street, Uttarpara, Hooghly-712258
Telephone : 033-2664-5719 (O), 033-2659-3340 (F) E-mail : reliancepolymer@rediffmail.com
45 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
low cost and eco-friendly bio-sorbent materials to
remove pollutants effectively and efficiently. These
materials include naturally occurring materials and
waste products of agriculture and industries. The
pollutants removal efficiency of some adsorbents
materials is found to be satisfactory compared with
the costlier activated carbon. Still there is a scope
for an extensive research on the following areas:
i) To improve the adsorption capacities of such
low cost adsorbents.
ii) Cost benefit analysis should be done while
selecting adsorbents.
iii) The most important issue is the safe disposal
of spent adsorbents. Only limited information
is available in literature about the safe
disposal of spent adsorbents.
Acknowledgements
The author would like to convey sincere thanks
to Dr.Y.R.M.Rao, Principal, Dr.Pauls Engineering
College, Villupuram district for his valuable
comments and useful suggestions to improve the
quality of this paper and also to my colleagues
Mr.K.Stalin and Mr.K.Kaviyarasan.
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151-156.
N. K. Mandal
47 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
Air Quality Variation in Kanpur
City and its Health related
impacts
Ajantha Devi
Senior Research Officer, State Planning Commission,
Planning Dept., Lucknow, U. P.
(ajanta_ashok_2007@yahoo.co.in)
Dr. Madhu Bhardwaj
Chief Environmental Officer, U.P. Pollution Control
Board, Lucknow, U. P.
(centrallab.uppcb@yahoo.co.in)
Dr. D. S. Bhargava
Former Prof. (Env.Engg.) of 11T, Roorke, Bhargava Lane,
Devpura, Haridwar-229401 (dsbhargava@yahoo.co.in).
Abstract
Air pollution is a major health hazard being
faced by the people all over the world. The speed
with which the magnitude of urban air pollution is
growing across the major Indian cities is alarming
and this is due to the uncontrolled growth of
population, unplanned industrialisation, defores-
tation for the purpose of developmental activities
and urbanisation and due to uncontrolled growth
of the vehicles. Kanpur being industrial city, people
from surrounding areas of the city including the
rural areas and also from other parts of India are
migrating to the city in search of employment. The
different kinds of activities taking place due to the
above reasons are not only deteriorating the
environmental conditions including air quality but
also the healths of the people are severely affected.
Also the plants, animals and materials are being
badly affected. Kanpur is one of the most affected
cities in Uttar Pradesh and ranks 9th among top
10 Industrial cities in India followed by Surat.
Through the present study monthly air quality
variation in different areas of Kanpur city along
with its causes is presented. Air pollution poses
severe health related impacts and this depends upon
the magnitude of the air pollution, number of people
already suffering from respiratory and other related
diseases, nearby industries, growth of vehicles, etc.
The study also suggests some mitigation measures
so that the quality of life and health of the people in
the city be sustained.
Key words : RSPM, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen
dioxide, health
Introduction
Kanpur, spelled as Cawnpore before 1948,
is the Industrial Capital of Uttar Pradesh. Kanpur
is situated on the banks of the river Ganges and
lies in northern plains of India, which witness
extremes of temperature. It can drop to a minimum
of 0.0C in the winters while it goes up to 48C in
summers. Kanpur experiences severe fog in
December and January, resulting in massive traffic
and travel delays. In summer excessive dry heat is
accompanied by dust storms and Loo, traits more
commonly seen in desert climates. Rains appear
between July and September almost at the end of
regular monsoon season. As per 2011 census
Kanpur urban agglomeration has a population of
2,920,067. The majority of Kanpurs population
comprises people from Central and Western Uttar
Pradesh. Kanpur being an industrial city provides
opportunities for employment.
The status of air pollution in Kanpur city is
very bad due to the uncontrolled growth of popula-
tion, unplanned industrialisation, urbanisation,
conventional coal combustion and due to uncon-
trolled growth of the vehicles and the impact of
these are posing threats to public health like
increase in respiratory symptom: hospitalization,
and premature mortality (Haidong Kan, 2009).
Diesel vehicles cause more damages per mile than
do gasoline vehicles, because of greater particulate
emissions. Very fine particles appear more danger-
ous than larger particles, and combustion particles
appear more dangerous than road dust (McCubbin
and Delucchi, 1999). Respirable Suspended
particulate Matter (RSPM also called PM10) with
diameter 10 ppm or less can penetrate deep into
the respiratory tract and can cause heart related
problems, asthma, also decreases lung function
especially in children and older people and due to
this there is financial and non-financial welfare
losses (Fadel and Massoud, 2000). Acute Respira-
tory Infections were one of the most common causes
of deaths in children under 5 in India, and contri-
buted to 13% of in-patient deaths in paediatric
wards in India. PM10 are particularly nasty,
penetrating deep into the lungs and the blood-
stream, where they can help trigger heart attacks
and other cardiovascular disease. Bronchitis and
pneumonia are very common with symptoms inclu-
ding cough, fever, chills and shortness of breath.
NO
2
penetrates the lung periphery and is absorbed
into the mucosa of the respiratory tract and hence
causing mild inflammation (WHO, 1977). Inhaled
sulphur dioxide is highly soluble in aqueous sur-
faces of the respiratory tract from where it enters
the blood. S0
2
absorbed in the nose and the upper
airways exerts its irritant effect. Smog, a kind of
air pollution is a serious problem in many cities.
Smog has claimed about four thousand people in
the great Smog Disaster in London in 1952.
48 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
Population growth and evolution of industries
in Kanpur
It is evident from Figure 1 that there was
sudden drastic change in the population growth
from the year 1921 and continued there on till 2001.
After 1857, Kanpur became an important centre of
the leather and textile industries. The first cotton
textile mill, the Elgin Mills, was started in 1862
and many others followed in the next 40 years. The
first steel re-rolling mill of India was established
here which later became one of the nations largest
re-rolling mills. Kanpur city has been nicknamed
as Leather City of the World, Manchester of the
East, Economic Capital of Uttar Pradesh.
Kanpur has five Indian Ordnance Factories
viz. Field Gun Factory, Ordnance Equipment
Factory, Ordnance Parachute Factory, Ordnance
Factory Kanpur, Small Arms Factory of the gigantic
Ordnance Factories Board which manufactures
products of the Indian Armed Forces. Kanpur is
one of the biggest producers of textile and leather
products and they are exported in bulk. Some of
the other industries manufacturing Yarn and Yarn
Products, Furniture, Footwear, Plastic Bags, Beds
and Mattresses, Textile, Leather Goods and
Accessories, Jute Products, Food, Dairy Products,
Car Accessories, Coils, Oil, Seals, Springs,
Ayurvedic, Herbal Products, Capsules, Injectables,
Bar Soap, Castings, Dies, Forgings Equipment, are
situated in Kanpur. Also new industries such as
detergent, saddlery, pan masala (tobacco), plastics
and packaging, jewellery have developed in the city.
The only night lamp factory of Uttar Pradesh is also
located in Kanpur.
Data Collection/Methodology
Month wise data related to air pollutants
RSPM, S0
2
and NO
x
for the years 2009, 2010 and
2011 were obtained from UP Pollution Control
Boaid. RSPM, S0
2
and N0
2
were monitored at 8
locations (Kidwainagar, Dashanpurwa, Panki Site-
5, Shastrinagar, Avas Vikas-Kalyanpur, Dada-
nagar, IIT Campus and Ramadevi) in 2011 and in
2009 and 2010 at 5 locations (Kidwainagar,
Dashanpurwa, Panki Site-5, Shastrinagar and Avas
Vikas-Kalyanpur). For monitoring these air
pollutants UPPCB follows the procedures set by
National Ambient Air Quality Standads, CPCB.
Pollutants are collected twice a week for 24 hours
at uniform intervals at a particular site and annual
arithmatic mean of minimum 104 measurements
in a year is taken. For measuring PM10 TOEM
method, for S0
2
Improved West and Gaeke Method
and for N0
2
Modified Jacob and Hochheiser (Na-
Arsenite) Method is preferred respectively.
According to the revised National Ambient Air
Quality Standads (18th November 2009) concen-
tration of ambient air in industrial, residential,
rural and other area on the basis of annual time
weighted average is 60ug/m
3
for PM10, 40 (g/m
3
for N0
2
and 50 ug/m
3
for S0
2
. Obtained data was
compared with these standards to analyse the
pattern of air pollutants, concentration of air
pollutants, trends of the pollutants in different
months of the years.
Analysis and Discussion
Kidwainagar, Shastrinagar, Avas Vikas,
Kalyanpur and IIT Campus are the residential
areas. The trend of RSPM (Respirable Suspended
Particulate Matter) i.e., PM10, S0
2
andN0
2
in these
areas for the years 2009, 2010 and 2011 is shown
in the figures 3 to 10. The level of RSPM was
maximum in winters and lowest in the rainy season
Figure 1 : Population growth in Kanpur city
A. Devi, M. Bhardwaj & D. S. Bhargava
49 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
Figure 2 : Monitoring locations
at all the places.
Kidwainagar, which is a very old residential
area, has very less vegetation compared to other
residential areas. There is more number of
interlinking roads within the colony where small
and medium vehicles ply on the unpaved roads due
to which there are dusts in the air. According to a
2008 study commissioned by the Union ministry of
urban development, traffic volumes have exceeded
the designed capacity of roads in more than 26 per
cent of Kanpurs road length. Some of the key roads
which carry more traffic than designed include
Meston Road, Canal Road, Halsey Road and the
Kidwainagar Road near Ghantaghar. The level of
RSPM in Kidwainagar in 2009 varied from 164.2
ug/m
3
to 242.7 g/m
3
which is 2.7 to 4 times more
than the standards (60 g/m
3
) and in 2010 and 2011
RSPM varied from 162.5 g/m
3
to 218.8 g/m
3
and
196.8 g/m
3
to 219.7 ug/m
3
respectively. The figure
3 shows reducing trend for RSPM from 2009 to
2011. Level of S0
2
is within the standard limit (50
g/m
3
). Level of N0
2
is showing an increasing trend
from 2009 which exceeds the limit (40 g/m
3
) in
2011. These pollutants are emissions from vehicles,
burning of wood and coal which is released at
ground level and due to poor dispersion at ground
level, the impact of these pollutants on recipient
population will be more.
At Shastrinagar the level of RSPM was
constant and is upto 4 times the standard in years
2009, 2010 and 2011. Figure 4 shows the level of
RSPM reduces in the rainy season (July to
September) and increases in winter (November to
January). This is true for all the places because
during rainy season these pollutants settle down
due to rains. RSPM levels is showing a bit decrea-
sing trend and this can be because of number of
parks like Shastrinagar Centre Park, Durga Park,
Ucha Park, Chota Centre Park, etc. which acts as
pollution absorbers. The level of S0
2
is.within the
standard limit (50 g/m
3
). Level of N0
2
is showing
an increasing trend from 2009 which exceeds the
limit (40 g/m
3
) in 2011. These pollutants are
emissions from vehicles, burning of wood and coal
during winters to get rid of cold. As these pollutants
are released at ground level, their dispersion is poor
and this has very bad impact on public health.
Avas Vikas, Kalyanpur is a new residential
colony with very less vegetation. There are empty/
agricultural lands with loose surface soil due to
which the level of RSPM is more. Here the level of
RSPM ranges from 2.5- 4.0 times the norms in 2009,
2.5-3.5 the norms in 2010 and 3.0-3.5 the norms in
2011. Figure 5 shows the level of RSPM reduces in
the rainy season (July to September) and increases
in winter (November to January). The level of S0
2
is within the standard limit whereas the level of
N0
2
is showing an increasing trend from 2009 which
exceeds the limit in 2011. These pollutants are
emissions from vehicles from nearby National
A. Devi, M. Bhardwaj & D. S. Bhargava
50 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
Figure 3 : Conc. of RSPM, SO
2
and NO
2
in
Kidwainagar.
(a)
(b)
(c)
A. Devi, M. Bhardwaj & D. S. Bhargava
(a)
(b)
Figure 4 : Conc. of RSPM, SO
2
and NO
2
in
Shastrinagar.
(c)
2009
2009
2010
2010
2011
2011
51 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
Highway-91, construction activities, burning of
wood and dung cake by labourers for cooking
purpose and also burning of wood and coal during
winters to get rid of cold. As the emissions from
these sources are released at ground level, their
dispersions is very poor and this has very bad effect
on the health of the public.
Figure 6 shows the variation of RSPM, SO
2
and
N0
2
in IIT Campus, which is categorised as
residential area. The level of S0
2
and N0
2
is within
the limit where as there the level of RSPM reaches
upto 4 times the norms. The reason can be
attributed to the growth of vehicles around IIT.
Other sources of air pollution near this area are
use of coal and wood by the people at the road side
tea stalls. Emissions from these sources are
proportional to the total population and socio-
economic state of the habitat in the area. To
mitigate the air pollution problem there should be
proper system to check pollution from all the major
sources and also it should be mandatory for each
vehi cl e and equi pment to take a cl earance
certificate at a regular interval. Road damage
caused by sub-project activities will be promptly
attended with proper road repair and maintenance
work. For this there should be proper coordination
between different departments involved. The roads
near the residential areas should be paved properly.
A. Devi, M. Bhardwaj & D. S. Bhargava
(a)
(b)
Figure 5 : Conc. of RSPM, SO
2
and NO
2
in
Avas Vikas, Kalyanpur
(c)
Figure 6 : Concn. of RSPM, SO
2
and NO
2
in
IIT Campus
At Ramadevi (figure 8) level of SPM in 2011
varies from 155.3 g/m
3
(July) to 1055.0 g/m
3
(November) and the level of RSPM varies from 74.9
g/m
3
(July) to 465.0 g/m
3
(December). Main
sources of air pollution at Ramadevi which is a
traffic site (intersection of four major roads called
chauraha includes NH 25 and Asian highway-2) are
mainly from the emissions from vehicles as there
are auto stands and bus stands. Also there is a big
2009
52 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
Figure 7 : Concn. of RSPM, SO
2
and NO
2
in
Darshanpurwa
A. Devi, M. Bhardwaj & D. S. Bhargava
(a)
(b)
(c)
market place nearby and here the source of
pollutants are DG sets, vehicle emissions, dust
because of unpaved roads, smoke problems from
garbage burning and from restaurants. Mitigation
measures to these problems can be monitoring of
air quality regularly, planting trees, enforce speed
limits to reduce airborne fugitive dust caused by
vehicular traffic and widening of roads.
In commercial cum residential area like
Darshanpurwa (Fig 7) the level of RSPM is 3-4
times the norms. At Darshanpurwa in 2009, 2010
and 2011 the level of RSPM is more than the
standard limits (60 g/m
3
). According to the
available data in 2009 RSPM varies from 193.9 g/
m
3
(March) to 259.3 g/m
3
(July) in 2009 and the
level of RSPM varies from 168.5 g/m
3
(July) to
228.07 g/m
3
(January). In 2011 the level of RSPM
varies from 187.1 g/m
3
(October) to 212.4 g/m
3
(September). In 2011 compared to 2009 and 2010
the level of RSPM is reduced but still they are more
than the standard norms. Here the main source of
air pollutants are from activities like domestic
cooking, DG sets, vehicles, road dust, garbage
burning, restaurants and roadside stalls near
commercial activities, Kerosene and LPG are the
major sources of fuel used in the commercial areas
of the city followed by use of coal and wood.
Vegetation cover is moderate which is in the form
of parks and open space at Kamla club cricket
ground. J.K.Factory which produces jute is situated
nearby. Mitigation measures to these problems can
be monitoring of air quality regularly, planting
more trees at the areas where particulate matter
is generated, enforce speed limits to reduce airborne
fugitive dust caused by vehicular traffic and
widening of roads. Awareness should be created and
training should be given on impacts of air pollution
among the people of all standards.
At Ramadevi the level of RSPM in winters
(2011) was more than double the standard limit and
in rainy (June to September) season it was less than
the standard limit. From the figure 8 it is seen that
at these two places the level of RSPM is showing a
decreasing trend from January to July and then
onwards showing an increasing trend. In July at
almost all the places the level of RSPM are lowest
because during the rainy season, these pollutants
settle down due to rains.
Panki presently inside the Kanpur municipal
limits is an industrial area and is about 8 km from
the Kanpur railway station and main bus stand.
This place has an electric power generating station
with an installed capacity of 220 Mega Watts which
supplies to the northern grid. Figure 9a, 9b and 9c
shows the trend of air pollution in 2009, 2010 and
2011. In 2010 Panki was the most polluted area
53 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
A. Devi, M. Bhardwaj & D. S. Bhargava
Figure 8 : Concn. of RSPM, SO
2
and NO
2
in
Ramadevi
with maximum RSPM level 282.8 g/m3 which is
4.7 times the standard limit. The pollutants here
can be related to quantity of fossil burnt in boilers
and process fugitive emissions.
Figure 10 shows the trend of RSPM, S0
2
and
N0
2
in Dadanagar. In 2011 the RSPM level at
Dadanagar was 9.5 times the norms which is very
alarming. The reason can be attributed to the
busiest railway track on which Kanpur-Mumbai,
Kanpur-Bengaluru, and Kanpur-Chennai train
(diesel engine) runs. Vegetation is very less here.
Also the movement of trains here is slow and the
emissions from the diesel engines pollute the
surrounding air. Also the other sources of air
pollution near this area are use of coal, wood, cow-
dung etc. in slums settlements along the railway
yard, road side tea stalls (near railway stations,
bus stops), etc. Emissions from these sources are
proportional to the total population and socio-
economic state of the majority of the habitat in the
area. To mitigate the air pollution problem here
vegetation cover should be increased as they are
the sinks for air pollutants. Use of coal is significant
in slum settlements along the railway yard and
near industries. Slums should be rehabilitated
under the different schemes of Government and
awareness on impacts of air pollution should be
created among them.
At almost all the places in the city the top
surface soil of Kanpur is a loose alluvium. The soil
dust becomes air borne with the flow of wind. Dust
storms are very common during May-June. Open
area not covered with grass or vegetation are the
major source of natural dust. To reduce the
pollution level here vegetation cover should be
increased as they are sinks for air pollutans.
Conclusion
The main aim of the study was to present the
variation of air pollutants in different areas of
Kanpur city and find the causes for its variation.
(a)
(b)
Figure 9 : Concn. of RSPM, SO
2
and NO
2
in
Panki Site-5.
(c)
From the study it was observed that maximum
values of all the three pollutants are observed
in winter and lowest in the rainy season which
54 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
limit at almost all the places and the level of
N0
2
at almost all the places is showing an
increasing trend which is approaching almost
nearer the standards and this requires major
attention. The trend of variation of different
pollutants and the reasons for its variation along
with some remedial measures have already been
presented. Awareness programmes should be
carried out regularly for implementation of travel
plans, car sharing schemes and improvements in
public transport, walking and cycling in the local
area.
Bibliography
1. Haidong Kan, Environment and Health in
China: Challenges and Opportunities, Environ
Health Perspective, 2009 December; 117(12):
A530-A531, Fudan Unviersity, Shanghai,
China.
2. McCubbin, D. R., M. A. Delucchi (1999), The
Health Costs of Motor-Vehicle- Related Air
Pollution, Journal of Transport Economics and
Policy 33(3): 253-286.
3. El -Fadel , M. and Massoud, M. (2000).
A. Devi, M. Bhardwaj & D. S. Bhargava
Figure 10 : Concn. of RSPM, SO
2
and NO
2
in
Dadanagar
implies in winter the emissions from different
sources released at ground level has very poor
dispersion leading to a very bad effect on the
health of the public and during rainy season
these pollutants settle down due to rains. The
level of RSPM is of major concern because
their level is much higher, almost more than
twice the permissible limit at all the places
whether is residential/ commercial or
industrial. Level of S0
2
is within the standard
TATA METALIKS KUBOTA PIPES LIMITED
Manufacturer of ISI marked Ductile Iron (DI) Pipes
Head Office
Tata Centre 10
th
Floor 43 Jawaharlal Nehru Road
Kolkata 700071 India
Production Unit
PO Samraipur Kharagpur Paschim Midnapur 721301
West Bengal India
Marketing and Sales Office
6/1A Middleton Street 1
st
Floor Kolkata 700 071 India
Tel 91 33 64591384/85 Fax 91 33 22820781
e-mail marketing@tatametalikskubota.com
website www.tatametalikskubota.com
55 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
Particulate matter in urban areas: Health
based economic assessment, The Science of
the Total Environment, 257(2-3), pp. 133-146.
4. Pope III, C A, et al., Lung Cancer, cardiopul-
monary mortality, and long-term exposure to
fine particulate air pollution, Journal of the
American Medical Association, (287): 1123-
1141.
5. California environmental protection Agency
Air Resource Board (http://www.ecopolitics.ca/
airpol
6. Air quality monitoring, emission inventory and
source apportionment study for Indian cities
National Summary Report, www.cpcb.nic.in.
A. Devi, M. Bhardwaj & D. S. Bhargava
7. Public release date: 13-Aug-2007, http://
www.springerlink.com/content/101592/
8. U.N. Tiwari, Additional Municipal Commi-
ssioner, Kanpur Nagar Nigam, Kitakyushu
Initiative on Urban Air Quality Management,
Bangkok, Thailand, paper presented on 20-21
February 2003.
9. N. Raghu Babu, Environmental Engineer and
Ashwani Kumar, Asst. Envi ronmental
Engineer, Central Pollution Control Board,
Environmental management plan for Kanpur
urban area, Kittitas Valley Wind Power Project
EFSEC Application Section 1.4 Mitigation,
January 12, 2003 Page 1.
56 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
becomes negligibly small and the effluent
quantum has reduced, total amounts of the
pollutants Since wastewaters contain
pollutants enter the aquifer.
If the pollutants are not fed with
bentonite, they will not be effective in
blocking the pores of the porous media to
greater depths and thus, the flow of pollutants
through porous media can not be analogous
to the flow through filters as no clogging of
the pores is achieved. Movement of pollutants
together with the bentonite clay will result
in situations that are commonly encountered
with deep filters.
Thus, in order that the clay are also
described.
COMPUTATION OF BENTONITE CLAY
QUANTITY
Whenever, a filter media is in the
operation schedule of filters.
Amongst the . in Eq.(1) (Bhargava
and Ojha, 1989).
h
fo
/L
=
K
h
f(e
o
) [F
2
Ro
/

N
Ro
]

(1)
In Eq. (1), h
fo
is the initial headloss in a media
of depth L, K
h
is a constant and f(e
o
) is some
function of e
o
, the initial porosity. For a media bed
consisting of particles of diameter D and subjected
to a filtration velocity V, kinematic viscosity and
gravitational acceleration g , F
Ro
is defined as
V(gD)
1/2
and N
Ro
is defined as VD/ . Values
of K
h
and f(e
o
) in case of the Carman-Kozeny
model works out to 150 and (1 - e
o
)
2
/e
o
3
respectively
(Bhargava and Ojha, 1989).
However, the headloss model shown in Eq.(1)
is not valid when deposition of impurities has taken
place in the media bed. An equation similar to Eq.
(1), proposed by the authors takes the form shown
in Eq. (2) (undergoing review).
h
f
/h
fo
= [(e
o
2.3
)/(e
tp
)]t
p
(2)
in Eq. (2), h
f
is the headloss at any time t
p
. e
tp
is
the bed porosity at time t
p
and x
tp
is an exponent
which depends on influent characteristics, and
porosities at time 0 and t
p
respectively and is given
by Eq.(3).
x
tp =
2.3

+ a[100 {(e
tp
/e
o
) - 1}]
b
(3 )
In Eq. (3), a and b are constants, which for
example, works out to 0.5416 and e
tp
respectively
(Undergoing review) for the data (Deb, 1969)
pertaining to bentonite clay. e
tp
depends on initial
porosity, filtration rate. Influent and effluent
turbidities, depth of media, etc., and a methodology
evolved by the authors for its prediction at any time,
is undergoing review elsewhere.
The depth of water table in the soil strata can
be assumed to be analogous to the filter bed depth.
For the given soil strata, the headloss development
pattern can be determined experimentally. From
such experimental data, the e
tp
values can be
estimated from the use of Eqs. (2) and (3). The clay
input influent turbidity can then be estimated for
a desired effluent turbidity and expected filtration
rate through the soil strata (which depends on the
soil strata specifications and conditions).
The above model s and methodol ogy
.. is analogous to the flow
through filters.
In the stated situation
addition to the wastewater.
CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSIONS
Presented strategy would
on different patches of the land by rotation.
REFERENCES
1. Bhargava, D. S. and C. S. P. oj ha. 1989.
Monographs for initial headloss in rapid sand
filters. J..Env.Engg. Div., Instn. Engrs. 70 (EN
2) (2(2: Oct.
2. Deb, A. K. 1969. Theory of sand filtration. J.
San. Engg. Div., ASCE. 95 (SA 3) : 399-422.
3. Rich, L.G. 1961. Unit operations for sanitary
engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New
York. 145.
ERRATA
In the paper A New Strategy of Preventing Ground Water Pollution authored by Dr. D. S.
Bhargava and C. S. P. Ojha, published in January 2014 issue, the following may be read after the word
filtration in the last sentence of para 2 under ANALOGY OF GROUND WATER WITH DEEP
FILTERS.
57 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
The United Nations Secretary-General
Message on World Environment Day, 5 June 2014
Raise Your Voice, Not the Sea Level
World Environment Day 2014 falls during the International Year
of Small Island Developing States, declared by the United Nations
General Assembly to raise awareness of the special needs of this
diverse coalition as part of the global discussion on how to achieve
a sustainable future for all.
The worlds small island nations, which are collectively home to
more than 63 million people, are renowned as prized destinations:
places of outstanding natural beauty, vibrant culture and music
appreciated around the globe. While small in total, the land size
of small island nations does not reflect their importance as stewards of natures
wealth on land and sea. They play an important role in protecting the oceans and
many are biodiversity hotspots, containing some of the richest reservoirs of plants
and animals on the planet.
Despite these assets, Small Island Developing States face numerous challenges. For
a significant number, their remoteness affects their ability to be part of the global
supply chain, increases import costs - especially for energy - and limits their
competitiveness in the tourist industry. Many are increasingly vulnerable to the impacts
of climate change - from devastating storms to the threat of sea level rise.
Small Island Developing States have contributed little to climate change. Their combined
annual output of greenhouse gases is less than one per cent of total global emissions,
but their position on the front lines has projected many to the fore in negotiations for
a universal new legal climate agreement in 2015. Others are leaders in disaster
preparedness and prevention or are working to achieve climate neutrality through the
use of renewable energy and other approaches.
Small island nations share a common understanding that we need to set our planet on
a sustainable path. This demands the engagement of all sectors of society in all
countries. On World Environment Day, millions of individuals, community groups and
businesses from around the world take part in local projects -from clean up campaigns
to art exhibits to tree-planting drives. This year, I urge everyone to think about the
plight of Small Island Developing States and to take inspiration from their efforts to
address climate change, strengthen resilience and work for a sustainable future.
Raise your voice, not the sea level. Planet Earth is our shared island. Let us join
forces to protect it.
58 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
IPHE NEWS
Delhi Regional Centre
Report on the Annual General Meeting (AGM)
of the DELHI REGIONAL CENTRE of IPHE,
India held on 23rd November, 2013 at New
Delhi
The Delhi Regional Centre (DRC) of the
Institution of Public Health Engineers, India
(IPHE), initially known as North India Regional
Centre, has been active since early 1980s. In the
past the Centre has had the privilege of being
managed under the chairmanship of, among others,
Shri J. D Cruz, Shri Mallianath Jain, Shri P. T.
Gurnani and Shri Paritosh Tyagi.
The immediate past Executive Council of IPHE
Delhi Centre assumed office on October 31, 2011
under the leadership of Dr. Dinesh Chand,
Additional Adviser, Ministry of Rural Water Supply
and Sanitation, Govt. of India. Through his
dynamism Dr. Dinesh Chand has given consi-
derable momentum to the activities of the Centre
and has been instrumental in making it active.
The Annual General Meeting (AGM) of the
Centre was organized on the 23rd Nov, 2013 at India
International Centre, New Delhi. An expert talk on
Food Security and the Carbon Foot Print was
delivered by Prof. C. K. Varshney on the occasion.
A brief report of activities of the Centre and
the audited accounts for the period of November,
2011 to October, 2013 were presented respectively
by Shri Asit Nema, Secretary and Shri K. A. Roy,
Treasurer i n the AGM, and the same were
discussed and accepted by the members present in
the meeting. Since the tenure of past Executive
Council came to end with the resignation of all the
members, the election of 11 members of the new
Executive Council of the Centre was also taken
place while Dr. Dinesh Chand, Prof. Rakesh
Mehrotra, Shri Asit Nema and Shri K. A. Roy, past
members were re-elected as Chairman, Vice-
chairman, Secretary and Treasurer of the centre
along with other members of Executive Council for
the next two years tenure.
Report on national conference organized by
the Delhi Regional Centre of the Institution
of Public Health Engineers, India on Piped
Water Supply And Sewerage Systems held on
January 24th and 25th , 2014 at New Delhi
Delhi Regional Centre of the Institution of
Public Health Engineers, India in association
with M/ S Electrosteel Castings Limited has
organised a National Conference on Piped Water
Suppl y and Sewerage Systems on January
24th and 25th, 2014 at India Habitat Centre, New
Delhi with focus on the subjects of pipes and
materials for conveyance, transmission, distribu-
tion/collection & transmission network of Water
Supply and Sewerage Systems.
The objectives of the conference were to:
1. Familiarise participants with the latest
industrial developments with regard to pipe
materials for transmission and distribution in
water supply systems; and collection and
transmission for sewerage systems in urban
as well as rural areas.
2. Share experiences on performance and techno-
economic aspects of transmission, distribution
and collection systems towards improved
planning, implementation and efficiencies/
sustainability of water supply and sewerage
systems.
3. Enable appreciation of a robust decision
support system for selection of pipes for
various applications considering available
options and specifications.
The conference was inaugurated by Shri
Satyabrata Sahu, Joint Secretary, Ministry of
Drinking water & Sanitation, Government of India,
who also gave the keynote address; and was
presided over by Dr. Dinesh Chand, Chairman of
the centre. A souvenir containing 21 technical
papers related to the theme of the conference was
released on the occasion by Shri Sahu.
The conference was conducted over seven
technical sessions in two days where more than 120
participants in each session witnessed as many as 20
presentations on advantages and limitations of various
pipe materials, selection of pipes, technical
specifications/ standards, policies on pipe procurement,
determination and comparison of life-cycle costs,
experiences from the field, etc. All of the sessions were
followed by penal discussions which were anchored by
eminent persons from the domains of water supply,
sewerage and pipe manufacturing, etc.
There was representations by all different
stakeholders such as the Policy Makers and
Regulators; Officers and Engineers from Central/
State utilities, Consultants, Municipal Corpora-
tions, Research and Academic Organizations,
International and National Development agencies,
Technology Providers, Bureau of Indian Standards,
students etc. including a good number of members
of the centre of IPHE, India.
59 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
Guwahati Centre
Annual General Meeting and Memorial
Lecture
The Annual General Meeting of Institution of
Public Health Engineers (India), Guwahati
Regional Centre was held on 29th June, 2014 at
Hotel Ambarish, Ganeshguri, Guwahati, where
Corporate Members from across the State took part.
The meeting started with the Welcome note by the
Centre Chairman, Engineer, Safiur Rahman Saikia,
a retired Chief Engineer, PHED, Assam. The
meeting adopted the Secretarial Report presented
by Er. Milanj it Bhattacharyya and audited
Financial Report presented by Er. Debendra Sarma,
Treasurer of the Centre, Er. A. B. Paul, Er. H. Nath,
Er. K. G. Deb Krori, Er. P. K. Bhattacharjee
suggested pragmatic measures to be adopted by the
centre in near future. A new executive body with
Er. S. R. Saikia as the Chairman and Er. M.
Bhattacharyya, as Secretary were elected for the
next session. Er. S. K. Agarwal Addl. Chief
Engineer (PHE), North Assam Zone, Tezpur and
Vice-Chairman of the Centre offered vote of thanks.
Er. Deboj yoti Bhattacharj ee, who was
previously Chief Engineer, PHED, Assam had been
instrumental in establishing IPHE (I), GRC and he
had been its earlier Chairman. The GRC organised
first Er. Debojyoti Bhattacharje memorial lecture
in the same venue. In the first topic Problems of
Drinking Water Quality in Assam and their
Remedial Strategies, speaker Dr. Krishna Gopal
Bhattacharyya, previously Director, Academic Staff
Col l ege & presentl y Professor Chemi stry
Department, Gauhati University elaborated the
presence and extent of Chemical contaminants in
water in the State and noted that food supplement
can reduce the menace to its consumers, which the
poorer section cannot afford.
In the second topic, Dual Management of
Rural Piped Water Supply Schemes in Partnership
with Village level Users Committee, speaker, Dr.
Dilip Kr. Das, a retired Chief Engineer, PHED,
Assam elaborated how few of the user communities
of Piped Water Supply Schemes of the State
including Bongal Pukhuri PWSS of Jorhat are
functioning effectively with sound Bank balance in
the Account. He also pointed out the constraints
faces by the user committees to run government
built PWSS. In the interaction session, Er. A. B.
Paul, Retd. Chief Engineer, PHED, Er. K. G. Deb
Krori, an Adviser of the Centre and Er. R. R.
Chaudhury, Retd. Commissioner & Secretary,
PHED, Assam & Ex-Chairman, Pollution Control
Board, Assam, Dr. Kalyani Goswami, Ex-Professor,
Department of Chemistry, Assam Engineering
College, Guwahati took active part alongwith others
and both the speakers replied all the raised
quarries.
The Memorial lecture was started with paying
of floral tribute on the portrait of Late Er. Debojyoti
Bhattacharjee, which was initiated by professor
Minoti Barthakur, a crusader against Cancer
suffering and was conducted by Er. Milanjit
Bhattacharyya, Secretary of the Centre.
SPECIAL ANNOUNCEMENT
IPHE, India is happy to announce that the Article entitled Sustainable Opera-
tion of Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Services published in the April
2012 issue of JIPHE has been adjudged as the Best Technical Paper for the year
2012-2013 for which Dr. Dinesh Chand, FIPHE has been conferred with N.
Venkataraman Green Prize amounting to Rs.1000/- (Rupees One Thousand) only.
Dr. Narayanswamy Venkataraman, FIPHE, an eminent Public Health Engineer
from Chennai is the sponsorer of this Annual Award.
We congratulate the Author and also the sponsorer for his noble gesture.
We hope that our readers shall be encouraged to sponsor prizes for activities pub-
lished on specific topics like Water Pollution, Air Pollution, Waste Water etc and
other activities of IPHE like holding of Talks on subjects of our interest in different
centres of their choice.
60 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
AN ANNOUNCEMENT
Attn: Members, Industries (related to PHE / Pollution Control ac-
tivities), Govt. Organizations / Academic Bodies / Institutions, NGOs
etc.
1. a) IPHE publishes a quarterly technical journal from Kolkata (IPHE
Hqs). We need good articles from authors who write in journals.
b) We need professional information / case studies in the fields of
public health and environmental engineering (for publication) that
may draw attraction of our readers.
c) In order to reach more people, and to convey commercial message to
policymakers and project implements, we like to publish more adver-
tisements. Kindly see if you can help.
d) Send your enquiries to iphe.india@gmail.com or write to the Secre-
tary General / Editor.
2. IPHE arranges Talks & Panel Discussions at the Hqs. In order to
invite good speakers from the Public & Corporate fields we need to
invite good audience also. For organising these things there is an
element of cost. If we can get sponsors, we can do it in a better way.
We can invite media also.
3. IPHE responds to the invitation received from the industries and
project authorities to visit their important works / projects to get hand
on experience on innovative works now under implementation.
Phone : 033-23378678 S. C. Dutta Gupta S. K. Neogi
(2 PM to 6 PM) Editor Secretary General
61 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
In a gala ceremony to celebrate the World
Environment Day 2014, the International Scientific
Forum on Home Hygiene (IFH), UK in association
with the Institution of Public Health Engineers
(IPHE), India launched the Hindi and Bengali
versions of the IFH/WSSCC Training Resource on
Home Hygiene in Developing Countries Preven-
tion of infection in the home and peri-domestic
setting. Padmabhushan Dr. Bindeshwar Pathak,
World Water Laureate 2009 and Chief Guest of the
function released the Hindi version of the Training
Resource while Mr. Asadur Rahman, Chief of
UNICEF, Kolkata released the Bengali version of
the same. Prof. K.J. Nath, President, IPHE, and
South East Asia Regional Coordinator, IFH (UK)
presided over the function and delivered the theme
address. Padmabhushan Dr. V.P. Sharma, Past
President of the national Academy of Sciences,
India, S.N. Dave, Water Sanitation Hygiene
Specialist, UNICEF, Kolkata, were present among
others in the occasion. The Training Resource on
home hygiene which was originally published in
Engl i sh by Water Suppl y and Sani tati on
Collaborative Council (WSSCC), Geneva and IFH
in the year 2005 has already been translated in
Russi an and Urdu. The Bengal i and Hi ndi
transl ati on has been faci l i tated by Sul abh
Report on the World Environment Day Celebration 2014 and the
release of the Hindi and Bengali version of the IFH/WSSCC
Training Resource on Home Hygiene, 3rd June 2014,
Rabindra Okakura Bhawan, Salt Lake, Kolkata
The Bengali and Hindi versions of the IFH/WSSCC training resource being released at Okakura
Bhavan. On the dais are (from left) Tarun Dutta, Secretary, IPHE, India, P. K. Dutta, Chairman,
Calcutta Regional Centre, IPHE Chief Guest Bindeshwar Pathak, Founder, Sulabh International,
K. J. Nath, President, IPHE, India and Regional Coordinator, South East Asia of IFH, V. P. Sharma,
Past President of the National Academy of Sciences, India, Asadur Rahman, Chief of UNICEF,
Calcutta, S. N. Dave, Water Sanitation and Hygiene Specialist, UNICEF, Calcutta, and S. K. Neogi,
Secretary-General, IPHE, India
International Social Service Organization, Delhi
and National Academy of Sciences, India (NASI).
The Training Resourcewill give guidance for
teachers, community nurses and workers and other
health professionals in developing countries to
serve better. The book will act as a ready material
to enhance the capacity of public health workers.
The programme started with an opening song
by Smt. Madhumita and Sri Sandip Deb, who
compred the programme very competently. In his
welcome address, Sri P.K. Dutta, Chairman, IPHE,
Calcutta Centre, welcomed the dignitaries and
invitees and elaborated the significance of this
years World Environment Day, the theme of which
is Raise your voice, not the sea level, in keeping
with the UN Designation of 2014 as the Inter-
national Year of Small Island Developing States.
Sri S.K. Neogi, Secretary General, IPHE, intro-
duced the Chief Guest and other dignitaries on the
dais and welcomed them, on behalf of the IPHE,
India.
Prof. K.J. Nath, Chairman, IPHE, India, in his
theme address stated Human activity related
climate change and global warming have put small
island developing states in jeopardy. If the present
trend of climate change continues unchecked, small
islands of the world would become uninhabitable
62 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
and eventually disappear from the world map.
Prof. Nath further stated that we must change our
lifestyle and development model to conserve and
protect environment and nature. Referring to the
release of the Training Resource, he stated
Promotion of home hygiene in the domestic setting
is possibly the most cost effective among all the
preventive public health measures in developing
countries like India.
In hi s address, the Chi ef Guest Dr.
Bindeshwar Pathak, Founder, Sulabh International
Soci al Servi ce Organi zati on, pl eaded for a
nationwide campaign for hygiene and sanitation.
One does not need to have a technical background
to solve the sanitation problem, one has to apply
his mind, said Dr. Pathak talking about the two
pit flush toilet he has innovated and scaled up
nationwide. Dr. Pathak recalled former Prime
Minister Smt. Indira Gandhi s comment that
Poverty is the worst form of pollution. I dont agree
with her view. I think it is the rich nations who
cause the maximum environmental pollution with
the wastes they produce, he said.
Mr. Asadur Rahman, Chief of UNICEF,
Kolkata, complemented the Govt. of West Bengal
for setting up a definite goal for making West
Bengal an open defecation free state by 2017. But
the peoples participation is very important for
achieving this target. Sri S.N. Dave, WASH
Specialist, UNICEF, Kolkata, introduced the Hindi
and Bengali version of the IFH/WSSCC Training
Resource with a very informative power point
presentation. He particularly elaborated how this
resource would be useful in the context of water
and sanitation related disease burden in West
Bengal. Dr. V.P. Sharma, Guest of Honour, Past
President of National Academy of Sciences, India,
elaborated on the impact of climate change on water
borne and vector borne diseases.
The meeting concluded with a vote of thanks
offered by Sri TarunDutta, Secretary, IPHE, India.
The scientific programme was followed by a cultural
programme and dinner. Renowned singer Sri
AbhirupGuhaThakurta, entertained the audience
with his melodious rendering of Tagore songs as
well as popular folk songs.
63 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
OUR MEMBERS
Corporate members of IPHE (I) are requested to
send News about their achievements (promotion, new
job, foreign assignment, new areas of activities, special
honours, scholarships etc.) for publication in the
'Members' News' column. Matters within 100 words
should be sent to the Editor.
Organisation members of IPHE (I) are requested
to send news about their achievements
(diversification, new project obtained, new research
work done, special awards and the like) for publication
in the 'Members' News' column. Matters within 100
words should be sent to the Editor.
The following persons with details mentioned against each were elected Corporate Members/
Organisation Members during 2013-2014 along with other Members (Sl.1 to 44) elected in earlier E.
C. Meeting during 2013-14.
Members Elected
Sl. Name and Address Membership
No. No.
Sl. Name and Address Membership
No. No.
45. Biplab Mukhopadhyay LF 663
IB-3, 3rd Floor (Front), Skylit Housing
Co-op. Society, Sector-III, Salt Lake,
Kolkata-700 106
46. Ajay Asthana LF 664
The Indian Hume Pipe Co. Ltd. Upgraded
Construction House, W. H. Road, from
Ballard Estate, Mumbai-400001 LM 1150
47. Diptarup Kahali LF 665
Flat No. 402, 120 Regent Estate, Upgraded
Kolkata-700 092 from
LM 718
48. Dr. G. Venkatesan LF 666
Asst. Professor, Dept. of Civil Upgraded
Engineering, University College from
of Engineering (BIT Campus) LM 1403
Tiruchirapally-620064
49. Dr. G. Swaminathan LF 667
Professor, Civil Engineering Department,
National Institute of Technology,
Trichy-620015
50. G. Sokkanathan LF 668
20A, East Car Street, Tirunelveli-Town,
Tirunelveli-627006
51. Sanjay Kumar Gautam LF 669
Flat No. RF-8, Pratishtha Apartment,
KA-1, Kavi Magar, Ghaziabad-201002
52. Tejpal Singh Arora LF 670
D-35, Sector-39, Noida, U.P.
53. Anil Kumar Jindal LF 671
SB-163, Shastri Nagar,
Ghaziabad-201002, U.P.
54. Daya Shanker Mishra LF 672
Flat No. 401, Shyam Bhawan,
East Boring Canal Road,
(Behind Lalita Hotel),
Patna-800001
55. Krishna Gopal Singh LF 673
I-605, Alpha-2, Greater Noida-
201308, GB Nagar, UP
56. Rakesh Kumar Agarwal LF 674
Gangajal Treatment Plant,
UP Jal Nigam, Pratap Vihar,
Ghaziabad-201009
57. A. G. Shanmugasundaram LF 675
Door No.C-154, III Floor,
Lajpat Nagar-II, New Delhi
58. Ram Lal Mathur LF 676
Flat No.B-204, Pl. No. 25A, Anant Appt.
Sector-4, Dwaraka, New Delhi-110075
59. Ved Prakash LF 677
2/69, Sector-5, Rajendra Nagar,
Sahibabad, Ghaziabad-201001
60. Balasaheb Vithoba Zanje LF 678
Flat No.A101, Neelsrushti, Plot No.19,
20, 21, Road No.3, Sector No. 4,
New Panvel, Navi Mumbai-410206.
61. Ragagopal Ramachandran LF679
No.40, Vasant Apartments,
Vasant Gaon, New Delhi-110001
62. Dr. Buddhadeb Bhattacharjee LF 680
Flat No.304, Block C, 3rd Floor, Upgraded
Krishna Apartment, 17/5, Ramcharan from
Sett Road, Howrah-711104 LM 1327
63. Dr. Sundarambal Palani LF 681
Nagu Govind Illam, Murukkampatti,
Karimangalam, Dharamapuri-635111,
Tamil Nadu
64. P. Rajaram LF 682
No. 6/8, Devraj Nagar Main Road,
Saligramam, Chennai-600093
64 Volume 2014-15 Number 2 July 2014
65. Dr. S. Kanmani LF 683
Prof. in Civil Engineering Upgraded
Centre for Environmental Studies, from
Anna University, Chennai-600028 LM 1204
66. Dr. Surinder Deswal LF 684
Prof. of Civil Engineering Dept., NIT, Upgraded
Kurukshetra-136119, Haryana from
LM 1396
67. Ms. T. Bhagavathi Pushpa LM 1584
Asst. Professor, Department of Civil
Engineering, University College of
Engineering, Ramanathapuram,
Ramanathapuram-623513
68. Mrs. A. Krishnaveni LM 1585
No.4, Vignesh Nagar-III, Street Kutur,
Tiruchirappalli-620019
69. Mrs. A. Tamilmani LM 1586
K1, I Floor, Chandroodhayam,
Sankar Abodes, TV Kobil,
Tiruchirapalli-620005
70. A. Ponraj LM 1587
229A-13th Street, Navalpattu Burma
Colony, Ordnance Factory,
P.O. Tiruchirapalli-620016
71. Dr. J. Jegan LM 1588
Dept. of Civil Engineering,
University College of Engg.,
Ramanathapuram-623513
72. V. Mohan LM 1589
No.10, Solarajapuram, Worainur,
Trichy-620003
73. M. S. Senthil LM 1590
59/A, Foxen Street, Perambur,
Chennai-600011
74. A. Yacop Raja LM 1591
13/36, East Zone, Trichy Road,
PMP Post. Manaparai (TK),
Trichy (DT), Pin-621306
75. S. Palanippan LM 1592
306, Seegampatti, Onangudi Post.
Arimalam (via), Thirumayam Taluk,
Pudukkottai Dist.
76. V. Rajagopalan LM 1593
Asst. Professor, Dept. of Civil
Sl. Name and Address Membership
No. No.
Sl. Name and Address Membership
No. No.
Engineering, University College of Engg.,
Trichy-620024
77. Manmohan Prajapati LM 1594
5/F Tower B, Building No.10
DLF Cyber City, DLF Phase-II,
Gurgaon-122002
78. Jogendra Kumar Jain LM 1595
D-6, Jal Nigam Colony, Sector-I,
Rajanagar, Chaziabad-201002.
79. Sabyasachi Behera LM 1596
Medri Street, Nabarangpur-764059,
Odisha
80. Dilip Sheshrao Parlikar LM 1597
44, Atharva Appt. Sahayog Nagar,
Gorkheda (at end of Hiranyanagar),
Ulkanagari-Aurangabad-431005
81. Paulvannan Ramaraj LM 1598
Suptd. Engineer, Mech. Chennai
Post Trust, Chennai-600013
82. Shailesh Kumar Jha LAM 770
H. No.456, Sector-5, Vaishali,
Ghaziabad-201001
83. Shriram EPC Ltd. OM 224
309-10-11, DLF City Court, For 3 years
Sikanderpur, Gurgaon-221002
Representative : Mr. Atul Agarwal (SBO)
84. WAPCOS Ltd. OM 225
Water Supply & Sanitation Division, For 1 year
Room No.A-31, Institutional Area,
76-C, Sector 18, Gurgaon-122015
Representative : Mr. Pradeep Kumar
85. Meinhardt Singapore Pte. Ltd. OM 226
A-8, Sector-16, Noida-201301 For 10 years
Representative : Col. Rajat Rastogi,
VSM (retd)
86. Birbhum Institution of Engineering OM 219
& Technology Renewed
BE-373, Sector-I, Salt Lake, for 5 years
Kolkata-700 064
Representative : Mr. Manas Roy
87. Bihar Urban Infrastructure OM 227
Development Corpn. Ltd. For 25 years
303, Maurya Tower, Maurya Lok
Complex, Buddha Marg, Patna-800001
Representative : D. S. Mishra
Sl. No. 45-87 were elected in EC Meeting dated 28.3.2014.
We congratulate all the Elected Members.