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Page # 1

LECTURE # 1
Mole concept-1
Introduction :
There are a large number of objects around us which we can see and feel.
Anything that occupies space and has mass is called matter.
Ancient Indian and Greek Philosphers beleived that the wide variety of object around us are made from
combination of five basic elements : Earth, Fire, Water, Air and Sky.
Ancient Greek Philosphers also believed that all matter was composed of tiny building blocks which were
hard and indivisible.The Greek philosphere Democritus named these building blocks as atoms, meaning
indivisible.All these people have their philosphical view about matter, they were never put to experimental
tests, nor ever explain any scientific truth.It was John Dalton who firstly developed a theory on the structure
of matter, later on which is known as Daltons atomic theory.
I DALTONS ATOMIC THEORY :
1. Matter is made up of very small indivisible particle called atoms.
2. All the atoms of a given element is idenctical in all respect i.e. mass, shape, size, etc.
3. Atoms cannot be created or destroyed by any chemical process or physical process.
4. Atoms of different elements are different in nature.
Classification of matter
on the basis of physical behaviour on basis the of chemical behaviour

Solids Liquids Gases Pure substances Mixtures

Element Compound
III Some Definitions
I . RELATIVE ATOMIC MASS :
It is the ratio of the mass of 1 atom of a substance and 1/12 of mass of 1 atom of C
12
isotope. For atoms this
is done by expressing mass of one atom with respect to a fixed standard. Dalton used hydrogen as the
standard (H = 1). Later on oxygen (O = 16) replaced hydrogen as the reference.
! C-12 ISOTOPE OF CARBON IS LATEST CHOSEN STANDARD SINCE 1961
Therefore relative atomic mass is given as
Relative atomic mass (R.A.M) =
atom C one of mass
12
1
element the of atom one of mass
12

=
nucleon 1 of mass 12
12
1
nucleon 1 of mass nucleons of number total


= Total Number of nucleons
Page # 2
On Hydrogen scale :
Relative atomic mass (R.A.M) =
atom H one of mass
element the of atom one of mass
2
Oxygen scale :
Relative atomic mass (R.A.M) =
atom 16 O one of mass
16
1
element the of atom one of mass

I I . ATOMIC MASS UNIT (OR AMU)
The atomic mass unit (amu) is equal to one twelfth
|
.
|

\
|
12
1
of the mass of one atom of carbon-12 isotope.
1 amu =
12
1
mass of one C-12 atom
~ mass of one neucleon in C-12 atom.
= 1.66 10
24
gm or 1.66 10
27
kg
! one amu is also called one Dalton (Da).TODAY , AMU HAS BEEN REPLACED BY u WHICH IS
KNOWN AS UNIFIED MASS
II I. ATOMIC MASS
It is the mass of 1 atom of a substance it is expressed in AMU.
Atomic mass = R.A.M 1 amu
Note : Relative atomic mass is nothing but the number of nucleons present in the atom.
Example :
Find the relative atomic mass of O atom and its atomic mass.
Sol. The number of neucleons present in O atom is 16.
relative atomic mass of O atom = 16.
Atomic mass = R.A.M 1 amu = 16 1 amu = 16 amu
Q. Find the relative atomic mass, atomic mass of the following elements.
(i) Na (ii) F (iii) H (iv) Ca (v) Ag
Ans. (i) 23, 23 amu (ii) 19, 19 amu (iii) 1, 1.008 amu
Q. How many neucleons are present in 5 atoms of an element which has atomic mass 14 amu
Ans. = 70
Note :
NCERT Reading NCERT Exercise DPP No.
Text. 1.6,1.7,1.7.1,1.7.2
Page 13

Sheet
Exercise1 Exercise2 Exercise3
PartI PartI PartI
PartII PartII PartII
Page # 3
LECTURE # 2
I V. MOLE :THE MASSNUMBER RELATIONSHIP
Mole is a chemical counting SI unit and defined as follows :
A mole is the amount of a substance that contains as many entities (atoms, molecules or other
particles) as there are atoms in exactly 0.012 kg (or 12 gm) of the carbon-12 isotope.
From mass spectrometer we found that there are 6.023 10
23
atoms are present in 12 gm of C-12 isotope.
The number of entities in 1 mol is so important that it is given a separate name and symbol known as
Avogadro constant denoted by N
A
.
i.e. on the whole we can say that 1 mole is the collection of 6.02 10
23
entities. Here entities may represent
atoms, ions, molecules or even pens, chair, paper etc also include in this but as this number (N
A
) is very
large therefore it is used only for very small things.
1 mole x mass of 1 atom of C
12
isotope = 12g
)
`

Alternatively value of N
A
can be
1 mole x 12 x mass of one nucleon = 12 g found in this fashion
1 mole = 24
10 x 66 . 1
1
= 6.023 x 10
23
! Note : In modern practice gram-atom and gram-molecule termed as mole.
V. GRAM ATOMIC MASS :
The atomic mass of an element expressed in gram is called gram atomic mass of the element.
For example for oxygen atom :
Atomic mass of O atom = mass of one O atom = 16 amu
gram atomic mass = mass of 6.02 10
23
O atoms
= 16 amu 6.02 10
23
= 16 1.66 10
24
g 6.02 10
23
= 16 g
(! 1.66 10
24
6.02 10
23
~ 1 )
Q. How many atoms of oxygen are their in 16 g oxygen.
24
10 x 66 . 1 x

= 16 g
x = 24
10 x 66 . 1
1
= N
A
or
It is also defined as mass of 6.02 10
23
atoms.
or
It is also defined as the mass of one mole atoms.
! Now see the table given below and understand the definition given before.
Element
R.A.M.
(Relative Atomic Mass)
Atomic mass
(mass of one atom)
Gram Atomic mass/weight
N 14 14 amu 14 gm
He 4 4 amu 4 gm
C 12 12 amu 12 gm
Example :
What is the weight of 3-g atoms of sulphur R.A.M. of s = 32.
Ans. 96 g
Example :
How many g atoms are present in 144 g of sulphur
Ans. 4.5 g atoms
Page # 4
Example :
The ratio of mass of a silver atom to the mass of a carbon atom is 9 : 1. Find the mass of 1 mole of C atom
if molar mass of Ag is 108.
Ans. 12
Example :
Calculate mass of sodium which contains same number of atoms as are present in 4g of calcium. Atomic
masses of sodium and calcium are 23 and 40 respectively.
Ans. 2.3 g
VI. MOLECULES :
It is the smallest particle of matter which has free existence. Molecules can be further divided into its
constituents atoms by physical & chemical process.
Number of atoms presents in molecule is called its atomicity.
Element : H
2
, O
2
, O
3
etc.
Compound : KCl, H
2
SO
4
, KClO
4
etc.
Molecule Atomicity
KCl - 2
H
2
SO
4
- 7
O
3
- 3
H
2
- 2
VII. MOLECULAR MASS :
It is the mass of one molecule
Ex. Molecule Molecular mass
H
2
2 amu
KCl (39 + 35.5) = 74.50 amo
H
2
SO
4
(2 + 32 + 64) = 98 amu.
VIII. GRAM MOLECULAR MASS :
The molecular mass of a substance expressed in gram is called the gram-molecular mass of the substance.
or
It is also defined as mass of 6.02 10
23
molecules
or
It is also defined as the mass of one mole molecules. (molar mass)
For example for O
2
molecule :
Molecular mass of O
2
molecule = mass of one O
2
molecule
= 2 mass of one O atom
= 2 16 amu
= 32 amu
gram molecular mass = mass of 6.02 10
23
O
2
molecules = 32 amu 6.02 10
23
= 32 1.66 10
24
gm 6.02 10
23
= 32 gm
Use the Y-map in the following example.
Page # 5
Example:
Find the mass in grams of 3 mol of zinc. (GMM = 65)
Sol. Mass = mol At. wt. = 3 65 gm = 195 gm
Example :
How many atoms of copper are present in 0.5 mol of pure copper metal?
Sol. No. of atoms = no. of moles N
A
= 0.5 6.02 10
23
= 3.01 10
23
Example :
The molecular mass of H
2
SO
4
is 98 amu. Calculate the number of moles of each element in 294 g of H
2
SO
4
.
Solution
Gram molecular mass of H
2
SO
4
= 98 gm
moles of H
2
SO
4
=
98
294
= 3 moles
H
2
SO
4
H S O
One molecule 2 atom one atom 4 atom
1 N
A
2 N
A
atoms 1 N
A
atoms 4 N
A
atoms
one mole 2 mole one mole 4 mole
! 3 mole 6 mole 3 mole 12 mole
Example :
A sample of (C
2
H
6
) ethane has the same mass as 10
7
molecules of methane. How many C
2
H
6
molecules
does the sample contain ?
Ans. n = 5.34 10
6
Example :
How many molecules of water are present in 252 mg of (H
2
C
2
O
4
.2H
2
O)
Ans. 2.4 10
21
Example :
From 48 g of the He sample ,6.023 x 10
23
atoms of He are removed. Find out the moles of He left.Also
Calculate the mass of carbon which contains same number of atoms as left over in this sample.
Ans. 11 mole, 132 g of C.
Note :
NCERT Reading NCERT Exercise DPP No.
Text. Formula Mass
Page 14
Q.No.-1.1,1.10,1.28,1.30,1.33 1
Sheet
Exercise1 Exercise2 Exercise3
PartI 1,2,3,4,5,6,7. PartI PartI
PartII 6,7,8,9,10,11,12 PartII PartII
Page # 6
LECTURE # 3
GAY-LUSSACS LAW OF COMBINING VOLUME :
Gases combine in a simple ratio of their volumes provided all measurements should be done at the same
temperature and pressure
H
2
(g) + Cl
2
(g)

2HCl
1 vol 1 vol 2 vol
AVOGADROS HYPOTHESIS :
Equal volume of all gases have equal number of molecules (not atoms) at same temperature and
pressure condition.
mathematically, for ideal gases, V n (CONSTANT T & P)
S.T.P. (Standard Temperature and Pressure):
At S.T.P. / N.T.P. condition :
temperature = 0C or 273 K
pressure = 1 atm = 760 mm of Hg
volume of one mole of an ideal gas = 22.4 litres (experimentally determined)
NOTE FOR FACULTY : The gas equation PV = nRT should never be used in this chapter.
Ex. Calculate the volume in litres of 20 g hydrogen gas at STP.
Sol. No. of moles of hydrogen gas = mass atomic weight =
gm 2
gm 20
= 10 mol
volume of hydrogen gas at STP = 10 22.4 lt.
Mole


2
2
.
4

lt


2
2
.
4

lt
Volume at STP


N
A


N
A
Number
mol. wt.
At. wt.

At. wt.
mol. wt.
Mass
Ex. Calculate the volume in litres of 142 g chlorine gas at STP.
Ans. 44.8 lt.
Ex. Find the volume at STP occupied by 16 g of ozone at STP.
Ans.
3
4 . 22
= 7.5 !
Ex. From 160 g of SO
2
(g) sample, 1.2046 x 10
24
molecules of SO
2
are removed then find out the volume of left
over SO
2
(g) at STP.
Ans. 11.2 Ltr.
Ex. 14 g of Nitrogen gas and 22 g of CO
2
gas are mixed together. Find the volume of gaseous mixture at STP.
Ans. 22.4 Ltr.
Ex. 672 ml of ozonized oxygen (mix of O
2
and O
3
) at N.T.P. were found to weight one gram. Calculate the volume
of ozone in the ozonized oxygen.
Ans. 56 ml
Note :
NCERT Reading NCERT Exercise DPP No.
2
Sheet
Exercise1 Exercise2 Exercise3
PartI 1 to 8 PartI PartI
PartII 1 to 12 PartII PartII
Page # 7
LECTURE # 4
II THE LAWS OF CHEMICAL COMBINATION
Atoine Lavoisier, John Dalton and other scientists formulate certain law concerning the composition of
matter and chemical reactions.These laws are known as the laws of chemical combination.
1. THE LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MASS :( ANTOINE LAVOISIER)
It states that matter can neither be created nor destroyed in chemical reaction i.e .
In a chemical change , total mass remains conserved.i.e.
mass of all reactants = mass of products after reaction. ( In a closed system )
Example : H
2
(g) +
2
1
O
2
(g)


H
2
O (l)
Before reaction 1 mole
2
1
mole
After the reaction 0 0 1 mole
mass before reaction = mass of 1 mole H
2
(g) +
2
1
mole O
2
(g)
= 2 + 16 = 18 gm
mass after reaction = mass of 1 mole water = 18 gm
2. LAW OF CONSTANT OR DEFINITE PROPORTION :{JOSEPH PROUST}
A given compound always contains exactly the same proportion of elements by weight irrespective of their
source or method of preparation .
Ex. In water (H
2
O), Hydrogen and Oxygen combine in 2 : 1 molar ratio, this ratio remains constant whether it is tap
water, river water or sea water or produced by any chemical reaction.
Ex. 1.80 g of a certain metal burnt in oxygen gave 3.0 g of its oxide. 1.50 g of the same metal heated in steam
gave 2.50 g of its oxide. Show that these results illustrate the law of constant proportion.
Sol. In the first sample of the oxide,
Wt. of metal = 1.80 g,
Wt. of oxygen = (3.0 1.80) g = 1.2 g

5 . 1
g 2 . 1
g 80 . 1
oxygen of . wt
metal of . wt
= =
In the second sample of the oxide,
Wt. of metal = 1.50 g,
Wt. of oxygen = (2.50 1.50) g = 1 g.

5 . 1
g 1
g 50 . 1
oxygen of . wt
metal of . wt
= =
Thus, in both samples of the oxide the proportions of the weights of the metal and oxygen are fixed. Hence,
the results follow the law of constant proportion.
3. THE LAW OF MULTIPLE PROPORTION : {JOHN DALTON}
When one element combines with the other element to form two or more different compounds, the mass of
one elements, which combines with a constant mass of the other, bear a simple ratio to one another.
Note : Simple ratio here means the ratio between small natural numbers, such as 1 : 1, 1 : 2, 1 : 3, later on this
simple ratio becomes the valency and then oxidation state of the element.
Ex. Carbon and oxygen when combine, can form two oxides viz CO (carbonmonoxide), CO
2
(Carbondioxides)
In CO, 12 gm carbon combined with 16 gm of oxygen.
In CO
2
, 12 gm carbon combined with 32 gm of oxygen.
Thus, we can see the mass of oxygen which combine with a constant mass of carbon (12 gm) bear simple
ratio of 16 : 32 or 1 : 2
Note : See oxidation number of carbon also have same ratio 1 : 2 in both the oxide.
Page # 8
CONCEPTS RELATED TO DENSITY :
It is of two type.
1. Absolute density
2. Relative density
For liquid and solids
Absolute density =
volume
mass
specific gravity =
C 4 at water of density
ce tan subs the of density

For gases :
Absolute density (mass/volume) =
gas the of volume Molar
gas the of mass Molar
* For simplification, we can conclude that the density and specific gravity of any substance is numerically
same, but density has a definite unit, but specific gravity has no unit. (dimension less)
Ex. Specific gravity of a solution is 1.8 then find the mass of 100 ml of solution.
Ans. 180 gm.
RELATIVE DENSITY :
It is the density of a substance with respect to any other substance.
Ex. What is the V.D. of SO
2
with respect to CH
4
V.D. =
4
2
CH . W . M
SO . W . M
V.D =
16
64
= 4
Ex. Find the density of CO
2
(g) with respect to N
2
O(g).
VAPOUR DENSITY :
Vapour density is defined as the density of the gas with respect to hydrogen gas at the same temperature
and pressure.
Vapour density =
2
H
gas
d
d
=
volume molar / H of mass Molar
volume molar / gas of mass Molar
2
V.D. =
2
H
gas
M
M
=
2
M
gas
; M
gas
= 2 V.D.
Ex. What is V.D. of oxygen gas
V.D =
2
32
= 16 unitss
Ex. 7.5 litre of the particular gas as S.T.P. as weight 16 gram. What is the V.D. of gas
7.5 litre = 16 gram
moles =
M
16
4 . 22
5 . 7
=
M = 48 gram
V.D.
2
48
= 24.
Note : V.D. can be expressed with respect to some other gas other than hydrogen.
Note :
NCERT Reading NCERT Exercise DPP No.
Text. 1.5.1 to 1.5.5
Page 11 to 30.
Q.No.1.21 3
Sheet
Exercise1 Exercise2 Exercise3
PartI 12,13,14. PartI 2. PartI
PartII 17,18,19,20,21. PartII 33,35. PartII
Page # 9
LECTURE # 5
% PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION :
Here we are going to find out the percentage of each element in the compound by knowing the molecular
formula of compound.
We know that according to law of definite proportions any sample of a pure compound always possess
constant ratio with their combining elements.
Ex. Every molecule of ammonia always has formula NH
3
irrespective of method of preparation or sources. i.e. 1
mole of ammonia always contains 1 mol of N and 3 mole of H. In other wards 17 gm of NH
3
always contains
14 gm of N and 3 gm of H. Now find out % of each element in the compound.
Mass % of N in NH
3
=
100
NH of mol 1 of Mass
NH mol 1 in N of Mass
3
3

=
17
14
100 = 82.35 %
Mass % of H in NH
3
=
100
NH of e mol 1 of Mass
NH mol 1 in H of Mass
3
3

=
17
3
100 = 17.65 %
Ex. What is the percentage of calcium and oxygen in calcium carbonate (CaCO
3
) ?
Ans. 40%, 48%.
Ex. A compound of sodium contains 11.5% sodium then find the minimum molar mass of the compound.
Ans. 200 gm/mole.
EMPIRICAL AND MOLECULAR FORMULA :
We have just seen that knowing the molecular formula of the compound we can calculate percentage com-
position of the elements. Conversely if we know the percentage composition of the elements initially, we can
calculate the relative number of atoms of each element in the molecules of the compound. This gives us the
empirical formula of the compound. Further if the molecular mass is known then the molecular formula can
easily be determined.
Thus, the empirical formula of a compound is a chemical formula showing the relative number of atoms in the
simplest ratio, the molecular formula gives the actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule. The
molecular formula is generally an integral multiple of the empirical formula.
i.e. molecular formula = empirical formula n
where n =
mass formula empirical
mass formula molecular
Ex. Acetylene and benzene both have the empirical formula CH. The molecular masses of acetylene and ben-
zene are 26 and 78 respectively. Deduce their molecular formulae.
Sol. ! Empirical Formula is CH
Step-1
The empirical formula of the compound is CH
Empirical formula mass
= (1 12) + 1 = 13.
Molecular mass = 26
Step-2
To calculate the value of n
n =
mass formula Empirical
mass Molecular
=
13
26
= 2
Step-3
To calculate the molecular formula of the compound.
Molecular formula = n (Empirical formula of the compound)
= 2 CH = C
2
H
2
Thus the molecular formula is C
2
H
2
Similarly for benzene
To calculate the value of n
n =
mass formula Empirical
mass Molecular
=
13
78
= 6
thus the molecular formula is 6 CH = C
6
H
6
Page # 10
Ex. An organic substance containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen gave the following percentage composition.
C = 40.684% ; H = 5.085% and O = 54.228%
The molecular weight of the compound is 118. Calculate the molecular formula of the compound.
Sol. Step-1
To calculate the empirical formula of the compound.
Element
Symbol
Carbon C
Hydrogen H
Oxygen O
Percentage
of element
40.687
5.085
54.228
At. mass
of element
12
1
16
Relative no.
Percentage
At. mass
of atoms =
40.687
12
= 3.390
5.085
1
= 5.085
54.228
16
= 3.389
Simplest
atomic ratio
3.390
3.389
=1
5.085
3.389
=1.5
3.389
3.389
=1
Simplest whole
no. atomic ratio
2
3
2
Empirical Formula is C
2
H
3
O
2
Step-2
To calculate the empirical formula mass.
The empirical formula of the compound is C
2
H
3
O
2
.
Empirical formula mass
= (2 12) + (3 1) + (2 16) = 59.
Step-3
To calculate the value of n
n =
mass formula Empirical
mass Molecular
=
59
118
= 2
Step-4
To calculate the molecular formula of the salt.
Molecular formula = n (Empirical formula) = 2 C
2
H
3
O
2
= C
4
H
6
O
4
Thus the molecular formula is C
4
H
6
O
4.
Ex. An oxide of nitrogen gave the following precentage composition :
N = 25.94
and O = 74.06
Calculate the empirical formula of the compound.
Ans. N
2
O
5
Ex. Hydroquinone, used as a photographic developer, is 65.4%C, 5.5% H, and 29.1%O, by mass. What is the
empirical formula of hydroquinone ?
Ans. C
3
H
3
O
Note :

NCERT Reading NCERT Exercise DPP No.
Text. 1.9,1.9.1
Page 15
Q.No.1.2,1.3,1.8. 4
Sheet
Exercise1 Exercise2 Exercise3
PartI 9,10,11. PartI 3,11,13. PartI
PartII 13,14,15,16. PartII 3,4,7,8,9,14,28,29. PartII
Page # 11
LECTURE # 6
CHEMICAL REACTION :
It is the process in which two or more than two substances interact with each other where old bonds are
broken and new bonds are formed.
VI CHEMICAL EQUATION :
All chemical reaction are represented by chemical equations by using chemical formule of reactants and
products. Qualitatively a chemical equation simply describes what the reactants and products are. However,
a balanced chemical equation gives us a lot of quantitative information mainly the molar ratio in which
reactants combine and the molar ratio in which products are formed.
Example :
When potassium chlorate (KClO
3
) is heated it gives potassium chloride (KCl) and oxygen (O
2
).
KClO
3

A
KCl + O
2
(unbalanced chemical equation )
2KClO
3

A
2 KCl + 3 O
2
(balanced chemical equation)
Attributes of a balanced chemical equation: (From NCERT PAGE - 17)
(a) It contains an equal number of atoms of each element on both sides of equation.(POAC)
(b) It should follow law of charge conservation on either side.
(c) Physical states of all the reagents should be included in brackets.
(d) All reagents should be written in their standard molecular forms (not as atoms )
(e) The coefficients give the relative molar ratios of each reagent.
Balancing a chemical equation
According to the law of conservation of mass, a balanced chemical equation has the same number of
atoms of each element on both sides of the equation. Many chemical equations can be balanced by trial
and error. Let us take the reactions of a few metals and non-metals with oxygen to give oxides
4 Fe(s) + 3O
2
(g) 2Fe
2
O
3
(S) (a) balanced equation
2 Mg(s) + O
2
(g) 2MgO(S) (b) balanced equation
P
4
(s) + O
2
(g) P
4
O
10
(S) (c) unbalanced equation
Equations (a) and (b) are balanced since there are same number of metal and oxygen atoms on each
side of equations. However equation (c) is not balanced. In this equation. phosphorus atoms are balanced
but not the oxygen atoms. To balance it, we must place the coefficient 5 on the left of oxygen on the left
side of the equation to balance the oxygen atoms appearing on the right side of the equation.
P
4
(S) + 5O
2
(g) P
4
O
10
(S) balanced equation
Now let us take combustion of propane, C
3
H
8
, This equation can be balanced in steps.
Step 1. Write down the correct formulas of reactants and products. Here propane and oxygen are reactants, and
carbon dioxide and water are products.
C
3
H
8
(g) + O
2
(g) CO
2
(g) + H
2
O (l) unbalanced equation
Step 2. Balance the number of C atoms : Since 3 carbon atoms are in the reactant, therefore, three CO
2
mol-
ecules are required on the right side.
C
3
H
8
(g) + O
2
(g) 3CO
2
(g) + H
2
O (l)
Step 3. Balance the number of H atoms : on the left there are 8 hydrogen atoms in the reactants however, each
molecule of water has two hydrogen atoms , so four molecules of water will be required for eight hydrogen
atoms on the right side.
C
3
H
8
(g) + O
2
(g) 3CO
2
(g) + 4H
2
O (l)
Step 4. Balance the number of O atoms : There are ten oxygen on the right side (3 2 = 6 in CO
2
and 4 1 = 4
in water). Therefore, five O
2
molecules are needed to supply to supply the required ten oxygen atoms.
C
3
H
8
(g) + 5O
2
(g) 3CO
2
(g) + 4H
2
O (l)
Step 5. Verify that the number of atoms of each element is balanced in the final equation.
Always remember that subscripts in formula of reactants and products cannot be changed to balance an
equation.
Page # 12
INTERPRETATION OF BALANCED CHEMICAL EQUATIONS :
(STOICHIOMETRY AND STOICHIOMETRIC CALCULATIONS, NCERT, PAGE - 17)
3. Mole-mole analysis :
This analysis is very much important for quantitative analysis point of view. Students are advised to
clearly understand this analysis.
Now consider again the decomposition of KClO
3
.
2KClO
3


2KCl + 3O
2
In very first step of mole-mole analysis you should read the balanced chemical equation like
2 moles KClO
3
on decomposition gives you 2 moles KCl and 3 moles O
2.
and from the stoichiometry of
reaction we can write
2
KClO of Moles
3
=
2
KCl of Moles
=
3
O of Moles
2
Now for any general balance chemical equation like
a A + b B

c C + d D
you can write.
a
reacted A of Mole
=
b
reacted B of moles
=
c
reacted C of moles
=
d
reacted D of moles
Ex. 3 moles (367.5 gm) of KClO
3
when heated how many moles KCl and O
2
is produced.
Sol. The reaction is
2KClO
3


2KCl + 3O
2
2
KClO of Moles
3
=
2
KCl of Moles
Moles of KCl produced = 3
Now,
2
KClO of Moles
3
=
3
O of Moles
2
mole of O
2
produced =
2
3 3
= 4.5 moles
Ex. CH
4
+ 2O
2
CO
2
+ 2H
2
O (from NCERT Page - 18)
following conclusions can be drawn from above reaction by observing its stoichiometry
- One mole of CH
4
(g) reacts with two moles of O
2
(g) to give one mole of CO
2
(g) and two moles of H
2
O (g)
- One molecule of CH
4
(g) reacts with 2 molecues of O
2
(g) to give one molecule of CO
2
(g) and 2 molecules
of H
2
O (g)
- 22.4 L of CH
4
(g) reacts with 44.8 L of O
2
(g) to give 22.4L of CO
2
(g) and 44.8 L of H
2
O (g)
- 16 g CH
4
(g) reacts with 232 g of O
2
(g) to give 44 g of CO
2
(g) and 2 18 g of H
2
O (g).
Note : In fact mass-mass and mass-vol analysis are also interpreted in terms of mole-mole analysis you can use
following chart also.
Mass
At. wt. / Mol. Wt.
Mole
Mole-mole
relationship
of equation
Mole
22.4 lt
Volume at STP


m
o
l.

w
t
.
/A
t
.

w
t
.
Mass
Ex. 367.5 gm KClO
3
(M = 122.5) when heated
(a) How many grams O
2
is produced
(b) How many litre of O
2
is produced at STP
Sol. Now consider the balanced chemical equation
2KClO
3


2KCl + 3O
2
Now go with the above chart
Page # 13
367.5 gm
KClO
3
122.5 gm 3 mole
KClO
3
Mole of KClO
3
2
=
Mole of O
2
3
(Mole-mole relationship of equation)
9/2 mole of O
2
(a) 144 gm
32 gm
(m
ol. w
t.)
(b) 100.8 lt

22.4 lt
(volu
m
e a
t S
T
P
)
Ex. Iron in the form of fine wire burns in oxygen to form iron (III) oxide
4Fe(s) + 3O
2
(g) 2Fe
2
O
3
(s)
How many moles of O
2
are needed to produce 5 mol Fe
2
O
3
?
Ans. 7.5 mol O
2
Ex. Nitric acid, HNO
3
, is manufactured by the Ostwald process, in which nitrogen dioxide, NO
2
, reacts with
water.
3NO
2
(g) + H
2
O(l) 2HNO
3
(aq) + NO(g)
How many grams of nitrogen dioxide are required in this reaction to produced 6.3 g HNO
3
?
Ans. 6.9g NO
2
Ex. How many grams of Fe
2
O
3
is formed by heating 18 gm FeO with Oxygen.
4FeO + O
2


2Fe
2
O
3
Ans. 20. gm
Ex. How many litre O
2
at N.T.P. is required for complete combustion of 1 mole C
5
H
10
.
Ans. 168 lt.
Ex. Calculate the weight of residue obtained when CaCO
3
is strongly heated and 5.6 litre CO
2
is produced at
N.T.P.
Ans. 14 gm
Ex. When sodium bicarbonate is heated 1.806 x 10
24
molecules of water is obtained. Then find the volume of
CO
2
(g) obtained at STP and amount of NaHCO
3
needed for this reaction.
Sol. 2NaHCO
3
Na
2
CO
3
+ H
2
O + CO
2
So volume of CO
2
= 3 22.4 = 67.2 Lt.
Mass of NaHCO
3
needed = 6 84 = 504 gm.
Problem 1.3 (NCERT, Page 18)
Calculate the amount of water (g) produced by the combustion of 16 g of methane.
Solution : The balanced equation for combustion of methane is :
CH
4
(g) + 20
2
(g) CO
2
(g) + 2H
2
O (g)
(i) 16 g of CH
4
corresponds to one mole.
(ii) From the above equation, 1 mol of
CH
4
(g) gives 2 mol of H
2
O (g)
2 mol of water (H
2
O) = 2 (2 + 16) = 2 18 = 36 g
Page # 14
Problem 1.4 (NCERT, Page 18)
How many moles of methane are required to produce 22 g CO
2
(g) after combustion?
Solution: According to the chemical equation,
CH
4
(g) + 20
2
(g) CO
2
(g) + 2H
2
O (g)
44g CO
2
(g) is obtained from 16 g CH
4
(g).
[ ] 1mol CO
2
(g) is obtained from 1 mol of CH
4
(g)
mole of CO
2
(g) = 22g CO
2
(g)
) g ( gCO 44
) g ( molCO 1
2
2
= 0.5 mol CO
2
(g)
Hence, 0.5 mol CO
2
(g) would be obtained from 0.5 mol CH
4
(g) or 0.5 mol of CH
4
(g) would be required to
produce 22 g CO
2
(g).
Note :

NCERT Reading NCERT Exercise DPP No.
Text. 1.10
Page 17
Q.No. 1.3,1.4. 5
Sheet
Exercise1 Exercise2 Exercise3
PartI 15,16,17. PartI PartI
PartII 22,23,24. PartII 16,17,18,26,27. PartII
Page # 15
LECTURE # 7
PRINCIPLE OF ATOM CONSERVATION (POAC) :
POAC is based on law of mass conservation if atoms are conserved, moles of atoms shall also be
conserved hence mass of atoms is also conserved.
This principle is fruitful for the students when they dont get the idea of balanced chemical equation in the
problem. This principle can be under stand by the following example.
Consider the decomposition of KClO
3
(s) " KCl (s) + O
2
(g) (unbalanced chemical reaction)
Apply the principle of atom conservation (POAC) for K atoms.
Moles of K atoms in reactant = moles of K atoms in products
or moles of K atoms in KClO
3
= moles of K atoms in KCl.
Now, since 1 molecule of KClO
3
contains 1 atom of K
or 1 mole of KClO
3
contains 1 mole of K, similarly,1 mole of KCl contains 1 mole of K.
Thus, moles of K atoms in KClO
3
= 1 moles of KClO
3
and moles of K atoms in KCl = 1 moles of KCl.
moles of KClO
3
= moles of KCl
or
3
3
KClO of wt. mol.
g in KClO of wt.
=
KCl of wt. mol.
g in KCl of wt.
! The above equation gives the mass-mass relationship between KClO
3
and KCl which is important in stoichio-
metric calculations.
Again, applying the principle of atom conservation for O atoms,
moles of O in KClO
3
= 3 moles of KClO
3
moles of O in O
2
= 2 moles of O
2
3 moles of KClO
3
= 2 moles of O
2
or 3
3
3
KClO of . wt . mol
KClO of . wt
= 2
.) lt 4 . 22 ( . vol molar dard tan s
NTP at O of . vol
2
! The above equations thus gives the mass-volume relationship of reactants and products.
Q. Write POAC equation for all the atoms in the following reaction.
(i) N
2
O + P
4
P
4
O
10
+ N
2
(ii) P
4
+ HNO
3
H
3
PO
4
+ NO
2
+ H
2
O
Example :
27.6 g K
2
CO
3
was treated by a series of reagents so as to convert all of its carbon to K
2
Zn
3
[Fe(CN)
6
]
2
.
Calculate the weight of the product.
[mol. wt. of K
2
CO
3
= 138 and mol. wt. of K
2
Zn
3
[Fe(CN)
6
]
2
= 698]
Sol. Here we have not knowledge about series of chemical reactions
but we know about initial reactant and final product accordingly
K
2
CO
3

Steps
Several
K
2
Zn
3
[Fe(CN)
6
]
2
Since C atoms are conserved, applying POAC for C atoms,
moles of C in K
2
CO
3
= moles of C in K
2
Zn
3
[Fe(CN)
6
]
2
1 moles of K
2
CO
3
= 12 moles of K
2
Zn
3
[Fe(CN)
6
]
2
(! 1 mole of K
2
CO
3
contains 1 moles of C)
3 2
3 2
CO K of . wt . mol
CO K of . wt
= 12
product of . wt . mol
product the of . wt
wt. of K
2
Zn
3
[Fe(CN)
6
]
2
=
138
6 . 27

12
698
= 11.6 g
Page # 16
Q.1 0.32 mole of LiAlH
4
in ether solution was placed in a flask and 74 g (1 moles) of t-butyl alcohol was added.
The product is LiAlHC
12
H
27
O
3
. Find the weight of the product if lithium atoms are conserved.
[Li = 7, Al = 27, H = 1, C = 12, O = 16]
Ans. 81.28 g
Note :

NCERT Reading NCERT Exercise DPP No.
Q.No. 1.7,1.34,1.36. 6
Sheet
Exercise1 Exercise2 Exercise3
PartI 26,27. PartI PartI
PartII 31 to 34. PartII 1,2,5,6,11,13,15,20,22 PartII
Page # 17
LECTURE # 8
LIMITING REAGENT :
The reactant which is consumed first and limits the amount of product formed into the reaction, and is
therefore called limiting reagent.
Limiting reagent is present in least stoichiometric amount and therefore controls amount of product.
The remaining or leftout reactant is called the excess reagent.
When you are dealing with balanced chemical equation then if number of moles of reactants are not in the
ratio of stoichiometric coefficient of balanced chemical equation, then there should be one reactant which
should be limiting reactant.
Example :
Three mole of Na
2
CO
3
is reacted with 6 moles of HCl solution. Find the volume of CO
2
gas produced at STP.
The reaction is
Na
2
CO
3
+ 2HCl

2 NaCl + CO
2
+ H
2
O
Sol. From the reaction : Na
2
CO
3
+ 2HCl

2 NaCl + CO
2
+ H
2
O
given moles 3 mol 6 mol
given mole ratio 1 : 2
Stoichiometric coefficient ratio 1 : 2
! See here given moles of reactant are in stoichiometric coefficient ratio therefore none reactant left over.
Now use Mole-mole analysis to calculate volume of CO
2
prdouced at STP
1
CO Na of Moles
3 2
=
1
oduced Pr CO of Mole
2
Moles of CO
2
produced = 3
volume of CO
2
produced at STP = 3 22.4 L = 67.2 L
Example :
6 moles of Na
2
CO
3
is reacted with 4 moles of HCl solution. Find the volume of CO
2
gas produced at STP. The
reaction is
Na
2
CO
3
+ 2HCl

2 NaCl + CO
2
+ H
2
O
Sol. From the reaction : Na
2
CO
3
+ 2HCl

2 NaCl + CO
2
+ H
2
O
given mole of reactant 6 : 4
give molar ratio 3 : 2
Stoichiometric coefficient ratio 1 : 2
! See here given number of moles of reactants are not in stoichiometric coefficient ratio. Therefore there should
be one reactant which consumed first and becomes limiting reagent.
But the question is how to find which reactant is limiting, it is not very difficult you can easily find it according
to the following method.
HOW TO FIND LIMITING REAGENT :
Step : $
Divide the given moles of reactant by the respective stoichiometric coefficient of that reactant.
Step : $$
See for which reactant this division come out to be minimum. The reactant having minimum value is limiting
reagent for you.
Page # 18
Step : $$$
Now once you find limiting reagent then your focus should be on limiting reagent
From Step I & II Na
2
CO
3
HCl
1
6
= 6
2
4
= 2 (division is minimum)
! HCl is limiting reagent
From Step III
From
2
HCl of Mole
=
1
produced CO of Moles
2
mole of CO
2
produced = 2 moles
volume of CO
2
produced at S.T.P. = 2 22.4 = 44.8 lt.
Examples on limiting reagent :
Ex. The reaction 2C + O
2


2CO is carried out by taking 24g of carbon and 96g O
2
, find out :
(a) Which reactant is left in excess ?
(b) How much of it is left ?
(c) How many mole of CO are formed ?
Ex. For the reaction 2P + Q R, 8 mol of P and 5 mol of Q will produce
(A) 8 mol of R (B) 5 mol of R (C*) 4 mol of R (D) 13 mol of R
Ex. X + Y X
3
Y
4
Above reaction is carried out by taking 6 moles each of X and Y respectively then
(A) X is the limiting reagent (B) 1.5 moles of X
3
Y
4
is formed
(C) 1.5 moles of excess reagent is left behind (D) 75% of excess reagent reacted
X + Y X
3
Y
4
Ans. B, C, D
Sol. 3X + 4Y

X
3
Y
4
6 mole 6 mole
6 4.5 0 1.5 mole
1.5 mole
left formed
Ex. A + B A
3
B
2
(unbalanced)
A
3
B
2
+ C A
3
B
2
C
2
(unbalanced)
Above two reactions are carried out by taking 3 moles each of A and B and one mole of C. Then
(A) 1 mole of A
3
B
2
C
2
is formed (B*) 2 1 mole of AA
3
B
2
C
2
is formed
(C*) 1 mole of A
3
B
2
is formed (D*) 2 1 mole of AA
3
B
2
is left finally
Ans. B, C, D
Sol. 3A + 2B

AA
3
B
2
3 mole 3 mole 1 mole formed
A
3
B
2
+ 2C

AA
3
B
2
C
2
1 mole 1 mole
0.5 mole 0 0.5 mole
Ex. CS
2
and Cl
2
in the weight ratio 1 : 2 are allowed to react according to equation, find the fraction of excess
reagent left behind.
CS
2
+ 3Cl
2


CCl
4
+ S
2
Cl
2
mole
76
w
71
w 2
;
76
w
3 71
w 2

L.R. = Cl
2
.
Moles of CS
2
=
3 71
w 2

remaining =
76
w

213
w 2
fraction of Cl
2
left =
100 x
76
w
213
w 2
76
w

= 28.6%.
Page # 19
Ex. 27 gm Al is heated with 49 ml of H
2
SO
4
(sp. gr = 2) produces H
2
gas. Calculate the volume of
H
2
gas at N.T.P. and % of Al reacted with H
2
SO
4
Ans. Vol of H
2
= 22.4 litre
Al reacted = 66.66%
Ex. Equal weights of carbon and oxygen are heated in a closed vessel producing CO and CO
2
in a
1 : 1 mol ratio. Find which component is limiting and which component left and what is its
percentage out of total weight taken.
Ans. Limiting reagent is O
2
, carbon will left behind, 50%
Ex. Three moles of Phosphorus is reacted with 2 moles of iodine to form PI
3
according to the reaction
P + I
2
PI
3
PI
3
formed in the above reaction is further reacted with 27 g of water. According to the reaction.
PI
3
+ H
2
O H
3
PO
3
+ HI
HI formed in the above reaction is collected in the gaseous form. At higher temperature HI dissociated 50%
then find the molecules of H
2
gas liberated
HI H
2
+ I
2
Ans. 3/8 N
A
.
Problem 1.5 (NCERT Page - 19)
50.0 kg of N
2
(g) and 10.0 kg of H
2
(g) are mixed to produce NH
3
(g) Calculate the NH
3
(g) formed. Identify
the limiting reagent in the production of NH
3
in this situation. Take reaction N
2
+ 3H
2
2NH
3
.
Sol. A balanced equation for the above reaction is written as follows :
Calculation of moles :
N
2
(g) + 3H
2
(g) 2NH
3
(g)
moles of N
2
= 50.0 kg
2
2
2
N kg 1
N g 1000
N

2
2
N g 0 . 28
H mol 1
= 17.86 10
2
mol
moles of H
2
= 10.00 kg H
2

2
2
H kg 1
H g 1000

2
2
H g 016 . 2
H mol 1
= 4.96 10
3
mol
According to the above equation, 1 mol N
2
(g) requires 3 mol H
2
(g), for the reaction, Hence, for 17.86
10
2
mol of N
2
, the moles of H
2
(g) required would be
17.86 10
2
mol N
2

) g ( molN 1
) g ( H mol 3
2
2
= 5.36 10
3
mol H
2
But we have only 4.9610
3
mol H
2
. Hence, dihydrogen is the limiting reagent in this case. So NH
3
(g)
would be formed only from that amount of available digydrogen i.e., 4.96 10
3
mol
Since 3 mol H
2
(g) gives 2 mol NH
3
(g)
4.96 10
3
mol H
2
(g)
) g ( H mol 3
) g ( H N mol 2
2
3
= 3.30 10
3
mol NH
3
(g) is obtained.
If they are to be converted to grams, it is done as follows :
3.30 10
3
mol NH
3
(g)
) g ( molNH 1
) g ( gNH 0 . 17
3
3
. = 3.30 10
3
17 g NH
3
(g)
= 56.1 10
3
g NH
3
= 56.1 kg NH
3
Note :

NCERT Reading NCERT Exercise DPP No.
Text. 1.10.1.
Page 18
Q.No. 1.4,1.23,1.24,1.26. 7
Sheet
Exercise1 Exercise2 Exercise3
PartI 18 to 25. PartI 7. PartI
PartII 25 to 30. PartII 16,23,25,26. PartII
Page # 20
LECTURE # 9
SOLUTIONS :
A mixture of two or more substances can be a solution. We can also say that a solution is a homogeneous
mixture of two or more substances Homogeneous means uniform throughout. Thus a homogeneous mix-
ture, i.e., a solution, will have uniform composition throughout.
CONCENTRATION TERMS :
The following concentration terms are used to express the concentration of a solution. These are :
1. strength of solution
2. Molarity (M)
3. Molality (m)
4. Mole fraction (x)
5. % calculation
6. Normality (N)
7. ppm
! Remember that all of these concentration terms are related to one another. By knowing one concentration
term you can also find the other concentration terms. Let us discuss all of them one by one.
1. STRENGTH OF SOLUTION :
The concentration of solution in gram/litre is said to be strength of solution.
(a) A 65% solution has the following meanings
65% by weight i.e. 100 gm solution contain 65 gm solute
65% by volume i.e. 100 ml of solution contain 65 ml solute
65% by strength i.e. 100 ml of solution contain 65 gm solute
If, anything is not specified, 65% generally mean 65% by mass
(b) For concentrated acids, like 98% H
2
SO
4
, 65% HNO
3
etc, if anything is not specified than percentage by
mass/volume is usually considered.
(c) For the calculation of strength (% w/w, %w/v etc) the solute must be completely dissolved into the solution,
otherwise, the given terminologies will be invalid. For example, the specific gravity of gold = 19.3 gm/cm
3
, if
we add 193 gm gol powder in 1 litre of water, its % w/w =
193 1000
193
+
x 100 = 16.17 is appears to be correct,
but gold is not dissolvable in water, its % w/w in water cannot be calculated.
2. MOLARITY (M) :
The number of moles of a solute dissolved in 1 L (1000 ml) of the solution is known as the
molarity of the solution.
i.e., Molarity of solution =
litre in solution of volume
moles of number
Let a solution is prepared by dissolving w gm of solute of mol.wt. M in V ml water.
Number of moles of solute dissolved =
M
w
V ml water have
M
w
mole of solute
1000 ml water have
ml
V M
1000 w

Molarity (M) =
ml
V ) solute of wt . Mol (
1000 w

Page # 21
Problem 1.7 (NCERT Page - 20)
Calculate the molarity of NaOH in the solution prepared by dissolving its 4 g in enough water to form 250
mL of the solution.
Solution
Since molarity (M)
=
es litr in solution of Volume
solute of moles of No.
=
L 0.250
NaOH of mass NaOH/Molar of Mass
=
L 250 . 0
g 40 / g 4

L 250 . 0
mol 1 . 0
=
= 0.4 mol L
1
= 0.4 M
Note that molarity of a solution depends upon temperature because volume of a solution is temperature
dependent.
Some other relations may also useful.
Number of millimoles =
1000
) solute of . wt . Mol (
solute of mass

= (Molarity of solution V
inml
)
Molarity is an unit that depends upon temperature .it varies inversely with temperature .
mathematically : molarity decreases as temperature increases.
Molarity
e temperatur
1

volume
1
! Molarity of solution may also given as :
ml in solution of volume Total
solute of millimole of Number
(i) If a particulars solution having volume V
1
and molarity = M
1
is diluted to V
2
mL then
M
1
V
1
= M
2
V
2
M
2
: Resultant molarity
(ii) If a solution having volume V
1
and molarity M
1
is mixed with another solution of same solute having
volume V
2
mL & molarity M
2
then M
1
V
1
+ M
2
V
2
= M
R
(V
1
+ V
2
)
M
R
= Resultant molarity
=
2 1
2 2 1 1
V V
V M V M
+
+
Ex. 149 gm of potassium chloride (KCl) is dissolved in 10 Lt of an aqueous solution. Determine the molarity of the
solution (K = 39, Cl = 35.5)
Sol. Molecular mass of KCl = 39 + 35.5 = 74.5 gm
Moles of KCl =
gm 5 . 74
gm 149
= 2
Molarity of the solution =
10
2
= 0.2 M
Q. 117 gm NaCl is dissolved in 500 ml aqueous solution. Find the molarity of the solution.
Ans. 0.4 M
Ex. Calculate molarity of the following :
(a) 0.74 g of Ca(OH)
2
in 5 mL of solution [ 2M ]
(b) 3.65 g of HCl in 200 ml of solution [0.5M ]
(c) 1/10 mole of H
2
SO
4
in 500 mL of solution [0.2 M ]
Ex. Calculate the resultant molarity of following :
(a) 200 ml 1M HCl + 300 ml water
(b) 1500 ml 1M HCl + 18.25 g HCl
(c) 200 ml 1M HCl + 100 ml 0.5 M H
2
SO
4
(d) 200 ml 1M HCl + 100 ml 0.5 M HCl
Page # 22
Ex. Calculate the molarity of H
+
ion in the resulting solution when 200 ml 1M HCl is mixed with 200 ml 1M H
2
SO
4
Sol. For HCl
M
1
= 1 M
V
1
= 200 mL
For H
2
SO
4
M
2
= 1
V
2
= 200 mL
n
HCl
= M
HCl
V
HCl
= 1 0.2
HCl H
+
+ Cl

+
H
n
= 0.2 (from HCl)
4 2 4 2 4 2
SO H SO H SO H
V M n =
= 1 0.2 = 0.2 mole
H
2
SO
4
2H
+
+ SO
4
2
+
H
n
= 0.2 2 (from H
2
SO
4
)
Total H
+
= +
H
n
(from HCl) + +
H
n
(from H
2
SO
4
)
= 0.2 + 0.4 = 0.6
Total volume = 200 + 200 = 400 mL = 0.4 L
M
R
= Resultant molarity
=
4 . 0
6 . 0
V
n
solution
H
=
+
= 1.5 Ans.
Ex. What are the final concentration of all the ion when following are mixed
50 ml of 0.12 M Fe(NO
3
)
3
+ 100 ml of 0.1 M FeCl
3
+ 100 ml of 0.26 M Mg(NO
3
)
2
[NO
3

] =
250
2 26 . 0 100 3 12 . 0 50 +
=
250
70
250
52 18
=
+
= 0.28
[Cl

] = 0.12 M
[Mg
++
] = 0.104 M
[Fe
3+
] = 0.064 M
Ex. Calculate the molarity of water
H
2
O 18 gm
= 1 mole
Volume of water = 1 Litre
Mass = 1000 gm
mole =
18
1000
Molarity of water =
18
1000
= 55.55 M
Ex. Find the minimum volume of 0.2 M HCl solution for the complete neutralisation of 0.4 M, 40 ml of NaOH
solution.
Ex. CaCO
3
reacts with aq. HCl to give CaCl
2
and CO
2
according to reaction
CaCO
3
(s) + 2HCl(aq)

CaCl
2
+ CO
2
+ H
2
O
How much mass of CaCO
3
is required to react completly with 100 ml of 0.5 m HCl
Page # 23
Sol. millimole of HCl
100 0.5 = 50
2 mole of HCl reacts

1 moles CaCO
3
1 mole of HCl reacts


2
1
50 mmole of HCl reacts


2
1
50 = 25 mmole of CaCO
3
mole of CaCO
3
=
1000
25
mass of CaCO
3
=
1000
25
100 = 2.5 gm.
Ex. Na
2
CO
3
+ 2HCl

2NaCl + CO
2
+ H
2
O
(a) moles of NaCl formed when 10.6 gm of Na
2
CO
3
is mixed with 100 ml of 0.5 M HCl solution.
(b) Calculate the concentration of each ion in the solution after the reaction
(c) Volume of CO
2
liberated at S.T.P.
Sol. molar mass of Na
2
CO
3
= 106 gm
Na
2
CO
3
=
106
6 . 10
1000 = 100 m mole
HCl = 100 0.5 = 50 milli mole
limiting reagent HCl
2 HCl reacts = 2 NaCl
50 mmole HCl reacts = 50 mmole of Na
2
CO
3
remaining Na
2
CO
3
= 100 25 = 75 mmole
(a) moles of NaCl =
1000
50
= 0.05
(c) volume of CO
2
=
4 . 22
1000
25

= 0.556 L
[Na
+
] =
100
200
100
150 50
=
+
= 2 M
[Cl

] =
100
50
= 0.5 M
(CO
3
2
] =
100
75
= 0.75 M
Note :
NCERT Reading NCERT Exercise DPP No.
Text. 1.10.2.
Page 19
8
Sheet
Exercise1 Exercise2 Exercise3
PartI 28 to 41 PartI PartI
PartII 35 to 41. PartII 19. PartII
Page # 24
LECTURE # 10
3. MOLALITY (M) :
The number of moles of solute dissolved in1000 gm (1 kg) of a solvent is known as the molality of
the solution.
i.e., molality =
1000
gram in solvent of mass
solute of moles of number

Let y gm of a solute is dissolved in x gm of a solvent. The molecular mass of the solute is m. Then Y/m mole
of the solute are dissolved in x gm of the solvent. Hence
Molality = 1000
x m
Y

Ex. 225 gm of an aqueous solution contains 5 gm of urea. What is the concentration of the solution in terms of
molality. (Mol. wt. of urea = 60)
Sol. Mass of urea = 5 gm
Molecular mass of urea = 60
Number of moles of urea =
60
5
= 0.083
Mass of solvent = (255 5) = 250 gm
Molality of the solution =
1000
gram in solvent of Mass
solute of moles of Number

=
1000
250
083 . 0

= 0.332
Note : molality is independent of temperature changes.
Problem 1.8 (NCERT Page - 21)
The density of 3 M solution of NaCl is 1.25 g mL
1
. Calculate molality of the solution.
Sol. M = 3 mol L
1
Mass of NaCl in 1 L solution = 3 58.5 = 175.5 g
Mass of 1L solution = 1000 1.25 = 1250 g (since density = 1.25 mL
1
)
Mass of water in solution = 1250 175.5 = 1074.5 g
Molaity =
kg in solvent of Mass
solute of moles of No.
=
kg 1.0745
mol 3
= 2.79 m
Often in a chemistry laboratory, a solution of a desired concentration is prepared by diluting a solution of
known higher concentration. The solution of higher concentration is also known as stock solution. Note
that molality of a solution does not change with temperature since mass remains unaffected with tempera-
ture.
Q. 518 gm of an aqueous solution contains 18 gm of glucose (mol.wt. = 180). What is the molality of the
solution.
Ans. 0.2 m
Q. Molality of an NaOH solution is 4. Find the wt. of solution if solvent is 500 g.
4. MOLE FRACTION (x) :
The ratio of number of moles of the solute or solvent present in the solution and the total number
of moles present in the solution is known as the mole fraction of substances concerned.
Let number of moles of solute in solution = n
Number of moles of solvent in solution = N
Mole fraction of solution (x
1
) =
N n
n
+
Mole fraction of solvent (x
2
) =
N n
N
+
! also x
1
+ x
2
= 1
Note : mole fraction is a pure number its also independent of temperature changes.
Page # 25
5. % CALCULATION :
The concentration of a solution may also expressed in terms of percentage in the following way.
(i) % weight by weight (w/w) : It is given as mass of solute present in per 100 gm of solution.
i.e. % w/w =
100
gm in solution of mass
gm in solute of mass

(ii) % weight by volume (w/v) : It is given as mass of solute present in per 100 ml of solution.
i.e., % w/v =
100
ml in solution of mass
gm in solute of mass

(iii) % volume by volume (V/V) : It is given as volume of solute present in per 100 ml solution.
i.e., % V/V =
100
solution of Volume
ml in solute of Volume

Example
0.5 g of a substance is dissolved in 25 g of a solvent. Calculate the percentage amount of the substance in
the solution.
Solution.
Mass of substance = 0.5 g
Mass of solvent = 25 g
percentage of the substance (w/w) =
100
25 5 . 0
5 . 0

+
= 1.96
Problem 1.6 (NCERT Page - 19)
A solution is prepared by adding 2 g of a substance A to 18 g of water. Calculate the mass per cent of the
solute.
Solution
Mass per cent of A =
solution of Mass
A of Mass
100 =
gofwater 18 gofA 2
g 2
+
100
100
g 20
g 2
=
= 10 %
Example
20 cm
3
of an alcohol is dissolved in80 cm
3
of water. Calculate the percentage of alcohol in solution.
Solution
Volume of alcohol = 20 cm
3
Volume of water = 80 cm
3
percentage of alcohol =
100
80 20
20

+
= 20.
Interconversion of Concentration units :
Representing solvent and solute in a binary solution by subscripts 1 and 2 respectively, the various
conversion expressions are as follows :
DERIVE THE FOLLOWING CONVERSION :
1. Mole fraction of solute into molarity of solution M =
2 2 1 1
2
x M M x
1000 x
+

Sol. Mole fraction into molarity M
mole fraction of solvent and solute are X
1
and X
2
so X
1
+ X
2
= 1
supposs total mole of solution is = 1
mole of solute and solute and solvent is X
2
, X
1
weight of solute = X
2
M
2
, weight of solvent = X
1
M
1
total wt of solution = X
1
M
1
+ X
2
M
2
Page # 26
volume of solution =

+
2 2 1 1
M X M X
ml
volume in L =
1000
N X N X
2 2 1 1

+
molarity (M) =
2 2 1 1
2
N X N X
1000 X
+

2. Molarity into mole fraction x
2
=
2
1
MM 1000
1000 MM


Sol. Molarity into mole fraction
molarity (M) = moles solute in 1000 ml of solution
so moles of solution = M
mass of solution =

x 1000
wt. of solute = MM
2
wt. of solvent = 1000

MM
2
moles of solvent =
1
2
M
MM 1000
3. Mole fraction into molality m =
1 1
2
M x
1000 x
Sol. Mole fraction into molarity
mole fraction of solute X
2
and solvent X
1
mole is n
2
& n
1
molality =
1 1
2
M n
n
x 1000 (

=
1
2
1
2
x
x
n
n
=
1 1
2
M x
x
x 1000
4. Molality into mole fraction x
2
=
1
1
mM 1000
mM
+
Sol. Moalrity into mole fraction
molality = moles of solute in 1000 gm of solute = m
mole of solvent =
1
M
1000
mole fraction X
2
=
m
M
1000
m
1
+
=
1
mM 1000
mM
+
5. Molality into molarity M =
2
mM 1000
1000 m
+

Sol. Molality in molarity
molality = moles of solute in 1000 gm of solvent
mole of solute = m
wt. of solute = mM
2
wt. of solution = 1000 + mM
2
volume of solution =

+
2
mM 1000
Page # 27
volume in (L) =
1000
mM 1000
2

+
molarity =
2
mM 1000
1000 m
+

6. Molarity into Molality m =
2
MM 1000
1000 M

M
1
and M
2
are molar masses of solvent and solute. is density of solution (gm/mL)
M = Molarity (mole/lit.), m = Molality (mole/kg), x
1
= Mole fraction of solvent, x
2
= Mole fraction of solute
Sol. Molarity (M) into molality (m)
molarity = mole of solute in 1000 ml of solution
moles of solute = M
wt. of solute = MM
2
wt. of solution = 1000

mass of solvent = 1000

MM
2
molality =
solvent of wt
solute of moles
x 1000
m =
2
MM 1000
1000 M

Note :

NCERT Reading NCERT Exercise DPP No.
Q.No. 1.5,1.6,1.11,1.12,1.25,1.29,1.35. 9
Sheet
Exercise1 Exercise2 Exercise3
PartI 42 to 50. PartI PartI
PartII 42 to 45. PartII 21,24,30,31,32. PartII
Page # 28
LECTURE # 11
Mix Questions :
1. Density for 2 M CH
3
COOH solution is (1.2 g/mL)
Calculate (1) Molality
(2) mole fraction of CH
3
COOH acid
(3) % (w/w) for the solution
(4) % (w/v) for the solution
Sol. Let volume & solution = 1 Litre
Molarity =
solution
solute
v
n
= 2
n
solute
= 2 mole (CH
3
COOH)
solute of mass molar
solute of mass
= 2
mass of solute = 2 60 = 120 g.
mass of solution = volume of solution density of solution
= 1200 g
= mass of solute + mass of solvent
mass of solvent = 1200 120 = 1080 g = 1.08 kg
(H
2
O)
moles of solvent =
18
1080
= 60 mole
(H
2
O)
(1) Molality =
08 . 1
2
w
n
) kg ( solvent
solute
=
= 1.85 m Ans.
(2)
COOH CH
3
X
=
60 2
2
n n
n
O H CCOH CH
CCOH CH
2 3
3
+
=
+
= 0.0322
(3) % w/w =
) gm ( solution of . wt
) gm ( solute of . wt
100 =
1200
120
100 = 10%
(4) % w/v =
) mL ( solution of . volume
) gm ( solute of . wt
100 =
1000
120
100 = 12%
2. Mole fraction for aqueous glucose soltuion is 0.1 specific gravity is 1.1
Find (1) Molarity (2) Molality
(3) % (w/w) for the solution (4) % (w/v) for the solution
Sol. X
Glucose
= 0.1 =
10
1
n n
n
O H e cos Glu
e cos Glu
2
=
+
Let 1 mole of glucose is present is solution
n
Glucose
= 1
m
Glucose
= 1 180 = 180 gm
O H
2
n
+ n
Glucose
=
1 . 0
1
1 . 0
n
e cos Glu
= 10
So
O H
2
n
= 9
O H
2
2
M
O H of mass
= 9.
O H
2
M
= 9 10 = 162 gm = 0.162 kg
mass of solution = mass of solute + mass of solvent
= mas of Glucose + mass of H
2
O
= 180 + 162 = 342 gm
Page # 29
volume of solution =
solution of Density
solution of mass
=
mL / g 1 . 1
g 342
= 311 mL {Sp. gravity = 1.1Density = 1.1 g/mL}
= 0.311 Litre.
(1) molarity =
311 . 0
1
v
n
solution
e cos Glu
=
= 3.215 M
(2) molality =
162 . 0
1
) kg ( w
n
O H
e cos Glu
2
=
= 6.17 M
(3) % (w/w) =
342
180
100
) gm ( solution of . wt
) gm ( solute of . wt
=
100
= 52.63%
(4) % (w/v) =
311
180
100
) mL ( solution of . volume
) gm ( solute of . wt
=
100 = 57.87%
3. 10% w/w urea solution is 1.2 g/mL calculate
(1) % w/v
(2) molarity
(3) molality
(4) mole fraction of urea
Sol. % w/w = 10%
It means
10 g urea is present in 100 gm of solution
Let 100 gm of solution is taken
m
solution
= 100 gm
v
solution
=
mL / g 1 . 1
gm 100
Density
m
solution
=
= 91 mL
= 0.91 L
M
urea
= 10 gm
n
urea
=
6
1
60
10
M
urea of Mass
urea
= =
m
solution
= m
solute
+ m
solvent
= 100
m
solvent
=
18
90
MM
O H n
2
=
= 5 mole
(1) % (w/v) =
) mL ( solution of . volume
urea of . wt
100 =
100
91
10

= 10.99%
(2) molarity =
91 . 0
6 / 1
v
n
solution
urea
=
= 1.83 M
(3) molarity =
9 . 0
6 / 1
w
n
solution
urea
=
= 1.85 M
(4) mole fraction of urea
X
urea
=
O H urea
urea
2
n n
n
+
=
6 / 31
6 / 1
5 6 / 1
6 / 1
=
+
= 1/31 Ans.
Q. Molality of HNO
3
soltuion is 2 (spf gr = 1.50) then find :
(a) Molarity of the solution
(b) Mole fraction of the solute
Ans. (a) 2.66 M. (b) 0.0347.
Page # 30
4. AVERAGE/ MEAN ATOMIC MASS :
The weighted average of the isotopic masses of the elements naturally occuring isotopes.
Mathematically, average atomic mass of X (A
x
) =
100
x a ..... x a x a
n n 2 2 1 1
+ + +
Ex. Naturally occuring chlorine is 75% Cl
35
which has an atomic mass of 35 amu and 25% Cl
37
which has a mass
of 37 amu. Calculate the average atomic mass of chlorine -
(A) 35.5 amu (B) 36.5 amu (C) 71 amu (D) 72 amu
Sol. (A) Average atomic mass =
100
mass atomic its x isotope I of % mass atoms its x isotope of % I + I
=
100
37 x 25 35 x 75 +
= 35.5 amu
Note : (a) In all calculations we use this mass.
(b) In periodic table we report this mass only.
6. MEAN MOLAR MASS OR MOLECULAR MASS:
The average molar mass of the different substance present in the container =
n 2 1
n n 2 2 1 1
n .... n n
M n ...... M n M n
+ +
+ +
Ex. The molar composition of polluted air is as follows :
Gas At. wt. mole percentage composition
Oxygen 16 16%
Nitrogen 14 80%
Carbon dioxide - 03%
Sulphurdioxide - 01%
What is the average molecular weight of the given polluted air ? (Given, atomic weights of C and S are 12 and
32 respectively.
Sol. M
avg
=

=
=
=
=
n j
1 j
j
n j
1 j
j j
n
M n
Here
=
=
n j
1 j
j
n
= 100
M
avg
=
100
1 x 64 3 x 44 28 x 80 32 x 16 + + +
=
100
64 132 2240 512 + + +
=
100
2948
= 29.48 Ans.
Note :

NCERT Reading NCERT Exercise DPP No.
Q.No. 1.9,1.32. 10
Sheet
Exercise1 Exercise2 Exercise3
PartI 4,5,10. PartI PartI
PartII 34. PartII 12. PartII
CHEMISTRY LECTURE NOTES
COURSE - VIKAAS (A)
(LECTURE No. 1 TO 11)
TOPIC : Mole Concept-1