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Hydel Generation Salient Features Power

Stations Performance Mangla Dam


Tarbela Dam Warsak Dam Chashma Hydropower Project
Tarbela Dam

Tarbela Dam is one of the worlds largest
earth and rock filled Dam and greatest
water resources development project which
was completed in 1976 as a component
part of Indus Basin Project. The Dam is
built on one of the Worlds largest rivers
the Indus known as the Abbasin or the
father of rivers.
Emerging from the land of glaciers on the
northern slopes of Kailash ranges, some
17,000 feet (5182 meters) above sea level,
the river Indus has its source near the Lake
Mansrowar in the Himalyan catchment
area. It flows over 1800 miles (2900 k.
metres) before it outfalls into the Arabian
sea draining an area of about 372,000
square miles (964,261 sq.kms).
The World Bank accepted Tarbela Dam
Project as a part of the Settlement
(Replacement) Plan under Indus water
treaty in 1965. WAPDA was entrusted with
its execution on behalf of the Government
of Pakistan. HARZA ENGINEERING
COMPANY International who were the
General Consultants of WAPDA, carried out
the review studies of the Project. In
February, 1960 Tippetts Abbett -
McCarthy Stratton of USA commonly
known as TAMS were appointed the Project
Consultants, and were entrusted with the
task of investigation, preparation of
detailed designs, and contract documents
for the project
and also the
supervision of
construction
work during its
execution.
The Project
Main
Features
The Project consists of a 9,000 (2,743
meters) long, 465 feet (143 meters) high
(above the river bed) earth and rock fill
embankment across the entire width of the
river with two spillways cutting through the
left bank discharging into a side valley. Its
main spillway has a discharge capacity of
650,000 cusecs (18,406 cumecs) and
auxiliary spillway 850,000 cusecs (24,070
cusecs). Two auxiliary embankment dams
close the gaps in the left bank valley. A
group of 4 tunnels (each half a mile long),
through the right abutment rock have been
constructed for irrigation releases and
power generation. During the construction
operations, these tunnels were used
initially for river diversion. Irrigation tunnel
5 situated on the left bank, for which
NESPAK were the Project Consultants, was
put into operation in April 1976.
A power station on the right bank near the
toe of the main dam housesfourteen(14),
power units, 4 units, each with installed
generating capacity of 175 MW are installed
on tunnel 1, 6 units (NO.5 to 10), 175 MW
each on tunnel NO.2 and 4 Units ( NO.11-
14) of 432 MW each on Tunnel 3, thus
making total generating capacity of
Tarbela Power Station as 3478 MW.
The reservoir is 50 miles (80.5 km) long
100 square, miles (260 square kilometers)
in area and has a gross storage capacity of
11.6 MAF (17.109 million cu. Meters) with
a live storage capacity of 9.7 MAF (14,307
million cu. Meters). The total catchment
area above Tarbela is spread over 65,000
sq. miles (168,000 sq. kilometers) which
largely brings in snowmelt supplied in
addition to some monsoon rains. Two main
upstream tributaries join the Indus river,
Shyok river at an elevation of 8,000 ft.
(2438 meters) above seal level near skardu
and Siran river just north of Tarbela.
Main Dam
The principal
element of
the project is
an
embankment
9,000 feet
(2743 meters)
long with a
maximum
height of 465
feet (143 meters). The total volume of
earth and rock used for the project is
approximately 200 million cubic yards
(152.8 million cu. Meters) which makes it
the largest man made structure in the
world , except for the Great Chinese Wall
which consumed somewhat more material.
The main embankment is a carefully
designed, zoned structure composed of
impervious core, bounded on both sides by
gradually increasing sized material
including coarser sands gravels cobbles and
finally large sized riprap on the outer
slopes. An impervious blanket, 42 feet
(12.8 meters) thick at the dam and tailing
to 5 feet (1.52 meters) at the upstream
end, covers 5,700 feet (1737 meters) of
the alluvial foundation on the upstream
side. These deposits in the valley are upto
700 feet (213 meters) deep and in places
consist of open work gravels. The dam
crosses this essentially alluvial valley and
connects the last points to high ground
before the mountains give way to the
plains. A 24 feet (7.32 meters) thick filter
drain mattress under the embankment
together with nearly vertical chimney drain
provides the necessary facility to collect the
seepage.
Auxiliary
Dams
The auxiliary
dams
resembling
the main
embankmen
t dam in
design close
the gaps in the left periphery of reservoir.
The smaller of the two auxiliary dams,
however, has a vertical core extending
down to the underlying rock, and the larger
auxiliary dam has a short upstream blanket
terminating in a cut off to rock.

Spillways
On the left
bank , two
spillways
discharges
into a side
channel. The
total
spillway
capacity is
1,500,000 cusecs (42,476 cumecs) which
constitutes the peak outflow resulting
from routing the probable maximum flood.
The service spillway having 44 percent of
the total capacity is sufficient to pass all
but very rare floods. Its maximum
discharge capacity is 650,000 cusecs (18,
406 cumecs).
The auxiliary spillway is similar in design to
the service spillway. It has nine radial
gates with crest elevation of 1492 feet (455
meters) and flip bucket at elevation 1220
feet (372 meters) A longitudinal drainage
gallery along with a network of drainage
pipes under the channel and the head
works has been provided to release pore
water pressure in both the spillway
foundations
.
Reservoir
The 50-
miles (81
kilometers)
long
reservoir
created by
the Project
has a gross
storage
capacity of 11.6 million acre feet (MAF)
(17,109 m.cu. meters) at the maximum
lake elevation of 1550 feet (472 meters) a
residual capacity of 1.9 MAF (2,802 m cu.
Meters) at the assumed level of maximum
drawdown elevation 1300 feet (396
meters) and a net usable capacity of 9.7
MAF (14,307 m cu. Meters). The
Tarbelareservoir stores water during the
summer months of June, July and August
when water either causes disaster by
flooding in the surrounding areas or goes
waste into the sea. It is to be noted that
more dams can be constructed on Indus
since its annual flow is substantially more
than is being stored at present. Kalabagh
Dam on River Indus is in its advanced
stages of design, while investigations are
underway
for the
upstream
Basha Dam.
Tunnels
The four,
each of half
mile long,
tunnels
through the
right (rock)
abutment
initially served for the diversion of water
during the final phases of construction of
the Project. Now they are being used for
Power generation (tunnels 1, 2, 3 and
eventually 4). The discharge capacity of
each irrigation tunnel at higher reservoir
elevations is approximately 90,000 cusecs
(2,549 cumecs). The discharge pass
through energy dissipator structures and
the water returns to the river. A fifth tunnel
on the left bank designed to augment
irrigation releases upto 80,000 cusecs
(2,265 cumecs) at high reservoir level, has
also been added to the project.
Power
Station
According
to the
original
plan, four
(4) power
units of 175
MW
generating
capacity
each were to be installed on each of the
tunnels 1, 2 and 3 located on the right
bank with the ultimate installed capacity of
21,00 MW. Of these, four (4) units on
tunnel 1 were commissioned in the year
1977. Due to increasing prices of the fossil
fuel, the Govt of Pakistan has been laying
greater emphasis on generation of cheap
Hydel power. In pursuance of this policy,
WAPDA carried out studies to tap the
maximum power potential of Tarbela. As a
result, it has been found possible to install
six (6) units, instead of four (4) only on
tunnel NO.2. Units 5 to 8 on tunnel NO.2
were commissioned in 1982, and units 9
and 10 in 1985. Based on studies, four
power units of 432 MW capacity each were
installed on tunnel NO.3. Thus the total
ultimate power potential of the project
enhanced from 2100 MW as originally
planned to 3478 MW.
Project Implementation
On May 14, 1968, the Worlds largest single
contract for the construction of civil works
of the Tarbela Dam Project was signed at a
price of RS.2,965,493,217 ($ 623 Million)
between the Water and Power
Development Authority and the Tarbela
Dam Joint Venture which comprised a
group of three Italian and three French
heavy construction contractors. Later five
German and two Swiss contractors also
joined the group making up a consortium
of thirteen European firms led by Italian
firm namely Impregilo.
The construction of Tarbela Dam was
carried out in three stages to meet the
diversion requirements of the river. In
stage-I, the river Indus was allowed to flow
in its natural channel while work was
continued on right bank where a 1500 feet
(457 meters) long and 694 feet (212
meters) wide diversion channel was
excavated and a 105 feet (32 meters) high
buttress dam was constructed with its top
elevation at 1, 187 feet (362 meters) The
diversion channel was capable of
discharging 750,000 cusecs (21,238
cumecs). Construction under stage-I lasted
2 years.
In stage-II, the main embankment dam
and the upstream blanket were constructed
across the main valley of the river Indus
while water remained diverted through the
diversion channel. By the end of stage-II,
tunnels, had been built for diversion
purposes. The stage-II construction took 3
years to complete. Under stage-III, the
work was carried out on the closure of
diversion channel and construction of the
dam in that portion while the river was
made to flow through diversion tunnels.
The remaining portion of upstream blanket
and the main dam at higher levels was also
completed as a part of stage-III works.
Salient features/Principal data of main
components of Tarbela Dam and Power
House Tarbela Dam
Type
Earth &
Rock fill

Max. Height
(above river
bed)
465 ft.
(147.82
meters)
Crest elevation 1565 ft. SPD (477 meters)
Length of
Crest (Main
dam)
9000 ft. (2743 meters)
Auxiliary Dam NO.1
Length at Crest EI. 1565 ft (477 M)
2,340 feet (713 M)
Maximum Height
345 feet (105 M)
Volume including
Blanket 18,000,000
cu.yds (13,752,000 cu meters)
Auxiliary Dam No.2
Length at Crest EI, 1565 ft (477 M)
960 feet (293 M)
Maximum
Height 220 feet
(67 M)
Volume 2
,000,000 cu. Yds (1,528,000 cu.meters)
Tunnels at Right Bank
Number 4
Length
2400 feet each (732 M)
Diameter (u/s gate shafts)
45 feet (13.72 M)
Diameter (u/s of gate
shafts) 36 feet (10.97 M)
Tunnel at Left Bank
Length 2
760 feet (841 M)
Diameter (
13.26 M)
Reservoir


Length 60 miles (97 km)
Max. depth 450 ft. (137 m)
Area
60000
acres
(100 square
miles)
Max.
conservation
1550 ft.
SPDA
(472.45 meters)
Min Operation
level
1300 ft
SPD
(396.25 meters)
Design Gross
Storage
11.3 MAF
Existing Gross
storage
9.00 MAF
Design live
storage
9.68 MAF

Existing live
storage

At 1365 ft SPD 7.3 MAF
Surface Area
100 sq
miles
(259 sq km)

Spillways

Service
Spillways

Capacity
650,000
cusecs
(18,405 cumecs)
No. of Gates 7 (Seven)
Size of Gate
50 ft.
Wide & 61
ft. high
(15.24x18.60
meters)

Auxiliary
Spillways


Capacity
850,000
cusecs
(24,070 cumecs)
No. of Gates 9 (Nine)
Size of Gates
50 ft. wide
& 61 ft.
high
(15.24x18.60
meters)

Power
House


UNITS 1~4 5~6 7~8 9~10 11~14
Turbine
(Francis-
Vertical)

Output
(BHP)
23900
0
2390
00
2390
00
23900
0
596000
Rated
Head (Ft.
of Water)
378 378 378 378 385
Make
Hitach
i
Japan
D.E.
W.
Cana
da
D.E.
W.
Cana
da
D.B.S.
Canad
a
D.B.S.
Escher
Wyss
Canada
Generator
s
(Umbrella
Type)

Output
(MVA)
205.8
82
15%
184.2
10
15%
184.2
10
15%
184.2
10
15%
480
Output
(MVA)
overlo
ad
overl
oad
overl
oad
overlo
ad
432
Output
(P.F)
175 175 175 175 0.90
Output
(K.V)
0.85 0.95 0.95 0.95 18.0
Rated
Speed
13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8 90.9

136.4
00
136.4
00
136.4
00
136.4
00

Make
Hitach
i
Japan
C.G.E
.
Cana
da
C.G.E
.
Cana
da
Hitach
i
Japan
Siemen
s-ABB
Germa
ny

Transfor
mers
(Single
Phase)

Capability
(MVA/Ph
ase)
79 71 71 71 160
Voltage
Ratio
(KV)
13.2/
220
13.2/
500
13.2/
500
13.2/
500
25.0/5
00
Make
Jeum
ont-
Schne
ider
Franc
e
ASEA
Cana
da
Hitac
hi
Japan
Hitac
h
Japan
Jeum
ont-
Schne
ider
Franc
e
Ansald
o
Compo
nenti
Italy
Project Benefits

In addition to fulfilling primary purpose of
the Dam i.e. supplying water for Irrigation,
Tarbela Power Station has generated
341.139 Billion KWh of cheap hydel energy
since commissioning. A record annual
generation of 16.463 Billion KWh was
recorded during 1998~99. Annual
generation during 2007~08 was 14.959
Billion KWh while the Station shared peak
load of 3702 MW during the year which was
23.057% of total WAPDA System Peak.