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Design And Fabrication Of Off Road Racing Vehicle

1. INTRODUCTION
In India the first automobile ran in early 19
th
century, from that time till today
there has been is vast development in the different automobile sectors A vehicle is
categori!ed as"small cars, #edium car, $state cars, sports cars etc
%here is very less development in the racing cars category, especially for off
road race vehicles in India And our aim is to design and develop such a vehicle &hich
is especially for the off road races &hich are held in many countries other than India
'asically &e tried to design and develop such a vehicle &hich can meet off road race
conditions Although automobiles are intended to move over a specially prepared
surface (high&ay), they can move on a natural earth surface &ithout a constructed
road or &ith a little ine*pensive preparation %his capacity of automobile is
characteri!ed by a special property" off +the" road mobility
,A$ (,O-I$%. OF A/%O#O%IV$ $01I0$$RI01) arrange 2#I0I
'A3A4 races , every year in ,outh Africa, /5, /, and no& they are planning to
arrange these 6ind of races in India %his race is open for &orld&ide technical
education universities From last five year, from India only Delhi -ollege of
$ngineering is participating in this event 7e have tried to design and develop the
vehicle &hich fulfills the ma*imum re8uirements of this race and &e hope to ma6e
further changes as per racing needs
%he design of the chassis &as first done9 &e have designed chassis in such a
&ay that it can sustain any :er6 or impact and fulfill the entire re8uirement for &hich
the vehicle has been designed 7e have made t&o frames and then :oined them firmly,
to give more strength to the chassis
%he engine &e have ta6en is of 'ullet ;<=cc, >etrol, 1?@A 'B> %his engine
fulfills all po&er re8uirement of the vehicle %his engine is of ne& model (standard)
'ullet 7e have selected the clutch and gear bo* of the same standard 'ullet For this
purpose &e bought &hole assembly of engine, clutch and gear bo*
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Design And Fabrication Of Off Road Racing Vehicle
%he basic 8uestion then &e had been about the differential 7e selected the
differential of the Auto ric6sha& (old model, front engine), &hich &as suitable for our
po&er transmission to the rear a*les %he po&er transmission in bet&een the gear bo*
and differential is through a chain and sproc6et arrangement %his differential has
for&ard and reverse gear options ,o &e got four for&ard gears and four reverse gears
option &ith same differential A separate lever is provided on the differential to
change the reverse or for&ard motion
Independent suspension is used in all four &heels &ith coil spring and damper
7e have selected the front suspension of #aruti A@@ for all four &heels as per our
design 7e have altered the coil springs for its soft &or6ing 7e have increased the
free length of the front side coil spring C inches and rear 1D inches on the basis of itEs
free length
%he &heel hub is of the #aruti A@@ for all four &heels, because &e have four
&heel independent suspensions %he stabili!ing bar used in the vehicle is also of the
#aruti A@@, but &e have modified it as per our &heel trac6 for front and rear side
%his vehicle is rear engine rear &heel drive %he a*les used are of #aruti Fen
(ne& model v*i) 7e had changed the lengths of a*les as per our dimensions and for
smooth drive 7e matched the Auto Ric6sha&Es a*le &ith #aruti FenEs a*le, to get
the drive from Differential to the &heels
%he ne*t basic 8uestion &e had, the control of the vehicle %o control the
vehicle safely and 8uic6ly &e decided to fit the four &heel disc bra6e facility %hen
&e designed the bra6ing system for the vehicle As per our design &e chose the disc
bra6e assembly (front side) of #aruti Aoo model for all four &heels 7e have also
selected the same bra6ing fluid pipeline used in the #aruti A@@, but &e have to shape
it as per our re8uirements
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Design And Fabrication Of Off Road Racing Vehicle
2. ENGINE SELECTION
REQUIREMENT:-
7hen &e decided to design and develop the off road vehicle for 2#I0I 'A3A
RA-$,4, then firstly &e studied the basic engine re8uirements for this race li6e cc,
tor8ue limitations %hen by considering the total &eight of the vehicle including the
driverEs &eight &e calculated the total po&er re8uired to propel the vehicle One more
important point &e considered &as traction re8uired for off roads %hen &e finally
calculated the total po&er re8uired %he total po&er re8uired &as about 1?9@ 'B>
SURVEY:-
7e made survey of the mar6et for engines available in that range 7e found
t&o bi6es falling under this category namely .amaha RD ;D@ (t&o stro6e) and 'ullet
;D@ (four stro6e) 'ut &e selected the engine of the 'ullet ;D@ cc (actually;<=cc),
petrol 'ecause .amaha RD ;D@ engine no& a days is not easily available in mar6et
and the parts are also not available easily 'ut in case of the 'ullet the engine and
spare parts are easily and cheaply available %or8ue of this engine &as also up to our
re8uirements #aintenance of 'ullet engine is also less and cheap as compared to the
RD
7hile calculating the running gear parameters, the magnitude of the po&er
loss coefficient is determined and soil condition is assumed %he e*perience of using
four"&heel drive automobiles sho&s that, &hen used off"the"road &ith hard surface,
their permissible speed is limited by the suspension capabilities %he basis for engine
selection is the po&er re8uired to 6eep the vehicle moving on the most probable road
and mud condition as &ell as the results of economic analysis and feasibility
evaluation An increase in the specific po&er leads to an improvement in the off"road
mobility of the automobile
%he basic thing about the 'ullet engine &as that it &as in our budget And this
engine is also permissible for 2#I0I 'A3A4 in all the &ay li6e &eight, si!e etc 7e
bought second hand engine of 'ullet &ith clutch and gear bo* assembly 7e have
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Design And Fabrication Of Off Road Racing Vehicle
changed some of the engine components &hich &ere &orn out li6e piston rings,
valves, head cap of the inlet valve and gas6ets, bearing cap 7e did oil change of the
engine, cleaning of the carburetor, cleaning of the air filter -ontact 'rea6er (-'
>oint) and condenser also needed some ad:ustments and repair
FUNCTIONAL DESIGN:
Driver &eight G A@ 6g
-hassis and engine &tG C?@ 6g (assume)
#a*imum mass G ;D@ 6g
Haden mass G5s I load
5sG ,tatic load factor
Bere,
5s for utility vehicle isG ;@
Haden mass G 6s I ;D@
G ;I;D@
G 1@D@6g
Dynamic loadG 5d I laden mass
5d G dynamic load factor
G 1D to C@
Assume 5d G 1A
Dynamic loadG 1AI1@D@
G 1A9@ 6g
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Design And Fabrication Of Off Road Racing Vehicle
POWER CALCULATION:
%ractive effort G 5rImIg J 5aIAIV
C
5rG@@< (For tractor in medium hard soil)
5aG1; (For tractor trailer)
AG Frontal area G CD m
C
VG<@ 5mKhrG1111 mKs
%ractive effort G (@@<I1A9@I9A1) J (1;ICDI1111
C
)
G 11<CA@ 0
%ractive po&er re8uired G force I speed
G 11<CA@ I 1111
G 1C=9=D@ 7
G 1C=9 67
$ngine po&er G %ractive po&er K transmission efficiency
Assume transmission efficiency 9DL
$ngine po&er G 1C=9K@9D
G 1;;= 67
$ngine po&er G 1?9@ 'B>
According to this calculated po&er &e did a survey of various t&o &heeler
engine, &e selected bullet ;D@cc engine &hich gives nearly the same po&er &hich &e
have obtained %his &as the main reason to select the bullet ;D@cc engine for our
vehicle &hich has the po&er 1A 'B> M D=C= R>#
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Design And Fabrication Of Off Road Racing Vehicle
3. CHASSIS
-hassis of the automobile is the main supporting member on &hich the
follo&ing components are mounted
1 $ngine
C 1earbo*, clutch
; ,uspension system
< ,teering system
D Fuel tan6 N supply system
LOAD ACTION ON CHASSIS:-
a) 7eight of the component and driver causing a sagging effect due to
bending action
b) Bori!ontal forces provided by road irregularities act on the end of the
side members deflecting the rectangular frame to a parallelogram
c) /p&ard t&isting forces caused by road shoc6s to provide a torsional
effect
In order to provide a good resistance to bending and torsional effect the frame
section should be made of proper form %here are three common types of frame
sections, channel, tubular and bo* or s8uare sections &hich are used for motor
vehicles
-hannel section provides good resistance to bending but is poor in torsion
&hile tubular section provides is good resistance to torsion but poor resistance to
bending %he bo* section is comparatively resistant to bending and torsion Due to
above properties &e used three sections 1
st
&e made a tubular frame, but it &as not
sufficient to sustain various loads ,o &e used -"section for rest and bo* section for
engine mounting to give a good load sustaining characteristic to frame
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Design And Fabrication Of Off Road Racing Vehicle
MATERIAL SELECTION: -
Ho& -arbon ,teels are soft, ductile, malleable, tough, machinable, &ieldable
and hardenable by heat treatment %hey are good for cold &or6ing purpose &hich as
rolling into thin sheets re8uired for galvani!ing, tinning or press &or6 %hey are 7eld
for fabrication &or6 by &elding, pressing or machining9 ho&ever, they cannot be
hardened by heat treatment
%hey are used for &ires, nails, rivets, scre&s, panels, &elding rods, ship plates,
boiler plates and tubes, fan blades, gears, valves, camshafts, cran6 shafts, connecting
rods, rail&ay a*les, fish plates, cross"heads, tubes for bicycles and automobiles
,teels &ith @1D " @;@ L carbon are &idely used as structural steels and finds
applications in building bars, grills, beams, angles, channels, etc #ild steel is &ell
6no&n
%he composition N properties of mild steel are as belo&O
-hemical -ompositionO #echanical >ropertiesO
-arbon P @C; L ., G C=@ 6g Imm2 (minimum)
,ulpher P @@DDL /%, G <C@ " D=@ kg/mm2
>hosphorus P @@DDL $longation G C;@ L (minimum)
'ecause of good &elding properties N strength &e selected #,for the frame
fabrication

BENDING ANALYSIS OF CHASSIS:-
%he various loads li6e &eight of engine and other components, loads due to
bumps and shoc6s are acting on chassis frame %hus there may be chances of bending
of the frame, so &e ta6e factor of safety ; As the frame is made up of #, the yield
strength is C<@ 0Kmm
C

%here fore permissible stress G C<@K; G A@ 0Kmm


C
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Design And Fabrication Of Off Road Racing Vehicle
As the ma*imum loads are acting on the rear part of chassis, let us analysis only the
rear part of chassis %a6ing engine &eightG 9@ 6g And #a* Driver &eight Q 1@@ 6g
First &e calculate the &eight distribution of driver on both the ends of supporting
beam by considering it individually

Fig no ;1O >oint load acting of various section of chassis


As the driver seat is supported by C beams a*is symmetrically the &eight of
1@@ 6g gets distributed as D@ on each beam, and also as it is uniformly distributed load
it is acting as point load at each point CC@ mm from the front support ie from R Het
us analysis it as a beam
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<D6g
<D6g
D@6g
D@6g
D@cm
CCcm
C=cm
CCcm
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Design And Fabrication Of Off Road Racing Vehicle

Fig no ;CO" load acting on H"angle of driver seat
RJ. G D@@ 0
N %a6ing moment M *,
D@@ ICC@G. I=1@
y G1A@; 0
RG;19? 0
,o that the load acting on the rear s8uare section
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CAcm 11cm
D@6gKCCcm/DH
CCcm
D@6g
R
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Design And Fabrication Of Off Road Racing Vehicle
Fig no ;;O Analysis of engine section of chassis for bending
In fig R1 N.1 are support given to the &heels
%herefore ta6ing moment about R1,
%he ma*imum 'ending &ill be
'#G1A@;ICC@G<D@I;A@J1A@;I=C@
G ;CC<DC 0mm
%he cross section of the rear frame is hollo&"s8uare therefore the #I of that section
is
IG ('D
;
K1C)"(('"b) d
;
K1C)
G (D@ID@
;
K1C)"((D@";@);@
;
K1C)
G DC@A;;;" <D@@@
G <?DA;;; mm
<

7e 6no&, fG (#KI)Iy
Bere y G CD mm
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1A@;0 1A@;0 <D@0
<D@0
;Acm
R1 .1
1@
Design And Fabrication Of Off Road Racing Vehicle
f G (;CC<DCK<?DA;;;)KCD
f G 1=9<Q 1? 0Kmm
C
f G 1? P A@ 0Kmm
C
,
%hus our design is safe for bending
Fig no ;<O Front Vie& of -hassis frame in pro"e

Fig no ;DO ;"D #odel of Frame in >ro"$ngineer
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Design And Fabrication Of Off Road Racing Vehicle


Fig no ;=O,ide Vie& Of -hassis frame

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Design And Fabrication Of Off Road Racing Vehicle
Fig no ;?O%op Vie& Of -hassis frame
Fig no ;AO Front Vie& of chassis frame
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Design And Fabrication Of Off Road Racing Vehicle
4. TRANSMISSION
FUNCTIONS OF TRANSMISSION:-
1 %he tor8ue or %ractive effort produced by the engine varies &ith speed only
&ithin narro& limits 'ut the practical consideration for the running of
automobile under different condition demands a large variation of tor8ue
available at &heels %he main purpose of transmission is to provide a means to
vary the tor8ue ratio bet&een the engine and the road &heels as re8uired
C %he transmission also provides a neutral position so that the engine and the
road &heels are disconnected even &ith clutch in engaged position
; A means to bac6 the car by reversing the direction of rotation of the drive is
also provided by transmission
%ransmission includesO"
1 -lutch
C 1earbo*
; Drive to a*le
< Differential
As &e used 'ullet ;D@ cc engine, &e need the transmission system &hich
transmit the engine tor8ue &ith 9DL efficiency &ith variable tor8ue ratios 7e
selected the clutch N gear bo* of the same bi6e according to our design calculations
%he design criteria of different components comes under transmission are
e*plained as follo&sO
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Design And Fabrication Of Off Road Racing Vehicle
1. CLUTCH:-
REQUIREMENTS OF CLUTCH:-
1 %he clutch should be able to transmit ma*imum tor8ue produced by the engine
under all condition
C %he clutch should positively ta6e the drive gradually &ithout the occurrence of
sudden :er6
; %he clutch should be able to eliminate the noise and vibration produced &hile
transmitting po&er
< ,i!e of clutch should be as small as possible so that it can occupy minimum
space
D For higher tor8ue transmission the operation of disengagement should not be
tiresome to driver
%he main function of clutch is to transmit a tor8ue by 1CD"1D@L of the
ma*engine tor8ue For that purpose &e re8uire a clutch unit &hich transmits the
tor8ue of C?< 0m M CA?D rpm of 'ullet ;D@Also &ith in a si!e range of engine N
the gear bo* &ith good heat dissipation properties All our re8uirements are fulfilled
by multiplate clutch unit generally used in 'ullet ;D@ ,o that &e used the same for
our vehicle &ith an engagement mechanism provided in left foot 7e used the same
cable arrangement &ith a ne& pedal operating mechanism &hich is very easy to
operate
During selection of clutch &e had considered a multiplate clutch &ith ;
friction plates N < pressure plates At starting &e used trial N error method for
diameter of plates to obtain specific tor8ue range Finally at D1G1C@mm N DCG?@mm
&e get the tor8ue of <? 0m %he calculations for the same are given belo&,
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Design And Fabrication Of Off Road Racing Vehicle
SELECTION CRITERIA FOR MULTIPLATE CLUTCH:-
Assuming,
n1JnC G ? total no of plates
n G = active pairs of friction surface
p G @1 intensity of pressure
SG @; coefficient of friction
0GCA?D engine rpm at ma* %or8ue
D1G1C@mm outer diameter of clutch plate
DCG?@mm inner diameter of clutch plate
%herefore
r1G=@mm,
rCG;Dmm
Intensity of pressure #a* at inner radius rC N is given as,
- G >ma* IrC
- G @1I;D
- G ;D 0Kmm
7e 6no& a*ial force re8uired to engage the clutch is,
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Design And Fabrication Of Off Road Racing Vehicle
7 G CT- (r1 " rC)
G CTI;DICD
G D<9?A0
%he mean radius is denoted as UrE N given by,
#ean radius G r G (r1J rC)KC
r G (=@J;D)KC
r G <Dmm
7e 6no& the formula to calculate tor8ue is,
%or8ue G nI&ISIr
G = I D<9?A I @; I <?D
%or8ue G <?@ 0m
%herefore the >o&er transmitted is,
>GCT0%K=@
GCITICA?DI<?K=@
>G1<91 67
%hus the po&er transmitted by clutch is 1<91 67, &hich is close to the po&er
transmitted by clutch of bullet ;D@cc
2. GEAR BOX:
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Design And Fabrication Of Off Road Racing Vehicle
%he main purpose of using gear bo* is to obtain different gear ratios to vary
the tor8ue according to road conditions N to get neutral position 7e obtained the
gear ratios as per our design calculation, &hich are as follo&s,
CALCULATION OF GEAR RATIOS:-
>o&er (>) G 1;AC6&
$ngine speed (0) G CA?D
,peed of vehicle (v) G<@ 6mKhrG 1111 mKs
#ass of the vehicle (m) G;D@ 6g
Diameter of &heel (d&) G@? m
V G 1D W
Het,
nG7heel speed
7e have
VGXIdInK=@
n G VI=@K (XId)
n G 1111I=@K (;1<I@?)
n G ;@;1C Q ;@D rpm
Final drive reduction G0KnG CA?DK;@D G 9<C
%ractive effort G 5rImIg J 5aIAIV
C
JmIgI tan V
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Design And Fabrication Of Off Road Racing Vehicle
G (@@<I1@D@I9A1) J (1;ICDI1111
C
) J (1@D@I9A1Itan 1D)
%ractive effort G ;D?;1A
%or8ue at engine (%e) G (>I=@) K (CIXI0)
G (1CACI=@)K (CI;1<ICA?D)
%e G <<D? 0m
1 (lo&er) G (%r Ir&)K (%eIYt)
Assume transmission efficiency (Yt) as 9DL
1 (lo&er) G (;D?;1A I@;D) K (<<D?I@9D)
G C9D;
1ear Ratio G 1 lo&er KReduction in final drive
G C9D; K 9<C
1ear Ratio G ;1;
Het,
11G 1
st
gear ratio
1CG C
nd
gear ratio
1;G ;
rd
gear ratio
1<G <
th
gear ratio
11K1CG1CK1;G1;K1<G-
11I1CG1CI1;G1;I1<G-
;
G ;1;
1;K1<G 1<=D
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Design And Fabrication Of Off Road Racing Vehicle
1;G1<I1<=D
1;G1<=D
1CK1;G1<=D
1CG1;I1<=D
1CGC1<
11K1CG1<=D
11G1CI1<=D
11G;1;
1ear ratios are
11G;1;
1CGC1<
1;G1<=D
1<G1
1ear ratios 'ullet calculation
1
st
C9? ;1;
C
nd
19< C1<
;
rd
1;= 1<=D
<
th
1 1
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Design And Fabrication Of Off Road Racing Vehicle
%hese values &ere close to our calculation, so &e decided to use gear bo* or
bullet ;D@cc It &as easily available and easy to fit 7e didnEt have to do any
modification in it 7e used chain drive from gear bo* to differential by &elding bullet
chain sproc6et to input shaft of differential for obtaining 1O1 drive transmission ratio
3. DIFFERENTIAL:-
In a car travel in a straight line, the t&o rear &heels turn on the road &ith same
speed %here is no relative motion bet&een the t&o rear &heels 'ut &hen the car
ta6es a turn, the outer &heel travels on a longer radius than the inner &heel %here is a
relative motion bet&een the t&o rear &heels
If the t&o rear &heels are rigidly fi*ed to a rear a*le, the inner &heel &ill slip
&hich &ill cause rapid tyre &ear, steering difficulty and poor road holding %hus in
order to avoid s6idding and slippage of one drive &heel in relative to other &hile
cornering some device must be provided to provide relative motion
%he differential serves this purpose of providing relative motion bet&een to
t&o &heels
7e used the differential of 'a:a: three &heeler old models &ith engine in the
front belo& the driver seat %his differential is light in &eight and has a facility of
providing a reverse motion to the vehicle
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Design And Fabrication Of Off Road Racing Vehicle
Fig no <1O" Final drive line
Fig sho&s the line diagram of drive train In &hich po&er from engine is
transmitted to gear bo* through clutch for disengaging N engaging purpose %he same
sproc6et of bullet is used for po&er transmission by means of chain %he sproc6et is
&elded to differential And drive is transmitted to rear &heels
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Design And Fabrication Of Off Road Racing Vehicle
. BRA!ING SYSTEM
From safety standpoint, the bra6es are :ust about the most critical system in
the racing purpose %he main functions of bra6e system are
1 In emergency they must bring the vehicle to rest in the shortest possible
distance
C %hey must enable control of vehicle to be retained &hen descending long hills
REQUIREMENTS:
%he desired characteristics of bra6e system for ,A$ #ini 'a:a competition are
as follo&s,
1 Reliability or fail safety
C /ltimate stopping po&er
; 'alancing or proportionality
< Feel or modulation
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Design And Fabrication Of Off Road Racing Vehicle
D Durability or fade resistance high
= >edal pressure must be lo&
? Hife of the friction material
For this &e use Bydraulic bra6e system, &hich gives better performance than
#echanical bra6e system &ith less operating pedal force
%here are t&o options for bra6e type,
1 Drum type
C Disc type
'ut &e moved to&ards Disc bra6e system due to follo&ing advantages,
1 Disc bra6es friction surfaces are directly e*posed to the cooling air, so heat
can easily dissipated
C %he friction pads in case of disc bra6es are flat as compared to curved friction
lining in case of drum bra6es
; %he design of disc bra6e is such that there is no loss efficiency due to
e*pansion
< Hess &eight
D Disc bra6e have better anti fade characteristics
= It is very to replace the friction pads &hen re8uired, compared to drum type
&here bra6e pads are riveted
Due to above advantages and to improve bra6ing performance along &ith
&eight reduction, &e prefer use of disc bra6es for all four &heels
In the disc bra6es there are t&o options, ventilated disc and solid disc 'ut &e
selected ventilated discs due to follo&ing reasons,
1 A ventilated disc has far better capabilities per pound than solid disc
C Ventilated disc bra6e can run a fe& hundred degree cooler
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Design And Fabrication Of Off Road Racing Vehicle
7e need to select light &eight, hydraulic disc bra6e system &ith ventilated
discs for racing purpose and for off road purpose %his re8uirement is satisfied by
#aruti A@@ bra6e system ,o &e used this
BRA!ING SYSTEM DESIGN:-
I"#$% &'%':
#ass of vehicle (m) G ;D@ 6g
-oefficient of friction (Z) G @A
0ormal force at right rear tyre G9AI9A1G9=1;A 0
0ormal force at left rear tyre G 9AI9A1G 9=1;A 0
Radius of tyre (Rt) GCA@
$ngine rpmG CA?D
#a*imum speed of vehicle (v) G <@ 5mKhrG1111 mKs
Re8uired stopping timeGC sec
Re8uired stopping distanceG Am
5$ G 1KD mv
C
G C1=@ 53
Deceleration G (V"@)KC
G 1111KC
G DDD mKsec
C
Force re8uired to both tyres s6id
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Design And Fabrication Of Off Road Racing Vehicle
G Z (0rJ0i)
G@A(9=1;AJ9=1;A)
G1D;AC@ 0
#ean radius of rotor disc G r
Range of ratio (RtKr) G CD to ;@
Assume ratio C=
C=G CA@Kr
rG 1@? mm
d G C1< mm
Force at rotor disc to s6id tyre (Fr) G C= I Ft
G C= I 1D;AC@
G ;999;C 0
#aterial of rotor disc G steel
For ade8uate operation ma*imum >ressure allo&ed on steel (p) G C@@@ 5pa
Assume factor of safety G <
Assume p G 1@@6pa
Area of pad G A
>G FrKA
AGFrK>
A G ;999;CK1@@
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Design And Fabrication Of Off Road Racing Vehicle
AG ;999 Q <@ cm
C

%hus the above calculate values are a close to the bra6es &e used of #aruti A@@ ,o
this &as the basic reason for selecting the bra6es of #aruti A@@
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Design And Fabrication Of Off Road Racing Vehicle
(. STEERING SYSTEM
%he main function of the steering system is to convert the steering &heel angle
into as clear a relationship as possible to the steering angle of the &heels N to convey
feedbac6 about the vehicles state of movement bac6 to the steering &heel
STEERING SYSTEM ON INDEPENDENT WHEEL SUSPENSIONSO"

As &e decided to use the independent suspension &e re8uire the steering
system &hich can ad:ust &ith the independent suspension system N &heel trac6 of
1<C cm It must be economical and uncomplicated, easy to operate &ith good degree
of efficiency ,teering rac6 and pinion should maintain internal damping And also
the main re8uirement is to operate it centrally
RULES FOR RACES
Along &ith these re8uirements &e are &ith the restriction of ma* &idth
1=CD@cm N >rotection of tie rod by chassis from the frontal impact as mentioned in
#I0I 'A3A Rules
For that &e search for the steering system &ith central steering &heel 'ut &e
are unable to get the same used in any four &heeler vehicle, thatEs &hy &e go for a
right hand side driven #aruti A@@ 'ecause the &heel trac6 is nearly same N it can be
ad:usted at central by ad:usting the length of tie rods During this &e cut the right tie
rod to its half length N left tie rod is e*tended as per re8uirement by &elding
In the case of rac6 N pinion ,teering ,ystem on independent &heel
suspensions, it is most economical to fi* the inner tie rod :oints to the steering rac6
And in a left"hand drive passenger car or light van, the steering rac6 is carried on the
right by a plastic bearing shell and on the right by guide, &hich presses the steering
rac6 against the pinion gear On a right"hand drive vehicle this arrangement is
reversed
Fig sho&s the rac6 and pinion type of steering gear (end ta6e off type) along
&ith its lin6age %he rotary motion of the steering &heel is transmitted to the pinion
of the steering gear through universal :oints (not sho&n) %he pinion is in mesh &ith
a rac6 %he circular motion of the pinion is transferred into the linear rac6 movement
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Design And Fabrication Of Off Road Racing Vehicle
%his is further relayed through the ball :oints and tie rods to the stub a*les for the
&heels to be steered It has a large boot that covers the centre part of the rac6 and
pinion housing A slot in the housing permits the inner tie rod ends to move &ith the
rac6
Figure first sho&s the Actual ad:usted steering system &hich is modified in tie
rod length It is not e*actly at centre it is shifted to&ards right because &e used only
one universal :oint %he second fig sho&s the &or6ing of the system


Fig no =1 Actual ad:usted steering system

Fig no =CO rac6 and pinion steering
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Design And Fabrication Of Off Road Racing Vehicle
STEERING GEOMETRY:-
F)* "+ (.3: ,%--.)"* *-+/-%.0
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Design And Fabrication Of Off Road Racing Vehicle
CAMBER:-
-amber is the tilting of the front &heels from the vertical 7hen the tilt is
out&ard, so the &heels are farther apart at the top than at the bottom, the camber is
positive >ositive camber is sho&n in Fig 7hen the tilt is in&ard, so the &heels are
closer together at the top than at the bottom, the camber is negative %he &heels are
given a slight out&ard tilt to start &ith so that &hen vehicle is loaded and rolling
along on the road, the load &ill :ust about bring the &heels to a vertical position Any
amount of camber"positive or negative "tends to cause uneven or more rapid tire &ear,
since the tilt puts more of the load on one side of the tread than on the other
%he values of camber after ad:ustment &ere,
For left J@W;?[
For right "@W;C[
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Design And Fabrication Of Off Road Racing Vehicle
!INGPIN INCLINATION:-
5ingpin inclination (or 5>I) is the in&ard tilt of the 6ingpin from the vertical
(Fig) 5ingpin inclination is desirable for several reasons First, it helps provide
steering stability by tending to return the &heel to the straight ahead position after any
turn9 second, it reduces steering effort, particularly &hen the car is stationary and
third, it reduces tire &ear
TOE-IN OR TOE-OUT:-
%oe"in is the turning in of the front &heels9 they attempt to roll in&ard instead
of straight ahead On a car &ith toe"in, the distance bet&een the front &heels is less at
the front than at the rear %he actual amount of toe"in is normally only a fraction of an
inch %he purpose of toe"in is to ensure parallel rolling of the front &heels, to stabili!e
steering, and to prevent side slipping and e*cessive &ear of tires In other &ords, even
though the &heels an\ set to toe in slightly &hen the car is standing still, they tend to
roll parallel on the road &hen the car is moving for&ard
%he values of toe &ere,
For left J@= mm
For right "1?? mm
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Design And Fabrication Of Off Road Racing Vehicle
1. TYRES2 ROAD WHEELS AND BEARINGS
TYRE REQUIREMENTSO"
>neumatic tyres for motor vehicles must basically satisfy the follo&ing re8uirementsO
,upport the &eight of the vehicle and distribute it over the road surface
%o offer the minimum rolling resistance to the motion of the vehicle and thus
reduce po&er absorption
%o contribute to the suspension cushioning of impact forces created by road
surface irregularities
%o permit the generation of traction, bra6ing and steering forces on dry or &et
road surfaces
%o confer safe operation up to the ma*imum speed of vehicle
%o provide 8uiet straight"ahead running and freedom from s8ueal on cornering
and bra6ing
%o reali!e an acceptable tread life under varied running conditions
TYRE CHARACTERSTICSO"
7hen a vehicle is being driven along the road, the tyres are acted upon by a
comple* and variable system of forces that arise in the vertical, longitudinal and
lateral directions %he manner in &hich the tyres react to these forces defines their
main characteristics,
CUSHIONING ABILITYO"
%he pneumatic tyre contributes to the ride comfort of the vehicle by
acting as a spring in series &ith the suspension system (figure)
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Design And Fabrication Of Off Road Racing Vehicle
ROLLING RESISTANCEO"
'asic consideration affecting the fle*ibly tyred &heel, freely rolling
on a rigid"road surface, is that it must inherently posses a resistance to motion %his
effect arises because the deformation of the tyre tread tends
7e used regular radial ply tyres used for cars and vans %hey are cheaply and
easily available 'ut for races a special tyres are re8uired having high coefficient of
friction and high &idth It is not easily available and is of high cost, thus considering
cost reduction factor &e used the radial ply tyres
ROAD WHEELS AND HUBSO"
%he design features necessary for all &heels may be summari!ed as in the
follo&ing sections
LIGHTWEIGHT CONSTRUCTIONO"
$ach &heel adds significantly to the unsprung mass of its suspension
mechanism ,ince it is easier for a shoc6 damper to control the bouncing movements
of a small rather than a large unsprung mass, it follo&s that for good road holding the
&heel should be made as light as possible
STRENGTH AND RIGIDITYO"
A &heel must possess sufficient strength to &ithstand all normal service loads
imposed upon it It must further be rigid or stiff enough as a structure to minimi!e
bending deflection under steering and cornering loads
TYRE RETENTIONO"
%he design of the &heel rim must permit the mounting and removal of the tyre
and retain it securely in position &hen inflated
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Design And Fabrication Of Off Road Racing Vehicle
WHEEL HUBS AND BEARINGS O"
%he arrangement of hubs and bearings used in a*les is as follo&sO
1 Independent front suspension (IF,) &ith non"driven
C Independent front suspension (IF,) &ith driven &heels
; Independent rear suspension (IR,) &ith driven &heels
< Independent rear suspension (IR,) &ith non"driven &heels
7e used 0umber 1 N ;, &hich areO"
1. IFS 3)%4 "+"-&.)5-" 34--6,O"
%he hub bearing arrangements for this system generally continue to follo&
those of beam"a*le mounted &heels %hat is, each hub rotates about a dead spindle
through the medium of an opposed pair of either angular"contact ball, or tapered
roller, bearings Bo&ever, the re8uirements in respect of their load carrying capacity
have tended to increase, because of the more for&ard mounting of the engine
permitted by IF,
2. IRS 3)%4 &.)5-" 34--6,O"
For driven rear &heels independently sprung by popular semi"trailing arm
system, the modern approach is to use a double"ro& angular"contact ball bearing hub
unit similar to that described for IF, &ith driven &heels ,ince the bearing
arrangements in both, cases are basically the same, one manufacturer for e*ample
uses a common hub bearing unit for the driven front &heels of one model and for the
driven rear &heels of another For heavy"duty applications, the earlier practice of
using an opposed pair of either deep"groove ball, or tapered roller, bearings may still
be follo&ed
7e used cast alloy &heel of #aruti car %hey are cheaply easily available It is
light in &eight and one piece casting Bave high strength and light in &eight
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Design And Fabrication Of Off Road Racing Vehicle
7. SUSPENSION SYSTEM
%he suspension of modern vehicles need to satisfy a number of re8uirements
&hose aims partly conflict because of different operating conditions (loaded K
unloaded , acceleration K bra6ing , level K uneven road, straight running K cornering)
,ufficient vertical spring travel, possibly combined &ith the hori!ontal
movement of the &heel a&ay from an uneven area of road (6inematics &heel) is
re8uired for reasons of ride comfort %he recession suspension should also be
complaint for purpose of reducing the rolling stiffness of tyres and short"stro6e
movement in longitudinal direction resulting from the road surface, but &ith affecting
the development of lateral &heel forces and hence steering precision, for &hich the
most rigid &heel suspension is re8uired %his re8uirement is undermined as a result of
the necessary fle*ibility that results from disturbing &heel moment generated by
longitudinal forces arising from driving and bra6ing operation
REQUIREMENT OF SUSPENSION SYSTEM:-
Independent movement of each of the &heels on a*le
,mall, unsprung masses of the suspension in order to 6eep &heel load
fluctuating as lo& as possible
%he introduction of &heel forces into the body in manner favorable to the flo&
of forces
%he necessary room and e*penditure for construction purposes, bearing in
mind the necessary tolerances &ith regards to geometry and stability
$ase for use
'ehavior &ith regards to the passive safety of passengers and other road user
-ost
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Design And Fabrication Of Off Road Racing Vehicle
INDEPENDENT SUSPENSION SYSTEMO"
%he chassis of a passenger car must be able to handle the engine po&er
installed $ver improving acceleration, higher pea6 and cornering speeds, and
deceleration leads to significantly increased re8uirements for safer chassis %he
independent &heel suspension follo&s this trend
%he independent &heel suspension has follo&ing advantages"
,teering effect due to lateral movement of the tyre K road contact patch, as the
&heel rises and falls are obviated
A*le tramp, and particularly that associated &ith alternative &ind"up and
release leaf of springs sub:ected to bra6e tor8ue, is obviated
It is possible to obtain softer suspension &ith large &heel displacements
&ithout raising the center of gravity
Variation in castor angle due to &ind"up in obviated
A coil spring can be more easily accommodated close to a &heel that has to be
steered than can be semi"elliptic spring
/nsprung mass is lighter and therefore the ride 8uality improves
%he roll center can be lo&er and the spring base &ider, so the roll resistance is
higher %he effect of high roll resistance is that softer springing can be used
&hich reduces the tendency to pitch
Hittle space re8uired
Ho& &eight
%he independent suspension system has many advantages as compared to
other suspension system &hich are stated above ,o &e decided to use independent
suspension system for &heels
%he simplest independent suspension is #c>herson strut suspension It is used
in almost all the vehicles
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Design And Fabrication Of Off Road Racing Vehicle
MCPHERSON STRUT AND STRUT DAMPERS:-
Fig no A1O #c>herson strut suspension
7e used #aruti A@@ #c>herson strut suspension system for both front and
rear &heels as our location of engine is on rear side It is easily available and has lo&
cost then any other suspension system
Our vehicle had a &eight of ;A@ 6g &hich &as not enough for the &or6ing of
suspension, so small vibration &as transfered to the steering %o overcome this
problem &e :ust increased the free length of the coil spring 0o& the suspension is
free enough to absorb the vibration %his change &as made in the suspension
ANTI ROLL BARS:-
An anti"roll bar is basically a torsion bar type of spring &ith angled ends, and
its action is sho&n in (Figure) It is mounted transversely and in such a manner as to
connect the locating lin6ages of opposite &heels, &hile remaining torsion ally free
&ith respect to the vehicle structure It thus performs the function of resisting rolling,
as its name &ould suggest, but not bouncing motions of the vehicle Bo&ever, the
amount of roll restraint contributed by an anti"roll bar must necessarily be limited,
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Design And Fabrication Of Off Road Racing Vehicle
because it also has the effect of stiffening the suspension in response to single &heel
bumps and can therefore compromise ride comfort
%he anti"roll bar &as once generally confined in application to the front
suspension, because it had the effect of redistributing the overall lateral &eight
transfer bet&een the front and rear pairs of tyres in favour of promoting under steer
%he slip angle of a tyre can also be increased if the vertical load becomes greater,
&hich is the effect that the addition of an anti"roll bar has on the already heavily
loaded outer &heel of a pair during cornering In more recent years there has been a
trend to include an anti"roll bar in the rear suspension system as &ell, partly to correct
any condition of e*cessive under steer and partly to reduce roll further
7e used anti roll bars in the rear side also 7e had to increase the length of the
stabili!er bar by cutting it and fi*ing another bar by &ielding %his made us easy to fit
the bar at proper place
Fig no ACO " Action of anti"roll bar
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Design And Fabrication Of Off Road Racing Vehicle
S-6-8%)+" 8.)%-.)' 9+. 8+)6 ,#.)"*:-
Assume 1 G A< 50Ks8mm
,pring inde* (DKd) G A G -
,hear stress intensity G fs G <C@ 0Ks8mm
Deflection (A*ial) G D@ mm
#a*imum load on each springG mfsgK< G1?1=?<
Bere fs G factor of safety GC
1. M-'" &)'/-%-. ,#.)"* 8+)6
D G #ean diameter of spring
D G Diameter of spring coil
7ahlEs factor
5 G ((<-"1)K(<-"<)) J (@=1DK-)
G 11A
M':)/$/ ,4-'. ,%.-,,
fs G 6I(A&cKXdId)
<C@ G (1A1 I AI 1?1=?<IA)K(XdId)
d G 99C mm
#ean diameter of spring
D G cId G A I 99C
G ?9;= mm
Outer diameter of spring coil,
DoG D J d
G ?9;=J99C
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Design And Fabrication Of Off Road Racing Vehicle
G A9CA mm
2. N$/;-. +9 %$.", +9 8+)6
n G number of active turns of coil
Deflection of spring,
] G (A&cIcIcIn)K (1d)
D@G (AI1?1=?<IAIAIAIn)K (A<@@@I99C))
n G D9C Q =
For s8uared and ground ends
%otal number of turns

nEG nJCG =JCG A
3. F.-- 6-"*%4 +9 ,#.)"*
G nEd J ] J@1D]
G A(99C) JD@J@1D(D@)
G 1;?Dmm
4. P)%84 +9 8+)6
G free length K nE"1
G 1;?DKA"1
G 19=<mm
. S#.)"* ,%)99"-,,
G (1Id^<)K (AID^;In)
G (A<@@@I99C^<)K (AI?9<;^;I=)
G ;;A1@

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Design And Fabrication Of Off Road Racing Vehicle
%hus dimension according to our calculation are,
Diameter of spring G 1@mm
#ean diameter of coil GA@ mm
Outer diameter of spring coilG9@ mm
0umber of active turns of coilG =
Free length of springG1;?Dmm
>itch of coilG19=<
,pring stiffnessG;;A1@
%his calculated value of suspension is close to the value of the #aruti
suspension system ,o &e used #aruti #c>herson strut suspension system for all four
&heels
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Design And Fabrication Of Off Road Racing Vehicle
<. TESTING AND PERFORMANCE
For any vehicle &hich is manufactured has to go through the some important
tests %hese tests are generally carried to get the performance of the vehicle for
particular test condition %hese tests are carried out by the manufacturer itself As per
the class or type of the vehicle the different tests are decided
>erformance of the vehicle is defined as the results of the different tests for
particular vehicle ItEs unit may be time, angle, 6ilometer per hour (6ph) etc For the
testing purpose of the vehicles manufactured in India government has established the
centers li6e ARAI (Automotive Research Association of India), VRD$ (Vehicle
research And Development $stablishment)%he basic function of these centers is to
test the different class of vehicles &hich are manufactured in India and going to
launching in fe& days
In this centers the different trac6s, road conditions, different machineries
re8uired for the tests are available 7ithout the permission of ARAI no vehicle can be
sell in India, by any manufacturer %here are ideal conditions are maintained in these
centers for testing purpose
7hile &or6ing on this pro:ect our basic aim &as to improve the performance
of the vehicle For that purpose all standard recommended components &ere used
After completion of the pro:ect actual tests &ere started %he different tests &ere
carried out by our self only As this vehicle is made for the off road race purpose, so
&e had tests only related &ith the race application
%he basic tests &e had as follo&sO"
1 #a*imun speed
C Acceleration
; Deceleration
< Fuel consumption
D ,teering angle
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Design And Fabrication Of Off Road Racing Vehicle
1. MAXIMUN SPEED:-
%his is one of the main test for the vehicle to 6no& its po&er utili!ation It is
the ma*imum speed the vehicle can achive irrespective of time As our vehicle
doesnEt have any speedometer &e had to :ust run a t&o &heeler side by side to 6no&
the ma*imum speed
%he ma*imum speed of our vehicle is <@ 6mKhr
2. ACCELERATION TEST
%his test has importance for 6no&ing the accelerating capacity of the
particular vehicle in particular time limit %his is nothing but obtaining the particular
speed in particular time
%he instrument &e re8uired is stop &atch only %hen &e too6 the readings for
<@ 6mph (6ilometer per hour) %he time re8uired for obtaining this speed &as 6no&n
%his time obtained &as C1 seconds %his result &as satisfactory on this level %he
results &ere as follo&s
,peed decided G<@ 6mph
%ime re8uired GC1 seconds
3. DECELERATION TEST:
%his test is generally performed for 6no&ing the bra6ing control of the vehicle
for particular speed in relation &ith time One more important point is the vehicle
should not s6id during bra6ing ,o simply the speed is generally considered the
accelerating speed of the vehicle and then bra6es are applied suddenly and the
stopping distance is measured till the vehicle attempts the speed of !ero From that
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Design And Fabrication Of Off Road Racing Vehicle
time &e come to 6no& the control of the vehicle during bra6ing %he readings
obtained &ere as follo&s
,peed of vehicle G <@ 6mph
'ra6ing distance G =? seconds
%his result &as also satisfactory for our vehicle
4. FUEL CONSUMPTION=
For every vehicle this point is very important 'y 6no&ing this &e can get the
idea about the average or mileage of that vehicle It is nothing but the fuel
consumption by the vehicle in particular distance From that &e can easily calculate
the mileage of that vehicle for one litter of the fuel
For this test &e too6 the vehicle on the trac6 as same as made for the race and
fill the D@@ml of petrol into fuel tan6 %hen side by side &e 6ept one bi6e for
speedometer reading and note the reading of the speedometer %hen &e started the
vehicle 7e ran the vehicle still total fuel &as over %hen the total distance traveled by
the vehicle &as noted Form that &e got the mileage of the mud vehicle 7e tried to
too6 the reading related to application of the vehicle %he readings are as follo&s
Fuel consumption G D@@ml
%otal distance traveled G 1CD 6m
Final average G CD@ 6m
. STEERING ANGLE:-
%his is not the test actually, but this is the measurement of tyre angle of both
front tyres %his is very helpful for getting the turning radius of the vehicle on both
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Design And Fabrication Of Off Road Racing Vehicle
the side ie right side and left side %his angle is also helpful for &heel alignment of
the vehicle settings If this angle is more for any side &heel then s6idding may occur
uring turning and unnecessary &ear of the tyre ta6es place %here are computeri!ed
testing and manual testing for this purpose 7e tested manually
For that purpose proper tyre inflation is maintained %hen the vehicle is 6ept
on the plane ground level %he front &heels 6ept straight and one longitudinal line is
dra&n from the centre of both the tyres %hen steer the vehicle on the right side fully
Again one line is dra&n from the tyre centre %he angle bet&een both these lines &as
measured %his angle &as for right side of the vehicle ,ame procedure &as adopted
for the left side &heel and angle &as measured %he reading &as as follo&s
Right side angle G DC_
Heft side angle G DC_
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Design And Fabrication Of Off Road Racing Vehicle
1>. VEHICLE SPECIFICATION
ENGINE: F+$. S%.+?-,2 OHV
CUBIC CAPACITY 34(88
BORE @ STRO!E 1>// : <>//
COMPRESSION RATIO 1.2:1
ENGINE POWER 17 BHP A (2( RPM
OUTPUT TORQUE 2.14 ?*/ B 271 RPM
IGNITION B'%%-.0 @ C+)6
CLUTCH M$6%)#6'%- - O)6 )//-.,-&
TRANSMISSION 4 S#--& - C+",%'"% M-,4
FUEL CONSUMPTION 2( !/BL%.
SUSPENSION M8P4-.,+" S%.$% T0#- I"&-#-"&-"%
F+. '66 9+$. 34--6,
CHASSIS: M)6& ,%--62 >-> L-S-8%)+"
LENGTH 21(>//.
WIDTH <7>//.
HEIGHT 114//.
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Design And Fabrication Of Off Road Racing Vehicle
11. CONCLUSION
%his pro:ect &or6 is carried out by us to ta6e the participation in the 2#I0I
'A3A4 the engineering pro:ect competition arranged in ,outh Africa For that &e
have concentrated to match their rules and regulations
As the vehicle is made for the race purpose, so &e have concentrated on the
po&er not on economy During the pro:ect &or6 &e come to 6no& that &hat 6ind of
technical as &ell as other problems came across the &or6 In this pro:ect &or6 &e
applied lot of principles of different sub:ects &e studied in the engineering From that
&e got revie& over some of the sub:ects
%here is lots of modification still needed to match all re8uirements 7e &ill
try to modify as per the rules before race
7e also got the 6no&ledge of fabrication &or6 7e purchased lot of material
form mar6et, so &e understood ho& to deal &ith people During the &or6 sometimes
&e had to ta6e decisions so some of the leadership 8ualities are also improved 7e
also get an opportunity to handle the different special purpose machines and precision
e8uipments
%his is the innovative 6ind of &or6 &e have done together 7e also learned to
&or6 in group to achieve the common goal Bo& to face the problems, also find the
variety of solutions and select the best one among the all solutions
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Design And Fabrication Of Off Road Racing Vehicle
12. FUTURE SCOPE
Our concept to design a high tor8ue engine vehicle, &hich completes the basic
re8uirements of U,A$ #I0I 'A3A -ompetition Uis 8uite successful It gives better
performance >erformance testing related to fuel consumption, ma*imum speed,
ma*imum acceleration, stopping distance and time gives e*pected results
'y using this vehicle &e obtain average of CD 6m, ma*imum speed of <@
6mKhr in C; seconds
'ut some dra&bac6s are there, &e can remove that dra&bac6s in future and
can obtain better performance %his &ill done by modifying present systems or using
some advanced techni8ues
,ome dra&bac6s are listed belo&
1 ,tarting problem
C #ore chassis &eight
; $ngine noise and vibration
< Hess ground clearance
Due to cost factor and less span available, &e &ere unable to remove the above
dra&bac6 for getting performance results 'ut in future there is scope to do this by
adopting follo&ing techni8ues
1 S%'.%)"* #.+;6-/O
7e used bullet ;D@cc engine &hich had a 6ic6 starting mechanism %his
is very time consuming procedure to start engine, but our cost estimation of pro:ect is
not that much to purchase engine &ith self starter or electronically startor engine %his
&ill again increase pro:ect budget &ith ;,@@@K to <,@@@K
%he better solution or future scope is to self started or electronic s&itch
started engine or 'riggs and ,tratton engine &hich &ill sponsored by ,A$, during
second time participation in competition
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Design And Fabrication Of Off Road Racing Vehicle
2. C4',,), 3-)*4% .-&$8%)+":
In recent design &e select DID H"section for chassis frame of iron metal %his
frame is supported or reinforced by cylindrical frame of 1< gauge of diameter 1 inch
from inside 'ut this is responsible to increase &eight of frame up to C?@ 6g As &e
made tubular chassis 1
st
but it &as not possible to carry the load of engine and other
components so &e had to use H"section &hich increased the &eight of chassis
,A$ #I0I 'A3A -ompetition allo&s gross vehicle &eight up to ;D@ 6g, but
by reducing the &eight &e can improve fuel economy 7e can reduce the &eight by
selecting the material of light &eight and high strength 7e can select the round or
s8uare section for this
3. E"*)"- "+),- '"& 5);.'%)+" .-&$8%)+":-
7e used bullet ;D@ cc engine, this produces more noise and vibration but
for reduction in noise and vibration level &e have options li6e RD ;D@ cc engine ,
'riggs and ,tratton engine
7e are not using RD ;D@ cc t&in engine due to unavailability in the mar6et in
desired cost
If mountings &ith rubber cushion are provided to bullet engine, it &ill also reduce
vibrations
4. M+.- *.+$"& 86-'.'"8-:
Our vehicle has ground clearance of 1< cm this ground clearance is less due to
use of radial tyres &ith 1C inch diameter
For effective use as off road vehicle &e have more ground clearance %he main
re8uirement of off road vehicle &ill satisfied by &ith help of sports tyres
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Design And Fabrication Of Off Road Racing Vehicle
Along &ith above there are many other future scope to get better performance and that
are
U,- +9 CVT:-
-V% (continuous variable transmission) gives high rear ratios then
manual transmission, improves performance, fuel economy and smoother
operation -V% is available &ith 'riggs and ,tratton engine, &hich is
sponsored by ,A$ during second time participation in competition

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Design And Fabrication Of Off Road Racing Vehicle
13. BIBLOGRAPHY
1 3Reimpell, B,tall, 37'et!ler, 2%he automobile chassis4, ,A$
International
Independent &heel suspension (?"1D), ,teering+rac6 and pinion (C?1"C?=),
spring (;<=, ;?D";??)
C Van Val6enburgh, 2Race car engineering N mechanics4
%ires N &heels (?"19), ,uspension, steering geometry N Alignment (19";;)
,prings, anti"roll bars (;;";A)
; Bappian N smith 2#odern vehicle design4, ,A$ International
#aterial selection (C9"<<), -hassis design and analysis (1CD" 1DC)
< #30unney, 2Automotive technology4 ,,A$ International
#ultiplate clutch (C?9), %yres, road &heels N hubs (<;A"<D<)
D 5ripal ,ingh, 2Automobile engineering vol +I4, ,tandard publication
#ultiplate clutch (=9"?@), ,uspension (CC?"C;;), steering (C?9"CAC)
= 50e&ton, 7,teeds, %51arrett , 2%he motor vehicle4, 'utter&orth"
Beinemann
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