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For the 7th edition of the THEMIS Competition - 2012

A comparative analyi of !iciplinary Sytem


for E"ropean #"d$e and proec"tor
A"thor% Ac&"aviva 'a() Cata$net Florence and Evan$helo" Mor$ane
Ac*no+led$ement
From the Belgian Judicial Training Institute : Edith VAN DEN BROECK Director !con"ention signator#$
From the Bulgarian National Institute o% Justice: &tanisla" 'rigoro" Junior E()ert
From the Italian *igh Council %or the Judiciar# : Alessandra FRAIE'ARI *ead o% International Relations
From the +acedonian Academ# %or the Training o% Judges and ,u-lic ,rosecutors : Aneta ARNA.DOV&KA Judge and
Director Elena //IEV&KA0 JO&IFOVIC &enior legal ad"isor
From the ,olish National &chool %or the Judiciar# and ,u-lic ,rosecution: 1o2ciech ,O&T./&KI Judge and *ead o% the international
coo)eration de)artment
From the Romanian National Institute %or the Judiciar# : Andra '*EBRI E()ert Initial Training De)artment
/iaison +agistrates : Val3r# T.RCE4 in 'erman# 5 Frederic TEI//ET in Romania5 Alain BIROT in &er-ia5 Oli"ier DE,ARI& in
England and 1ales
Others magistrates: 6a"ier De RIE+AECKER !-elgian ,rosecutor &u)reme Court$ 5 Nadi7ge ,E8.INOT !%rench )roecutor$5
Christo)he &E4& !%rencg 2udge$ 5 &t3)hane T*IBA./T !%rench 2udge$
Council o% Euro)e: +uriel DECOT
Euro)ean Judges 9 and ,rosecutors9 Association : ,hili))e BR.E4 Vice0chairman:
French National &chool %or the Judiciar#: 'illes BO.RDIER 5 Amanda 'ED'E01A//ACE 5 /aurent ;.C*O1IC; 5 Emmanuelle
/EBO.C*ER0CABE/'.ENNE 5 E"el#ne D.VERDIER 5
Summary
Introduction::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::<
I: Ethics = )ro%essional misconduct 2usti%#ing disci)linar# )roceedings ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::<
II: The origins o% disci)linar# s#stems in Euro)e::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::>
III: The role o% disci)linar# s#stems: to )reser"e the trust o% the citi?en :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::@
,ART A : Com)arati"e anal#sis o% disci)linar# s#stems %or 2udges in Euro)e :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::@
I: From &tandards %or Judicial Conduct to Disci)linar# O%%ences ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::B
A: &tandard conduct %or Judges and ,rosecutors::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::B
A: Constitutional and /egal sources:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::B
<: Other sources ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::B
B: The a))lication o% Disci)linar# o%%ences:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::C
A: Disci)linar# o%%ences on dut#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::C
<: Disci)linar# o%%ences o%%0dut#::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::D
II: Judges and ,rosecutors at the hands o% the Disci)linar# /ia-ilit# :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::D
A : A +ulti0%aceted Disci)linar# %rameEorF::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::D
A: One or se"eral disci)linar# authoritiesG::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::D
<: Com)osition o% disci)linar# institution :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::AH
B: Ke# )oints %or Disci)linar# )roceedings::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::AH
A: Commencement o% ,roceedings:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::AH
<: The In"estigating ,rocedure::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::AA
>: Rights o% the de%ence in disci)linar# )roceedings::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::A<
C: The time set %or disci)linar# sanctions::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::A>
,ART < : The )ros)ects %or 2udicial disci)linar# s#stems :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::A@
I: The a))lica-ilit# o% article BIA o% the Euro)ean Con"ention to 2udicial disci)linar# s#stems::::::::::::::::::::::::::::A@
A: The ,E//E'RIN ruling o% the Euro)ean Court o% *uman Rights:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::A@
B: &hortcomings o% the ,E//E'RIN ruling :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::AJ
C: A neE criterion %or the a))lica-ilit# o% article BIA to 2udges9 disci)linar# litigation ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::AB
II: The im)lementation o% Euro)ean disci)linar# res)onsi-ilit# %or Euro)ean ,u-lic ,rosecutors::::::::::::::::::::::::AC
A: Euro)ean ,u-lic ,rosecutorsK o%%ice: )resentation o% the )ro2ect: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::AC
B: 1hat Ethical o-ligations should -e %i(ed %or Euro)ean ,rosecutors G ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::AC
C: 1hat disci)linar# s#stem should -e im)lemented %or Euro)ean ,u-lic ,rosecutors G ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::AD
Bi-liogra)h#:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::<H
A
Introd"ction
L The )oEers entrusted to 2udges are strictl# linFed to the "alues o% 2ustice truth and %reedom: The
standards o% conduct a))l#ing to 2udges are the corollar# o% these "alues and a )recondition %or con%idence in the
administration o% 2ustice M
A
:
Judges9 standards o% conduct usuall# re%erred to as their )ro%essional code o% conduct are in )ractice guaranteed
-# disci)linar# rules !I$: Euro)ean disci)linar# s#stems ma# emanate %rom national laEs !II$ -ut the# ha"e one
)ur)ose = the trust o% the citi?en = Ehich e(tends -e#ond their -orders !III$:
I, Ethic - profeional micond"ct #"tifyin$ diciplinary proceedin$
The Eord L ethics M comes %rom the 'reeF Eord ethos meaning moralit# and thus a science o% morals or
the art o% managing one9s conduct
<
: In Common /aE countries Ethics o%ten con"e#s the idea o% good )ro%essional
conduct: It is also descri-ed as L the main rules Ehich the e(ercise o% a )ro%ession reNuires its )ro%essionals to
res)ect M
3
liFe the %rench Od3ontologieP
@
:
1ith regards 2udicial %unctions ethics e(ist s)eci%icall# %or 2udges and )rosecutors -arristers and solicitors: TalFing
a-out 2udicial ethics is )articularl# rele"ant -ecause 2udges hold )u-lic o%%ice:
J

This re)ort Eill %ocus on Ehat is called a OmagistratP in French that is to sa# strictl# s)eaFing, a person
belonging to the judicial authorities who is professionally able to judge (the Bench) or to demand justice (Public
Prosecutors)
B
:
Thus 2udges ha"e to -e digni%ied honest inde)endent and lo#al:
1hile )ro%essional conduct is guaranteed -# a disci)linar# s#stem the tEo conce)ts are di%%erent:
Disci)linar# rules ma# -e de%ined as L the main duties Ehich ha"e to -e res)ected -# all mem-ers o% the same
)ro%ession or Eho are attached to a )articular )osition and Ehose disci)linar# sanctions are inde)endent o% the
-od# Ehich im)oses them the )rocedure %olloEed the de%inition o% the o%%ence and the nature o% the sanctions M
C
:
Indeed the Consultati"e Council o% Euro)ean Judges !CCJE$ )leads in %a"or o% this distinction: In <HAH The CCJE
)resented the +agna Carta o% Euro)ean Judges a uniNue document summari?ing u)dating and codi%#ing the main
conclusions o% the CCJE o)inions: The AD
th
article tells us that L deontological principles, distinguished from
disciplinary rules, shall guide the actions of judges M: The t#)e o% -eha"ior that is liFel# to -e harm%ul to the
re)utation o% Justice and more seriousl# to those su-2ect to trial has to -e %lagrantl# serious to 2usti%# disci)linar#
A: O)inion no: > o% the Consultati"e Council o% Euro)ean Judges !CCJE$ %or the attention o% the Committee o% +inisters o% the Council o% Euro)e on
the )rinci)les and rules go"erning 2udges9 )ro%essional conduct in )articular ethics incom)ati-le -eha"ior and im)artialit# 5 AQ No"em-er <HH< ID:
<: RE4 Alain Le grand obert de la langue fran!aise, "ictionnaire alphab#ti$ue et analogi$ue de la langue fran!aise !French dictionar#$
Tome @ ): ADC A
>: Ibid: ): Q
@: A )re"iousl# )hiloso)hical notion L deontolog# M is toda# s#stematicall# associated Eith )ro%essional laE: C% : CANIVET 'u# JO/40*.RARD
Julie La d#ontologie du magistrat !Judicial Conduct$ <7me 3dition Dallo? <HHQ ): C
J: L +agistrate M comes %rom the latin Eord L magistratus M Ehich means L )u-lic o%%ice M: C% : CORN. '3rard Association *enri Ca)itant
Voca-ulaire 2uridiNue !/egal Voca-ular#$ D7me 3dition ,.F <HHC ): JB@:
B CORN. '3rard Association *enri Ca)itant %ocabulaire juridi$ue, )r3c: ): JBJ L magistrat M sens nRA:
C: &bid ): >A>
<
)roceedings: Failure to o-ser"e )ro%essional standards is go"erned -# codes o% conduct: In other Eords the
di%%erence does not reall# concern the nature o% misconduct -ut rather its seriousness: ,ro%essional conduct or
ethics re%ers to )re"ention Ehereas disci)linar# )roceedings constitute a sanction: But at the same time L a
disci)linar# s#stem is necessar# to taFe )ro%essional conduct seriousl# M
D
and it is )recisel# disci)linar# case laE
Ehich illustrates )ro%essional codes o% )ractice: In conclusion -oth conce)ts are -ound %or )ractical )ur)oses:
&o 2udges are reponi.le: L There is no )oEer Eithout res)onsi-ilit# and the greater the %irst the stronger
the second M
Q
: Nonetheless Ee ha"e to -e care%ul Eith the Ea# such lia-ilit# is admitted -ecause inde)endence
needs to -e )rotected
AH
: The conce)t o% res)onsi-ilit# e()resses L the o-ligation to -ear the conseNuences o%
damaging a trial M
AA
: I% 2udges are ci"ill# and criminall# res)onsi-le this re)ort %ocuses on disci)linar# lia-ilit#: The
CCJE considers that all legal s#stems need some %orm o% disci)linar# )roceedings
A<
: Disci)linar# action is 2usti%ied i%
the 2udge has committed a disci)linar# %ault in his )ri"ate li%e or in the e(ercise o% his )ro%essional duties: But this
must constitute %lagrant non0res)ect o% his ethics:
The )ur)ose o% this re)ort is to %ocus on the disci)linar# lia-ilit# o% the Bench and ,u-lic ,rosecutors that is to sa#
their disci)linar# s#stems and ethics Ehich are at the root o% disci)linar# )roceedings:
According to the ad"isor# -od# o% the Council o% Euro)e e"er# &tate has to s)eci%# Ehich t#)e o% -eha"ior
2usti%ies disci)linar# )roceedings in its laE:
II, The ori$in of diciplinary ytem in E"rope
The origins o% )ro%essional conduct and disci)linar# rules are national:
Firstl# Ee can re%er to 2udicial statutes Ehose )ur)ose is to L o%%iciall# organi?e and coordinate a )ro%ession to
guarantee the )rotection o% )ro%essional rights and the res)ect o% )ro%essional o-ligations M
A>
: Certain ethical rules
are o%ten descri-ed therein -ut it is not 2ust a Nuestion o% )ro%essional conduct: A-o"e all the statutes e()lain Ehat
the disci)linar# s#stem is in )articular disci)linar# misconduct: Rules concerning 2udicial a))ointments and
)romotion are also determined: Besides the Euro)ean Charter on the &tatute %or Judges s)eci%ies that L in each
Euro)ean &tate the %undamental )rinci)les o% the statute %or 2udges are set out in internal norms at the highest
le"el and its rules in norms at least at the legislati"e le"el M
A@
:
&econdl# another im)ortant source %or )ro%essional conduct toda# is the Code o% Ethics Ehich emanates %rom the
)ro%ession itsel%: In &tates Ehere these codes e(ist 2udicial ins)ectorates outline 2udgesK duties and o-ligations
Ehich ma# -e su-2ect to disci)linar# action:
It is "er# im)ortant to underline that on a Euro)ean le"el )ro%essional conduct and disci)linar# s#stems are
the su-2ect o% in0de)th stud#: The EorF undertaFen does not necessaril# carr# legal Eeight -ut is or Eill -e a model
%or national go"ernments: Thus the Council o% Euro)e has EorFed a great deal on the to)ic o% Justice in a &tate
D: VI'O.RO.6 Christian "#ontologies des fonctions publi$ues !Ci"il &er"ice ,ro%essional Conduct$ ,ra(is Dallo? <HHB ): <B HA0BA
Q: CANIVET 'u# JO/40*.RARD Julie op'cit' ): @B
AH: O)inion no: > o% the CCJE o):cit: IJA
AA: '3rard CORN. op'cit: ): D<A
A<: &bid IJD
A>: CANIVET 'u# JO/40*.RARD Julie op'cit' ): <H
A@: Euro)ean Charter on the &tatute %or Judges D 0 AH Jul# AQQD article A:<
>
go"erned -# the rule o% laE: Its greatest EorF the Euro)ean Con"ention on *uman Rights and a-o"e all article
BIA sets out ethical o-ligations %or 2udges: In addition the Council o% Euro)e created tEo other consultati"e
councils the Consultati"e Council o% Euro)ean 2udges Ehich Erote the +agna Carta and the Consultati"e Council
o% Euro)ean ,rosecutors !CC,E$ created -# the Committee o% +inisters in <HHJ: Furthermore the Euro)ean
NetEorF o% Councils %or the Judiciar# !ENCJ$ Erites re)orts some o% Ehich are a-out 2udicial ethics %or instance
the im)ortant Judicial Ethics Re)ort <HHQ0<HAH
..
The sco)e o% this stud# is the in"estigation o% the di%%erent disci)linar# s#stems %or 2udges and )rosecutors in
Euro)e !+em-er &tates o% the Euro)ean .nion and &tates intending to integrate the .nion and alread# mem-ers
o% the Council o% Euro)e$: Furthermore Ee Eill ado)t a su)ranational )ers)ecti"e in order to en"isage a uni%ication
o% national disci)linar# s#stems %or Euro)ean 2udges and )rosecutors: Indeed the aim o% the disci)linar# s#stems is
not onl# national:
III, The role of diciplinary ytem% to preerve the tr"t of the citi/en
Ci"il ser"ice codes o% conduct are the result o% a Eill to ins)ire trust: Trust is em-odied -# ho)e Ehich
ensures a %eeling o% sa%et#
AJ
: L eputation, consideration, credibility, respect, image and popularity ( the
)dministration wants recognition' *o achie+e this, it cannot ignore ethical re$uirements,
AB
:
In a democrac# Justice is de"ised according )eo)leKs interests: The right to a %air trial is )ossi-le onl# i% the 2udgeKs
-eha"ior ensures the e%%icienc# o% his o%%ice: No matter Ehat the methods o% recruitment training or the e(tent o%
his duties are a 2udge has enormous )oEer and can use it in some essential areas o% a citi?enKs li%e:
/iFeEise o"er the last %eE #ears democratic societies ha"e e()erienced the )henomenon o% going to court %or
an#thing and e"er#thing: Countries in Eastern Euro)e Eith recent access to democrac# ho)e to %ind legitimac# in
the re-uilding o% their democracies in laE and 2ustice: E()ectations in the 2ustice s#stem are commensurate Eith its
)osition in societ#: L Con%idence in the 2ustice s#stem is all the more im)ortant in "ieE o% the increasing
glo-ali?ation o% dis)utes and the Eide circulation o% 2udgments M
AC
:
Con%idence in the 2udge is -ased on the certaint# that his conduct is ethical: +an# &tates EorF in this Ea#:
A good e(am)le is the o))ortunit# in some &tates such as in France Nuite recentl#
AD
%or a litigant to taFe out
disci)linar# )roceedings against a 2udge:
To sum u) )u-lic con%idence in 2udges and the 2ustice s#stem is directl# related to the right -alance -etEeen
2udicial inde)endence and res)onsi-ilit#:
Does e"olution in disci)linar# s#stems -oth in the )resent da# and the %uture rein%orce trust in JusticeG
A com)arati"e anal#sis o% current disci)linar# s#stems %or 2udges in Euro)e !I$ and the )ros)ects %or 2udicial
disci)linar# s#stems in the same area !II$ Eill hel) ansEer this Nuestion:
AJ: RE4 Alain /e grand Ro-ert de la langue %ranSaise op'cit' Tome < ): DHB A
AB: VI'O.RO.6 Christian "#ontologies des fonctions publi$ues op'cit' ): @> H<0AA
AC: O)inion no: > o% the CCJE op'cit: IQ
AD: Constitutional /aE o% <> Jul# <HHD o% moderni?ation o% V Re)u-licKs institutions
@
0A1T 1 % Comparative analyi of diciplinary ytem for #"d$e in E"rope

In s)ite o% the di%%erences -etEeen the s#stems there is a common aim: a -alance -etEeen 2udicial
inde)endence or the auhorit# o% JudgesK and ,rosecutorsK decisions and the Disci)linar# lia-ilit#: In a Euro)ean
conte(t L restoring public trust in the )dministration of -ustice M
AQ
-# esta-lishing the rule o% laE and a legal
%rameEorF is necessar#: Various +em-er &tates o% the Euro)ean .nion and E. a))licants ha"e undergone
disci)linar# e"olutions or re"olutions
<H
:
The Euro)ean in%luence and the e()losion o% Disci)linar# cases rela#ed -# the media !L Dutrou( M in 2el$i"m
21

L Outreau M in France L Juge ,icFles M in En$land$ ha"e -rought to light the im)ortance o% rein%orcing the
Disci)linar# s#stem: In Italy the &tate decided to rein%orce the Disci)linar# s#stem and maFe it more )recise:
In 3ermany and Spain there is no de-ate a-out the Disci)linar# lia-ilit# )erha)s %or se"eral reasons: According to
Val3r# T.RCE4 /iaison +agistrate in 'erman# the %ederal structure and L.nders are a stum-ling -locF to a
disci)linar# uni%ication as the &tate )re%ers sel%0disci)line: In &)ain the /aE o% AQDJ )ro"ides %or a clear and
)recise disci)linar# s#stem Ehich seems to EorF:
.nder )ressure %rom either Euro)ean .nion or the Council o% Euro)e some Eastern Euro)ean &tates ha"e
acce)ted a change in their Disci)linar# s#stem or the creation o% one in order to -e in com)liance Eith the
Euro)ean actions !CCJE &tocFholm "alues
<<
$: 1ith regard to +em-er &tates !0oland
24
Bulgaria Romania$
com)le( re%orms ha"e -een im)lemented ins)ired -# 1estern Euro)ean s#stems: In 2"l$aria and 1omania the
di%%erence -etEeen their traditions !continental laE$ and the content o% the re%orm !ins)ired -# Common /aE$
creates disorder and lacF o% understanding on the )art o% the )ractitioners and societ#: Concerning .E a))licants
much e%%ort has -een made to create neE disci)linar# s#stems: In the 1ep".lic of Ser.ia
25
the %ormer /iaison
+agistrate &t3)hane T*IBA./T and the )resent one Alain BIROT underline the conseNuences o% Euro)ean
)ressure: the lacF o% Disci)linar# action -ecause o% a sloE start
<J
: It a))ears that the linF -etEeen the legall#
constituted state and its citi?ens is %ragile: In the 1ep".lic of Macedonia as in &er-ia
<B
there is a com)le( s#stem
initiated -# a &trateg# Ehich creates dou-ts on its e%%icienc#:
1ithin di"ersit# there are common matters concerning the de%inition o% a Disci)linar# s#stem: rein%orcing or
creating such a s#stem )resu))oses that &tates Nuestion the standards %or 2udgesK conduct and the content o% a
AQ: JudgesKAssociation o% &er-ia /+aluation of -udicial Performance Decem-er <HHJ = Octo-er <HHC
<H: 'ABORIA. &imone ,A./IAT *3l7ne La responsabilit# des magistrats !2udicial lia-ilit#$ ,resses uni"ersitaires de /imoges <HHD ): >C
<A: /es cahiers de lKInstitut dKEtudes sur la Justice La responsabilit# professionnelle des magistrats !)ro%essionnal res)onsi-ilit# o% 2udges$ Actes du
colloNue organis3 le AJTH<T<HHC U lKuni"ersit3 catholiNue de /O.VAIN ): DJ 5 /aE o% C Jul# <HH< ont the amendment o% the <
nd
)art BooF II Title V
Judicial Code on the disci)line +: B: A@ August <HH< )) >@QAQ U >@Q>< 5 /aE C +a# AQQQ on the amendment o% the Judicial Code relati"e to
Disci)linar# s#stem im)lemented to the Judicial OrderKs mem-ers +: B: >H 2uillet AQQQ )) <D@J> U <D@BH
<<: &tocFholm ,rogramme 0 An o)en and secure Euro)e ser"ing and )rotecting citi?ens !L Euro)e o% Justice M$ O%%icial Journal C AAJ o% @ +a# <HAH:
<>: /aE on common courts Organi?ation <C Jul# <HHA 5 Act o% A< +a# <HAA on the National Council o% the Judiciar# !NCJ$ 5 Resolution o% the NCJ o%
<<: Jul# <HAA regarding the regulation o% the detailed )rocedure o% the NCJ 5 The &et o% ,ro%essional Ethical Rules %or 2udges a))endi( to the
Resolution o% the NCJ o% AQ Fe-ruar# <HH>
<@: &er-ian /aEs nR AABTHD o% <C Decem-er <HHD on ,u-lic ,rosecution on Judges on *igh Judicial Council 5 Code o% Ethics o% A@ Decem-er <HAH
-# the *igh Judicial Council
<J: JudgesK Association o% &er-ia /+aluation of judicial performance Decem-er <HHJ0Octo-er <HHC
<B' 0ational -udicial eform 1trategy in epublic of 1erbia +inistr# o% Justice A)ril <HHB 5 *he eform of -udicial 1ystem in the epublic of
2acedonia June <HHJ:
J
Disci)linar# o%%ence !I$: E"en i% there are man# di%%erences in Judges and ,rosecutorsK Disci)linar# lia-ilit# most o%
&tates e()erience the same e"olution !II$:
I, From Standard for 6"dicial Cond"ct to !iciplinary 7ffence
The %irst tasF is to de%ine the &tandards %or Judicial Conduct !A$: Then the di"ersit# o% disci)linar# o%%ences on
dut# and o%%0dut# e(ists in man# &tates !B$
A, Standard cond"ct for 6"d$e and 0roec"tor
+ost &tates im)ose the same )ro%essional conduct %or Judges and ,rosecutors: *oEe"er some liFe in
&er-ia )ro"ide di%%erent )ro"isions %or each %unction: There are di%%erent sources o% Ethical )rinci)les:
Constitutional and /egal sources !1$ and other sources 82$:
1, Contit"tional and 9e$al o"rce
I% the Constitution sets out Judicial inde)endence the laE is o%ten the %oundation o% Ethical &tandards:
Three &tates in this com)arati"e anal#sis demonstrate the im)ortance o% legal sources: In Italy
27
there are general
)rinci)les )ro"ided -# the laE o% <HHC: %irstl# L the Judge or ,rosecutor must e(ercise his %unctions Eithout
ardour in a rele"ant correct diligent care%ul Eell0-alanced Ea# M5 secondl# L in all hisTher actions Eithin the
e(ercise o% hisTher dut# the Judge or ,rosecutor must res)ect )eo)leKs dignit# M5 thirdl# L e"en o%%0dut# no
conduct e"en i% is legal should 2eo)ardise hisTher )ersonal credi-ilit# or the )restige and dignit# o% the Judiciar# M:
In 1omania
2:
liFe in Ital# /aE >H>T<HH@ %or Judges and ,rosecutors )ro"ides %or man# )ro%essional
duties: L In their entire acti"it# the 2udges and )u-lic )rosecutors shall ensure the su)remac# o% the laE o-ser"e
the )ersonsK rights and %reedoms as Eell as their eNualit# -e%ore the laE maFe sure a non0discriminator# treatment
is a))lied to all )artici)ants in 2udicial )rocedures M 5 secondl# the Cha)ter II )resents &ncompatibilities and
interdictions such as e(ercising other )u-lic or )ri"ate duties a)art %rom teaching and -eing mem-ers o% )olitical
)arties or organi?ations 5 thirdl# all )ro"isions listed under Disci)linar# o%%ences constitut %or-idden conduct !such
as gross or re)eatednegligence or re)eatdl# missing EorF Eithout lea"e$:
2, 7ther o"rce
In order to introduce more trans)arenc# in Disci)linar# )roceedings some &tates ha"e decides to codi%#
their ,ro%essional Rules o% Conduct: I% the CCJE encourages these e%%orts
<Q
other &tates liFe Belgium re%use to
codi%# )ro%essional duties Ehich does not mean that the Ethical )rinci)les are ignored:
In 2"l$aria
40
and Ser.ia
41
there is a su-stantial Code o% Ethics: the Bulgarian Code o% Ethical Beha"ior
<C:/aE L +astella M o% >A Jul# <HHC 5 /aEL Castelli M nRAJHT<HHJ o% <J Jul# <HHJ 5 /egislati"e Decree nRAHQT<HHB o% <> Fe-ruar# <HHB relati"e to
the Disci)linar# o%%ences and Disci)linar# )enaltiesK Rules 5 /egislati"e Decree nRJAATAQ@B:
<D:Romanian /aE nR >H> o% <D June <HH@ on the -#0laE o% 2udges and )u-lic )rosecutors No: D<B o% A> &e)tem-er <HHJ 5 Romanian /aE nR>AC o% A
Jul# <HH@ on the &u)erior Council o% +agistrac# No: D<C o% A> &e)tem-er <HHJ 5 Romanian /aE nR <@T<HA< o% <@ Januar# <HA< No: JA dated
Januar# <> <HA<
<Q:O)inions nR> o% the CCJE ibid: I@A et seN:
>H:Code o% Ethics %or the Beha"iour o% Bulgarian Judges )assed -# the &u)rem Judicial Council
>A:Code o% Ethics -# the Association o% ,u-lic ,rosecutors and De)ut# ,u-lic ,rosecutors in <HHJ 5 Code o% Ethics %or Judges )assed -# the *igh
Judicial Council in <HAH:
B
shall a))l# to all 2udges )rosecutors and in"estigators Ehereas in &er-ia Judges and ,rosecutors are su-mitted to
di%%erent Ethical Codes: For e(am)le in the &er-ian Code %or Judges the "alue o% L dignit# M is detailed -# se"en
)oints
><
called L im)lementation M %or the saFe o% )racticalit#: In a di%%erent Ea# in En$land and ;ale) the
JudgesK Council issued its oEn 'uide to Judicial Conduct in <HH@ Eith general )rinci)les and guidelines: For
instance the L 'uide M indicates that L The# ma# not undertaFe an# tasF or engage in an# acti"it# Ehich in an# Ea#
limits their a-ilit# to discharge their 2udicial duties to the %ull !V$ I% an# dou-t arises in the a))lication o% these
)rinci)les a 2udge should seeF guidance %rom a senior colleague or *ead o% Di"ision or the /ord Chancellor M:
Contrar# to the structures a-o"e in France) "alues should -e e()ressed Eithout the neccessit# o% ha"ing a Code
>>
:
In the Ethical guidelines Ehich Eere )u-lished C:&+:Ks Re)ort <HHQ there are si( themes
>@
5 each "alue is detailed
through )ersonal %unctional and institutional as)ects: For e(am)le Integr# includes o-ligations o% )ro-it# a
general reNuirement o% honest# Ehich includes that the Judge -eing %or-idden #o use hisTher )osition to o-tain
-ene%its !)ersonal$ e%%icient )ractice in Court duties !institutional$ and re2ection o% %a"ouritism !%unctional$:
*oEe"er these &tandards are not alEa#s the source o% Disci)linar# )roceedings:I% a &tate decides to codi%# JudgesK
and ,rosecutorsK Ethical rules it does not mean that these rules should ser"e %or Disci)linar# )roceedings: As +r
De RIE+AECKER ,rosecutor at the &u)reme Court in Belgium e()lains Disci)line does not e(haust all the
Ethical Rules: &ometimes there are Ethical rules Ehile at other times there are Disci)linar# o%%ences: In Ser.ia
4<

and 2"l$aria
4=
articles relati"e to the Disci)linar# o%%ences e()ressl# mention de)arture %rom the Code o% Ethics:
*oEe"er in France there is a de-ate o"er the e%%icienc# o% the Ethical guidelines %or Disci)linar# )roceeding:
2, The application of !iciplinary offence
I% &tates choose either list o% Disci)linar# o%%ences or a "ague de%inition in res)ect o% the laE it is use%ul to
maFe a distinction in their a))lication : on dut# !1$ or o%%0dut# !2$:
1, !iciplinary offence on d"ty
+ost &tates maFe a list o% &tandards %or 2udgesK and ,rosecutorsK conduct and a list o% )rohi-ited -eha"ior:
In Italy -reaches in disci)line can -e di"ided into tEo categories: in the e(ercise o% 2udicial duties and out o% court:
Article < o% the legislati"e decree
>C
sets %orth a detailed list o% <J mandator# cases o% -reaches in disci)line in the
e(ercise o% the 2udicial duties: %or e(am)le serious "iolations o% the laE caused -# ine(cusa-le ignorance or
negligence and the misinter)retation o% %acts caused -# ine(cusa-le negligence: Article @ o% the decree identi%ies
-reaches in disci)line that result %rom the commission o% an o%%ence esta-lishing a Find o% automatic %unctioning
><: Art: @ o% Code: L During the )er%ormance o% 2udicial %unction and in their acti"ities aoutside the court 2udges must de"elo) standards o% conduct
Ehich shall contri-ute to the )rotection o% re)utation and dignit# o% the court and 2udges M 5 @: < : L Judges must )rotect the re)utation o% the court and
the 2udicial %unction through Eritten and s)oFen Eord M:
>>: Organic /aE nR <HAH0D>H o% << Jul# <HAH relati"e to the a))lication o% article BJ o% the Constitution 5 Organic /aE nR <HAH0J@A o% <J +a# <HAH
e(tending the o%%ice o% the *igh Council o% the Judiciar#Ks mem-ers 5 Constitutional /aE nR <HHD0C<@ o% <> Jul# <HHD o% moderni?ation o% V
Re)u-licKs institutions 5 Organic /aE nR<HHC0<DC o% J +arch <HHC relati"e to a))ointment training and JudgesK and ,rosecutorsK /ia-ilit# 5 Organic
/aE nR<HHA0J>Q o% <J June <HHA relati"e to JudgesK and ,rosecutorsK &tatute and to the *igh Council o% the Judiciar#5 AQJD &tatutor# laE on rights
o-ligations and the career o% mem-ers o% the Judiciar#
>@' /thical guidelines the *igh Council o% the Judiciar# !France$ Dallo? <HAH: L Inde)endence im)artialit# integrit# legalit# care%ulness
discretion and reser"e M
>J: /aE on Judges art: QH : L a serious "iolation o% )ro"isions o% the Code o% Ethics M
>B: The Judiciar# &#stem Act <HHC Cha)ter AB art: >HC >: L the -reaFing o% )ro%essional ethic rules M
>C: /egislati"e Decree nRAHQT<HHB o% <> Fe-ruar# <HHB relati"e to the Disci)linar# o%%ences and Disci)linar# )enaltiesK Rules
C
-etEeen the %acts at the -asis o% a con"iction %or an intentional o%%ence and disci)linar# )roceedings: In Spain there
are > categories o% disci)linar# o%%ences
>D
: "er# serious o%%ences serious o%%ences and minor o%%ences: intentional
misconduct regarding toEards the Constitution5 lacF o% res)ect %or the *ierarch#5 or un2usti%ied or Eithout0cause
non0o-ser"ance o% legal times0limits %i(ed %or handing doEn rulings: I% in Ital# and &)ain -reaches in disci)line are
di"ided in di%%erent categories others maFe the choice o% a "ague de%inition o% )ro%essional misconduct: in
2el$i"m article @HC o% CJ has to doctrine an incantator# e%%ect and ma# include man# )ro%essional -reaches in
conduct:
2, !iciplinary offence off-d"ty
Either the &tate maFes )ro"isions %or Disci)linar# o%%ences Ehile o%%0dut# or the# emerges %rom Ethical rules
that dictate that i% the )restige o% the Judiciar# is at risF 2udicial disci)linar# lia-ilit# should -e su-mitted to the
authorities: Firstl# In Italy article > o% legislati"e decree lists D cases o% -reaches in disci)line )er)etrated out o%
court: using the title o% 2udge to o-tain an un%air ad"antage %or onesel% or others %or e(am)le5 or )artici)ating in
secret associations or associations Ehose mem-ershi) is o-2ecti"el# incom)ati-le Eith the e(ercise o% 2udicial
duties: In 3ermany
4>
-reaches in disci)line can -e di"ided into tEo categories in )articular Ehile o%% dut#5 i% it is
an intentional o%%ence a ruling right%ul dismissal shall -e made against the Judge
@H
: &ince /aE o% <HA< 1omanian
disci)linar# s#stem admitted the inclusion o% o%%ences a%%ecting the )restige o% 2ustice into the categor# o% L serious
misconduct M: &econdl# contrar# to the Italian 'erman and Romanian laEs in 2"l$aria it seems easier to deduce
disci)linar# o%%ences out o% ser"ice %rom the "ague )ro"ision o% the Judiciar# &#stem Act L an# action undermining
the )restige o% the Judiciar# M: In France the AQJD &tatute
@A
does not e()ressl# mention disci)linar# o%%ences Ehile
o%% dut# -ut it is sure that )ri"ate misconduct !Eritten or s)oFen Eords$ ma# constitute -reaches in Disci)line: I%
the structure !code or otherEise$ o% &tandards %or 2udicial conduct is di%%erent -etEeen the &tates content ma# -e
deemed similar and ma# ser"e the same )ur)ose: a -alance -etEeen the Inde)endence and /ia-ilit#:
II, 6"d$e and 0roec"tor at the hand of the !iciplinary 9ia.ility
In order to rein%orce trust -etEeen citi?ens and Justice and under Euro)ean in%luence most &tates ha"e
re%ormed their disci)linar# s#stems %rom the interests o% trans)arenc# : a multi0%aced disci)linar# %rameEorF !A$
se"eral Fe# )oints %or disci)linar# )roceedings !2$and a list o% disci)linar# sanctions !C$:
A , A M"lti-faceted !iciplinary frame+or*
There is di"ersit# in disci)linar# authorities : some &tates ha"e esta-lished a disci)linar# Council or
Commission Ehile others ha"e )re%erred to maFe )ro"isions o% se"eral disci)linar# institutions 81?, The
>D: Organic /aE o% A
st
Jul# AQDJ relati"e to Judiciar# )oEer : articles @AC !"er# serious o%%ences$ @AD !serious o%%ences$ @AQ !minor o%%ences$: In
Ital# -eing a mem-er o% Freemasonr# is %or-idden:
>Q: Re)ort o% French &enat o% <HH@ Disci)linar# &#stem %or Judges ): > et seN:
@H: Federal /aE o% Q Jul# <HHA %or %ederal ser"ants 5 Federal /aE o% D &e)tem-er AQBA on the +agistrate 5 Basic /aE %or the Federal Re)u-lic o%
german# o% <> +a# AQ@Q:
@A: AQJD &tatutor# laE on rights o-ligations and the career o% mem-ers o% the Judiciar#
D
com)osition o% these institutions is also "aria-le !2$:
1, 7ne or everal diciplinary a"thoritie@
&ometimes one disci)linar# structure is concerned Ehile at other times it is a Nuestion o% se"eral
institutions -eing set u) in order to res)ect the inde)endence and trans)arenc# o% the Judiciar#:
Concerning a disciplinary organ's unity three &tates made this choice Eith the same Nuestion : hoE does
the s#stem taFe into consideration the su-stantial di%%erence -etEeen Judges and ,rosecutors G In France since
Constitutional Re%orm in <HHD there is a *igh Council o% the Judiciar# in charge o% Judges and ,rosecutorsK
disci)line and made u) o% > grou)s: one %or Judges another %or ,rosecutors and the last is a )lenar# grou) %or
s)eci%ic Nuestions a-out the Judiciar#Ks inde)endence: In 1omania the &u)erior Council o% +agistrac# through its
tEo di"isions !one %or 2udges another %or )rosecutors$ accom)lishes the role o% a court dealing Eith matters o%
disci)linar# lia-ilit#: It is the L guarantor o% the inde)endence o% 2ustice M
@<
*oEe"er the Italian C&+ is the sel%0regulation -od# o% the 2udiciar# !%or 2udges and )rosecutors$5 )ursuant
to the legislation on the 2udicial s#stem it is the rele"ant disci)linar# -od# %or mem-ers o% the Judiciar#: *oEe"er
in +arch <HAA the Italian +inistr# o% Justice )resented a Constitutional re%orm o% the Judiciar#: the se)aration o%
2udgesK and )rosecutorsK careers in order to )romote egalit# -etEeen the de%ence and the )rosecution5 the creation
o% a dual C:&:+5 and the esta-lishment o% a Court o% Disci)line containing tEo grou)s one %or 2udges and the
other %or )rosecutors:
Concerning systems with several disciplinary authorities there are man# s#stems Ehich insist on the
res)ect o% inde)endence and trans)arenc#: In Macedonia
54
and Ser.ia there are one %or 2udges and another %or
)rosecutors: To -e more )recise in &er-ia there tEo structures Eith a s)eci%ic disci)linar# commision: the *igh
Judicial Council %or 2udges and the &tate ,rosecutorial Council: According to +r BIROT the recent re%orm o% the
disci)linar# s#stem is %ull# %unctional #et : it is running:
In 2"l$aria some disci)linar# sanctions ma# -e im)osed -# a resolution o% the &u)rem Judicial Council
Ehereas other sanctions are im)osed -# a reasoned order o% the administrati"e head o% a 2udge )rosecutor or
in"estigating magistrate
@@
: Furthermore in 2el$i"m it de)ends on the )enalt# and 2udge or )rosecutor: For Belgian
Judges the disci)linar# authorit# o% the administrati"e head or a court ma# im)ose sanctions on 2udges: each
disci)linar# authorit# de)ends on the JudgeKs ranF or degree o% )enalt# !minor )enalt# ma2or Ast degree )enalt#
ma2or <
nd
)enalt#$' +ore"o"er %or Belgian )rosecutors the disci)linar# authorit# o% the administrati"e head or
su)erior administrati"e head +inister o% Justice or the King ma# im)ose sanctions on )rosecutors in the same Ea#:
In 3ermany) the ,resident o% the court to Ehich o% the 2udge or )rosecutor -elongs or the Attorne# 'eneral
o% L.nders are com)etent
@J
: In 0oland Disci)line courts are set u) to hear disci)linar# cases against 2udges : in the
loEer instances this occurs at the courts o% a))eal5 in the higher instances at the &u)rem Court
@B
: In En$land and
@<: Romanian /aE nR>AC o% A Jul# <HH@ on the &u)erior Council o% +agistrac# No: D<C o% A> &e)tem-er <HHJ: art: A
@>: /aE on the Judicial Council o% the Re)u-lic o% +acedonia ado)ted in <HHB No BHT<HHB
@@' &bid:: art: >HD and >A@ L re)rimand censure M:
@J: Federal /aE o% D &e)tem-er AQBA on the +agistrate : art: CC CD CQ
@B: /aE on common courts Organisation o% <C Jul# <HHA: art: AAH
Q
;alle since the Constitutional re%orm Act <HHJ and the Concordat
@C
the /ord Chie% Justice and /ord Chancellor
can im)ose sanctions 2ointl#: &o there are "arious authorities %or e(ercising disci)linar# action:
2, Compoition of diciplinary intit"tion
+ost o% the disci)linar# authorities ha"e a mi(ed com)osition %or %ear o% -reaFing the trans)arenc# i% there
are onl# 2udges and )rosecutors: *oEe"er most o% the Council or CommissionKs are 2udges and )rosecutors elected
%or disci)linar# duties: In Italy Act no: @@T<HH< )ro"ides that the C&+ is made u) o% <@ elected mem-ers o%
Ehich AB shall -e career mem-ers and D shall -e la# mem-ers: The com)etent authorit# is the Disci)linar#
Di"ision o% the C&+ made u) o% B mem-ers : the Vice ,resident o% the C&+ Eho acts as the )resident and J
mem-ers elected -# the C&+ itsel% among its oEn mem-ers o% Ehich one is elected -# ,arliament a one is a
su)rem court 2udge actuall# e(ercising su)reme court duties and the others are > 2udges o% o% merit: In
France
5:
the *igh Council o% the Judiciar# in its Disci)linar# com)osition %or Judges is made u) o% a Chairman
Eho is Chie% Justice o% the Court o% Cassation J Judges a ,rosecutor a Councillor o% Council o% &tate a laE#er
and B Nuali%ied mem-ers: For )rosecutors the grou) is made u) o% the Chairman Eho is Chie% ,rosecutor o% the
Court o% Cassation J )rosecutors and a Judge a Councillor o% the Council o% &tate a laE#er and B Nuali%ied
mem-ers: The 1omanian C&+
@Q
is made u) o% AQ mem-ers Eith the similar authorities than in France: &o in these
countries 2udges and )rosecutors are not sanctionned onl# -# their )eers Ehich Eould )ro"e a li-a-ilit# Eithout
-ias:
2, Aey point for !iciplinary proceedin$
Euro)ean in%luence is deemed )articularl# -# &tates in the organi?ation o% disci)linar# )roceedings:
trans)arenc# e%%icienc# and res)ect o% 2udge or )rosecutorKs statutes are necessar# at all stages o% )roceedings :
commencement o% )roceedings !1$ the in"estigating )rocedure !2$ rights %or the de%ence !4$:
1, Commencement of 0roceedin$
I% a +inister o% Justice
JH
administration head
JA
Chie% Justice o% a &u)rem Court or Chie% ,rosecutor
J<
and
the Judicial Ins)ection
J>
can initiate the )roceedings against 2udges and )rosecutors a %eE &tates ha"e gi"en
litigants the right to initiate disci)linar# )roceedings as Eell: In 3ermany there is an original )ro"ision a-out
commencement o% )roceedings: the 2udge him sel% can initiate )roceedings Ehen he Eants to )ro"e that sus)icions
are un%ounded:
@C: The L Concordat M -etEeen the 2udiciar# and the 'o"ernment in Januar# <HH@ in order to result in the trans%er o% man# o% the %unctions o% the /ord
Chancellor to the /ord Chie% Justice and create the O%%ice o% Judicial Con)laimts and the Judicial A))ointments and Om-udsman Conduct:
@D: Art: BJ o% the Constitution amended -# the Organic /aE o% << Jul# <HAH
@Q: /aE >ACT<HH@: Q 2udges and J )u-lic )rosecutors elected at the general meetings o% the 2udges and )rosecutors Eho %orm the tEo di"isions o% the
Council one %or 2udges and the other %or )u-lic )rosecutors5 tEo re)resentati"es o% ci"ilian societ#Eho are s)ecialists in laE ha"e a good
)ro%essional and moral re)utation and are elected -# the &enate5 the )resident o% the *igh Court o% Cassation and Justice re)resenting the 2udicial
)oEers the +inister o% Justice and the general )u-lic )rosecutor o% the ,u-lic ,rosecutorKs O%%ice ne(t to the *igh Court o% Cassation and Justice
Eho are mem-ers o% the Council de jure
JH: In Ital# &)ain Romania Re)u-lic o% +acedonia Belgium France %or Judges !art: JH0A o% theAQJD &tatute$ Romania !/aE o% <HA<$
JA: In Belgium &)ain Re)u-lic o% +acedonia
J<: France: art: JH0< o% the AQJD &tatute 5 in Romania : the ,resident o% the *igh Court o% cassation and Justice !onl# %or 2udges$ the ,rosecutor
'eneral !%or )rosecutors$:
J>: /aE nR<@T<HA< : the disci)linar# action is -eing e(ercise -# the Judicial Ins)ection o% the &C+ !%or 2udges and )rosecutors$:
AH
Indi"idualKcom)laints
Is this a sign o% o)enness or the conseNuence o% the lacF o% classical )roceedings against 2udges and
)rosecutorG
J@
In Italy disci)linar# )roceedings are instituted on the initiati"e o% the +inister o% Justice and the
,rosecutor 'eneral o% the Court o% Cassation: But the C&+ has recei"ed all com)laints %rom indi"iduals since the
/aE <HHJ: Those that ma# constitute charges are )assed on to the +inister o% Justice Eho ma# asF the Judicial
ser"ices Ins)ectorate to in"estigate: Furthermore an#one can )resent com)laints and grie"ances directl# to the
+inister o% Justice or to the Chie% ,rosecutor: As there are alread# man# )roceedings in Ital# !AJH annuall#$ it is a
sign o% o)enness or a Ea# to rein%orce the linF -etEeen Justice and the )u-lic: In En$land and ;ale
<<
initiall#
indi"iduals used to send com)laints to the Judicial Corres)ondence .nit Ehich Eas in charge o% checFing the %acts:
&ince A)ril <HHB com)laints are su-mitted to the /ord Chie% o% Justice /ord Chancellor the O%%ice o% Judicial
Com)laints and the Judicial A))ointments and Om-udsman Conduct: I% there are not enough charges the O%%ice
ma# re2ect the reNuest in the name o% /ord Chie% o% Justice and the /ord Chancellor: For serious o%%ences %iles are
sent to these disci)linar# authorities:
In France since the Constitutional Re%orm o% <HHD an indi"idual ma# su-mit hisTher com)laints to the *igh
Council o% the Judiciar# in res)ect o% legal terms: the 2udge or )rosecutorKs )ro%essional conduct is liFel# to -e
considered as a disci)linar# o%%ence
JB
: As a )erson su-2ect to trial the 2udge or )rosecutor is discharged o% the
)roceedings and the com)laint has to -e su-mited in the #ear %olloEing the de%initi"e decision: In all these
)roceedings indi"iduals cannot change the decision o% the trial -ut the# ma# throE light on disci)linar# o%%ences o%
2udges and )rosecutors on or o%% dut#: Trans)arenc# is also ensured -# the )resence o% an Om-udsman:
The Om-udsmanKs )ositions
In the 0olih ytem the National Council o% the Judiciar# elects a disci)linar# om-udsman %rom common
court 2udges: *e is a legall# accuser in a disci)linar# court in cases concerning a)ellate courts 2udges as Eell as
circuit court )residents and "ice0)residents: The Om-udsman undertaFes disci)linar# measures againts a 2udge on
the instructions o% the +inister o% Justice a )resident o% an a))ellate or circuit court a court college National o%
the Council %or the Judiciar# or on his oEn initiati"e: Besides in the En$lih and ;elh ytem the Judicial
A))ointments and Conduct Om-udsman can in"estigate com)laints %rom mem-ers %rom mem-ers o% the )u-lic or
2udges a-out hoE their com)laint Eas handled -# the O%%ice %or Judicial Com)laints !OJC$ a Tri-unal ,resident or
a +agistratesK Ad"isor# Committee: I% the com)laint meets all the criteria
JC
the Om-udsman ma# consider it and on
%inding that something has gone Erong Eith the handling o% the original com)laint ma# recommend that an
in"estigation or ruling should -e re"ieEed -# a Re"ieE Bod#: The Om-udsman can also asF the institution to Erite
to the )lainti%% and a)ologise %or Ehat Eent Erong or suggest )a#ment o% com)ensation %or a loss Ehich a))ears to
J@: In &)ain indi"idualKs com)laints are also )ro"ided:
JJ: The Constitutional Re%orm Act <HHJ AC Januar# <HHJ Bill No AD o% <HH@0HJ
JB: The AQJD &tatute art: @>
JC: AR the )ri"ate indi"idual ha"e alread# made a com)laint to the three institutions mentioned a-o"e a-out the conduct o% a 2udicial o%%ice holder <R
the )ri"ate indi"idual is not ha))# Eith the )rocess that one o% the three institutions mentioned a-o"e %olloEed >R maFe a com)laintEithin <D da#s o%
the %inal letter that the indi"idual recei"ed %rom the one o% the three institutions:
AA
the Om-udsman to ha"e -een su%%ered as a direct result o% the mishandling o% #our com)laint:
2, The Inveti$atin$ 0roced"re
+an# authorities can )artici)ate here: s)eci%ic commissions administration heads
JD
in"estigating di"isions
or the Judicial &er"ices Ins)ectorate: +ost &tates ha"e handed o"er the in"estigating )roceedings to the Judicial
ser"ices Ins)ectorate: &)ain England and 1ales Ital# and Bulgaria: In En$and and ;ale) the CroEn
,rosecution &er"ice heads ins)ections regardin% sus)icion o% a -reach in disci)line: In Spain the &)anish 'eneral
Council o% Judicial )oEer is in charge o% in"estigating into the charges su-mitted to the disci)linar# institutions: In
2"l$aria the Ins)ectorate at the &u)rem Judicial Council maFes )ro)osals %or the im)osition o% disci)linar#
sanctions on 2udges )rosecutors and in"estigating magistrates
JQ
:
*oEe"er in France The Ins)ectorate 'eneral o% Judicial &er"ices em)lo#ed -# the +inistr# o% Justice ma# -e in
charge -# an e(clusi"e decision o% the +inister o% Justice to in"estigate into -reaches in disci)line -# 2udges or
)rosecutors !)re0disci)linar# )roceedings$: This ins)ection ma# -e rele"ant to conditional disci)linar# )roceedings:
The Chie% Justice o% the Court o% Cassation as Chairman o% the Disci)line Council designates a disci)line
commissioner among the mem-ers Eho is in charge o% in"estigating i% necessar#:
4, 1i$ht of the defence in diciplinary proceedin$
Rights o% the de%ence are claimed in the name o% the right to a %air trial
BH
:
In the Investigating process the Disci)linar# s#stem guarantees the res)ect o% rights o% the de%ence: in
Italy %rom the -eginning notice o% disci)linar# )roceedings must -e gi"en to the accused and the accused can -e
assisted -# another 2udge or a laE#er: In Ser.ia a 2udge or a )rosecutor has the right to -e noti%ied )rom)tl# o% a
motion -# the Disci)linar# ,rosecutor to e(amine the case %ile and the su))orting documentation and to )resent
e()lanations and e"idence %or hisTher statements in )erson or through a re)resentati"e: The# ha"e the right to
)resent orall# their e()lanations: In France the AQJD &tatute !art:JA$ )ro"ides that during the in"estigation the
disci)line commissioner can hear the 2udge or )rosecutor Eho has the right to -e assisted -# another 2udge or
,rosecutor or a laE#er i% necessar# Eith the com)lainant or Eitness:
At the Disciplinary Hearing the conce)t o% trans)arenc# is not alEa#s a))ro)riate: &tates are di"ided on
this )oint )re%erring hearings in secret or in )u-lic: According to +r 'u# CANIVET
BA
i% the ,ellegrin case0laE
e(cluded the disci)linar# litigation o% Article B o% the Con"ention the Euro)ean Court
B<
considers that -eing a
)u-lic agent such as a 2udge and )rosecutor is not enough to e(clude the right o% %air trial: At )resent 2"l$aria
and Spain re%use a )u-lic hearing Ehereas France
=4
2el$i"m 0oland Italy and 1omania admit )u-lic hearings:
In Italy for e(am)le the discussion o% a case Eithin disci)linar# )roceedings Ehich occurs -# )u-lic hearing
consists o% hearing the re)ort o% one o% the mem-ers o% the Disci)linar# Di"ision gathering e( o%%icio
JD: In Romania a )riori and mandator# in"estgation can -e led -# the ,resident o% the *igh Court o% cassation and Justice !onl# %or 2udges$ -# the
,rosecutor 'enral !%or )rosecutors$ or -# the +inister o% Justice !%or 2udges and )rosecutors$:
JQ:The Judiciar# &#stem Act <HHC Cha)ter > &ection > Ins)ectorate )oEers: art: J@
BH: The in%luence !non o%%icial$ o% Article B o% the Con"ention %or the ,rotection o% *uman Rights and Fundamental Freedoms
BA: 'ABORIA. &: ,A./IAT *: op' cit' ): BC et seN:
B<: CED* ,E//E'RIN "T France o% D Decem-er AQQQ 5 CED* VI/*O E&KE/INEN and others "T Finland o% AQ A)ril <HHC
B>: The AQJD &tatute amended -# the Organic /aE <HHA: art: JC The )rinci)le is )u-lic hearing e(ce)t i% there is a -reach o% )u-lic order:
A<
e"idence and hearing the re)orts ins)ections )rocedures and e"idence gathered as Eell as the disco"er# o%
documents: The Disci)linar# Di"ision maFes a decision a%ter ha"ing heard the )arties and the said 2udgement
can -e o))osed -e%ore the Joint Di"isions o% the Court o% Cassation: *oEe"er it is original that in the &tates
Ehere hearings are in secret disci)linar# decisions are )u-lished in an o%%icial 2ournal or on the C&+Ks Ee-
site liFe in France Bulgaria and Ital# !Ehere the# are e"en a -roadcast$:
A Right of the defence implies the Right to complain about disciplinary sanction) most &tates )ro"ide
an a))eal against a decision: In 0oland the accused the disci)linar# commissioner as Eell as the National Council
o% the Judiciar# and the +inister o% Justice ma# all a))eal againts the disci)linar# courtKs 2udgements rendered in the
loEer instance through the disci)linar# court o% higher instance -ut the 2udgement o% the disci)linar# court o% the
higher instance is not su-2ect to cassation: In France the Council o% &tate is com)etent %or an a))eal %rom the
2udge or the )rosecutor against a disci)linar# sanction: Disci)linar# sanctions are alEa#s )ro"ided -# the laEs -ut
it a))ears that %rom the commencement o% )roceedings to the decision the disci)linar# s#stem does not seem to -e
so e%%icient:
C, The time et for diciplinary anction
All &tates set sanctions %or -reaches in disci)line -ut the lists o% disci)linar# sanctions ma# -e long or short
and di"ided into > grou)s: AR L moral M sanctions : re)rimand censure admonition5 <R %inancial sanctions :
reduction o% remuneration %ines5 >R serious sanctions: trans%er sus)ension o% duties de"olution dismissal: In
3ermany and En$land and ;ale there is a short list o% sanctions: re)rimands %ines and dismissal )ro)ortionate
to the seriousness o% the disci)linar# o%%ence: *oEe"er in other &tates liFe France 2el$i"m and Italy there is a
long list o% disci)linar# sanctions that the disci)linar# authorities consider in res)ect o% the 2udge and )rosecutorKs
rights: The Belgian s#stem is )articularl# intresting as regards the )enalt# scale: minor )enalties consist o% Earnings
and re)rimands5 ma2or )enalties in the A
st
degree constitute a <0month deduction %rom JudgeKs salar# disci)linar#
sus)ension andTor relie% o% o%%ice5 ma2or )enalties in the <
nd
degree co"er dismissal and discharge Eithout the right
to a )ension: Finall# in 2"l$aria a disci)linar# sanction Eith the e(ce)tion o% relie% %rom o%%ice or o% dismissal
shall -e deleted one #ear a%ter ha"ing -een ser"ed: Earl# deletion o% a disci)linar# sanction ma# occur at the
initiati"e o% the administrati"e head or o% -odies or o% the )eo)le that )ro)osed its im)osition in the %irst )lace:
According the CE,EJKs Re)ort
B@
the di%%erence -etEeen the num-er o% L o)en disci)linar# )roceedings M and the
num-er o% L %inall# im)osed sanctions M can -e e()lained -# the %act that some cases are discontinued or ended due
to the lacF o% an esta-lished "iolation or -ecause o% the 2udge9s resignation -e%ore the %inal decision:
I% the Disci)linar# s#stem is )recise or com)le( the realit# is di%%erent: This does not mean hoEe"er that
trust -etEeen citi?ens and Justice is not -eing rein%orced: The )ros)ects %or 2udicial disci)linar# s#stems are
e()ressed therea%ter in order to rein%orce this trust:
B@: Euro)ean Commission %or the E%%icienc# o% Justice Re)ort on L E%%icienc# and Nualit# o% Justice M <HAH ): <@C
A>
0A1T 2 % The propect for #"dicial diciplinary ytem
The recommendation -# the Committee o% +inisters to +em-er &tates on judicial independence,
efficiency and responsibilities stresses the need to 3 reinforce all measures necessary to promote judges4
independence and efficiency, guarantee and ma5e more effecti+e their responsibility and strengthen the role of
indi+idual judges and the judiciary generally ,
67
'
Judicial disci)linar# res)onsi-ilit# is a -alance o% tEo things: on the one hand the o-ligation to )enali?e 2udges Eho
engage in )rohi-ited conduct Ehich in%ringes on their Ethics5 and on the other the necessit# to )reser"e 2udges9
inde)endence and the )oEer o% their decisions: This -alance is a necessit# to )reser"e the con%idence o% citi?ens in
the 2ustice s#stem:
At a Euro)ean le"el tEo issues are at staFe here : %irstl# the a))lica-ilit# o% article BIA
BB
o% the Euro)ean
Con"ention on *uman Rights to 2udicial disci)linar# s#stems !I$5 secondl# the creation o% a Euro)ean 2udicial
disci)linar# s#stem %or Euro)ean )rosecutors !II$:

I, The applica.ility of article =B1 of the E"ropean Convention to #"dicial diciplinary ytem
The a))lica-ilit# o% article BIA to 2udicial disci)linar# litigation is a necessit# %or the standardi?ation o%
disci)linar# )roceedings the rein%orcement o% the )rotection o% 2udicial inde)endence thanFs to )rocedural
sa%eguards Ehose "iolation is )enali?ed -# the Euro)ean Court o% *uman Rights and in maFing the Court
com)etent to ensure the %undamental -alance -etEeen 2udicial inde)endence and the e%%ecti"eness o% 2udgesK
res)onsi-ilities: Furthermore this a))lica-ilit# o% article BIA Eill undenia-l# hel) to )reser"e the con%idence o%
citi?ens in their 2udges also -ecause the laEsuit Eill -e )u-lic: In order to achie"e this the Euro)ean Court o%
*uman Rights has to change its ,E//E'RIN ruling !A$ Ehich is "er# criti?ed !2$ -# ado)ting a neE criterion o%
a))lica-ilit# o% article BIA !C$:
A, The 0E99E31I' r"lin$ of the E"ropean Co"rt of H"man 1i$ht
The Council o% Euro)e and the Euro)ean .nion = -oth e()ressing )rocedural sa%eguards %or 2udicial
disci)linar# )roceedings = s)eaF in %a"or o% the rein%orcement o% )rotection o% 2udges9 inde)endence: *oEe"er the
Euro)ean Court o% *uman Rights re%uses to im)ose on +em-er &tates the res)ect o% article BIA %or 2udicial
disci)linar# )roceedings: The Court9s )osition seems to -e ina))ro)riate: Actuall# it can -e harm%ul %or 2udicial
inde)endence es)eciall# in Eastern Euro)e Ehere inde)endence ma# ha"e a limited )rotection: The lacF o%
su)ranational and uni%orm sa%eguards can lead to an incom)lete a))lication o% the inde)endence )rinci)le:
The Euro)ean Court o% *uman Rights considers that article BIA does not a))l# to 2udges9 disci)linar#
litigation -ecause it is not linFed to a ci"il laE dis)ute: ConseNuentl# 2udges9 disci)linar# litigation does not -elong
BJ: Recommendation C+TRec!<HAH$A< o% the Committee o% +inisters to mem-er states on 2udges : inde)endence e%%icienc# and res)onsi-ilities
ado)ted -# the Committee o% +inisters on AC No"em-er <HAH:
BB: L In the determination o% his ci"il rights and o-ligations or o% an# criminal charge against him e"er#one is entitled to a %air and )u-lic hearing
Eithin a reasona-le time -# an inde)endent and im)artial tri-unal esta-lished -# laE: M
A@
to the sco)e o% article BIA and the Euro)ean Court o% *uman Rights declares itsel% incom)etent to 2udge: In a
decision o% A Jul# <HH>
BC
the Euro)ean Court o% *uman Rights %ound the a))lication o% article BIA inadmissi-le in
a case concerning a /ithuanian )rosecutor +: D;IA.TA& Eho Eas remo"ed %rom o%%ice -ecause he had EorFed
%or a /ithuanian section o% the K'B -e%ore /ithuanian inde)endence in AQQH: The a))licant com)lained that he
could not -ene%it %rom the %olloEing tEo rules: )u-lic )roceedings and access to a %inal court o% a))eal: The
Euro)ean court o% *uman Rights considered this case had nothing to do Eith L ci+il law rights and obligations ,'
In actual %act the Euro)ean Court o% *uman Rights resorted to a criterion dra%ted in its ,E//E'RIN
ruling: The Court ruled that 3 the only disputes e8cluded from the scope of )rticle 6 9 : of the ;on+ention are
those which are raised by public ser+ants whose duties typify the specific acti+ities of the public ser+ice in so far
as the latter is acting as the depositary of public authority responsible for protecting the general interests of the
1tate or other public authorities ,
6<
' According to the court this neE criterion is inde)endent o% the Nuali%ication o%
the duties o% the )erson concerned at a national le"el: ConseNuentl# this neE criterion maFes it necessar# to
ascertain in each case L whether the applicant=s post entails ( in the light of the nature of the duties and
responsibilities appertaining to it ( direct or indirect participation in the e8ercise of powers conferred by public
law and duties designed to safeguard the general interests of the 1tate or of other public authorities M
BQ
: From this
)oint o% "ieE 2udges and )rosecutors EorF in a s)here in Ehich &tates e(ercise so"ereign )oEers: *oEe"er the
,E//E'RIN ruling lea"es room %or criticism:
2, Shortcomin$ of the PEE!RI" ruling
In the ,E//E'RIN ruling %our Euro)ean Court 2udges issued a dissenting o)inion -ased on the risF o%
discrimination -etEeen citi?ens
CH
: According to them article BIA and )re)arator# EorFs on it L do not pro+ide a
decisi+e argument as to whether there should be a restricti+e or narrow interpretation of the concept >ci+il rights
and obligations= ,' The# )ro)osed that L that pro+ision applies to all disputes that are decisi+e for a person=s
legal position, e+en if he or she is a ci+il ser+ant M: The dissenting 2udges could see no "alid reason 3 for depri+ing
persons in the public ser+ice of the legal protection which is regarded for other wor5ers as a safeguard so
essential as to constitute a fundamental right M
CA
:
The criterion o% the ,E//E'RIN case ma# cause discrimination not onl# -etEeen )ersons "ested Eith the
)rerogati"es o% )oEer and those Eho are not -ut also discrimination Eithin the categor# o% )ersons "ested Eith the
)rerogati"es o% )oEer de)ending on the dis)ute the# are in"ol"ed in: A ci"il ser"ant %aced Eith criminal
)roceedings -ecause o% )ro%essional misconduct -ene%its %rom the sa%eguards o% article BIA: For the same %acts i%
he is su-2ect to disci)linar# or administrati"e )roceedings he does not -ene%it %rom the sa%eguards o% article BIA:
BC: Eur: Court *um: Rights &ection < A
st
Jul# <HH> D?iautas "s /ituania
BD: Eur: Court *um: Rights Cham-er D
th
Decem-er AQQQ ,ellegrin "s France
BQ: Eur: Court &ection < D
th
Fe-ruar# <HHA 'alina ,itFe"ich "s Russian Federation : L The Court o-ser"es that the 2udiciar# Ehile not -eing )art o%
ordinar# ci"il ser"ice is nonetheless )art o% t#)ical )u-lic ser"ice: A 2udge has s)eci%ic res)onsi-ilities in the %ield o% administration o% 2ustice Ehich
is a s)here in Ehich &tates e(ercise so"ereign )oEers: ConseNuentl# the 2udge )artici)ates directl# in the e(ercise o% )oEers con%erred -# )u-lic laE
and )er%orms duties designed to sa%eguard the general interests o% the &tate M: Eur: Court A
st
Jul# <HH> )rec: L There is no reason to de)art %rom that
reasoning and conclusion Eith res)ect to a mem-er o% the )rosecution ser"ice in so %ar that such a ser"ice contri-utes to the administration o%
2ustice: M
CH: +s TulFens and Thomassen and +rs Fisch-ach and Casade"all
CA: Dissident o)inion IJ
AJ
B# re%using to a))l# article BIA to 2udges9 disci)linar# litigation the Court gi"es an o))ortunit# to &tates to
)enali?e its ci"il ser"ants choosing disci)linar# )roceedings rather than criminal ones:
The criterion o% the ,E//E'RIN ruling is -ased on the im)lementation o% )oEers con%erred on the
Administration -# )u-lic laE: The &tate has a legitimate interest in reNuiring o% these ci"il ser"ants Eho Eield a
)ortion o% the &tate9s so"ereign )oEer, 3 a special bond of trust and loyalty ,
?@
, Ehose sanction is not co"ered -#
the )ro"isions o% article BIA: *oEe"er Ehere 2udges are concerned the -ond o% trust and lo#alt# is "er# )articular:
in the course o% their duties 2udges contrar# to militar# )ersonnel and )olicemen are not su-2ect to the instructions
gi"en -# their su)eriors: On the contrar# 2udicial inde)endence is a %undamental )rinci)le recogni?ed in all Council
o% Euro)e +em-er &tates: As a result -# deciding not to im)ose res)ect o% article BIA %or 2udicial disci)linar#
litigation on &tates the Euro)ean Court o% *uman Rights lets the &tates themsel"es )rotect the inde)endence o%
2udges: The risF is that some &tates Ehose domestic rules do not su%%icientl# )rotect the inde)endence o% 2udges
might -e tem)ted to use this lacF o% )rocedural sa%eguard -ased on the -ond o% trust and lo#alt# as an instrument
o% )ressure on 2udges:
The ,E//E'RIN ruling de)ri"es 2udges o% tEo other %undamental rights: The reason is that the right to a
%air trial is not recogni?ed %or 2udges: ConseNuentl# the# cannot use the right o% an e%%ecti"e remed# -e%ore a court
and the )rohi-ition o% discrimination in the e(ercise o% a right to a %air trial: In these conditions o% almost state0
immunit# the inde)endence o% 2udges a))ears to -e at risF -ecause it is onl# guaranteed -# domestic laE Ehose
inter)retation is u) to 2udges:
C, A ne+ criterion for the applica.ility of article =B1 to #"d$eC diciplinary liti$ation
.nder this scenario article BIA Eould -e a))lica-le to 2udicial disci)line: ConseNuentl# the concerned
)ersons9 reNuest in"oFing the "iolation o% article BIA Eould -e declared admissi-le -# the Euro)ean Court o%
*uman Rights: In order to achie"e this Ee should ado)t a neE criterion %or the a))lica-ilit# o% article BIA to )u-lic
o%%icials: According to the Euro)ean Court o% *uman Rights the general interest and the e%%icient %unctioning o% the
&tates 2usti%# on the one hand that some )u-lic o%%icials9 careers o-e# )articular rules and on the other hand that
)rocedural sa%eguards do not a))l# to them: This )remise e()lains the restricti"e reading o% article BIA:
1h# not limit the sco)e o% the ,E//E'RIN ruling to )u-lic em)lo#ment reNuiring o%%icials9 )olitical
su-ordination G
C>
On the contrar# litigation concerning )oliticall# neutral )u-lic em)lo#ment could -e su-2ect to
article BIA e"en i% o%%icials e(ercise )oEers con%erred -# )u-lic laE and Eield a )ortion o% the &tate9s so"ereign
)oEer directl#: According to this de%inition mem-ers o% the 2udiciar# -elong to this categor#: The CourtKs criterion
%or L modification of a person=s legal position M is "er# -road and includes all Administration litigation Ehereas the
criterion %or 3 political subordination of public officials , lea"es some )u-lic em)lo#ment out o% the a))lication o%
article BIA that is to sa# out o% the a))lication o% the right to a court hearing and the right to a %air trial:
The other )ros)ect %or disci)linar# s#stem is to imagine a disci)linar# )roceedings %or Euro)ean ,u-lic
,rosecutors:
C<: ,ellegrin Case op'cit: IBJ
C>: +a?"#das +ichalausFas ,aris A .ni"ersit# Doctor in ,ri"ate laE
AB
II, The implementation of E"ropean diciplinary reponi.ility for E"ropean 0".lic
0roec"tor
The im)lementation o% Euro)ean disci)linar# res)onsi-ilit# %or Euro)ean ,u-lic ,rosecutors could -e a %irst ste)
toEards standardi?ing disci)linar# laE o% national 2udges and )rosecutors at a Euro)ean le"el in the %uture:
The di%%erences -etEeen the disci)linar# s#stems in Euro)ean .nion reNuires that the Euro)ean ,u-lic ,rosecutors
has its oEn disci)linar# s#stem ada)ted to its s)eci%icit# !A$ that is to sa# its ethical o-ligations !2$ and
disci)linar# )roceedings !C$: The trust o% citi?ens de)ends on this conditions:
A, E"ropean 0".lic 0roec"torD office% preentation of the pro#ect,
During the second hal% o% <HA>
C@
the Euro)ean Commission Eill )ro)ose a directi"e on the creation o% the
Euro)ean ,u-lic ,rosecutorsK O%%ice: The Euro)ean ,u-lic ,rosecutorsK O%%ice Eould -e com)etent in )ointing out
o%%ences against Euro)ean .nion %inancial interests !in con2unction Eith E.RO,O/$ and taFing )u-lic action
-e%ore com)etent Courts o% the +em-er &tates
CJ
:
According to the 'reen ,a)er the chie% o% the Euro)ean ,u-lic ,rosecutorsK O%%ice Eould -e in charge o%
management and coordination o% in"estigations and )roceedings so he Eould ha"e the )oEer to in"estigate De)ut#
Euro)ean ,u-lic ,rosecutors: These De)ut# Euro)ean ,u-lic ,rosecutors Eould -elong to national 2udicial
s#stems and Eould taFe )u-lic action
CB
: Either the De)ut# Euro)ean ,u-lic ,rosecutorKs mandate Eould -e
e(clusi"e o% an# other mandate Ehich Eould ensure s)eciali?ation or De)ut# Euro)ean ,u-lic ,rosecutors Eould
)rosecute unlaE%ul acts detrimental to national and Euro)ean interests Eith )riorit# gi"en to Euro)ean interests:
CC

2, ;hat Ethical o.li$ation ho"ld .e fiEed for E"ropean 0roec"tor @
&ince <HHA the Euro)ean Commission has -een EorFing on a disci)linar# s#stem %or Euro)ean ,u-lic
,rosecutors in general terms: *oEe"er it is necessar# to de%ine Ethics -e%ore thinFing a-out a disci)linar# s#stem:
The Council o% Euro)eKs )a)ers and EorFs are at the cutting edge o% thinFing in the area o% 2udicial res)onsi-ilit#:
On the -asis o% article AD o% the 2udgesK +agna Carta Ethics has to come %rom 2udges themsel"es: ConseNuentl#
)re)aring ethics %or 2udges can -e an a))ro)riate mission %or the Euro)ean NetEorF o% Councils %or the Judiciar#
CD
:
A general %rameEorF alread# e(ists Eith the 2udicial ethics re)ort <HHQ0<HAH: This document com)rises a list o%
ethical o-ligations that 2udges ha"e to res)ect !inde)endence integrit# im)artialit# reser"e and discretion
diligence res)ect and the a-ilit# to listen and com)etence$ -ut the s)eci%ic nature o% the Euro)ean ,u-lic
,rosecutorsK O%%ice has to -e taFen into account:
In %act inde)endence has to -e s)eci%ied: Euro)ean ,u-lic ,rosecutors ha"e to -e inde)endent %rom the
e(ecuti"e and legislati"e )oEers as Eell as the media and )u-lic o)inion: Furthermore Euro)ean ,u-lic
,rosecutors ha"e to -e inde)endent o% +em-er &tates and Euro)ean .nion institutions and more )articularl# o%
C@: htt):TTEEE:senat:%rTra)TrAA0<CQTrAA0<CQ@:html >A +arch <HA<
CJ: Article DB o% the Treat# on the %unctioning o% the Euro)ean ,u-lic ,rosecutorsKo%%ice:
CB: 'reen ,a)er on criminal0laE )rotection o% the %inancial interests o% the Communit# and the esta-lishment o% a Euro)ean ,rosecutor AA:dec:<HHA
)resented -# the Commission ):<Q I @:A:> et @:<
CC: &bid ):>H0>AI@:<:A:A:
CD: It is legitimate -ecause it is com)osed o% national institutions o% Euro)ean .nion +em-er &tates and it EorFs Eith Euro)ean .nion su))ort:
AC
the Commission the Council o% Euro)e and Euro)ean -odies o%%ices and agencies
CQ
: This inde)endence Eould
ha"e to taFe into account the hierarch# o% the Euro)ean ,u-lic ,rosecutorsK O%%ice
DH
: This L;ode of /thics , Eould
-e %i(ed -# a Euro)ean Regulation in order to ensure uni%orm a))lication %or all mem-ers o% the Euro)ean ,u-lic
,rosecutorKs O%%ice Ehate"er their nationalit#: This Code o% Ethics Eould -e anne(ed to e(isting national Codes o%
Ethics:
C, ;hat diciplinary ytem ho"ld .e implemented for E"ropean 0".lic 0roec"tor @
According to the 'reen ,a)er the mem-ers o% the Euro)ean ,u-lic ,rosecutorsK O%%ice Eould either -e
Euro)ean .nion o%%icials or Eould -ene%it %rom a sel%0generated status that Eould alloE them to -e 2udges in their
national 2udicial s#stems and e(ercise their %unctions Eithin the Euro)ean ,u-lic ,rosecutorsK O%%ice: The
Commission does not Eant to )ro)ose an autonomous Euro)ean status %or De)ut# Euro)ean ,u-lic ,rosecutors:
The# Eill Fee) their national status and -e su-2ect to Euro)ean disci)linar# and hierarchical s#stems during their
mandate: In other Eords it is necessar# to en"isage in the national status not onl# the )ossi-ilit# o% secondment -ut
also the conseNuences in terms o% disci)line and hierarch#: Judges EorFing Eithin the Euro)ean .nion should not
-e su-2ect to a national disci)linar# s#stem Ehen the# act under a Euro)ean mandate: A Euro)ean Regulation is
necessar# to integrate all these s)eci%ic )ro"isions into national status: In %act according to article AQ o% the 2udgesK
+agna Carta the status or %undamental charter a))lica-le to 2udges has to de%ine all %aults Ehich might lead to
disci)linar# action and also disci)linar# )roceedings:
ConseNuentl# the creation o% a com)lementar# s)eci%ic disci)linar# %ault is necessar#: This %ault Eould lead
to )enali?ing 2udges Eho ha"e )rioriti?ed national interests o"er Euro)ean ones:
The ultimate disci)linar# sanction Eould -e the loss o% the Euro)ean mandate: I% De)ut# Euro)ean ,u-lic
,rosecutors Eere a-le to hold tEo %unctions the# Eould -e su-2ect to tEo disci)linar# s#stems de)ending on
Ehether the %ault Eas committed in the e(ercise o% their national mandate or their Euro)ean one: On the -asis o%
Euro)ean laE the loss o% the Euro)ean mandate %or De)ut# Euro)ean ,u-lic ,rosecutors Eould not ha"e a
conseNuence on the national mandate: *oEe"er at the loss o% the national mandate the De)ut# Euro)ean ,u-lic
,rosecutor Eould lose his Euro)ean mandate automaticall#:
Concerning disci)linar# )roceedings %or the Euro)ean ,u-lic ,rosecutorsK O%%ice a Euro)ean court Eould
-e com)etent -ecause the goal o% the Euro)ean ,u-lic ,rosecutorsK O%%ice is to ser"e Euro)ean interests: The
'reen ,a)er suggests that the Court o% Justice o% the Euro)ean .nion is com)etent %or the disNuali%ication o% a
Euro)ean ,u-lic ,rosecutor or the remo"al o% a Euro)ean mandate in the case o% serious misconduct: On the -asis
o% a good 2udicial s#stem Euro)ean ,u-lic ,rosecutors cannot -e )enali?ed on disci)linar# matters -# onl# one
Court
DA
: ConseNuentl# the Court o% Justice Eill -e com)etent in the case o% an a))eal lodged against the decision o%
the Euro)ean .nion Ci"il &er"ice Tri-unal Ehich Eill ha"e e(clusi"e 2urisdiction at %irst instance
D<
:
CQ: 'reen ,a)er op'cit' ): <D I@:A:A
DH: &bid, I@:<:< : The De)ut# ,rosecutors %or the duration o% their term o% o%%ice Eould -e su-ordinate to the Euro)ean ,u-lic ,rosecutor on an
e(clusi"e or non0e(clusi"e -asis de)ending on the o)tion selected and Eould -e -ound -# his instructions in -oth general and s)eci%ic matters:
DA:&bid, )<Q0>H I@:<:A:A and I@:A:<:<
D<:According to the <CH TFE. it is com)etent %or laE cases a-out EorF relations
AD
According to article A> o% the 2udgesK +agna Carta
D>
a courtKs com)osition is an im)ortant issue: 1ith
regards to their mem-ers the Euro)ean .nion Ci"il &er"ice Tri-unal and the Court o% Justice o% the Euro)ean
.nion
D@
a-ide -# the reNuirements set out -# the Council o% Euro)e su-2ect to some ad2ustment: It has to -e noted
that these reNuirements are necessar# to carr# out the sFills o% a Justice Council: A s)ecial training -od# Eould -e
com)etent in matters o% disci)linar# litigation o% Euro)ean ,u-lic ,rosecutors: For e(am)le the )lenar# assem-l#
o% the Court o% Justice Eould im)ose disci)linar# sanctions on Euro)ean ,u-lic ,rosecutors
DJ
: This s)eci%ic
com)etence Eould -e added to the Tri-unal and Court status:
Concerning the authorities Ehich can call on the Justice Councils according to the 'reen ,a)er )lanned
that the Euro)ean ,u-lic ,rosecutors ma# -e ordered to resign at the reNuest o% ,arliament Council o% Euro)e or
Commission: The Euro)ean ,u-lic ,rosecutor hierarchical su)erior o% the Euro)ean ,u-lic ,rosecutorsK O%%ice
Eould ha"e a role to )la# in the disci)linar# )roceedings o% the De)ut# Euro)ean ,u-lic ,rosecutors: The +em-er
&tates Eould -e at the origin o% disci)linar# )roceedings i% a De)ut# Euro)ean ,u-lic ,rosecutor or a Euro)ean
,u-lic ,rosecutor Eanted to ser"e the interests o% his countr# o% origin rather than Euro)ean interests: There%ore a
collecti"e reNuest %rom the national ,arliament could -e en"isaged Eith the agreement o% at least a Nuarter o% the
national ,arliament: Disci)linar# )roceedings ha"e to res)ect the sa%eguards o% article BIA
DB
:
Toda# the Council o% Euro)e does not Eant to set su)ranational standards concerning
2udgesK disci)linar# s#stems in +em-er &tates -ut )re%ers to set )rinci)les as guidelines %or the im)lementation o%
these standards -# the &tates themsel"es: This does not ensure a -alance -etEeen the e%%ecti"eness o% 2udgesK
res)onsi-ilities and the )rotection o% their inde)endence in case o% %ailing states: The a))lica-ilit# o% article BIA to
2udgesK disci)linar# litigation Eould standardi?e 2udicial disci)linar# )roceedings thanFs to a Euro)ean Court o%
*uman Rights sanction in cases o% "iolation o% )rocedural sa%eguards: *oEe"er in Euro)e disci)linar# /aE %or
2udges is an o)en %ield: As such the im)lementation o% a disci)linar# s#stem %or the Euro)ean ,u-lic ,rosecutorsK
O%%ice could -e a %irst ste) and a signi%icant o))ortunit#:
Concerning disci)linar# sanctions against 2udges or more generall# s)eaFing against )ersons Eith )oliticall#
neutral )u-lic em)lo#ment the authorit# o% the Euro)ean Court as a last resort could -e considered in the %uture:
The case laE emerging on the -asis o% this litigation Eould ena-le the )rinci)les o% Euro)ean te(ts to -e gi"en legal
sco)e: For e(am)le the Euro)ean 2udgesK and )rosecutorsK ad"isor# Councils com)osed e(clusi"el# o% 2udges
Eould ha"e to rethinF a Euro)ean Code o% Ethics Ehose "iolation Eould -e )enali?ed -# the Euro)ean Court o%
*uman Rights as a last resort: 'i"en that the di%%erences -etEeen disci)linar# s#stems in Euro)e the authorit# o%
the Euro)ean Court o% *uman Rights as a last resort Eould -e "er# use%ul -ecause it Eould lead to a )rogressi"e
standardi?ation o% 2udgesK disci)linar# %aults and sanctions at a Euro)ean le"el:
D>:L The Council shall -e com)osed either o% 2udges e(clusi"el# or o% a su-stantial ma2orit# o% 2udges elected -# their )eers: M
D@: The Tri-unal is com)osed o% se"en 2udges and the court is com)osed o% <C 2udges and D )rosecutors:
DJ: This Eould -e consistent -ecause the )lenar# assem-l# must remo"e the Euro)ean Om-udsman or a +em-er o% the Euro)ean Commission Eho
has %ailed to %ul%ill his o-ligations:
DB: Toda# this is not reall# a )ossi-ilit#: It is )oliticall# di%%icult %or disci)linar# sanctions %rom the Court o% Justice to -e su-2ect to a right to a))eal to
the Euro)ean Court e"en i% the E. -ecomes a mem-er o% the Council o% Euro)e: The mutual in%luence o% laE cases and te(ts Eould lead to a
con"ergence:
AQ
2i.lio$raphy
;or* .y the Co"ncil of E"rope) .y the Con"ltative Co"ncil of E"ropean 6"d$e) .y the E"ropean
Commiion for the Efficiency of 6"tice) .y the E"ropean Fnion) .y the E"ropean 'et+or* of Co"ncil
for the 6"diciary
- Euro)ean Charter on the &tatute %or Judges ado)ted -# the )artici)ants at the multilateral meeting on the statute
%or 2udges in Euro)e organi?ed -# the Council o% Euro)e D0AH Jul# AQQD:
0Recommendation C+TRec!<HAH$A< o% the Committee o% +inisters to mem-er states on 2udges : inde)endence
e%%icienc# and res)onsi-ilities ado)ted -# the Committee o% +inisters on AC No"em-er <HAH:
- O)inion no: > %or the attention o% the Committee o% +inisters o% the Council o% Euro)e on the )rinci)les and rules
go"erning 2udges9 )ro%essional conduct in )articular ethics incom)ati-le -eha"ior and im)artialit# 5 AQ No"em-er
<HH< 5 @B ):
0 The +agna Carta !%undamental ,rinci)les$ o% 2udges AC No"em-er <HAH @ ):
0 E"aluation re)ort o% Euro)ean 2udicial s#stems Edition <HAH !<HHD data$: OE%%icienc# and Nualit# o% 2usticeP
0'reen ,a)er on criminal0laE )rotection o% the %inancial interests o% the Communit# and the esta-lishment o% a
Euro)ean ,rosecutor AA Decem-er <HHA )resented -# the Commission:
0 Euro)ean NetEorF o% Councils %or the Judiciar# Judicial Ethics Re)ort <HHQ0<HAH
2oo*
0 CANIVET 'u# JO/40*.RARD Julie La d#ontologie du magistrat <7me 3dition Dallo? <HHQ AD@ )ages:
0 CORN. '3rard association *enri Ca)itant %ocabulaire juridi$ue, D7me 3dition ,resses .ni"ersitaires de
France <HHC QDJ )ages:
0 'ABORIA. &imone ,A./IAT *3l7ne La responsabilit# des magistrats Actes de colloNue Editions ,ulim
,resses uni"ersitaires de /imoges <HHD <@< ):
0 RE4 Alain Le grand obert de la langue fran!aise, dictionnaire alphab#ti$ue et analogi$ue de la langue
fran!aise !French dictionar#$, <7me 3dition /e Ro-ert AQDQ
0VI'O.RO.6 Christian "#ontologies des fonctions publi$ues ,ra(is Dallo? <HHB CDB )ages
Conference) 9e$al #o"rnal and report
0 /es cahiers de lKinstitut dKEtudes sur la Justice La responsabilit# professionnelle des magistrats Actes du
colloNue organis3 le AJTH<T<HHC U /Kuni"ersit3 catholiNue de /O.VAIN Bru#lant Bru(elles <HHC <@@ ):
0 '*A/E*0+AR;BAN ,eimane Le par$uet europ#en A l4utopie de+ientBtBelle enfin r#alit# C Actualit3 2uridiNue
droit )3nal nR A< <C d3cem-re <HAH ): J>Q
0 Ra))ort du &3nat Le r#gime disciplinaire des magistrats du siDge &3rie /3gislation com)ar3e nR /C A>A
2an"ier <HH@:
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