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A PROJECT SYNOPSIS

PNEUMATIC PUNCHING MACHINE


PNEUMATIC PUNCHING MACHINE
INTRODUCTION
Pneumatic systems operate on a supply of compressed air which must be made available
in sufficient quantity and at a pressure to suit the capacity of the system. When the
pneumatic system is being adopted for the first time, however it wills indeed the
necessary to deal with the question of compressed air supply.
The key part of any facility for supply of compressed air is by means using reciprocating
compressor. A compressor is a machine that takes in air, gas at a certain pressure and
delivered the air at a high pressure.
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WORKING PRINCIPLE
ur pro!ect works on the following three basic principles.
1. Air can flow.
". Air can be compressed.
#. $ifference in air pressure can cause movement.
The main ob!ectives of our pro!ect is to punch ob!ect with the help of air. %nitially we
press the lever manually and the force is transmitted from the lever to the cylinder
&'yringe(1) through a link. The air in the cylinder &'yringe(1) gets compressed and e*erts
force through the pipe to the ne*t cylinder &'yringe(") where the punching tool is
connected and hence the ob!ect is punched due to air pressure.
Thus the pro!ect is easy to operate due to its simple mechanism.
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PROJECT LAYOUT
(May be chane !n ac"#a$ %&'(ec")
#
AD*ANTAGES
%t reduces the manual work
%t reduces the production time
+niform application of the load gives perfect removing of the bearing.
$amages to the bearing due to the hammering is prevented
%t occupies less floor space
,ess skilled operator is sufficient
LIMITATIONS

%nitial cost is high
-ylinder stroke length is constant
'pecific 'i.e punching operation only.
-an work only on thin papers / sheets.

APPLICATIONS
Pressing peration in all industries
Paper punching industries
,eather washer operation in all industries.
'heet 0etal Punching.
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PNEUMATICS
Pneumatics is a section of technology that deals with the study and application of
pressuri.ed gas to produce mechanical motion.
Pneumatic systems are e*tensively used in industry, where factories are commonly
plumbed with compressed air or compressed inert gases. This is because a centrally
located and electrically powered compressor that powers cylinders and other pneumatic
devices through solenoid valves is often able to provide motive power in a cheaper, safer,
more fle*ible, and more reliable way than a large number of electric motors and
actuators.
Pneumatics also has applications in dentistry, construction, mining, and other areas.
C'+%a&!,'n "' hy-&a#$!c,
2oth pneumatics and hydraulics are applications of fluid power. Pneumatics uses an
easily compressible gas such as air or a suitable pure gas, while hydraulics uses relatively
incompressible liquid media such as oil. 0ost industrial pneumatic applications use
pressures of about 34 to 144 pounds per square inch &554 to 674 kPa). 8ydraulics
applications commonly use from 1,444 to 5,444 psi &6.7 to #1 0Pa), but speciali.ed
applications may e*ceed 14,444 psi &67 0Pa).
A-.an"ae, '/ %ne#+a"!c,
'implicity of $esign And -ontrol
0achines are easily designed using standard cylinders 9 other components.
0achines operate by simple : ( ;; type control.
Re$!ab!$!"y
Pneumatic systems tend to have long operating lives and require very little maintenance.
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2ecause gas is compressible, the equipment is less likely to be damaged by shock. The
gas in pneumatics absorbs e*cessive force, whereas the fluid of hydraulics directly
transfers force.
S"'&ae
-ompressed gas can be stored, allowing the use of machines when electrical power is
lost.
Sa/e"y
<ery low chance of fire &compared to hydraulic oil).
0achines can be designed to be overload safe.
Pne#+a"!c $'!c
Pneumatic logic systems &sometimes called air logic control) are often used to control
industrial processes, consisting of primary logic units such as=
And +nits
r +nits
>?elay or 2ooster> +nits
,atching +nits
>Timer> +nits
'orteberg relay
;luidics amplifiers with no moving parts other than the air itself
Pneumatic logic is a reliable and functional control method for industrial processes. %n
recent years, these systems have largely been replaced by electrical control systems, due
to the smaller si.e and lower cost of electrical components. Pneumatic devices are still
used in processes where compressed air is the only energy source available or upgrade
cost, safety, and other considerations outweigh the advantage of modern digital control.
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PUNCHING
In"&'-#c"!'n
Punching is a metal forming process that uses a punch press to force a tool, called a
punch, through the workpiece to create a hole via shearing. The punch often passes
through the work into a die. A scrap slug from the hole is deposited into the die in the
process. $epending on the material being punched this slug may be recycled and reused
or discarded. Punching is often the cheapest method for creating holes in sheet metal in
medium to high production volumes. When a specially shaped punch is used to create
multiple usable parts from a sheet of material the process is known as blanking. %n
forging applications the work is often punched while hot, and this is called hot punching.
P&'ce,,
Punch tooling &punch and die) is often made of hardened steel or tungsten carbide. A die
is located on the opposite side of the workpiece and supports the material around the
perimeter of the hole and helps to locali.e the shearing forces for a cleaner edge. There is
a small amount of clearance between the punch and the die to prevent the punch from
sticking in the die and so less force is needed to make the hole. The amount of clearance
needed depends on the thickness, with thicker materials requiring more clearance, but the
clearance is always less than the thickness of the workpiece. The clearance is also
dependent on the hardness of the workpiece. The punch press forces the punch through a
workpiece, producing a hole that has a diameter equivalent to the punch, or slightly
smaller after the punch is removed. All ductile materials stretch to some e*tent during
punching which often causes the punch to stick in the workpiece. %n this case, the punch
must be physically pulled back out of the hole while the work is supported from the
punch side, and this process is known as stripping. The hole walls will show burnished
area, rollover, and die break and must often be further processed. The slug from the hole
falls through the die into some sort of container to either dispose of the slug or recycle it.
@
The Th&ee P&!nc!%$e,
There are three scientific principles involved in each type of fluid systems. These include
the following=
1) ;luids can be compressed
") ;luids can flow
#) Pressure differences can cause movement
A;luids can flowB relates to my sub!ect because for pneumatic systems to work, it needs
the compressed air to flow through something in order to do a !ob right.
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PNEUMATIC CYLINDER
Pneumatic cylinders &sometimes known as air cylinders) are mechanical devices which
use the power of compressed gas to produce a force in a reciprocating linear motion.=35
,ike hydraulic cylinders, pneumatic cylinders use the stored potential energy of a fluid, in
this case compressed air, and convert it into kinetic energy as the air e*pands in an
attempt to reach atmospheric pressure. This air e*pansion forces a piston to move in the
desired direction. The piston is a disc or cylinder, and the piston rod transfers the force it
develops to the ob!ect to be moved. =35 Cngineers prefer to use pneumatics sometime
because they are quieter, cleaner, and do not require large amounts of space for fluid
storage.
2ecause the operating fluid is a gas, leakage from a pneumatic cylinder will not drip out
and contaminate the surroundings, making pneumatics more desirable where cleanliness
is a requirement. ;or e*ample, in the mechanical puppets of the $isney Tiki ?oom,
pneumatics are used to prevent fluid from dripping onto people below the puppets.
O%e&a"!'n
Gene&a$
nce actuated, compressed air enters into the tube at one end of the piston and, hence,
imparts force on the piston. -onsequently, the piston becomes displaced &moved) by the
compressed air e*panding in an attempt to reach atmospheric pressure.
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PUNCHING TOOLS 0 ACCESSORIES
A punch is a hard metal rod with a shaped tip at one end and a blunt butt end at the other,
which is usually struck by a hammer. 0ost woodworkers prefer to use a ball(peen
hammer for using punches. Punches are used to drive ob!ects, such as nails, or to form an
impression of the tip on a workpiece. $ecorative punches may also be used to create a
pattern or even form an image.
Punches and dies are necessities in a metal shop. They will help to make work more
efficient in the realm of modular home construction to auto body repair and restoration.
Whether in need of a punch for a variety of metal work tasks or for more specific needs
in auto body shops, variety of punches and dies, that are capable of punching through a
variety of metals.
CONCLUSION
ur team has made this pro!ect with utmost dedication which will help common people.
This pro!ect has been made for the first time and this the pneumatic punching machine
can easily punch the papers, metals, plastics etc. %nitially we press the lever manually and
the force is transmitted from the lever to the cylinder &'yringe(1) through a link. The air
in the cylinder &'yringe(1) gets compressed and e*erts force through the pipe to the ne*t
cylinder &'yringe(") where the punching tool is connected and hence the ob!ect is
punched due to air pressure.
Thus the pro!ect is easy to operate due to its simple mechanism.
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RE1ERENCES
www.engineering.world.edu/me
www.blown(film(machine.com/mechanical(type(pneumatic(type(manual(
punchingmachine.htm
www.howstuffworks.com
www.144pro!ects.org
www.technocrats.com/pro!ects/mechanical(pro!ect/
www.students#64.in
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