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CHAPTER ONE
Introduction
1.1 Background
Bishoftu Automotive and Locomotive Industry (BALI) is one of the members of
Metal and Engineering Corporation which is one of governmental organization
established in 2010 by comprising five industries. The mission of this industry is
to manufacture different spare parts of machinery and assembling different
machineries such as automobiles, heavy trucks, construction machineries,
armored vehicles, electrification, building different factories and training man
power to save foreign currency of the country. BALI is huge industry which
incorporates nine factories, which are Designed and Development, Power Train
Factory, Vehicle Factory, Locomotive Factory, Vehicles system Factory,
Construction Machinery Factory, Body and Frame Factory, Armored Vehicles
Factory and Tank Factory. BALI is located in Oromia regional state near
Bishoftu /Debre zeit/ town some 45 Kilometer to south east of Addis Ababa.

Also BALI has the mission to enhance combat readiness of the army by
maintain, overhauling military and commercial vehicle with better efficiency and
quality at lower cost. To increase manufacturing capacity and capability for tools
require for overhaul and assembly. BALI is the industry, which operates with
certain autonomous in accordance with its mission and mandates at all levels;
The factory has an excellent experience in developing new product & services
based on customers need. [11]






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1.2 Objectives
1.2.1 General Objective
The general objective of this project is to design and manufacture progressive die
for producing washers which is used for planetary final drives and power
transmission components of automotive, locomotive and heavy duty
machineries, military and commercial vehicles.
1.2.2 Specific Objectives
1. To save the foreign currency by fabricating washers in local industries.
2. To replace the existing long manufacturing processes by the shortest one.
3. To increase productivity by reducing the long manufacturing processes time.
4. To make safe working environment for workers.
5. To introduce the technology of designing and manufacturing of dies for other
parts.
1.3 Statement of the Problem
Importing washer from abroad is requires foreign currency and no local plants to
manufacture and supply washer for BALI even the manufacturing of washer by
conventional way of machining inside the existing factory requires long
technological processes and time consuming. So it is difficult to fulfill the
required amounts of washer by the existing means of production. Thus
developing progressive dies for producing of washer in mass bases is one of the
preferable options to reducing the problems.
1.4 Scope of the Project
To design and manufacture progressive die for production of washers for
different factories belongs to BALI.
1.5 Methodology
Different manuals, catalogues, documents and direct observation of different
power transmission components in the various plants under BALI are the best
methodologies for developing this project.


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CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE VIEW
2.1 Definition of Die
A die is a specialized tool used in manufacturing industries to cut or shape
material using a press. Like molds, dies are generally customized to the item they
are used to create. Products made with dies range from simple paper clips to
complex pieces used in advanced technology. [6]
2.2 Classification of Die
2.2.1 According to their Operation and Construction
Dies are classified by the type of operation performed and by type of
construction of die. The various types of dies are as follows:
1. Simple dies:- these dies are designed to perform only one operation such
as, blanking, piercing, notching , trimming etc.
2. Multi-operation dies: - these dies are designed to perform several operations
in stroke of ram.
These dies are further classified as follows:
a) Compound dies
b) Combination dies
c) Progressive dies
Compound Dies:- two or more cutting operations such as blanking and
piercing can be performed simultaneously in single stroke at single station. Figure
1. show a compound dies. It is used to produce a work piece which is pierced
and blanking at one station and in one operation. The punch and blanking die
opening are mounting in an inverted position .


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Die
K
n
o
c
k
o
u
t p
la
te
P
u
n
c
h
Compound dies ensure the positional relationship between the various
elements of work piece. The die sets should be laid out that the centre of
pressure the blank is central with the shank.









Figure 1: Compound die [4]
Combination Dies:- the cutting and forming or drawing operations are
combined are carried out in a single operation.
Progressive Dies:- the work piece moves from one position to another, with
separate operations being performed at each station all station work
simultaneously and the work piece is retained in stock till it reaches the final
station which cuts off the finished piece. Figure 2 show a progressive dies.






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P
u
n
c
h
h
o
ld
e
r
P
ie
rc
in
g
p
u
n
c
h
S
lip
p
e
r
S
trip
Die
D
ie
h
o
ld
e
r
Press fit
h7/h6
Blanking punch
Pllot
Slellon 2








Figure 2: -progressive die [4]
In progressive die punching is carried out at one station and blanking is
carried out at another station. They have the advantage of being fairly simple to
construct and are economical to repair because a broken punch or die does not
necessitate the replacement of the entire set. However if highly accurate of various
operations is required, they are not as satisfactory as compound dies. The compound
dies are more accurate but they usually are more expensive to construct and repair
and more subject to breakage.
Thus the compound dies and progressive dies can be compared as follows;
i. Compound dies perform more than one operation at one time at one station.
Where as Progressive dies perform one operation at a time at a station. The work
requiring Number of operation is completed in stages.
ii. Compound dies usually need double action and triple action presses tonnage of
press is more.
iii. Compound dies ensure more accurately the position relationship between the
various elements of the job.
iv. Progressive dies are simpler in construction.



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2.2.2 According to their Effect on the Structure of Material
When evaluated for the influence a die operation exerts on the structure of sheet
metal, dies can be grouped into several categories named after the operations
they perform. There are blanking dies, piercing dies, and cutoff dies, which all
cut the material, separating the slug from the part, Other tools are those that
force the metal to flow into predetermined locations, such as tools that form the
metal, stretch it, expand it, or compress it. All the different types of dies fit
loosely into five categories, where they are grouped according to the type of work
they produce. These are:
Cutting dies
Bending and forming dies
Drawing dies
Compressive dies
Miscellaneous die
Cutting Dies
These dies separate pieces of metal from the main blank or from the strip by the
cutting process. They include blanking, piercing, perforating, notching, lancing,
slitting (or cutoff), plunging, trimming, shaving and burnishing dies, and pinch
trimming tools. Blanking dies cut out the outline of the part in a single operation.
Piercing dies pierce singular holes, either for pilots engagement, or where piercing
is required before or after bending, drawing, and other shape altering processes.
Perforating dies produce a multitude of openings called perforations. This type of
work is used in production of strainers, sifting devices, for shielding and ventilation
of heat dissipating components, or for decorative appeal.





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Bending Dies
Are used to form, fold, or offset parts without subjecting their material structure to
the flow and plastic deformation. A side from simple bending dies, this type of
tooling includes; curling dies, twisting dies, and straightening or flattening dies.
Forming dies, however, belong into this category only marginally, as they fit in with
the drawing dies as well.
Bending dies deform a flat part into an angular shape. The bend line is straight
with no plastic deformation present. Forming dies deform a flat part into an
angular shape, much the same manner, but the line of a bend may be curved, with
plastic deformation evident in some areas surrounding the curvature.
Drawing Dies
Force the material to flow in conjunction with the movement of the punch, which
causes plastic deformation to its structure. During the drawing process, the
volumnar amount of flat blank is transformed into a drawn, shell like shape. In
some cases, thinning of the parts cross section may be observed.
Ironing dies function on the same principle as drawing dies. The only difference is
the clearance between the drawing punch and the die, which in ironing dies is
smaller. The diminished gap between the tooling forces the drawn shell to become
thinner, while smoothing the shells wall surface at the same time.
Compressive Dies
Force the material to flow into a cavity and fill all its crevices. These dies are called
coining, embossing, extruding, impact extruding, forging, heading, riveting,
upsetting, and staking dies.




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Cutting
partially
complated
Remaining sheet metal
with hole
Part cut out
Die
2.3 Sheet Metal Operation
2.3.1 Cutting Sheet Metal
In metal cutting the force applied to the metal by the punch and the die are
basically shear forces when the shear forces creates a shear stress greater than
the shear strength for a particular metal. The metal will fail and severing will
occur, as the hardness of the metal increases the shear strength also increases.
Therefore shear strengths for two metals could be compared simply making
Rockwell or Brinel hardness number test. Figure 3 show a sheet metal cutting
terminology.












Figure 3: Sheet mental cutting terminology [ ]




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2.3.2 Shearing Operation
Straight line shears are used for general purpose shearing work, for
example in cutting the small pieces from a larger sheet. But the more
usefully are the die shearing operation where the shear takes the form of
the component to be made. The two widely used shearing operations are
blanking and piercing.
a) Blanking
It is the process in which the punch removes the portion of the material
from the stock which is a strip of sheet metal of the necessary thickness
and width. The removed section is called the blank and is usually further
processed to be of some use.
b) Piercing
It is also sometimes called punching. It is making holes in a sheet. It is
identical to blanking except that the fact that the punched out portion
coming out through the die in piercing is scrap.
2.3.3 Bending Operation
Changes the shape of the blank to make it angular, curved or both along
the straight line. In bending the metal flow is uniform along the bend axis
with inner surface in compression and outer surface in tension. The most
favorable conditions for bending exist when the axis of the bend is
perpendicular to the direction of the grain.
The following points are important to be considered during bending
1. Material to be bending should be ductile and strong.
2. Bending is smooth if the axis of the bend is perpendicular to the direction
of the grain.
3. Spring back phenomena should be considered.
4. In most bending lubrication required is very less.


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2.4 Cutting Action in a Die:
Fig. 4 shows the cutting of metal between die components. It is shearing process
in which the metal is stressed in shear between two cutting edges to the point of
fracture (beyond its ultimate strength).In die cutting, when the punch presses
the metal which is subjected to different types of stresses at various places as
shown the figure below. The bottom most layers of the sheet are subjected to
tensile stresses and those below the punch are subjected to compressive
stresses and this leads to stretching beyond the elastic limit. Further movement
of punch leads to plastic deformation reduction in area finally fracture starts
through clearage planes in the reduced area.










Figure 4: cutting action on a die.[4]

punch
Stock
material
Die
Tention
compressive


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2.4.1Cutting Force:- is a function of the area of the cut edge being sheared at any
instant and the shearing strength of the work piece material .Cutting force
calculations help in selecting press of proper tonnage (capacity),in order to avoid
over loading the press or failure to use it to capacity.
P = cutting force (N) Where:
P = Dtf, for round holes D = Hole diameter in mm
P = L x t x f, for other contours t =Material thickness in mm
P = Cutting force (N) L= Shear length in mm
fs = ultimate shear strength of
material, N/mm
2

Press capacity is more than the cutting force by 10% to 33% of cutting force.
Shearing action can be related to cutting force (p). Resistance begins when the
punch contacts the material. The load builds up rapidly during plastic
deformation and continues to increase, while penetration taking place. The load
falls away rapidly at the metal raptures.
The shear force (p) depends on the following factors:
(a) Condition of the edge of the cutting element
(b) Amount of punch die clearance
(c) Shear speed
(d) Geometric form of the part
(e) Type and amount of cooling lubricant.
2.5 Clearance between Die and Punch:-
Clearance is the intentional space between the punch cutting edge and the die
cutting edge; it is expressed as the amount of clearance per side. Clearance is
necessary to allow the fractures to meet when break occurs. The amount of
clearance depends up on the following factors;


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s-2c C C
S
die
punch
i. Type of material
ii. Thickness of material
iii. Hardness of material (hard materials require more clearance than soft
materials).
iv. Type of operation
Excessive clearance allows a large edge radius and excessive deformation. The
edge of the material tends to be drawn or pulled in the direction of the working
force and the break is not smooth .Large burrs are present at the break edge.
Insufficient clearance does not allow a clean break. A partial break occurs and a
secondary break connects the original or main fractures. This is often called
secondary shear. [ ]
2.5.1 Which member should be given clearance?
Whether the clearance should be provided on punch or die depends up on type
of cutting such as:-
i. Blanking
ii. Piercing
i. Blanking
In blanking the cut out piece is the desired part. In this case punch is made
smaller in size and the die is made of exact size clearance is thus provided on
punch as Figure 5 shown.





Figure 5: Clearance on the punch.[7]


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S
S-2c
die
punch
die
a a
ii. Piercing: -
In case of piercing the cut out part is waste and left out piece is of importance,
in piercing the punch is made of exact size and die is made of bigger size as
shown in the figure 6.





Figure 6: Clearance on the die [9]
2.5.2 Angular clearance on die: - It is the clearance below the straight
portion of die as shown in the figure 7. It is provided so that cut out piece
clears the die easily. It is of the order of
0
to 2
0
on either side depending
on material and shape of the work pieces.





Figure 7:angular clearance on die [9]
The general rule of the application of clearances is as follows:
A. The size of the punch determines the size of the pierced hole.
B. The size of die opening determines the size of the blanked part.


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Proper clearance between punch and die.
1) Helps to produce accurate components.
2) Increase life of tool
3) Reduce cutting force
Too small clearances have the following drawbacks:
i. Excessive force is required to shear the material.
ii. Both punches and dies become blunt, and they have to be ground after short
runs.
iii. The burrs on the work piece become predominant.
iv. Blunt cutting edges cause excessive radii on the opposite work surface.
v. The featured surfaces are rough.
2.6 Die Set
A die is a tool to cut or shape thin metals. Die sets are used to hold and aid
in the alignment of cutting members. Die sets may have no guide posts
at all and rely on the machine ram for alignment or on pilots in the
punches. They are called plain die sets and are not highly precision.
They may also have shanks or in the very large die sets fasten directly
to the ram. The shut height will establish the length of guide posts
which must be at least 12 mm shorter to allow for the reduced shut
height due to re-sharpening.
Die holder should be at least 6mm all around than the die block. Punch
forces the sheet strip down and may pierce it or draw it. It takes the
assistance of die to do this. punch holder holds the punch. Generally
between the top of punch and punch holder a pressure plate is also
introduced to provide some cushioning effect on the top of punch holder
there is a shank which is anchored to the press ram. Die holder holds
the die block at proper position with respect to the punch . Die holder is
clamped to the bolster plate.


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The die holder and die shoe are of cast iron or semi steel for ordinary
purposes and steel for highest quality. The punches and die block are
positioned in a die set so that resultant of all vertical forces acting during
a stroke passes through the center of the ram. strips of stokes are feed
in to the die from right to left or front to rear depending up on the
method selected.
The punch holder is equipped with an integral round shank which is
gripped by a clamp in the press ram. the shank is located in the center
of die space area. The guide pins and guide posts provide alignment
between the die shoe and the punch holder. The guide bushings are
mounted in the punch holder and slide over the guide pins. Bushings
are available in various lengths of different materials, removable or press
fit and of plain or ball bearing type. The flange is a ledge that protrudes
from the die shoe to provide a means of clamping the shoe to the
bolster plate of the press.
The available surface for mounting punch and die components is called
the die area. The die area on the die shoe should be at least 6mm
larger all around the die block
Following information and figure 8 are essential to specify the die block.
i. Diameter of shank or no shank
ii. Overall length and type of guide pins based on die
a. shut height
b. length of stroke
iii. Type and length of bushing
iv. Die




Strip
Shank
Punch
Top Bolster
Stripper plate
Die block
Bottom bolster
Guide Bushes
B
a
c
k
G
a
g
e
Guide pillars
Scrap


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Figure 8. Simple Die Set [4]
2.6.1 Types of Die Sets
There are two types of die sets
i. Precision
ii. Commercial
The major difference between these two type is the closeness of fit between
the bushings and the guide pins. In precision type of die sets the tolerance
between the bushings and the guide pins are much closer in order to assure
extremely accurate alignment between punches and corresponding holes in
die blocks.
In general precision die sets are used when the die clearances are low.
These are used for cutting operations Commercial die sets are used for
drawing and forming operations.


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Die sets can also be grouped in to three types depending upon the location
of the pin.
a) Back-pin die set:- in this die set the pins are at the back of set, leaving a
clear space for hand feeding blanks for second operation. The good view of
moving parts and freedom from obstructing pins and bushings also aids
the operator when feeding from left to right.
b) Center-pin type:- this set is used when a load is too heavy and the feed is
from the front. In this guide pins are in alignment with the load along the
transverse center line of the set leaving the front clear but preventing
end feeding either by hand or automatically.
c) Diagonal-pin type: it is used when the load is very heavy and feeding is
required. In this set one of the pins is placed at the front of set thus
avoiding the overhang of the back pin type by having the load in
alignment with the pins along a diagonal line and leaving the ends clear
for feeding. The round work pieces especially for coining and shaving
operations round die sets with pins at the back or along the center can
be used to advantage.
2.6.2 Materials for Die Sets
The material used in die sets is cast iron ,cast steel, or rolled steel cast-iron die
sets are lower in cost because of the reduction in necessary machining but are
subject to cracking under heavy shock loads. They are primarily used for
smaller dies that do not require maximum strength cast-steel has a greater
toughness and a greater resistance to shock loads. Rolled-steel die sets exhibit
maximum toughness and resistance to shock loads and are generally used for
larger and special dies. When a large hole is to be machined through the die set
for blank removal.
A steel die set should used to increase strength, especially when the die set is
placed over a large hole in the bolster plate.

2.6.3 Blanking die block design


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Die is subjected to bending. Heat treated tool steel can be safely stress up to
160N/mm
2
Tensile stresses.
The various dimensions of the die block are calculated as follows.
Circular die thickness =TC= 1.5V 1- D
ft 3d

Where V = vertical shearing force, (N). = (cut length*thickness of sheet metal)
ft=permissible tensile stress =160N/mm
2
for hardened steel die
d=inside diameter, mm
D=out side diameter of die, mm
NOTE; D-d should not be less than 6mm.
Height.TC should be increased by 3mm for re-sharpening.
Actual die thickness T = TC +3mm
Rectangular die thickness/height =Tr =









1+


2





Where,
Tr =thickness of rectangular die, mm
V =vertical force, N
ft =permissible tensile stress =160N/mm
2

A =length of slot /blank, mm
B=width of slot/blank, mm
Actual thickness, =Tr+3mm

Margin: it usually ranges from one to two times the die thickness. Margin is the
solid cross section around the die cutting edge. The fixing screws and dowels


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should be placed outside the margin to prevent weakening of the die. Check the
margin for the shear stress on the die.
Die Opening: It should be straight and is equal to 3mm.
Angular clearance is from 0.5
0
to2
0
.
The overall design of die block depends on;
a) Part size and shape
b) Type of die
Design procedure for blanking die.
The various steps involved in design of blanking die are as follows;
i. Prepare a sketch incorporating all elements of die to be used.
ii. Determine punch and die opening diameters considering whether the
operation is blanking or piercing.
iii. Design the die block and select proper die set.
iv. Provide arrangement for fixing the punch in punch retainer.
v. Provide stock stop.
vi. Prepare following drawing.
a) Sectional front view of punch in position.
b) Bottom view of punch showing position and method of securing punch,
dowels, and screws to the punch plate through the back up plate and
retainer.
c) Plan of lower portion showing die block, die shoe, stripper, stopping
positions and method of securing each.
d) side sectional elevation of punch and die assembly

2.6.4 Methods of Die Support


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Die may be connected to the die holder by set screw or set screws and dowel pin
may be used to connect die to the die shoe (die holder)
2.6.5 Punches and Method of Punch Support
The punch be strong enough to withstand stripping force, should not deflect and
should not rotate as a result of cutting action. Deflection of punch may be
avoided by making the shank diameter of punch large than cutting diameter, as
in the figure 9 below.







Figure 9:- Punch [4]
Punches are usually held in a steel punch plate of the holder which is again
clamped to the lower end of ram of press.
The figure 10 below shows various methods of mounting punches. Punch may be
connected to punch plate by screw. A set screw and is located by dowel pins.
The punch is forced in the punch plate and the top end of the flattened to it in the
counter sunk recess. Punch plate serve to hold position and in some cases strengthen
the punch.

die
Punch
Punch plate
Punch holder
Shank
Punch holder
Screw
Punch
Punch Plate
Punch
Set screw
Punch plate


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Figure 10. Methods of punch support [4]
2.6.6. Punches Characteristics
The following factors should while designed punches
i. Punches should not defect during use.
ii. Punches should be of proper hardness.
iii. They should be strong enough to withstand forces.
iv. They should not rotate as a result of cutting action.
A large blanking or forming punch usually is made with a flange by which it is
bolted and dowelled to the punch holder after aligned with the die block assembly.
The length of the shank of a blanking punch for quantity production should include
3mm to 6mm for grinding to reshaping it during its life and enough more to reach the
die block through the stripper plate and to shear the stock after the punch was
ground down.
2.6.7. Punch Holder
It is used to mount the punch either directly or through a back plate and
retainer. The upper part of punch holder is provider with a shank equal in
diameter of ram hole. The shank is located in position with a side screw. The
dimensions of the punch holder should be about 5mm larger than the punch
holder varies in thickness from 25mm to 75mm.


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2.6.8 Blanking Punch Design
The punch length depends upon the shut height of the press tool and the
thickness of the die set bolsters, die and the back plate.
Punch length L =tool shut height-die thickness-sum of the die set bolster
thickness back plate thickness (when used) +3mm
The maximum allowable punch length is calculated using the following formula;
Maximum punch length = LMax = D ED,
8 fs,t
Where:
D= diameter of the punched hole
fs= Shear stress.
t= thickness of material
E=modulus of elasticity of punch material.
Where, D/t = 1.1 or higher
If L Lmax, the punch length, L calculated is safe and it will not fail by buckling.


Punch material should have sufficient compressive strength. Piercing punch
should not be smaller in diameter than the thickness of the stock they are to
pierce. Where a small unguided puncher must pierce stock thicker than the
punch diameter. Always avoid designing punches that would have more than
four inch of unguided length. A spacer block should be used between the punch
and the punch holder (or punch plate) in order shorten punches if more than a
four inch length is necessary. In rare cases the punches are over 100mm in


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length. An allowance of 6mm to 12.5mm for sharpening should be provided
whenever possible in the length of the punch.
Tool shut height: should be kept 5mm to 10mm less the press shut height to
provide a little height adjustment during press setting.
Maximum tool shut height = press tool shut height minus 10mm.
Minimum tool shut height = maximum tool shut height minus screw adjustment.
Optimum tool shut height =minimum tool shut height plus 20mm (re-grind
allowance)
Unless the tool shut height is kept within the range of maximum and minimum
values. It would not be possible to use press tool on a specified press.
Punch mounting:; depends up on the interface area between the punch and set
top bolster or back plate. When the pressure exerted by the punch on the bolster
is less than 80N/mm
2
. No back plate is necessary.
2.6.9 Punch Plate
The thickness of punch plate 1.5D. where D = Diameter of punch
Both the punch holder and the punch plate are made up of cast iron or mild
steel.
While designing a punch following factors should be considered.



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i. Easier fitting and removal of punch.
ii. Alignment of punch and die.
iii. Adequate provision of screws to overcome striking force.
iv. Prevention of rotation of punch.
The punch dimensions should be checked for Strength and Deflection
2.6.10 Screws and Dowels
Dowels and screws used in blanking and piercing dies should be located
diagonally across from each and as far apart as possible to increase locational
accuracy. All dowels of screws should be located at a distance ranging from 1.5 to
2 times their diameter from the components edge. They should replace near the
outer edge of die block as far as possible. Most of the elements of press tool
components are assembled socket head cap screw (Allen screws) and dowels. The
screws used for fastening the die and punch plate must withstand the stripping
force generated during the operation. The stripping force can be assumed 10% of
the vertical shearing force. The design stress of socket head cap screws (SCHS)
ranges from 80-120N/mm
2
. The root diameter of the screw is considered under
directs tensile stress from the stripping load.
Root area for metric screws can be found from the following formula.
Root area, A=0.78549(D-1.227P)
2

Where D=major diameter of screw
P=pitch of the screw
Alternatively from table the size and number of the screws can be computed.
The number of screws=total vertical force/safe load per screw
(The safe load per screw is from table (2)
Dowels are subjected to shear stress due to horizontal force resulting from die
clearance.


25

Dowels are rarely stressed beyond 50-80N/mm
2

Shear stress=horizontal force /Shear area.
Some of the characteristic features of screws and dowels used are as follows:
1. Dowels should be located as far apart as possible to increase location
accuracy.
2. A minimum of one cap screw and two dowels are necessary to position
and hold die components in a place. More cup screws may be used for
large components but two and only two dowels should be used for
positioning.
3. Screw and dowels should be located at 1.5 to 2 times the diameter from
the component edge.
4. The effective thread depth for screws should be 1.5 to 2 times the screw
diameter.
5. Dowels and screws diameter should be the same.
6. Cup screws used to secure die blocks should be placed in counter bored
holes so screw head is 3 to 4mm deeper in the hole. This is provided to
allow additional material for die grinding.
7. Usually 9 to 10mm screws are used on die components up to 150mm
square.
2.6.11 Design of Shank
The major function of shank is to locate the press tool on the machine ram. The
shank location diameter should be easy running fit in the ram hole. The
stripping load on the top tool tends to pull the shank out the ram hole. So the
shank is clamped by the press fit in the ram. This ensures that the top bolster
face positively touches the ram face, and transmit the press energy to the tool
Shanks can be conveniently tapered up in the clamping length for positive
contact between top bolster and ram Taper position and length are determined
by the size and position of the clamping screw.


26

Punch
Die
Punch holder
Stripper
d
Scrap strip
D
o
w
e
l
S
o
c
k
e
t

h
e
a
d
s
c
r
e
w
Shanks are usually threaded at the lower end assembly in the top bolster. One
shank can be used for a number of press tools by keeping the mating threads in
the top bolsters of the same size.
It should be remembered that the threads on the shanks cannot withstand the
full cutting force necessary for the operation. The thread should. However, be
capable of withstanding the stripping and ejection loads. I.e. ten percent of
operation tonnage.
The dimensions of a shank can be taken from a table if the press tonnage is
determined.
2.6.12 Stripper Plate
The function of the stripper plate is to remove the stock from the punch after
blanking or piercing operation. There are two types of stripper plate commonly
used:
i. Fixed stripper
ii. Spring loaded stripper
Fixed stripper shown in the figure 11 below guides the sheet strip or work
piece spring loaded striper plate is contacts the strip. This is necessary where
very accurate blanker are needed and when very thin material is to be
punched preferred as it holds the strip in a flat position before the punch
.







Figure.11 Fixed stripper


27

A spring loaded stripper is shown Fig. 12 below. The strippers are usually of
the same lines and width as die block .
The stripper thickness should be sufficient to withstand the force required
to strip the punch from the stock the stripper thickness usually varies from 5
to 6 mm. The force required to strip the stock materials from the punch called
stripping force varies from 5 to 20% of the cutting force.
Automatic stop proportions can only be determine after we know that
stripper plate thickness will be used. The correct value is found by the formula:
A= W + 2T
30
In which:
A= thickness of the stripper plate
W= width of strip
T = strip thickness
The punches with polished side wall tend to strip easier than those with
rough surface more force are required to strip punches that are close
together.
Selection of stripper plate depends on
i) Stripping force
ii) Space available







28








Figure 12: Spring loaded stripper [4]
The force F for which springs of spring operated stripper plate is calculated as
follows depends on the following follows:
F= 1500 L x t
Where: L = cut perimeter (cm)
t = stock thickness (cm)
Choice of the methods applying springs to stripper plate depends on the
following.
i) Required pressure
ii) Stage limitations
iii) Shape of die
iv) Nature of work
2.6.13 Die Springs
Die springs are available in various service grades with corresponding
permissible ranging from 25 to 50% of fix length. The selection of die
springs depends on the following factor
Punch
Stripper
Die
Die holder
Punch
Punch holder
Spring
Material


29

i) Stripping force
ii) Space available for spring mounting
iii) Permissible deflection
Based on the a deflection the springs may be classified in to four
load ratings as follows
i) 25% deflection=extra high pressure
ii) 30% deflection =high pressure
iii) 37% deflection =medium high pressure
iv) 50% deflection= medium pressure
Permissible deflection in die spring is 50 to 25% of free length. Die
spring s are designed to resist fatigue failure.
2.6.14 Die Wearing
Punches and dies used for cutting wear out sooner than those used for
bending and forming . The various cause of die wear as follows.
I. Insufficient or excessive clearance
II. Punches are too close to each other
III) Punches and dies are not made of proper materials.
IV) The punches and dies are not properly heat treated.
V) Punches entering too far into the die openings.
VI) Work piece material is too hard.
VII) Punch length is too large as compare to cross sectional area of the punch.
VIII) Stripping action is not proper.
IX) When too many pierces are produced between sharpening.
X) Die is not properly fitted in the press.
2.7 Press work
1. A press is a machine tool used to shape or cut metal by applying a
force exclusively intended for mass production presses should be capable
of exerting pressure in amount, location, direction and period of time
needed to accomplish a specific operation. The machines frequently are
required to exert not one but several pressures for various intervals of


30

time. Automatic means for feeding blanks, material and ejecting the
finished parts often are incorporated in presses.

There are different ways of working sheet metal in presses such as
blanking, piercing, bending, drawing , lancing , etc.

2.7.1 Types of presses:
2. The presses are classified as follows
I. Based on source of power
a) Hand press: these presses are either hand or foot powered through levers,
screws or gears. The most common of the type is the bench type
arbor press.
b) Power press: in which the source of power is a motor which
returns it to a fly wheel to operate at different speeds between
strokes.
II. Based on type of frame
a) Pillar press
b) Horn press
c) Inclinable
d) Straight side press
III. Method of actuation of press
In all power presses the work is performed by the slide or slides
through reciprocating motion to and from the press bed or bolster.
The frame of a press is fabricated by casting or by welding heavy
plastics. Cast frames are quite stable and rigid but expensive. General
classification of frames includes:
a) Gap frame:
b) Straight side


31

The gap frame is cut back below the ram to form the shape of letter C. This
allows feeding the strips from the side. Gap frame presses are manufactured
with solid frames fixed in a vertical or inclined position. The reason for inclining
the press is to allow the parts to fall through the open back by gravity.
The three position inclinable instable press is frequently referred to as an
open back inclinable (OBI) press.
OBI press & it has the following parts (See figure 13)
I. Rectangular bed: it acts as a table to which a bolster plate is
mounted.
II. Bolster plate: it is used for locating and supporting the die
assembly
III. Ram: to ram the punch or die assembly is fastened.
IV. Fly wheel: to supply energy to the work piece.
V. Knock out: it is used to eject the work piece.
VI. Pit man: it is used to transfer motion and pressure from the main
shaft or eccentric to press slide.
OBI press is quite commonly used for blanking and piercing operations on
relatively small work pieces although bending, forming and drawing operations
can also be carried out, the straight slide press incarnates a slide or ram
which travels up and down between two straight slides or housing and is
commonly used for heavy and large work. According to sources of power
majority of presses receive their power mechanically or hydraulically
manually operated presses called hand presses are used for making very
small components mechanically operated presses use a fly wheel driven system
to obtain ram movement .
The slide actuation may be achieved by two methods.
I. By using crank a crank shaft
II. By using an eccentric


32

The number slides or ram provided on a press depends up on type of operation.
A single action press has one slide. A double action press has two slides. An
inner and an outer slide is commonly used for drawing operation.










Figure . 13 OBI Press [7]
2.7.2 Selection of Press
Press tool designer has to make proper selection of the type of press to
be used and also the kind of press tools to be provided, for example it
may be more economical to use a tool which will complete a number of
operations at one stroke of press than to employ a number of cheaper
and simple tools to perform the same work in a series of operations.
The design of the tools should be simplest possible and the method of
operation the most efficient one. Hydraulic presses are used primarily for
Pit man
Fly wheel
Ram
Bed
Bolster plate


33

forging and coining operations where a comparatively small stroke is
advisable.
While selecting a press the following points should be considered,
I. Force required cutting the metal.
II. Size and type of die
III. Stroke length
IV. Method of feeding and size of sheet blank
V. Shut height
VI. Types of operation

2.7.3 Press features: some of the features of a press are as
follows
I. Press tonnage : it is the force in tones that a press can apply safely on
work
II. Press stroke : it is the distance traveled by ram of press during its down
work or upward motion.
III. Die area: it is the available surface area for mounting punch and die
components (press tool) in the die area on the die should be at least 6mm
larger all around the block.
IV. Shut height : it is the distance from the die shoe to the top of the
punch holder when the die in its closed position .
V. Bed size
VI. Bolster plate size and thickness
VII. Bed opening
VIII. Bed to floor height
IX. Number of guide posts




34

Table 2 * Strength of threads
Screw size Safe load (N0
M5 x 0.8 1000
M6 x 1 1380
M8 x 1.25 2550
M10 x 1.5 4050
M12 x 1.75 5959
M16 x 2.0 11300

Table 3 Maximum strength of materials (in N/mm
2
) [7]
Table B1 Maximum strengths of materials (in N/MM)
2

Material Ultimate strength Yield strength
Tensile ft Shear fs Fy
(N/mm
2
) N/mm
2
) (N/mm
2
)
Structural steel 620 400 300
Is c. 35,c40st 50, st58
Electrical stamping steel 800 530 350
Aluminum is 19000, 19500 520 280 400
Brass hard, rolled 580 310 420
(60%cu, 40%Zn)
Copper rolled 450 230 260
Magnesium 290 160 220
Nickel 850 400 610
Silicon bronze 980 480 480

Table 4 Die clearance for various materials [7]
Material M.s Aluminum Brass
Clearance %of sheet thickness 2-5% 15-3% 1.5-3%
V


35

Table 5 Recommended Speeds and Feeds for Milling Operations [2]
Work
material
Tool
material
Speed
(m/min)
Feed, mm per tooth
Face
milling
Slab
milling
Slot and
side
milling
End
milling
Form
milling
Mild
steels
HSS 35-40 0.3 0.2 50.175 0.15 0.1
Carbide 90-200
Medium
Carbon
steels
HSS 15-30
0.2 0.15 0.125 0.1 0.075
Carbide 60-100

Table 6 Recommended Geometry of HSS Drills
Work material Point
angles (deg)
Lip relief
angle (deg)
Chisel edge
angle (deg)
Helix
angle (deg)

Mild steels 118 10-12 125-135 25-30 Note: The
Carbon steels 118-135 8-10 125-135 25-30 Recommended
Alloy steel
and tool steel
118-135 7-9 125-135 25-30 Angles are
valid for depth
of holes up to
3 x dia. of
holes








36

Table 7 Recommended Geometry of HSS End Mills
Material Helix
angle
(deg)
Radial
rake angle
(deg)
Indicating
edge angle
(deg)
Axial relief
angle
(deg)
Axial relief angle (deg)
Dia (mm)
Mild
steels,
medium
carbon
steels free
machining
steels
30 10-20 3 5-7 6 12
0

10 10
0

12 10
0

16 9
0

25 8
0

Tools
steels
30 10-12 3 5-7

Table 8 Recommended Geometry of Slot Milling Cutters
Work
material
Tool
material
Axial rake
angle (deg)
Radial rake
angle (deg)
Axial rake
angle (deg)
Radial rake
angle (deg)
Mild steel HSS 10 to 12 5 to 12 3 to 5 5 to 7.5
Carbide 0 to 5 -5 to 5 2 to 4 5 to 7.5





37

Table 9 Recommended Geometry for face Milling Cutters
Work
material
Tool
material
Axial
rake
angle
(deg)
Radial
rake
angle
(deg)
Corner
angle
(deg)
End
cutting
edge
angle
(deg)
Axial
relief
angle
(deg)
Radial
relief
angle
(deg)
Mild
steels
HSS 10-15 10-15 30 5-10 5-7 5-7
Brazed
carbides
-4 to -8 -3 to -
11
30 5-10 5-7 5-7
Throwaway
carbides
0 to 7 0 to -7 30 5-10 5-7 5-7

Table 10 Recommended Geometry of HSS, Brazed and throwaway turning Tools.
Work
material
Tools
material
Back rack
angle
(deg)
Side rake
angle
(deg)
End
clearance
angle
(deg)
Side
clearance
angle
(deg)
Side and
end cutting
edge angle
(deg)
Mils
steels
HSS 8-10 8-10 5 5 15
Brazed
carbide
-5-0 6 5 5 15
Throwaway
carbide
-5 -5 5 5 15

Note: Nose radius will generally be dictated by type of operation being performed.
When not specified, use 1.5mm.



38

Table 11 Recommended Speeds for Drilling, Reaming, tapping Operations

Work material
Cutting speed(m/min)
Drilling Reaming Tapping
Mild steels 20-25 11-15 10-12
Medium carbon steels 15-20 10-25 8-11

Table 12 Roughness Value for close tolerance machine work
Dimensional Tolerance (mm) Surface Roughness (m)
Bellow 0.005 Below 0.2
0.005 0.012 0.2 -0.4
0.012 0.025 0.4 0.8
0.025 0.05 0.8 1.6
0.05 0.25 1.6 6.3

Table 13 Recommended feeds for Drilling and Reaming Operations
Hole diameter (mm) Feed (mm/rev)
Drilling Reaming
1-2 0.04-0.06 0.08-0.12
2.5-4 0.05-0.1 0.1-0.2
4.5-6 0.05-0.15 0.15-0.3
6.5-8.5 0.1-0.20 0.2-0.4
9-12 0.15-0.2 0.3-0.51
12.5-14.0 0.15-0.25 0.40-0.60
15-18 0.18-0.28 0.50-0.66
18.5-20.5 0.2-0.3 0.5-0.70
21-24 0.23-0.30 0.56-0.75
25-30 0.25-0.35 0.61-0.80
32-38 0.28-040 0.71-0.90
Over 40 0.3-0.40 0.80-1.00


39

CHPATER THREE
DATA COLLECTION AND
DESIGN ANALYSIS
3.1 Design Analysis of the Die Sets
Every components of the machine requires its Owen mathematical and any
technical analysis with great deal of information to manufacture. It means that
it must satisfy the concept of engineering analysis.
Blanked die
Required force
The die plate
Die margin
Size of screw
Size of dowels
Determination of blanking die hole size
Punch size
Size of die block
Back pate
Stripper plate
Punch holder
Top & bottom bolster etc
3.1.1 Design of Blanking Die:- A blanking die produces a flat piece of
material by cutting the desired shape in one operation. The finish part is
referred to as a blank.
Blanking die
Material type = mild steel
Sheet metal thickness = 1.5mm
Shear strength of the material fs = 400 N/mm
2
(Table 3)
Tensile strength of the material, ft = 160N/mm
2
(Table 3)




40

i. Determination of Vertical Force (V)
Vertical force: is the summation of Blanking of piercing force.
= Vertical force for round holes = Dtfs
= Vertical force for other confours = Lxtxfs
V = fst (D + Lt)

= l5 = l1, l2 = l6, l3 = 8-3.75
= L1 = 11-3.75 = 7.25
= L2 = 5.88
L3 = 4.25
Lt = L1 + L2 + L3
Lt = L1 = l1 x4 = 7.25 x 4 = 29mm
= L2 = l2 x4 = 5.88 x 4 = 23.52
= L3 = l3 x4 = 4.25 x4 = 17
69.52
V = fst (D + Lt)
= 400N/mm
2
x 1.5mm (3.14 x 12.5mm + 69.52mm)
= 65280N

where:
Lt = total Length
V = Vertical force
S = Shear strength
fs = Shear strength of material


41

ii. Determination of Press Tonnage
The press should be capable of delivering about 33% more force than the
required.
Press tonnage = v + (v x 33%) = 65280N + (65280 x 33%)
= 65280 + (21542.4)
= 85822.4N
= 8.66 tones
Therefore, a press machine having a capacity of 10 tones and above can be
selected.
3.1.2 Determination of Die Thickness

Considering the blank to be rectangular, the thickness
Tr = 3V B
2
where
:

ft A Tr - Actual die thickness
1+ A
2
T - Recommended die thickness
B Length of blank, A = 34
And, width of blank, B =28mm


Tr = 3(65280) 28
2

160 34 = 22.126
1+ 28
2

34 22mm


Considering a resharpening allowance of 3mm, the actual die thickness, T = Tr + 3 =
22 + 3= 25mm

Hence, the recommended die thickness is 25mm


42

3.1.3 Determination of Margin (M)
Usually the margin ranges from one to two times die thickness, Tr.
M = Tr = 22mm (Minimum)
M = 2 * Tr = 2 * 22 = 44mm (maximum)
Let M, be equal to 22mm
To check for the shear stress induced in the die:
The acceptable limit of share stress for die block material is up to 240N/mm
2

Die shear area = 2 x M x Tr = 2 x 22 x 22 = 968mm
2

Shear stress on die = vertical shear force /shear area
65280N = 67.43N/mm
2
< 240N/mm
2
, Hence it is safe.
968mm
2

Shear stress on the die is less than the acceptable shear stress for die block
material, Hence it is safe.
3.1.4 Determination of Size of Screw and Dowels
3.1.4.1 Size of Screws
Screws are subjected to the stripping force and this force is
estimated to be around 10% of the vertical force V. the design
stress screw ranges from 80N/mm
2
up to 120N/mm
2
, in (mm
2
)
tension striping force = 10% x V = 0.10 * 65280N = 6528N
Considering four screws,
4 x Ascrew = 4 x d
2
= Stripping force Where:
4 design stress in tension A Area of screw

d
2
= 6528N, therefore, d= 6528 = 5.08 = 5mm V Vertical force
80N/mm
2
*80
For extra safety let the screw size be M10 x 1.5





43

3.1.4.2 Size of dowels
Dowels are subjected shear stress due to the horizontal force
resulting from the die clearance and really stressed beyond
50N/mm
2
up to 80N/mm
2
.
Horizontal force = die clearance per side x vertical force V
Die clearance for mild steel ranges from 2.5% up to 5% of sheet
thickness. Considering a die clearance of 5% sheet thickness.
H = (5/100) txV = 0.05 x 1.5 x 65280 Where:
= 4896N H Horizontal fore
Considering two dowels and a stress of 50N/mm
2
, the size of dowels will
be:
Area of dowel A = d
2
= 4896N
4 ____2_____
50/N/mm
2



Therefore, d = 4 x 2448 = 9792 = 7.89mm
x 50 x 50
Let the diameter of dowel be equal to 8mm
Minimum center distance between the screws and dowels is from 20 to
25mm. (From data book)
3.1.5 Determination of Blanking Die Hole Size
The die hole is same as the perimeter of the blank size.
3.1.6 Determination of Punch Size
Punch size = blank size 2 x die clearance
Die clearance C at 5% of sheet thickness:
C = 5/100 x 1.5 = 0.075mm/size
Therefore the punch size = blank size 2 x 0.075mm
9.52 0.15 = 951.85
3.1.7 Determination of Size of Die Block
Length L = length of blank size = A + 2 x margin + diameter of screw +
allowance
L = A + 2M + d + 5
L = 34 + 2(22) + 5 + 5
= 34 + 44 + 10
= 88mm


44

Width W = width of Blank size = B + 2 x margin + 3 x diameter of screw +
Allowance
W = B +2M + 3d + 5
= 28 + 2 (22) + 3(5) + 5
= 28 + 44 + 15 + 5
= 92mm
3.1.8 Back Plate
Blanking punches can be fitted directly to the top bolster if there is
sufficient contact between the punch and the bolster to transmit the
cutting force. The pressure on the contact area should not exceed
80N/mm2. Blanking punches for cutting mild steel sheet less than 3mm
2

thickness generally, do not require back plate.
Hence, no back plate.
3.1.9. Stripper Plate:
Considering solid stripper. Plate, the thickness, Ts
TS = W/30 + 2t Where: W = width of strip
TS = 28 + 2 (1.5) t = Sheet thickness
30
= 0.933 + 3 = 3.933
Let Ts = 5mm
3.1.10 Design Punch Holder
Take the same size as the die block
3.1.11 Design Top Bolster
Thickness 1.25mm td (1.25to 1.5td) [7]
3.1.12 Shank design
Shanks can with stand 10% of cutting force and mostly located at the
center of position.
In our case the required diameter of shank is 50mm, the over all
dimensions are taken from the standard tables.




45

CHAPTER FOUR
MANUFACTURING OF PROGRESSIVE DIE
4.1 INTRODUCTION
Manufacturing is the process of converting raw materials in to products. It
encompasses the design and manufacturing of goods, using various production
methods and techniques. Manufacturing is the back bone of any industrialized
nation. Its importance is emphasized by the fact that, as an economic activity, it
comprises approximately 20 to 30% of the value of all goods and services
produced in industrialized nations. The level of manufacturing activity is directly
related to the economic health of a country. Genially, the higher the level of
manufacturing in a country the higher living standard of its people. [5]
Also, manufacturing can be considered as a system in which product design in
initial stage and the delivery of finished products of the market is the final
output. Manufacturing process alters the form shape and /or physical
properties of a given material. Manufacturing equipment is used to perform
manufacturing processes. Manufacturing system are the combination of
manufacturing equipment and humans by a common material and information
flow. [9]
4.3 Process Plan of Progressive Die
Process planning comprises the selection and sequencing of processes and
operations to transform raw material into finished component. This includes the
selection of manufacturing processes and operations, production equipment,
tooling and jigs and fixtures. So that, process planning determines how a
product is to be manufacture and therefore a key element in manufacturing
process.
In spite of the important of process planning in manufacturing cycle, there is no
formal methodology which can be sued, or can help to train personnel for this


46

job. Process planning activities are predominantly labor intensive, depending on
experience and the skill and intuition of production labor.
Process planning is decision making process. The objective is to advice and
economic process plan.
The parameters to consider during process planning are:
Geometry of the part
Raw material of the part
Dimensional accuracy the part
Surface finish of the part
Geometrical tolerances of the part
Require quantity
Heat treatment of the part.
The constraints during process planning are:
The availability of machines
The availability of tools, fixture and clamping devices
The specification and strength of the part
The availability technology
The decisions to make during process planning are:
Select types of metal removal process
Select machine for the given job
Select chucking type and location
Select path for each operations
Select cutting conditions for each operation
Finally, it is important to emphasize that process planning is required at any
manufacturing plant, regardless of plant size, part complexity and batch size.


47

We try to develop process plan for the components of progressive die components
by taking the necessary considerations and by having analyzed the different aspect
of manufacturing, So that, any factory can produce this die by applying the process
plan provided exactly. [3]








48

Chapter 5
5.1 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Conclusion
To achieve the objective of this project work we have done the design of the die
initially and manufacturing of the die finally. In the design stage, the design
calculation of the die components as well as we select proper material with
consideration of cost and availability. In the manufacturing stage, by selecting
proper manufacturing processes, machine tools and cutting parameters we
prepared manufacturing processes plan for each components of the progressive
die.
Finally, by preparing progressive die based on the provided design analysis and
manufacturing processes, it is possible to produce the washer. Hence, we would
like to say the objective of the project is achieved.
5.2 Recommendation
We recommended BALI to manufacture other machinery components in addition
to washers, in order to get economical benefit by saving foreign currency.









49

Bibliography
1. BH. Amsted, Phillip. Ostwald, Myronl, Begeman Manufacturing process, 7
th

edition. 1977
2. BL juneja. GS seknon Fundamental of metal cutting and machine tools,
October 1995
3. G.halevi & R.D weill, principles of process planning, A logical approach,
1995.
4. G, R Na pal, metal forming process.
5. Kalpakjlan, Serope, manufacturing engineering & technology.
6. Peter scallan, process planning, Linacre housing, HJordan hill.
7. Prakash, H.Joshi, press tools design and construction.
8. Rao, p,n manufacturing technology, foundery, forming and welding. 1998
9. R,K join khenna publisher production technology (manufacturing process,
technology & Automation) in 1982
10. T.s Rajan, basic mechanical engineering. July 1995
11. Short profiles of BALI printed in 2004.
12. Manual and catalogue of T-55 Tankm, USSR. 1985.
13. Deferent websites from the internet.
14. Ivana Suchy, HandBook of Die Design, 2
nd
edition, 2006 printed by RR
Donnelly.