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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
Flooding caused by heavy rains is not an unusual sight in the country. The Philippines
being close to surrounding bodies of water has always expected heavy rainfall and flooding.
Even with this knowledge we can never be always ready for the next big storm since not every
typhoon is the same, some may carry very strong winds but not very heavy rain. The more
common problem in the country is the typhoons that bring lots of rain as it causes the water level
to rise, creeping higher and higher until it floods into homes, submerging furniture and ones
belongings. In extremely bad cases, flash floods, with their rushing torrents of muddy water,
sweep away houses, cars, trees, and people with ease. Filipinos have always been privy to these
circumstances and we have always found a way to rebuild after this is all said and done.
A flood is defined as the submerging with water of a normally dry area. Floods are
caused by many things, including rainstorms, slow water run-off, clogged sewers and drainages,
earthquakes, broken dams, underwater volcanic eruptions and tsunamis, or hurricanes. People
need water to live. The oceans cover three-fourths of Earth, making it the only blue planet in our
solar system that can sustain life. People drink it, bathe in it and swim in it. 65% of the humans
body is composed of water. But when it floods, water has the ability to kill. In fact, most floods
cause a lot of damage because they happen so unexpectedly.
Floods do not only do damage during the time that they occur; they can also have after
effects. In cases off extreme flooding, damage to roads, bridges, and railways can be expected.
Crop damage in rural areas are a common sight after flooding subsides. Communication lines as
well as electrical lines can also be damaged by floods. In 1887 China, more than a million
residents starved to death because a flood ruined crops, leaving no other source of food.
Floodwater is also polluted, spreading disease quickly. (Walters, 1991)
In our day and age, there are many ways to help prevent and control floods. Dikes and
levees are built alongside rivers to keep them from overflowing during periods of high water.
Canals are also used to help drain off extra water. Streams and rivers can be diverted to avoid
highly populated areas. Regulation of floodplain development and urbanization would reduce
flood losses. Prevention of soil erosion also helps control flooding, which is why its a good idea
to plant lots of trees, treats slopes and grads, and creates reservoirs to catch sediment and debris
Even if our country already expects floods every year little or nothing has been done to
provide a permanent solution to lessen thee damages that floods could do. In other countries such
as China, where most flooding occurs when the Yellow or Yangtze River overflows, people have
tried to maintain control by building higher levees, dredging, digging channels, and building
dams. This has paid off, for progress in the last 50 years seems to have stopped serious flooding
from the Yellow River.
Flooding, specially during the rainy season in Barangay 658 is a common sight. The area
which covers the nearby entrance to Intramuros from Manila City Hall, Mapua Institute of
Technology, OWWA, Lyceum of The Philippines University, is always filled with students,
tourists, residents, OFWs, and employees. Flooding in the area causes increased prices in
services such as pedicabs as well as prices of objects such as slippers and umbrellas. Students
also experience a bulk of the trouble caused by the flood since most students commute and as we
all know commuting becomes very difficult during rainy seasons especially if flood is present.
Tourists would also be discouraged to explore the area because of flooding; this would in turn
cause a downgrade in business opportunities of nearby stores in the area. This makes it crucial to
provide a solution to the frequent flooding experienced by the area.