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H. Eggert, W. Kauschke

Structura l Bearing s

irnst &Soh n

A Wile y Compan y

Helmut Eggert, Wolfgang Kauschke

Structura l Bearing s

irnst &Soh n

A Wile y Compan y

Dr.-lng. Helmut Eggert Lenzelpfad 3 2 1235 3 Berlin

Germany

Dipl.-lng. Wolfgang Kauschke Starenweg 1 0 4278 1 Haan

Germany

This book contain s 27 2 figure s and 4 5 table s

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Printe d in Germany

Preface

Organization of this book

Like its German edition, this book has nine main chapters. These chapters are broken down in the list of contents into a maximum of five sec- tion levels. In the text, some further subdivision is used to improve ease of reading and refer- encing. The use of a glossary, which provides a brief definition of subject index terms, is not very common in technical books; we have in- cluded one in this book in the hope that it will aid readers in their understanding of this spe- cial subject.

Contents

This book should provide sufficient answers to typical questions related to the design and con- struction of bridges and industrial structures. Topics covered include:

- how to support a structure (chapter 2),

- which loads are transferred from the structure into the bearing (chapter 3),

- what types of bearings are available (chapter 4), and

- which technical guidelines must be taken into account (chapter 5).

Chapter 6 provides information on the Appro- vals of the German Institute for Civil Structures (Deutsches Institut für Bautechnik, DIBt).

Reports dealing with research and scientific problems related to the subject of bearings are listed in chapter 7.

This book is meant to serve as a tool for the design engineer, architect, or engineer writing specifications, for the designing, calculating, and testing engineer, and for the civil contrac- tor.

The design of a structure will usually a priori define - whether intended or not - the support system. Neglect of this connection can later

result in damage if, for example, the necessary support system cannot be realized.

Costs incurred by damage to bearings can be very high if complete replacement of the con- structions is necessary. Examples from Ger- many include:

- unsuitable roller bearings,

- unsuitable top sealing,

- installation mistakes, and

- material mistakes (essential elastomeric bearings).

The most frequent bearing damage is corrosion damage.

Serious economic damage can also be caused by corrosion in other fields.

Chapter 4 contains proposals for construction with low levels of corrosion.

The word "bearing" has different technical meanings. This book refers to bearings as tech- nical parts that are manufactured in special plants and used in structures as an interface between the substructure and superstructure. It transfers loads in a defined way and allows for motion or displacements. The different types of bearings are characterized by their function as well as their main material (see section 1.2.4). The glossary provides further definitions.

Centering elements built together with the struc- ture, such as concrete hinges, are not covered in this book.

This book concentrates on bridges, the classic application of the bearing technique. It mainly deals with nondynamic applications but also gives some additional information on dynamic influences (see sections 2.2.5, 2.2.6, and 3.4).

February 2002

Helmut Eggert Wolfgang Kauschke

Preliminary remarks

We wish to thank everyone who has helped us produce this book, particularly our wives for their patience and Dr. Günter Hüffmann for his excellent translation.

Contributors to this book:

Hans-Peter Rieckmann (section 3.3)

Günter Hüffmann/Karl-Heinz Reinsch (section 3.4)

Armin Gerber/Jochen Wiedemeyer (section 7.3.1)

Karl-Heinz Hehn (section 7.3.2)

Section 4.5 was revised for this edition by Florian Deischl

Chapters 1 to 4, 8, and 9 were translated into English by Günter Hüffmann

Contents

Preface

V

Preliminary remarks

 

VI

1

Introduction

1

1.1

History

1

1.2

Terms and descriptions

1

1.2.1

Support and bearings as part of the structure

1

1.2.2

Roll-off,

sliding, deformation

2

1.2.3

Bearing, hinge, pendulum

4

1.2.4

Bearing definitions

5

1.3

Basic guidelines for selecting the support system

5

1.4

Bearing motion

6

1.4.1

General

6

1.4.2

Displacements caused by temperature

10

1.4.3

Displacements

caused by prestressing, creep, and shrinkage

10

1.4.4

Displacements

in the bearings caused by outer loads

11

1.4.5

Support rotation

11

1.5

Bearing symbols

12

1.6

Rotational resistance

12

1.6.1

Basic moment

12

1.6.2

Restoring moment and rotation

14

1.6.3

Other dependencies

15

1.6.4

Influence

of horizontal forces

15

1.6.5

Influence

of the restoring moment

on the structure

17

2

Structure and bearing system

19

2.1

Introduction

19

2.2

Bridges

20

2.2.1

Influence

of different bridge cross sections

20

2.2.2

Influence

of the bridge plan view

22

2.2.2.1

Single span bridges (orthogonal)

22

2.2.2.2

Single span skew bridge

23

2.2.2.3

Two span bridge (orthogonal)

23

VIII

Contents

2.2.2.5

Continuous beams (orthogonal)

24

2.2.2.6

Continuous beams (curved)

24

2.2.3

Examples of bearing systems

27

2.2.3.1

Single span bridge (orthogonal)

27

2.2.3.2

Two span skew bridge

28

2.2.3.3

Continuous beams (orthogonal)

28

2.2.3.4

Continuous beams (curved)

28

2.2.4

Subsoil influence

36

2.2.5

Vibration control of buildings

37

2.2.6

Structures in seismic zones

37

2.2.7

From specification to installation of bearings

38

3

Structure and bearing loads

41

3.1

From a hinge to a bearing

41

3.2

Bridge analysis

42

3.2.1

Introduction

42

3.2.2

Transfer of vertical loads

45

3.2.3

Transfer of horizontal loads in longitudinal bridge direction

46

3.2.4

Transfer

of horizontal loads in lateral bridge direction

48

3.2.5

Loads depending on the type of bearing

49

3.2.6

Bearing motion

49

3.2.7

Stability (protection against sliding, overturning, and uplift)

50

3.2.8

Safety considerations based on bearing properties

52

3.3

Influence of bearings on the stability of constructions

54

3.3.1

General

54

3.3.2

Boundary and special conditions for bearings

55

3.3.3

Buckling lengths of columns

57

3.3.3.1

General

57

3.3.3.2

Single columns

58

3.3.3.3

Straight bridges with columns of differing lengths

59

3.3.3.4

Straight bridge with only two column types

61

3.3.3.5

Straight bridges with rocker bearings

62

3.3.3.6

Curved bridges

62

3.3.3.7

Elastic restraint, variable bending resistance, and longitudinal force

63

3.3.4

Proof of total system safety

64

3.4

Bearings with high vertical flexibility

64

3.4.1

Bearings for vibration control

64

3.4.1.1

Basics of vibration and structure-borne noise control

64

3.4.1.2

Elements for vibration isolation

67

3.4.1.2.1

Coil spring elements

67

3.4.1.2.2

Viscodampers

70

3.4.1.2.3

Elastomeric bearings

73

3.4.1.2.4

Comparison of coil springs and elastomeric bearings

74

3.4.2

Bearings for protection against settlements/subsidences

74

3.4.3

Elastic support of buildings

76

Contents

IX

3.4.3.2

Vibration control (mechanical vibrations)

76

3.4.3.3

Structure-borne noise control

78

3.4.3.4

Selection of elastic bearings for vibration and structure-borne noise control

78

3.4.3.5

Base isolation of entire buildings

79

3.4.3.6

Spring support of partial building areas (room-in-room)

81

3.4.3.7

Seismic base isolation

82

3.4.3.8

Track-bed isolation

84

4

Bearing types

87

4.1

Basic remarks

87

4.2

General design and dimensioning rules

88

4.2.1

Materials

88

4.2.1.1

Types of steel for

bearing parts

88

4.2.1.2

Elements for bolt connections according to EC3-1-1

89

4.2.1.3

Peculiarities of connectors made of stainless steel

90

4.2.1.4

Welding

92

4.2.2

Sectional data and degrees of freedom

92

4.2.3

Rules for dimensioning

93

4.2.3.1

Bearing plates

93

4.2.3.2

Bolt connections

93

4.2.3.3

Weld connections

94

4.2.3.4

Pressure in the bearing joints

95

4.2.3.5

Verification of static equilibrium

97

4.2.3.6

Practical advice on the transmission of horizontal loads in the bearing joints

98

4.2.3.7

Anchoring through

stud bolt dowels

100

4.2.3.8

Corrosion protection

101

4.3

Fixed bearings

101

4.3.1

Introduction

101

4.3.2

Steel point rocker bearings

104

4.3.3

Pot bearings

109

4.3.4

Spherical bearings

113

4.3.5

Fixed deformation bearings

115

4.3.5.1

General information

115

4.3.5.2

Journal bearings

116

4.3.5.3

Pot deformation bearings

117

4.4

Sliding bearings

118

4.4.1

Introduction

118

4.4.2

Guidelines

120

4.4.3

Sliding bearing system

120

4.4.4

Dimensioning of the bearing plates

121

4.4.4.1

Sliding plate and PTFE-housing

121

4.4.4.2

Design of the PTFE-housing

123

4.4.5

Point rocker sliding bearings

125

4.4.5.1

Introduction

125

4.4.5.2

Design and dimensioning

126

X

Contents

4.4.5.4

Load eccentricities for the analysis of the stresses in the PTFE sliding surface

.

.

127

4.4.5.5

Load eccentricities for the analysis of the upper and lower bearing joints

128

4.4.6

Pot sliding bearings

128

4.4.6.1

Basics

128

4.4.6.2

Design and dimensioning

128

4.4.6.3

Design basics for the PTFE-housing

129

4.4.6.4

Load eccentricities for pressure analysis in the PTFE sliding surface

131

4.4.6.5

Load eccentricities for the analysis of the upper and lower bearing joint

131

4.4.7

Spherical bearings

131

4.4.7.1

Basics

131

4.4.7.2

Design and dimensioning

132

4.4.7.3

Design of the PTFE-housing

132

4.4.7.4

Load eccentricities for the analysis of stresses in the PTFE sliding surfaces

132

4.4.7.5

Load eccentricities for the analysis of the upper and lower bearing joints

133

4.4.7.6

Stresses in the PTFE guide surfaces

133

4.4.8

Deformation sliding bearings

133

4.4.8.1

Basics

133

4.4.8.2

Design and dimensioning

134

4.4.8.3

Design basics for the PTFE-housing

134

4.4.8.4

Load eccentricities for the analysis of the pressure in the PTFE sliding surface

.

136

4.4.8.5

Load eccentricities for the analysis of the upper and lower bearing joints

136

4.4.9

Elastomer sliding bearings

136

4.4.9.1

Basics

136

4.4.9.2

Design and dimensioning

137

4.4.9.3

Design of the PTFE-housing

137

4.4.9.4

Load eccentricities for the analysis of the pressure in the PTFE sliding surface

.

137

4.4.9.5

Load eccentricities for the analysis of the upper and lower bearing joints

137

4.5

Deformation bearings

137

4.5.1

History

138

4.5.2

Applicable material

138

4.5.3

Physical properties

140

4.5.3.1

Rubber elasticity

140

4.5.3.2

Shear modulus

141

4.5.3.3

Elasticity modulus

146

4.5.3.4

Stability

146

4.5.3.5

Creep and relaxation

146

4.5.3.6

Stick friction

147

4.5.4

Future design rules

151

4.5.5

Special reinforced elastomeric bearings

153

4.5.5.1

Pre-adjusted elastomeric bearings with presetting

153

4.5.5.2

Elastomeric bearings with low rotation resistance

153

XI

5

Standards

 

155

5.1

Preliminary remarks

 

155

5.2

Imprint from EN 1337-1: General design rules

 

156

5.3

Remarks on EN 1337-2: Sliding elements

179

5.4

Remarks

on

the

draft

of

EN 1337-3: Elastomeric bearings

181

5.5

Remarks

on the draft

of

EN 1337-5: Pot bearings

187

5.6

Remarks on EN 1337-7: Spherical and cylindrical PTFE-bearings

 

190

5.7

Remarks on the draft of EN 1337-8: Guide bearings and restraint bearings

192

5.8

Remarks

on the draft

of EN 1337-10: Inspection and maintenance

197

5.9

Imprint of EN 1337-11: Transport, storage and installation

 

200

6

Approvals

 

217

6.1

German Approval of

sliding bearings (example)

 

218

6.2

German Approval of

spherical bearings (two examples)

235

6.3

Pot bearing: special conditions (in part) and appendices

266

6.4

German Approval of a bearing for vibration control

274

7

Science and research

 

293

7.1

General

293

7.2

Research reports

 

293

7.2.1

Long-term friction and wear tests with sliding bearings, different sliding surfaces

 

293

7.2.2

Long-term friction and wear tests with PTFE sliding bearings, III c quality

294

7.2.3

Investigation of friction behavior of PTFE through variation of the influence parameters: Sliding speed, pressure, bearing size, total way (wear), bearing system, load eccentricity

295

7.2.4

Dependence of thickness on the temperature and size of elastomeric bearings

.

.

295

7.2.5

Rupture tests with bearing plates

 

298

7.2.6

Permissible horizontal forces for nonanchored bearings

298

7.2.7

Permissible horizontal loads at nonanchored bearings: Supplementary tests on zinc-coated steel plates

 

299

7.2.8

On the slip-resistance of nonanchored elastomeric bearings

 

299

7.2.9

Determination of the characteristic values of the friction coefficients

 

300

7.2.10

Steel bridge bearing movements

 

300

7.2.11

Load-bearing capacity and reliability of reinforced concrete compression members

 

301

7.2.12

Map of the lowest median daily temperature in Germany

 

301

XII

Contents

7.3

Approval tests

302

7.3.1

Sliding bearing tests

302

7.3.1.1

General

302

7.3.1.2

Results of investigations on PTFE sliding bearings

303

7.3.1.2.1

Model bearings

304

7.3.1.2.2

Reviewed bridge bearings

332

7.3.1.3

Results of investigations with composite sliding bearings

334

7.3.1.3.1

Materials

334

7.3.1.3.2

Testing technique

336

7.3.1.3.3

Tribological behavior

337

7.3.1.4

Summary

338

7.3.2

Pot bearing tests

342

7.3.2.1

General

342

7.3.2.2

Material testing

342

7.3.2.3

Control of finished test bearing

343

7.3.2.4

Weariest

343

7.3.2.5

Determination of the restoring moment

343

7.3.2.6

Ultimate load test

346

7.3.2.7

Permanent load test

347

7.3.2.8

Summary and future work

347

8

Glossary

349

9

Literature

371

9.1

Literature, with brief comments

371

9.1.1

General literature

371

9.1.2

Historical literature

373

9.1.3

Test reports

374

9.1.4

Practical applications

374

9.1.5

Analysis

377

9.2

Cited literature

380

Subject index

389