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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2010 CHAPTER 8: SALT

ANSWERS
Activity 1
1. ionic compound, hydrogen , acid , metal , ammonium
2.
Acid Formula of acid Salt Formula Cation Anion
Hydrochloric acid HCl Sodium chloride NaCl Na
+
Cl
-
Carbonic acid H2CO3 Potassium carbonate K2CO3 K
+
CO3
2-
Sulphuric acid H2SO4 Copper(! sulphate CuSO4 Cu
2+
SO4
2-
Nitric acid HNO3 "mmonium nitrate NH4NO3 NH4
+
NO3
-
Nitric acid HNO3 #a$nesium nitrate #$(NO3!2 #$
2+
NO3
-
%thanoic acid CH3COOH Sodium ethanoate CH3COONa Na
+
CH3COO
-
2. ( any other correct anser can !e acce"te#)
Salt &ses
'arium sulphate 'aSO4 (-ray )meals* in hospital
Calsium sulphate CaSO4 Plaster o+ Paris +or bro,en bone
ron sulphate -eSO4 ron tablets +or anaemia patient
"mmonium nitrate NH4NO3 Nitro$enous +ertili.er
Copper(! sulphate CuSO4 -un$icide
Sodium chloride NaCl " +la/ourin$ a$ent
Sodium hydro$en carbonate 'a,in$ po0der
Sodium nitrite NaNO2 -or preser/in$ +ood1 +ood preser/ati/e
Sodium hypochlorite NaOCl 'leachin$ a$ent
2in(! +luoride Sn-2 2oothpaste
3ead(! chromate PbCrO4 Paint +or yello0 line on road
Activity 2
45 sodium6 potassium and ammonium5
25 nitrate
35 lead(!6 barium and calcium sulphate
45 lead(!6 ar$entums and mercury(! chloride
75 sodium6 potassium and ammonium carbonate
1
WAJA F4 Chemistry 2010 CHAPTER 8: SALT
6
No Formula of
Salt
Solubility ( , X ) No Formula of Salt Solubility ( , X )
1 PbCO
3
X 21 MgCO
3
X
2 NaCl 22 KCl
3 CaSO
4
X 23 (NH
4
)
2
SO
4

4 AgNO
3
24 Cu(NO
3
)
2

5 K
2
CO
3
25 SnCO
3
X
6 FeCl
3
26 CaCl
2

7 Na
2
SO
4
27 BaSO
4
X
8 NH
4
NO
3
28 KNO
3

9 CuSO
4
29 Ag
2
CO
3
X
10 PbCl
2
X 30 MgCl
2

11 ZnCO
3
X 31 ZnSO
4

12 Ca(NO
3
)
2
32 Ba(NO
3
)
2

13 Na
2
CO
3
33 FeCO
3
X
14 AgCl X 34 NH
4
Cl
15 PbSO
4
X 35 Fe(NO
3
)
3

16 Pb(NO
3
)
2
36 MgSO
4

17 (NH
4
)
2
CO
3
37 BaCO
3
X
18 HgCl
2
X 38 ZnCl
2

19 Na
2
SO
4
39 FeSO
4

20 NaNO
3
40 Mg(NO
3
)
2

Activity
45 a5 metal + acid al! # $%&'(gen
b5 metal o8ide (or metal hydro8ide! + acid al! # )a!e'
c5 al,ali + acid salt + 0ater
e5 metal carbonate + acid al! # *a'b(n &+(,+&e # )a!e'
25 a5 #$ + H
2
SO
4
#$SO
4
+ H
2
b5 (i! CuO + 2HCl CuCl
2
+ H
2
O
(ii! 9n(OH!
2
+ 2HNO
3
9n(NO
3
!
2
+ 2H
2
O
c5 NaOH + HCl NaCl + H
2
O
d5 #$CO
3
+ H
2
SO
4
CaSO
4
+ CO
2
+ H
2
O
2
WAJA F4 Chemistry 2010 CHAPTER 8: SALT
35
#ethod o+ Preparation :eactants Salt -ormed Other
Product
a! metal + acid #a$nesium + $%&'(*$l('+*
a*+&
#a$nesium chloride Hydro$en
b! metal o8ide + acid Copper(! o8ide + sulphuric
acid
C(--e'(..) ul-$a!e )a!e'
c! metal carbonate +
acid
Z+n* *a'b(na!e # ul-$u'+*
a*+&
9inc sulphate ;ater +
*a'b(n
&+(,+&e
d! metal hydro8ide +
acid
P(!a+u/ $%&'(,+&e # n+!'+*
a*+&
Potassium nitrate 0a!e'
e! al,ali + acid S(&+u/ $%&'(,+&e #
$%&'(*$l('+* a*+&
Sodium chloride 0a!e'
45
(a! Copper(! sulphate < Copper(! o8ide 1 hydro8ide 1 carbonate + sulphuric acid
(b! 9inc chloride < 9inc 1 (.inc o8ide 1 hydro8ide 1 carbonate! + hydrochloric acid
(c! Potassium nitrate < potassium hydro8ide + nitric acid
(d! "mmonium sulphate < ammonium hydro8ide + sulphuric acid
(e! #a$nesium nitrate < #a$nesium 1 (ma$nesium o8ide 1 hydro8ide 1 carbonate! +
nitric acid
75 a5 #$(s! + 2H
+
(a=! #$
2+
(a=! + H
2
O (l!
b5 #$O(s! + 2H
+
(a=! #$
2+
(a=! + H
2
O (l!
c5 OH
-
(a=! + H
+
(a=! H
2
O (l!
d5 CuCO
3
(s! + 2H
+
(a=! Cu
2+
(a=! + CO
2
($! + H
2
O (l!
"cti/ity 4
Name o+ solution < sodium hydro8ide and hydrochloric acid
Chemical e=uation < NaOH + HCl NaCl + H
2
O
Procedure <
45 &se a pipette to trans+er 275>

cm
o+ sodium hydro8ide solution to a conical +las,5 "dd 2 to 3
drops o+ phenolphthalein5
25 -ill a burette 0ith hydrochloric acid and record the initial burette readin$5

WAJA F4 Chemistry 2010 CHAPTER 8: SALT


35 2itrate care+ully by slo0ly addin$ the acid into the conical +las, and sha,e 0ell5
45 Continue addin$ the acid until the indicator turns +rom pin, to colourless5 :ecord the +inal burette
readin$5
75 ?etermine the /olume o+ acid used to neutrali.e 275>

cm
o+ the al,ali5 (let the /olume be @

cm
!
A5 Pipette 275>

cm
o+ the same sodium hydro8ide solution into a conical +las,5 ?o not add any
indicator5
B5 -rom the burette6 add e8actly @

cm
o+ hydrochloric acid to the al,ali and sha,e 0ell5
C5 Pour the contents o+ the conical +las, into an e/aporatin$ dish5
D5 Eently heat the solution to e/aporate most o+ the 0ater to produce a saturated solution5
4>5 Cool the hot saturated salt solution +or crystalli.ation to occur5
445 -ilter to obtain the sodium chloride crystals6 rinse the salt 0ith a little distilled 0ater5
425 ?ry the crystal by pressin$ them bet0een +ilter papers
Salt crystal characteristic
-lat sur+aces6 strai$ht ed$es and sharp an$les
-i8ed $eometrical shape
-i8ed an$les bet0een t0o nei$hbourin$ sur+aces
Crystals o+ some substance ha/e same hapes but maybe in di++erent si.es
"cti/ity 7
Name o+ chemical < copper(! o8ide and sulphuric acid
Chemical e=uation < CuO + H
2
SO
4
CuSO
4
+ H
2
O
Procedure <
45 Pour 7>

cm
o+ sulphuric acid 4 mol dm
-3
into a bea,er5 ;arm the acid
25 &se a spatula to add copper(! o8ide po0der bit by bit into the acid5 Stir the mi8ture 0ell5
35 Continue addin$ copper(! o8ide until some o+ it no lon$er dissol/es5
45 :emo/e the unreacted copper(! o8ide by +iltration
75 Pour the +iltrate into an e/aporatin$ dish5 Eently heat the solution to produce a saturated salt
solution5
A5 Cool the saturated solution until crystals are +ormed5
B5 -ilter to obtain the copper(! nitrate crystals6 rinse the salt 0ith a little distilled 0ater5
C5 ?ry the crystal by pressin$ them bet0een +ilter papers
D5 Puri+ication process F :ecrystallisation
Place the copper(! sulphate crystal in a bea,er5
"dd Gust enou$h distilled 0ater to co/er the crystals5 Eently heat the solution and stir 0ith a
$lass rod5 "dd 0ater bit by bit until all the crystal are dissol/ed5
-ilter to remo/e impurities and pour the +iltrate into an e/aporatin$ dish5
Eently heat the solution to obtain a saturated salt solution5
!
WAJA F4 Chemistry 2010 CHAPTER 8: SALT
Cool the hot saturated to obtain to allo0 it to crystalli.e5
-ilter and press the crystals 0ith a +e0 pieces o+ +ilter paper to dry them5
"cti/ity A
45 Precipitation6 double decomposition reaction6 ions 6 precipitate
25 %8ample 4< 'arium sulphate6
!
$aS%
Solution 4< 'arium chloride1nitrate Solution 2< sodium1potassium sulphate
Chemical e=uation < 'aCl2 + Na2SO4 'aSO4 + 2NaCl
onic %=uation < 'a
2+
+ SO4
2-
'aSO4
%8ample 2< Copper carbonate6 CuCO3
Solution 4< copper(! nitrate1sulphate1chloride Solution 2< Sodium1potassium carbonate
Chemical e=uation < Cu(NO3!2 + Na2CO3 CuCO3 + 2NaNO3
onic %=uation < Cu
2+
+ CO3
2-
CuCO3
Obser/ation < $reen precipitate +ormed
%8ample 3< 3ead(! chromate(@!6
!
P!Cr%
Solution 4< lead(! nitrate Solution 2< Sodium1potassium chromate(@!
Chemical e=uation < Pb(NO3!2 (a=! + K2CrO4(a=! PbCrO4(s! + 2KNO3(a=!
onic %=uation < Pb
2+
(a=! + CrO4
2-
(a=! PbCrO4 (s!
Obser/ation < yello0 precipitate +ormed
"cti/ity B
Name o+ solution < lead(! nitrate and Sodium1potassium iodide
Chemical e=uation < Pb(NO3!2 (a=! + 2K (a=! Pb2 (s! + 2KNO3 (a=!
Procedure <
45 7> cm
3
o+ >57 mol dm
-3
lead(! nitrate solution is poured into 7> cm
3
o+ 45> mol dm
-3

potassium iodide in a bea,er
25 2he mi8ture is stirred 0ith a $lass rod
35 " yello0 precipitate o+ lead(! iodide is +ormed immediately
45 2he resultin$ mi8ture is then +iltered
75 2he yello0 precipitate is rinsed 0ith distilled 0ater to remo/e impurities
A5 2he yello0 solid6 lead(! iodide is then pressed bet0een a +e0 pieces o+ +ilter papers to be
dried
"
WAJA F4 Chemistry 2010 CHAPTER 8: SALT
Activity 8
Test Tube 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
@olume o+ Pb(NO3!2 1cm
3
5 5 5 5 5 5 5
No o+ mole o+ Pb(NO3!2 0.0025
@olume o+ K2CrO4 1cm
3
1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0
No o+ mole o+ K2CrO4 0.0005 0.0010 0.0015 0.0020 0.0025 0.0030 0.0035
Hei$ht o+ precipitate 1 cm 0.45 0.90 1.40 1.90 2.30 2.30 2.30
Colour o+ the solution
abo/e the precipitate
Colourless Yellow
(b!
(c! (i! 7 cm
3
(ii! >5>>27 mole o+ chromate(@! ions that has reacted 0ith >5>>27 mole o+ Pb
2+
5 ions5
4 mole o+ chromate(@! ions that has reacted 0ith 4 mole o+ Pb
2+
5 ions5
(iii) PbCrO4
(iv) ionic e#uation $ Pb
2+
+ CrO4
2-
PbCrO4
(d! 2he hei$ht increase +rom test 4 to 7 and become constant +rom test tube 7 to B5
(e! n test tube 4-46 there are e8cess lead(! ions6 so more precipitate are +ormed 0hen
increasin$ /olume o+ CrO
4
2-
solution added5 n test tube 7-B all the lead(! ions had reacted
0ith chromate(@! ions6 so the amount o+ precipitate +ormed is the same5
Activity 9 : Solve problems involving calculation of uantities of reactants or product in
stoic!iometric reactions
1 (a! 9n + 2H+ 9n
2+
+ H2
(b! No o+ mole o+ HCl H 25> 8 7> H >54 mol
6
@olume o+ potassium chromate(@! 1 cm
3
Hei$ht o+ precipitate 1 cm
4 2 3 4 7 A B
WAJA F4 Chemistry 2010 CHAPTER 8: SALT
4>>>
(c! #ole ratio HCl < H2 H 2 < 4
No o+ mole o+ H2 H 412 8 >54 H >5>7 mol
@olume o+ H2 H >5>7 8 24 dm
3

H 452 dm
3

2 (a! No o+ mole o+ H2SO4 H 45> 8 4>> H >54 mol
4>>>
(b! #ole ratio H2SO4 < #$SO4 H 4 < 4
No o+ mole o+ #$SO4 H >54 mol
#ass o+ #$SO4 H >54 8 (24 + 32 + 484A! $

H 4>54 $
35a! No o+ mole o+ #$ H >542 H >5>7
24
No o+ mole o+ #$Cl2 H >5>7
#ass o+ #$Cl2 H >5>7 8 D7
H 45B7 $
b! No o+ mole o+ H2 H >5>7 mole
@ol o+ H2 H >5>7 8 24 dm
3
% 1.2 dm

!. (a)AgN&

' Na(l Ag(l ' NaN&


())
Nu/be' (1 /(le (1 AgNO
3
2 130 , 50 2 0305 /(l
1000
M(le 'a!+( (1 AgNO
3
4 NaCl

2 1 4 1
Nu/be' (1 /(le (1 NaCl 2 035 , 5 2 0305 /(le
1000
Z 2 0305 , 1000 2 100 */
3
035

b! Number o+ mole o+ "$Cl H Number o+ moles o+ "$NO
3
H >5>7 mol
#ass o+ "$Cl H >5>7 8 (4>C + 3757! $
H B54B7 $
*
WAJA F4 Chemistry 2010 CHAPTER 8: SALT
Activity "# : $ualitative Analysis
45 ions6 physical and chemical properties5
25
Colour (solid or solution) Substance or cation or anion
Ereen po0der CuCO
3
6 -e
2+
'lue po0der Cu
2+
'ro0n po0der -e
3+
'lac, po0der CuO6 #nO
2
Iello0 po0der 0hen hot and 0hite 0hen cold 9nO
'ro0n po0der 0hen hot and yello0 0hen cold PbO
'lue solution Cu
2+
Pale $reen solution -e
2+
'ro0n solution -e
3+
Solid < ;hite
Solution < colourless
Cation < Ca
2+
6 "l
3+
6 #$
2+
6 Pb
2+
6 9n
2+
6
NH
4
+
Solid < ;hite
Solution < colourless
"nion < Cl
-
6 CO
3
2-
6 SO
4
2-
6 NO
3
-
35 Complete the +ollo0in$ table
Salts Solubility in %ater Colour
Lead(II) chloride, silver chloride, barium
sulphate, lead(II) sulphate and calcium
sulphate
nsoluble )$+!e
Copper(! carbonate Insoluble green
ron(! sulphate soluble green
Iron(III) salts except carbonate Soluble B'()n
3ead(! sulphate Insoluble white
#a$nesium carbonate Insoluble white
9inc chloride soluble white
"mmonium carbonate soluble white
Lead(II) iodide / chromate(VI) nsoluble Yellow
Activity "" : Confirmatory &ests for gases,
Eas Obser/ation
Carbon dio8ide lime 0ater turn mil,y1chal,y
O8y$en $lo0in$ splinter 0ill be reli$hted
Nitro$en dio8ide 'ro0n $as6 blue litmus paper chan$e to red
+
WAJA F4 Chemistry 2010 CHAPTER 8: SALT
Chlorine @ery pale yello0 $as 2he colour o+ litmus paper chan$e +rom blue
red 0hite
"mmonia 0hite +ume +ormed
:ed litmus paper chan$e to blue5
Hydro$en JpopJ sound is heard
Hydro$en chloride 0hite +ume +ormed
Activity "' : Action of (eat )n Carbonate Salts
Carbonate salt Action of !eat
#a$nesium carbonate #$CO
3
#$O + CO
2
Obser/ation < ;hite solid +ormed5 Eas liberated turn lime 0ater
chal,y
"luminium carbonate "l
2
(CO
3
!
3
"l
2
O
3
+ 3CO
2
Obser/ation < ;hite solid +ormed5 Eas liberated turn lime 0ater
chal,y
9inc carbonate 9nCO
3
9nO + CO
2
Obser/ation < 2he residue is yello0 0hen hot and 0hite 0hen
cold5 Eas liberated turn lime 0ater chal,y
3ead(! carbonate PbCO
3
PbO + CO
2
Obser/ation < 2he residue is bro0n 0hen hot and yello0 0hen
cold5 Eas liberated turn lime 0ater chal,y
Copper(! carbonate CuCO
3
CuO + CO
2
Obser/ation < 'lac, solid +ormed5 Eas liberated turn lime 0ater
chal,y
Activity "* : Action of (eat )n Nitrate Salts
Nitrate salts Action by (eat
Sodium nitrate 2NaNO
3
2 NaNO
2
+ O
2
Obser/ation < 0hite solid +ormed6 $as released reli$hted $lo0in$
splinter
#a$nesium
nitrate
2#$(NO
3
!
2
2#$O + 4NO
2
+ O
2
Obser/ation < 0hite solid +ormed6 'ro0n $as 0hich turns moist blue
litmus red released5 "nother $as released reli$hted
$lo0in$ splinter
9inc nitrate 29n(NO
3
!
2
29nO + 4NO
2
+ O
2
Obser/ation < 2he residue is yello0 0hen hot and 0hite 0hen cold56
'ro0n $as 0hich turns moist blue litmus red released5
"nother $as released reli$hted $lo0in$ splinter
3ead(! nitrate 2Pb(NO
3
!
2
2PbO + 4NO
2
+ O
2
,
WAJA F4 Chemistry 2010 CHAPTER 8: SALT
Obser/ation < 2he residue is bro0n 0hen hot and yello0 0hen cold6
'ro0n $as 0hich turns moist blue litmus red released5
"nother $as released reli$hted $lo0in$ splinter
Copper(! nitrate 2Cu(NO
3
!
2
2CuO + 4NO
2
+ O
2
Obser/ation < blac, solid +ormed6 'ro0n $as 0hich turns moist blue
litmus red released5 "nother $as released reli$hted
$lo0in$ splinter
Activity "+ : Confirmatory &ests for Anions,
45 onic e=uation < 2H
+
+ CO
3
2-
H
2
O + CO
2
onic e=uation < "$
+
+ Cl
-
"$Cl
onic e=uation < 'a
2+
+ SO
4
2-
'aSO
4
25 ;hich anion produce the +ollo0in$ resultsK
Salt -1 . /ulphate ion
Salt -2 . chloride ion
Salt - . nitrate ion
Salt -! . car)onate ion
Activity ", : -eaction of Cations %it! al.ali solution
"/
NaOH solution "mmonia Solution NH
3
" little n e8cess " little n e8cess
Soluble ( , X ) Soluble ( , X )
Ca
2+
;hite precipitate X No chan$e
9n
2+
;hite precipitate ;hite precipitate
"l
3+
;hite precipitate ;hite precipitate X
Pb
2+
;hite precipitate ;hite precipitate X
#$
2+
;hite precipitate X ;hite precipitate X
Cu
2+
'lue precipitate X 'lue precipitate X
-e
2+
Ereen precipitate X Ereen precipitate X
-e
3+
'ro0n precipitate X 'ro0n precipitate X
'5 Salt K7 - n+erence 4 F ammonium ion
n+erence 2 F 9inc6 aluminium and lead(! ions
n+erence 3 F ma$nesium or calcium ions
Salt KA Fn+erence 4 F calcium ion
10
WAJA F4 Chemistry 2010 CHAPTER 8: SALT
n+erence 7 F 9inc ion
n+erence A F ma$nesium 6 aluminium and lead(! ions
Activity "0 : C onfirmatory &ests for Fe
'1
, Fe
*1
, 2b
'1
and N(
+
1
("!
Cation Name o+ :ea$ent Obser/ation
+ 2
P! Potassium iodide solution Iello0 6 dissol/e 6 reappear
+ 2
Fe Potassium he8acyano+errate(! ?ar, blue
+
Fe Potassium thiocyanate solution 'lood red solution
NH
4
+
Nessler rea$ent 'ro0n
* For Fe
!
and Fe
"!
, can use an# other suitable reagents
(b! Pour 2 cm
3
o+ iron(! sulphate solution and 2 cm
3
o+ iron(! chloride solution into t0o test
tubes respecti/ely5 2hen add a +e0 drops o+ potassium he8acyano+errate(! solution to t0o
test tubes6 -e
2+
ions solution 0ill +orm li$ht blue precipitate 0hereas -e
3+
ions solution 0ill
+orm dar, blue precipitate LAll *(''e*! !( *('e 1 /a'67 *an ue an% (!$e' 'eagen!M
or
Pour 2 cm
3
o+ iron(! sulphate solution and 2 cm
3
o+ iron(! chloride solution into t0o test
tube respecti/ely5 2hen add a +e0 drops o+ potassium thiocyanate solution to t0o test tubes6
there is no chan$e in -e
2+
ions solution 0hereas -e
3+
ions solution 0ill +orm blood red
solution5
Activity "3 : Structured ualitative analysis to identify salts

("!5 denti+y the salt S4
2est n+erence
Step 45 Nitro$en dio8ide $as6 o8y$en $as released5
:esidue is lead(! o8ide
2 -e
2+
6 -e
3+
or Cu
2+
ions may not be present
(a! 9n
2+
6 "l
3+
or Pb
2+
ions may be present
(b! Pb
2+
or "l
3+
ion may be present
(c! Con+irm lead(!6 Pb
2+
ions present
(d! Con+irm nitrate 6 NO
3
-
ions present
11
WAJA F4 Chemistry 2010 CHAPTER 8: SALT
Salt S4 is lead(! nitrate
('!5 denti+y the salt S2
2est n+erence
45 9n
2+
6 "l
3+
or Pb
2+
ions may be present
25 9n
2+
ions may be present
35 Cl
-
ions may be present
45 SO
4
2-
ions may be present
5 Conclusion +or salt S2 < .inc sulphate
Activity "4 : plan ualitative analysis to identify anions

All an)e' /u! be *(''e*! !( *('e (ne /a'6 1(' ea*$ *$a'!3
C(A-& A: S)5678 CA-9)NA&: AN5 S)5678 N6&-A&:
12
1e/t 1
"dd dilute

H&%
(any acid!
1e/t 2
add dilute H2SO4 +ollo0ed
by -eSO4 solution5
Care+ully add 4

cm
o+
concentrated H2SO4
1e/t
"dd dilute

H&% 6
+ollo0ed by sil/er nitrate6

A'&%
solution
1e/t !
"dd dilute HCl6 +ollo0ed
by barium chloride6
'aCl
2
solution
S
)
5
6
7
8

C
A
-
9
)
N
A
&
:
S
)
5
6
7
8

N
6
&
-
A
&
:
Re/ult 1
E22erve/cence
Re/ult 2
No change
Re/ult
No change
Re/ult !
No change
Re/ult 1
No change
Re/ult 2
3ro4n ring
Re/ult
No change
Re/ult !
No change
WAJA F4 Chemistry 2010 CHAPTER 8: SALT
C(A-& 9: S)5678 C(;)-65: AN5 S)5678 S7;2(A&:
1
1e/t 1
"dd dilute

H&%
(any acid!
1e/t 2
add dilute H2SO4 +ollo0ed
by -eSO4 solution5
Care+ully add 4

cm
o+
concentrated H2SO4
1e/t
"dd dilute

H&% 6
+ollo0ed by sil/er nitrate6

A'&%
solution
1e/t !
"dd dilute HCl6 +ollo0ed by
barium chloride6
'aCl
2
solution
S
)
5
6
7
8

C
(
;
)
-
6
5
:
S
)
5
6
7
8

S
7
;
2
(
A
&
:
Re/ult 1
No change
Re/ult 2
No change
Re/ult
White
precipitate
Re/ult !
No change
Re/ult 1
No change
Re/ult 2
No change
Re/ult
No change
Re/ult !
White
precipitate
WAJA F4 Chemistry 2010 CHAPTER 8: SALT
1!