Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 7

CHAPTER 1

 

4 .1

Impedanc e matc hing ratio of c oax balun

Dis sipation Factor

I ndic ates energy loss in a c apacitor

Q

uality Factor

I ndic ates energy loss in an induc tor

Bec ause of the s ize of the

Why is it impos s ible to us e a waveguide at low radio freq?

waveguides

Los s es in the c onduc ting walls of the guide

What c aus es the attenuation present in waveguides?

Ground

T

x lines are either balanced or unbalanced with res pect to

Spec tral Analysis

M

ethod of determining the BW of any proc essing s ystem

 

50W

A

verage power rating of RG - 5 8 C/u

5

0 ohms

RG - 8A/u impedance

 

RG-2 11A

C

oax us ed for high temperatures

3

0 0 ohms

214 -056 twin lead c haracteristic impedance (us ed in T V lead- in)

A

WG#1 9

C

ommonly us ed telephone wire

Q

uarter wave line

Impedanc e inversion c an be obtained in

1

.2 to 2 .8

Dielectric c onstants of materials c ommonly used in T x lines

0

.6 to 0 .9

V

elocity fac tor of the materials us ed in T x lines

Fac s imile

T

he transmission of printed material over telephone lines ;

Emis sion designation is F3C and A 3E

C all waiting tone

A

c ontinuous tine generated by the c ombination of 2 frequenc ies of 3 5 0Hz and

4 4 0 Hz us ed in telephone lines

1 0 puls es/sec

P

uls e dialing rate

V

F repeaters

A

re unidirectional amplifiers having 2 0-25dB gain placed about 75km apart us ed to

 

c

ompens ate for los ses along the telephone line

M

T SO

C

entral s witching offic e c oordinating element for all c ell s ites that has c ellular

 

proc es sor and c ellular s witch. I t interfaces with telephone c ompany zone offic es,

c

ontrol c all proc essing and handle bi lling ac tivities

Bas e s tation

P

erforms radio-related func tions for c ellular s ites in c ellular s ystems

3

7 0 0Hz

O

ut of band s ignaling between toll central offic es (Bell s ystem s tandard)

P

urely reactive

O

f SWR = infinite, what type of load the T x line has ?

WA T S

Standard tariff for flat rate telephone s ervice beyond the normal flat rate in that

area

 

T

ariff

T

he publis hed rates, regulations and des criptions governing the provisions of

 

c

ommunic ations services for public use

V

aristor

A

c omponent in the telepho ne s et that has the primary fxn of c ompensating for the

 

loc al loop length

 

E

lec tromagnetic receiver

T

ype of rec eiver us ed in a c onventional telephone handset

0

to 4KHz

I

deal pas sband of a voic e- grade c ircuit using PTN

4KHz

N

ominal voice c hannel BW

 

300

3 400Hz

T

elephone channel band pas s c haracteristic

Bas ic voice-grade

T

he minimum quality c ircuit available us ing the P TN

T

ie trunk

C

onnects 2 private branch exchanges (P BX)

T

runk line

C

onnects 2 c entral offic es (CO)

 

3dB

P

ower los s of a telephone hybrid

1897

Firs t Strowger Step-by-Step s witch was us ed in

G .1 2 2

C

C ITT recommendation for a preparation of los s plan, a variable loss plan and a

fixed los s plan.

 

1 .7 x1 0^-8 ohm- m

C

opper wire res is tivity (ρ)

Umbrella c ells

Kind of ells appropriate for load management, fas t moving mobiles and low us age

areas

 

A

daptive array

I

n c ellular networks, s tandard base s tation antennas are replaced by

C

ompleted

T

he c all is

when the c alling party hears a bus y tine on his telephone.

Liable to radiate

Short- c ircuited s tubs are preferred to open- circuit s tubs because the latter are

Q

uarter wave matc hing

O

ne method of determining antenna impedance

Q

uarter wavelength line

I

t is us ed as an impedanc e transformer

T

he line behaves as a parallel

I f λ/4 T x line is s horted at one end,

tuned c irc uit in relation to the

generator

P

arallel res onant c ircuit

A s horted λ/4 line at the operating frequency acts like a

Series res onant c ircuit

A s horted λ/2 at the operating frequency acts like a

I nfinite or an open c irc uit

T he input impedanc e if a λ/4 s hort c ircuited transmission line at its resonant

frequenc y is

 

A

high value of res is tance

A

λ/4 line is c onnected to an RF generator and is s horted out at the far end. What is

 

the input impedanc e at the line generator?

I

nfinite transmission line

I ts feature is that its Zin is equal to the line’s s urge impedance

 

N

itrogen

U

s ed to keep waveguide dry

 

A

bove 3 Ghz

Waveguides becomes c ompulsory above

 

5

0ms

c ho s uppressors are us ed on all c ommunication s ystems when the round trip time exc eeds

E

I

ns ertion of E and H probes into

Ways of c oupling in and out of a waveguide

 

the

waveguide

 

Guide wavelength λ g

(in rec tangular waveguides) it is the dis tance between 2 ins tantaneous c onsecutive

pos itions of maximum field intens ity;

 

I t is always greater then the λ o at the s ame frequenc y

Waveguides

A re T x lines which c an c onvey electromagnetic waves only in high er order modes ;

A re hollow s truc tures that has

no c enter c onductor but allows waves to propagate

down its length;

 

U

s ed mainly for mic rowave T ransmissions because no generators are powerful

enough to exc ite them

 

A

t the beginning and at the end

T

he outer c onduc tor of the c oax c able is us ually grounded

 

of the c able

 

E

ntropy

A

mount of unc ertainty in a s ys tem of s ymbols

 

Reduc ed electromagnetic interferenc e

T

he twis ts in twis ted wire pairs

 

I

nduc tance

Loading means the addition of

 

C

oaxial

M

os t c ommonly us ed T x line for high frequenc ies ;

 
 

M

edium leas t s usceptible to nois e;

M

os t c ommonly us ed T x line in T V s ystems

T

wis ted P air

M

edium mos t widely us ed in LAN

 

1

2 0 ohms

N

ot a c ommon T x line impedance

 

Standing waves

A

pattern of V and I variations along a T x line not terminated in its c haracteristic

impedanc e

 

antennas

A

t very high frequenc ies, T x lines act as

 
 

DC

Blocks

I

t is us ed in c oaxial T x line to prevent AC power s upple voltage from being s horted

 

by a balun or

band s plitter

Dithering

(in T V RO c ommunications) means reducing the effec ts of nois e on the T VRO s ignal

Freq and V oltage

Important quantities in des cribing waveforms

 
 

dNp

Known as 1 /1 0 of a N eper

 

Low attenuation

A

dvantage of a balanc ed transmission line

 

P

arallel wire line

T

ype of T x line employed where balanc ed properties are required

 

A

bs orption c oefficient

T

he ration between the energy abs orbed by a s urfac e to the total energy received by

 

the s urfac e

 

T

he higher the Res istance and

T he higher the gauge number of a c onduc tor,

 

T

he smaller the diameter

 

λ/4 trans former

A s hort length T x line us ed to reduc e/eliminate s tanding waves

 

Reflec tance

Ration of reflec ted power to inc ident power

 
 

CHAPTER 2

Sound level meter

I

ns trument us ed to meas ure a weighted value of the SP L (s ound pres sure level)

Sound

A

n aural s ens ation by pres sure variations in the air whic h are always produc ed by

s

ome s ourc e of vibrations

 
 

Noy

U

nit of nois iness related to the perc eived noise level

 

P

hon

T

he unit of loudnes s level of a s ound

 
 

Mel

U

nit of pitc h

1000 mels

A

t a s ens ation lev el of 4 0 dB , 1 000 H z tone is

 

Sone

U

nit of perc eived loudness

 
 

Dec

ibel

M

eas ure of the intens ity of s ound in c omparison to another s ound intensity

O

c taves

M

uc h of mus ic is generally referred to in

 

I

nterval

Ratio of frequenc ies is termed as

 

P

itc h and loudness

Sound wave’s 2 main c haracteristics

 

P

itch

A

s ubjec tive term whic h is dependent mainly on the frequenc y and als o affec ted by

 

the intens ity

 

Loudnes s

O

r I ntensity;

I

s a s ubjec tive effect whic h is a func tion of the ear and brain;

 

Loudnes s depends upon the energy of motion imparted to the vibrating molecules of the medium transmitting the s ound;

A

ffec ted by the dis tance between the listener and the s ourc e and its intensity varies

invers ely with the s quare of this dis tance

 

Frequenc y

T

he intens ity needed to produc e an audible s ound varies with

;

T

he number of vibration or pres s ure fluctuations per s econd

H

ump and notc h

T

wo ways in whic h the frequenc y res ponse of a louds peaker c an be varied when it is

 

pos itioned near a wall

 

N

ois e rating values

A

n agreed s et of empiric al c urves relating octave -band SPL to the c enter freq of the

 

oc tave bands

 

N

atural freq

T

he freq of a free vibration

 

Flanking transmission

T

he transmission of s ound from one room to an adjac ent room, via c ommon walls ,

floors and c eilings

 

H

earing Level

A

meas ure of thres hold of hearing, expressed in dB relative to a s pecified s tandard

 

of normal hearing

 

3

3 0 m/s

V

elocity of s ound in air

 

3

4 1 .8 m/s

V

elocity of s ound at room temperature (T =1 7 deg c elcius)

5

0 0 0 ft/s ec

Sound wave’s s peed in water

 

M

ic rophone transducer

C

onverts acoustical energy

 

Diaphragm and Generating

2

bas ic c omponents of a mic rophone

 

element

 

E

xpens e and fidelity;

Kinds of generating elements

 

C

omplexity and ruggedness;

 

Longevity

C

arbon mic rophone

O

perates on the princ iple that the electrical resistance of c arbon granules varies as

 

the pres s ure on the granules vary

 

Dynamic mic rophone

O

perated by electromagnetic induction that generates an output s ignal voltage

C

rys tal mic rophone

Will be damaged if expos ed to high temp above 5 2 deg C elsius

Frequenc y response

M

os

t important s pecification of louds peakers and mic rophones

Bas s response

IS the bypas s ing of high audio frequenc ies

 

P

roximity effect

A

mic rophone c haracteristic that results in boos t in bas s freq for c los e microphone

 

s

pac ing

Dolby

N

ois e reduction s ystem us ed for film s ound in movies

Sound intens ity

I s the s ound energy per unit area at right angles to the propagation direction per unit time

Supers onic

Speed that is fas ter than s peed of s ound

 

U

ltras onic

Sound that vibrates at freq too high for the human ear to hear (over 2 0 KH z)

Wavelength

C

res t to c rest distance along the direction of wave travel

Fundamental

Lowes t freq produc ed by a mus ic al instrument

 

Diffrac tion

T

endency of a s ound energy to s pread

 

Refrac tion

When waves bend away from a s traight line of travel, it is c alled

Dis tortion

A

n undes ired c hange in waveform as the s ignal passes through the device

E

xc iter

Dis tortion enhances intelligibility when an

is added;

 

I t is a c las s of s ignal proc essors

Reverberation time

Required time for any s ound to dec ay to 6 0 dB ;

 

T

ime taken for the intens ity of the s ound energy to drop to one millionth of its initial

value

 

Spider

A

thin s pringy s heet of bakelite or metal that permits the voice c oil in a dynamic

louds peaker to move bac k and forth along the c ore of its magnet

1

0 H z to 2 0 KHz

Bas s freq range

 

2

0 H z to 2 0 KHz

A

udio freq range

 

5

KH z to 1 0 KHz

H

igh freq range of audio s ignals

 

65

dB

dB SP L of a voic e paging in an offic e

 

90

to 85

dB SP L in a c hurc h with s peech reinforcement only

95

to 100 dB

dB SP L in an auditorium with c ontemporary mus ic

25

to 8000 Hz

I f the s ound waves are c onverted to electrical waves by a mic rophone, what is the

 

frequenc y of the elec tric c urrent?

 

Flutter ec hoes

Rapid s uc cession of notic eable ec hoes

 

WC Sabine

Laid the foundations of ac oustic theory of buildings

T

hres hold of hearing

M

inimum s ound intensity that c an be heard

 
 

CHAPTER 3

50

dB

T

he maximum s ideband s uppression va lue us ing filter s ystem

Noise

 

I

s primarily high frequency s pikes

 
 

H3E

T

ransmits only one s ideband;

 

Single s ide band full c arrier emission

 
 

A3H

T

ransmits LSB and half of U SB ;

 

A3E

Double s ideband Full c arrier emis sion; Standard way of des ignating AM

 
 

R3E

S

ingle s ide band reduc ed c arrier emission

 

J3E

Single s ide band s uppressed c arrier emission;

 

A

M s ystem where if m is doubled, the antenna c urrent is also doubled

 

B8E

I

ndependent s ideband emission

 

C3F

 

V

es tigial s ideband emission;

 

U

s ed in televisions

G3E

 

P

has e modulation emis sion

F3E

 

Frequenc y modulation emission;

 

U

s ed in FM telephony

F3F

 

T

elevision Emission

F3 C and A 3E

U

s ed in fac s imile

F3C

 

T

ype of emis s ion produc ed when a frequenc y modulated transmitter is modulated

 

by a fac s imile s ignal

A3C

 

T

ype of emis s ion produc ed when an amplitude modulated transmitter is

 

modulated by a fac s imile s ignal

A3F

 

T

ype of emis s ion when an amplitude modulated transmitter is modulated by a T V

 

s

ignal

LSB

 

T

he differenc e between the RF c arrier and the modulating s ignal freq uencies

Bas eband freq

P

roduc es the s idebands on FM ;

A

n information s ignal that is s end directly without modulating any c arrier

Spec trum analyzer

T

es t instrument that displays the c arrier and the s idebands amplitude with freq to

freq

Mixer

 

A

ls o c alled c onverter

Buffer

 

Stage in radio transmitter that isolates oscillator from the load

Buffer amplifier

P rotects the c rystal oscillator from ‘pulling’

‘P ulling”

 

Refers to the c hange of the c rys tal oscillator frequency by loading

Dis criminator

C

irc uit us ed to detect frequency modulated s ignals

C

arrier s ignal

I t has a frequenc y of 2 0 KHz and above;

 

H

as c onstant peak amplitude

C

enter frequency

T

he freq of the unmodulated c arrier in FM s ystem

A

rms trong s ystem

O

ne method of generating indirect FM

Reac tance modulator

O

ne method of direc t FM

Direc t FM

 

V

aractor Diode FM M odulator;

 

Reac tance M odulator; Linear IC FM M odulator;

P

LL with V CO

Direc t P M

 

V

aractor Diode P M M odulator;

 

T

rans istor M odulator;

Balanc ed modulator C ircuit

N

eeded to generate a SSB or DSB s ignal;

O

utputs LSB and U SB;

T

he output is DSB;

I t s uppres ses the c arrier;

Devic e that is c apable of c ausing freq trans lation;

C

an be us ed as a phas e detec tor;

Lattic e modulator widely us ed balanced modulator;

P

roduc t detector a balanced modulator us ed to demodulate a SSB s ignal

C

rys tal Radio rec eiver

Firs t radio rec eiver

N

on linear

A

ny device to be us ed as a freq multiplier mus t be

P

us h-Push amplifier

U

s ed for frequenc y doubling

Frequenc y s ynthesizer

Frequenc y division is us eful in the implementation of

Better fidelity

N

ot an advantage of SSB

I

nterference to other radio s ervices

E

ffec t of overmodulation in A M transmission

Dis tortion and s platter

Res ult of the gain level being too high for s ignals entering the modulator

Bas e modulation and C ollector

M

odulation method us ed for C E c onfiguration

modulation

   

E

nvelope Detector

M

os t c ommonly us ed amplitude demodulator

Rec tification

 

E

nvelope detection is c oncerned with the proc es s of

Dis tortion

 

Diagonal c lipping in envelope detection will res ult in

C

oherent s ignal

H as the s ame Frequency and P hase (but not in amplitude)

Frequenc y deviation

A louder s ound, when generating the modulating waveform for FM , will c aus e a

 

greater

Fos ter Seeley Discriminator

A

c irc uit that demodulates the frequency-modulated s ignal

Q

uadrature detector

Requires that the inputs are c oherent

I t is

les s

s ensitive to nois e spikes;

Ratio detec tor is s uperior to Slope detector bec ause

I t is

les s

s ensitive to interference

c

aus ing AM

3

c omponents

A

s ingle tone amplitude modulated wave has

C

ontinuous modulation

A

kind of modulation whic h the modulated wave is always present

P

uls e modulation

T

ype of modulation in whic h no s ignal is present between pulses

C

oef of modulation

Dec ribes the amount of amplitude c hange pres ent in an A M waveform

C

arrier s hift

T

ype of amplitude dis tortion introduced when the + and alternations in the A M

 

modulated s ignal are not equal

 

T

he os c illator is crystal c ontrolled

A dvantage of P M over FM frequency modulation

 

A

FC

A dis advantage of direc t FM is the need for

 

Better S/N ratio;

A dvantage of FM over A M

 

N

ois e immunity;

 

C

apture effec t

E

ffic iency of utilized power

Wider BW needed;

Dis advantage of FM over A M

 

C

irc uit c omplexity and c ost

 
 

AGC

I

ts func tion is

to maintain the s ound volume level of a voic e rec eiver nearly

 
 

c

ons tant for a

large s ingle s trength range

N

ois e Blanker

Reduc es impulse noise in rec eiver

 

Frequenc y translation

I

f the s pec trum is s hifted in freq with no other c hanges , it is

known as

;

Known as the c hange of the modulated c arrier freq from the original RF to the I F

of

the s uperheterodyne rec eiver;

I s done with the us e of a mixer;

 

Frequenc y translation and up-

I f the freq of eac h c omponent in a s ignal s pectrum in inc reases by the s ame fixed

c

onversion

amount, this is known as

 

I

ndirec t Synthesizer

A

frequenc y s ynthesizer that c ontains a s ingle c rystal is described as a

 

T

RF rec eiver

Rec eiver in whic h all RF amplifier s tages require manual tuning of the des ired RF; Dis advantage is that it has BW variations over the tuning range

Superheterodyne Receiver

Does n’t have a modulator;

 

A

n RF amplifier will not be found on every s uperheterodyne receiver

 

Image rejec tion ratio

Ratio of the s uperheterodyne receiver res ponse at the des ired fc (c arrier freq) to

that at the fs i (image freq)

 

N

ois e floor of the Rx

T

he limiting c ondition for s ens itivity in a c ommunic ations rec eiver

 

C

ros s modulation interference

Refers to the c ondition where the s ignals from a very s trong s tation are

 
 

s uperimposed on other s ignals being rec eived

 

C

ros s modulation

A n effec t whic h, the modulation of an unwanted s ignal is trans ferred to the

 
 

des ired c arrier;

 

T

he modulation of an unwanted s ignal is heard on the des ired s ignal

 

C

an be reduc ed by ins talling a filter at the rec eiver

I

ntermodulation interference

2

A M transmitting antennas are c lose together, as a res ult, the 2 modulated

 
 

s

ignals are mixed in the final RF s tage of both transmitters. What is the res ultant

effec t on the other s tation?

 

C

onnecting a C between the B+ and

M

otorboating (low freq os c illations) c an be s topped by

the lead ground

 

Stray c oupling is minimized

Leads s hould be kept as s hort as possible in radio c ircuit s o that

 

4

T

he # of voic e transmission that c an be pac ked into a given freq band for

 

amplitude c ompandored SSB s ystems over c onventional FM -phone systems

N

eutralization

P

revents the generations of s purious oscillations

Bloc king dynamic range

A

bility of a c ommunications receiver to perform well in the pres enc e of s trong

s

ignals outs ide the band of interes t

RF amp;

C

ommon to both A M and FM rec eivers

I

F amp;

 

A

F amp;

Mixer

I

F amplifier

Determines a c ommunication receiver’s s ensitivity

 

Filter ringing

O

c curs during C W rec eption if too narrow a filter BW is us ed in the I F s tage of a

rec eiver

 

U

ndes ired s ignals will reach the

T he undes irable effec t of us ing too wide a filter BW in the I F s tage of the rec eiver

audio s tage

3000 Hz

I n a narrow band FM s ystem, the deviation ratio is c ommonly 1 and the highes t

audio freq is generally limited to

 

Des ensitizing

Refers to the reduc tion of the Rx Gain c aus ed by the s ignal of a nearby s tation T x

in

the s ame freq band

E

ns uring good RF s hielding between

Reduc es Rx des ensitizing

 

T

ransmitter

 

P

res ence of a s trong s ignal on a

C

aus e of Rx des ensitizing

nearby frequenc y

 

BW and N F

2

fac tors the determines the rec eiver s ensitivity

FM rec eiver

C

ontains limiter s tage, dis criminator and de - emphasis c ircuits;

 

T

he limiter s tage prevents any amplitude modulation of the I F s ignal;

T

he limiter s tage rids FM of nois e

2 .4 K H Z

T

he degree of s elec tivity desirable in the I F c ircuitry of a SSB rec eiver

 

Res istor

M

os t amp to break down in a radio c irc uit

A

M detector

performs rec tification and filtering in the rec eiver

 

A

pprox 2 .5 to 1

Ratio of P E P-to- average power during a modulation peak in a SSB phone s ignal

H

igher

I

n mos t mixers , the os c illator freq is higher than the c arrier freq on the input

 

s

ignal

BW of emis s ion and

T

he BW oc c upied by the c arrier, both s ideband and the harmonics

O

c cupied BW

 

I ns talling resistive s park plugs

A

way of eliminating auto interference to radio rec eption

 

BFO

Generates an output whos e freq differs from the I F by 1 KH z ;

 

Demodulates SSB or C W s ignal

 

A

m modulation

Same as Linear mixing

 

Linear Summing

M

ixing for freq c onversion is done with a c irc uit c alled

FM and double s ide band A M

Suffers mos t from s elec tive fading

 

C

apture effec t

I

s the rec eption blockage of 1 FM phone s ignal by another FM phone s ignal

T

uned C ircuit

A

negative half of the A M wave is s upplied by a

in a diode modula tor

By having the c arrier vary a res is tance

C

an produc e AM

V

ariable res istance

A

mplitude modulators that vary the c arrier amplitude with the modulation s ignal

 

by pas s ing it through an attenuator network is the princ iple of

Diode detec tor

M

os t widely us ed amplitude modulator

P

IN diode

P

roduc ed A M at very high frequenc ies

Switc h

I

n a diode ring modulator, the diodes ac ts like a

Differential amplifier

T

he princ ipal c ircuit in the popular 1 4 96/1596 IC balanced modulator

C

lass C

T

he A M s ignals generated at a low level may only be amplified by what type of

 

amplifier?

 

C

rys tals

M

os t c ommonly us ed filter in SSB generators

 

CHAPTER 4

 

PCM

Q

uantizing nois e happens in

Q

uantization nois e

Due to the approximation of the quantized s ignals

 

Q

uantizing nois e

N

ois e occurring in the pres ence of s ignal res ulting from a mismatch between the

 

exac t value of an analog s ignal and the c losest available quantizing s tep in a digital dec oder

T

hermal N oise /White N oise/

N

ois e from random ac oustic or electric noise that has an equal energy per c yc le

Gaus sian N oise/ Johns on N oise

over a s pec ified total freq band

 

White nois e

I

s meas ured on a c irc uit when it is c orrec tly terminated but does not have any

traffic

T

hermal N oise

A

n elec tric noice produced by the thermal agitation of elec trons in c onductors and

 

s

emic onductors;

M

os t internal noise c omes from this type of nois e

A

tmos pheric noise

N

ois e produced by lightning discharges in thunders torms;

 

A

ls o known as s tatic noise ;

N

ot a great problem above 3 0MHz;

P

rimary c ause is lightning;

T

rans it time noise

T

ype of nois e that bec omes a great importance/c oncern at high frequenc ies

Impuls e noise

N

ois e c onsisting of irregular puls es of s hort duration and relatively high amplitude

M

an-made noise

I

s us ually from transmission over power lines and by ground waves

C

osmic N oise

N

ois e originating from outs ide the s olar s ystem

Spac e nois e

N

ois e c oming from s tars and s un

C

ros stalk noise

N

ois e that occurs via capacitive or induc tive c oupling in a c able

M

is cellaneous noise

C

ros stalk due to inc omplete s uppression of s idebands or to intermodulation of 2

 

or more freq- multiplexed c hannels whic h is unintelligible is c lassified as

Solar flare

Large emis sion of hydrogen from the s un that affec ts c ommunications

N

ois e density

T

he total nois e power pres ent in a 1 H z BW

I nc reasing c hannel BW

N

ot a way of reduc ing nois e

P rec ipitation s tatic

Form of interference c aused by rain or dus t s torms

 

1 5 to 1 6 0 M Hz

I

ndus trial noise freq

1 7 deg C elsius / 2 9 0 K

Referenc e noise temp

 

-90 dBm

Referenc e noise level (relative to 1 0^- 12)

 

C

C IT G. 1 5 1

Standard for c ros s talk limits

 

C

C ITT Rec. G. 1 7 2

Standard for intermodulation rates on P CM audio c hannels

800 Hz

Referenc e freq of C C ITT phospohometric noise measurement

P

s ophometer

A

devic e that measures the internal V OC of an equivalent noise generator having

 

an impedanc e of 6 0 0 ohms and delivering a nois e power to a 6 0 0 ohm load

 

pWp

U

nit nois e power of ps ophometer

 

Nif

N

ois e-improvement- factor

P

eak values

E

xternal noise fields are measured in terms of

Level

T

he differenc e between s ignal s trength a t a given point and a referenc e level

P

os itive

A prac tical dBrn measurement will almost always be a

number

N

arrowing the BW

N

ois e c an be reduc ed by

uV

N

ois e at the input of the rec eiver c an be as high as

Mixer

C

ontributes mos t of the nois e in a rec eiver

M

E SFET

T

rans istor with the lowes t nois e figure in the mic rowave region ;

 

M

os t c ommonly us ed in the mic rowave freq due to its low nois e c har

1 1 years

T

he s olar c ycle repeats the period of great electrical disturbance approx every