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# RC TRIGGERING

THEORY:
Capacitor C in the circuit is connected to shift the phase of the gate voltage. D1 is used
to prevent negative voltage from reaching the gate cathode of SCR.
In the negative half cycle, the capacitor charges to the peak negative voltage of the supply
(-Vm) through the diode D2. The capacitor maintains this voltage across it, till the supply voltage
crosses zero. As the supply becomes positive, the capacitor charges through resistor R from
initial voltage of-Vm, to a positive value.
When the capacitor voltage is equal to the gate trigger voltage of the SCR, the SCR is
fired and the capacitor voltage is clamped to a small positive value.
Case 1: R Large.
When the resistor R is large, the time taken for the capacitance to charge from -Vm to
Vgt is large, resulting in larger firing angle and lower load voltage.
Case 2: R Small
When R is set to a smaller value, the capacitor charges at a faster rate towards Vgt
resulting in early triggering of SCR and hence VL is more. When the SCR triggers, the voltage
drop across it falls to 1 1.5V. This in turn lowers, the voltage across R & C. Low voltage across
the SCR during conduction period keeps the capacitor discharge during the positive half cycle.
FULL WAVE R-C TRIGGERED RECTIFIER
THEORY:
A simple circuit giving full wave output is shown in figure below. In this circuit the
initial voltage from which the capacitor C charges is essentially zero. The capacitor C is reset
to this voltage by the clamping action of the thyristor gate. For this reason the charging time
constant RC must be chosen longer than for half wave RC circuit in order to delay the triggering.
The RC value is empirically chosen as RC50 T/2 Also R Vs-Vgt / Igt.

## 1. What is the maximum firing angle of R-triggering circuit and why?

Ans) The maximum firing angle is 90. This is because the source voltage reaches maximum
value of 90 point and the gate current has to reach Ig(min) some where between 0-90. This
limitation means that load voltage waveform can only be varied from = 0 to = 90.

## 2. What are the disadvantages of R triggering?

Trigger angle is greatly dependent on the SCRs Ig(min) and this value
SCRs and it is also temperature dependent.
Maximum triggering angle achievable is 90.

varies between

## 3. In R-triggering circuit why is Rmin is connected in series with variable

resistor?
Ans) The limiting resistor Rmin is placed between anode and gate so that the peak gate current
of the thyristor Igm is not exceeded.

## 4. What is the maximum firing angle of RC-triggering and why?

Ans) Maximum firing angle is 180. This is because capacitor voltage and AC line voltage differ
in phase. By adjusting the value of R it is possible to vary the delay in turning on the SCR from 0
to 10 msec and hence vary the firing angle from 0 to 180.
COMMUTATION
THEORY:
3.1) SCRs are employed as switches in power circuits (high current circuits). When an SCR is
OFF (i.e. when the current through it is zero); it acts as an open switch. While in the OFF state, if
its anode is positive with respect to its cathode, it can be turned ON by making the gate
momentarily positive with respect to cathode.

3.2) In the ON state, the anode to cathode voltage is very small and constant, irrespective of the
current from the anode to cathode. The SCR acts as a closed switch.
3.3) When SCR is ON, then the process of bringing it into OFF state is called commutation.
Basically, there are two ways of doing this:
1. When it is ON, if the current through it (from the anode to cathode) is made zero, or negative,
SCR turns OFF. It has to be triggered again to make it ON. This is called current commutation.
2. When SCR is ON, if voltage is applied between anode and cathode with cathode positive and
anode negative, the SCR turns OFF. (The current it has been carrying prior to turn OFF will be
transferred to some other parts in the circuits). This is called voltage commutation.
3.4) In circuits with external AC supplies, the currents naturally tend to reverse periodically. The
thyristor carrying these currents automatically turns OFF periodically. This is called natural
commutation. But in circuits like choppers and inverters, this may not occur. There an external
circuit has to be employed to turn OFF the thyristor at the desired instants. This is called forced
commutation. Forced commutation circuits employ voltage or current commutation.
Commutation is again sub-divided into classes A, B, C, D & E.
UJT
THEORY:
UJT is highly efficient switch. The switching time is in the range of nanoseconds. Since
UJT exhibits negative resistance characteristics it can be used as relaxation oscillator. The circuit
diagram is as shown with R1 and R2 being small compared to RB1 and RB2 of UJT.

OPERATION:
When VBB is applied, capacitor C begins to charge through resistor R exponentially
towards VBB. During this charging emitter circuit of UJT is an open circuit. The rate of charging
is t1 = RC. When this capacitor voltage, which is nothing but emitter voltage, VE reaches the
peak point VP = VBB = VD. The emitter base junction is forward biased and UJT turns on.
Capacitor C rapidly discharges through load resistance R1 with time constant t2=R1C. When
emitter voltage decreases to valley point VV, UJT turns off. Once again the capacitor will charge
towards VBB and the cycle continues. The resistor R in the circuit will determine the rate of
charging of the capacitor. If R is small the capacitor charges faster towards VBB and thus reaches
VP faster and the SCR is triggered at a smaller firing angle. If R is large the capacitor takes a
longer time to charge towards VP the firing angle is delayed. The waveform for both cases is as
shown below.
SYNCHRONIZED UJT OSCILLATOR:
A synchronized UJT triggering circuit is as shown in figure below. The
diodes rectify the input ac to dc; resistor RD lowers Vdc to a suitable value for the zener diode and
UJT. The zener diode Z functions to clip the rectified voltage to a standard level VZ which
remains constant except near Vdc=0. This voltage VZ is applied to the charging RC circuit. The
capacitor C charges at a rate determined by the RC time constant. When the capacitor reaches
the peak point VP the UJT starts conducting and capacitor discharges through the gate of the
SCR. As the discharge current is in the form of pulses & the amplitude of these pulses can be

controlled by varying Resistor (POT) connected in the R-C circuit. Thus the triggering angle of
the SCR can be varied & Output voltage can be controlled.

## 1.What is an UJT and draw its equivalent circuit?

UJT-uni junction transistor. It has only one type of charge carriers. It has three terminals
emitter, base 1 and base 2. (Duo base as it has 2 bases)

## 2.Why is an UJT used in SCR firing circuit?

The voltage at base 1 of UJT is smaller than the voltage needed to trigger the Scrim the voltage
is high, then it will trigger the SCR as soon as the ac supply is on.

## 3.Why is the isolation needed between Thyristor and firing circuit?

The trigger circuit operates at low power levels (5-20 volts) whereas thyristors operate at high
voltage levels (250 volts). Hence if the Thyristor acts as a short the entire 250volts get applied
across the firing circuit causing damage. Hence isolation is needed.

## 4.How is a pulse transformer different from other transformer?

A pulse transformer is one in which the input at the primary is current which is transformed into
a pulse at the secondary. Thus it does not step-up and step-down as other transformers.

## 5.What are the features of pulse transformer?

The primary magnetizing inductance is high, coupling efficiency is high, and interwinding
capacitance is low and has greater insulation.

## 6.What are the advantages of using pulse transformer?

*Multiple secondary windings allow simultaneous gating signals to series and parallelconnected thyristors.
*Control circuit and power circuit can be isolated.

## 7.Why is UJT used in SCR firing circuit?

As the UJT works in a mode called as a relaxation oscillator i.e. UJT turns on or off depending
on the charging and discharging of the capacitor. Time constant can be varied with Chance delay
angle can be varied .The UJT thus gives a firing angle range of 0-180.Vz is supply to UJT, the
discharging current when passed through the pulse transformer triggers SCR with pulses.

## 8.Why is the sneer diode used?

The sneer diode provides a constant supply voltage for UJT. It enables synchronization with
zero crossings. Sneer diode acts as a regulator. The sneer clamps the rectified voltage to vs. to
prevent erratic firing. This sneer voltage acts as a supply for UJT relaxation oscillator.

9.What is meant by ramp control, open loop control or manual control with
respect to UJT firing circuit?
Ramp control-The graph of time period in milliseconds with the firing angle in degrees is a
ramp. The ramp slope can be controlled by the potentiometer.
Manual control-The potentiometer in the kit can be used to get various firing angles. This is
manual control.

## 10.What is a firing circuit?

It is a circuit, which is used to trigger a device at various instants of time.

## 11.Why a bridge rectifier is used?

The bridge rectifier gives a full wave rectified output, which is high in efficiency and least
ripple factor.

## 12.What is the load used?

Load is high power dissipation resistor.

## 13.What is time constant of a circuit?

Time constant of a circuit=RC where R=resistance C=capacitance
It gives the time of charging and discharging of a capacitor.

14.What are the merits of UJT firing circuit over RC triggering circuit?

## 15.What are the advantages of UJT pulse trigger circuit?

The resistors, capacitors depend heavily on the trigger characteristics of the Thyristor used.
The power dissipation is high due to prolonged pulse. But the pulse triggering can accommodate
wide tolerances in triggering characteristics by instantaneously overdriving the gate. The power
level in such circuits is lower as the triggering energy can be stored slowly and discharged
rapidly when the triggering is required.

## 16.Why is UJT used as relaxation oscillator?

The UJT is used as a relaxation oscillator to obtain sharp, repetitive pulses with good rise time.
Also it has good frequency stability against variation in the supply voltage and temperature.

## 17.What are the applications of UJT trigger circuits?

*Used to trigger SCRs in single-phase converters, single-phase ac regulators.
*Used in oscillators
*Used in timing circuits
18.What is valley voltage?
It is the voltage at which the UJT turns off and the capacitor starts charging again.

## 19.What is the discharging path if the capacitor?

The capacitor discharges through emitter, base and primary of the pulse transformer.

## 20.What is relaxation oscillator?

When the capacitor discharges to a valley voltage, the UJT turns off and capacitor starts
charging again. This mode of working of UJT is called relaxation oscillator.

## 21.Draw the static characteristics of UJT.

22.What is negative resistance?
After the capacitor charges to Vp it starts discharging. During this period the voltage V
decreases with increase in current, hence this portion of V-I characteristics is called negative
resistance.

## 23.What is interring base resistance?

Inter base resistance is the resistance between 2 bases.

## 24.What is intrinsic stand off ratio?

Intrinsic stand off ratio=Rb1/(Rb1+Rb2). Its value ranges between .52 to .81.

TG=Rb1.C

## 26.Why are the capacitors CIF and C used?

Capacitor CIF is used to minimize the ripples and C is used for charging and discharging so
that the trigger is eventually formed.
AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLER
In this circuit resistor R is variable where as resistor R1 has a constant value. When R is zero, R1 protects
the Diac and Triac gate from getting exposed to almost full supply voltage.
R2 limits the current in the Diac and Triac gate when Diac turns ON. The value of R and C are so selected as to give
a firing angle range of nearly 0 & 180.
When capacitor C charges to break down voltage Vdc of DIAC, DIAC turns ON. As a consequence,
capacitor discharges rapidly there by applying capacitor voltage Vc in the form of pulse across the Triac gate to turn
it ON.

After Triac turns ON at firing angle a, source voltage Vs appears across the load during the
positive half cycle for ( - ) radians.
When Vs becomes 0 at t = , Triac turns OFF. After t = , Vs becomes negative, the
capacitor C now charges with lower plate positive. When Vc reaches Vdt of the Diac, Diac and

Triac turn ON and Vs appears across the load during the negative half cycle for ( ) radians.
At t = 2, Triac turns OFF again and the process repeats.
In usual form, capacitor retains some charge of the initial voltage applied across its plates when source
voltage falls to zero. Waveforms can however be made symmetrical if additional resistance of R3 and capacitor C1
are employed.

## 1.What is ac voltage controller?

If a Thyristor switch is connected between ac supply and load, the power flow can be controlled
by varying the rms value of ac voltage applied to the load and this type of power circuit is known
as an ac voltage regulator

## 2.What are the applications of ac voltage controllers?

The most common applications of ac voltage controllers are: industrial heating, on-load
transformer tap changing, light controls, speed control of polyphase induction motors and ac
magnet controls.

## 3.What do you mean by sequence control?

The use of two or more stages voltages controllers in parallel for the regulation of output
voltage.
4.Give the classification of ac voltage regulators.
They are classified as: 1.single phase controllers
2.three phase controllers
Each type can be subdivided into unidirectional and bi-directional control.

## 5. What are the two types of control?

*on off control: Here Thyristor switches connect the load to the ac source for a few cycles of
input voltage and then disconnect it for another few cycles.
*phase angle control: Here Thyristor switches connect the load to the ac source for a portion of
each cycle of input voltage.

## 6. Why are extra commutation components not required?

The ac voltage controllers have main supply as input. The SCRs in these controllers are turned
off by natural commutation. Hence extra commutation components are not required. Therefore
ac voltage controllers are simple and easy to implement if SCRs are used.

## 7. What is the difference between cycloconverters and ac voltage controllers?

In cycloconverters (ac to variable ac) frequency of output can be varied. In ac voltage
controllers frequency of output is kept constant, just the output average value is controlled (on
and off times varied).

## 8. What is diac firing circuit?

A diac firing circuit consists of a diac that is used to generate trigger pulses for the Thyristor
diac can conduct in both directions and it does not have any control terminal in the form of a
gate.

## 9. What are the merits and demerits of voltage controllers?

The merits are that they are simple without commutation circuits, high efficiency and less
maintenance.
The demerits are that the load current is asymmetric (phase control) and hence harmonics are
present and intermittent supply of power in on-off control.

10. Why is the trigger source for the two Thyristor isolated from each other in a
single-phase voltage controller?
When one Thyristor is on, the other should be off. Both the Thyristor should not conduct at a
time.
STEPPER MOTOR
PRINCIPLE OF STEPPER MOTOR:

A1B1 and A2B2 are pairs of stator poles. Considering rotor pole as permanent magnet, lets
assume the initial position of rotor pole is as shown above in the diagram.
The stator poles will act as poles only when an external pulse excites them.
So, lets assume only A1B1 are excited so that the rotor position is vertical.
Now remaining A1B1 in excitation, lets excite even A2B2 stator poles. Now since both A1
and A2 stator poles will attract the south pole of the rotor, the rotor will be rotated with a step
angle of 45o.
Now I remove the excitation for A1B1 stator poles. Since only A2 B2 poles attract the rotor
poles, the rotor will again rotate by a step angle of 45o and takes horizontal position. So,
from the original position the rotor has been rotated with step angle of 90o.
1.What is stepper motor?
A stepper motor is one in which the motor rotates step by step in steps of 1.8 degree.
2.Why is stepper motor also called digital motor?
A stepper motor is driven by square pulses and hence does not require pulse width modulation
technique.It can be driven by simple digital circuits and hence is called digital motor.
3.How many steps are covered in one revolution?
200 steps with step angle of 1.8 degree.
4.What are merits of stepper motor?
It is easy to interface with digital controller ,low cost solution for position control and also zero
feedback error in servo system.
5.What are its applications?
Teleprinters,typewriters,plotters,X ray machinery,valve control,servo mechanism,photo printing
and developing,film projectors ,cameras ,carburettor adjusting,electronic gear box,blood
analysers etc
6.What is the advantage of stepper motor?
The majoe advantage is that its speed can be varied by the digital input.We can use a
microprocesssor to control the speed .It can also be rotated in steps.They can be used for
precision control of speed without using closed loop feedback.
7.What is step angle?
The angle through which the motor shaft rotates for each command pulse is called the step
angle.It can be 1.8,2.5,7.5 degrees.
8.What is stepping frequency?
F is the stepping frequency in pulses per second.
9.What are the moving parts in stepper motor ?
The only moving part in stepper motor is rotor which has no winding,commutator,brushes.
10.What are types of stepper motor?
*permanent magnet motor.
*variable reluctance motor-when stator is excited ,the rotor is pulled into the nearest minimum
reluctance position.
11.What does stepping motor consist of?
* It consists of three basic elements often combined with some type of user interface (host
computer,PLC)
*The indexer is a microprocessor capable of generating step pulses and direction signals for the
driver.
*The driver(amplifier) converts the indexer command signals into the power necessary to
energise the motor windings.
The step motor is an electromechanical device that converts digital pulses into mechanical
shaft rotation.Advantages are low cost,high reliability,high torque at low speeds and a
simple,rugged construction that operates almost in any environment.

The main disadvantage in using stepper motor is the resonance effect often exhibited at low
speeds and decreasing torque with increasing speed.
DIGITAL FIRING
The block diagram depicting the firing scheme is shown. It constitutes a presettable counter,
oscillator, zero crossing detector, flip-flop and logic control circuit unit. With NAND and AND
function. The n-bit counter is preset to the decimal equivalent of the signal N at each zero
crossing of anode supply voltage. The counter starts counting at the rate of fc counts per second.
The counter overflow signal is processed to trigger the thyristor with help of flip flop and a logic
control unit and the driver stage, the trigger pulses are produced which can be fed to thyristors.
By varying the print input it is possible to control the firing angle.
Question Bank
1. Obtain the V-I characteristics of given SCR by conducting suitable experiment.
(Obtain IH , IL , VBO & forward on static resistance).
2. Conduct an experiment to obtain V-I characteristic of given diac
3. Conduct an experiment to obtain V-I characteristic of given IGBT.
4. Conduct a suitable experiment to determine the characteristic of MOSFET.
5. Conduct suitable experiment to turn on SCR in Half wave / Full wave rectifier with RC
6. Conduct a suitable experiment to obtain synchronized trigger pulses to turn on SCRs
in Half wave / Full wave with resistive load.
7. Demonstrate the turning off of the SCR using (a) LC circuit (b) Auxiliary commutation
circuit.
8. Generate a digital triggering scheme to trigger SCR.
9. Set up an experiment to control the rms voltage across incandescent lamp using TriacDiac combination. Plot the load voltage V/s delay graph.
10. Conduct a suitable experiment on full controlled bridge rectifier with R load / R-L load.
Plot DC voltage v/s delay angle graph.
11. Rig up and test voltage commuted chopper to produce variable DC output voltage (both
constant frequency and variable frequency). Draw the output voltage v/s duty cycle
graph.
12. Rig up a suitable circuit to demonstrate the speed control of Separately excited DC
motor.
13. Rig up a suitable circuit to demonstrate the speed control of Universal motor.
14. Rig up a suitable circuit to demonstrate the speed control or 1 Induction motor.
15. Rig up a suitable circuit to demonstrate the speed control of Stepper motor.
16. Conduct a suitable experiment to verify the operating principle of 1 parallel inverter.
17. Conduct a suitable experiment to verify the operating principle of 1 series inverter.